Page 1


0

±57° ±40° ±20°

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60° W 300° E

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120° W 240° E

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x 18,225 m

.

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lis

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th

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Elevation in meters

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ssa

S

S

E

Fo

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FO

S

B

loe

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90° E 270° W

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e

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M

S

s

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A

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ch

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e rs

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I

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FO

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s

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–55° 180°

o ro

V

v

Milankovic

AE

180°

North 0°

330° E 30° W

lli s

CONTOUR INTERVAL 1000 METERS 300° E 60° W

Va

P R O ME T HE I

Jeans

s

T E R R A

2000 KILOMETERS

±20° 0°

57°

1000

500

±40°

270° E 90° W

240° E 120° W

A NP LA G U NU ST M UM

0 500 1000 90°

30 0 60 ° W °E

S

70° 55°

500

±57°

ll e s

Gilbert

V ishniac

R u pe s

1000

2000

55° 0°

le

l es

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210° E 150° W

RE

W 0° 33 ° E 30

Ma d

Mitchel

T hy

AR

60°

30 33 ° W 0° E

tr a

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Trumpler Keeler

L

ON

T E R R A FOS SAE

PO

GI

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H

L

RE

O

B

PLANUM

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Charlier

iu s

Va

Holmes

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UT

PO

S

A

E

R

101.3 kilopascals (14.69 psi)

Ax

Barnard

–80°

Dokuchaev

33.7 kilopascals (4.89 psi)

Earth sea level

sm a Aus

AU S T R A LE

Chamberlin

SO

Lomonosov

T A

Ch a

Steno

W 0° 12 0° E 24

I

6.25 kilopascals (0.906 psi)

Mount Everest summit[11]

P ro m e th PR ei O R M

P LA N U M

0.6 kilopascals (0.087 psi) 1.16 kilopascals (0.168 psi)

Armstrong limit

Main

Amphi tr i tes Patera

MA LE A

South

Stoney

–90°

H RT

T

L

Mal ea Patera*

*

P rom

0.03 kilopascals (0.0044 psi)

Hellas Planitia bottom

M

Peneus Patera

Pi tyusa Patera*

P

Lau

Lamont

–70° –55°

NO AR

I

70°

S

500

V

°W 60 ° E 0 30

A

AR Heaviside V A

Ross

Pressure

Mars average

U

T E R R A

PRESSURE COMPARISON

Olympus Mons summit

P

Smith

ECCENTRICITY OF ORBIT: 0.093

Where

N

–80 °

ANGUSTI

Agassiz

Bianchini

SEMIMAJOR AXIS OF ORBIT: 1.524 au

80°

A

C AV I Schmidt

AO NI A

ROTATION PERIOD: 1.026 (Earth days)

L

es

GRAVITY: 0.380 (Earth=1)

P

TERRA

PLANUM*

A

Coblentz

ORBIT PERIOD: 686.98 (Earth days)

a Bo r e a l e

3 33 0° E 0° W

s

up

a sm

–70° i

Cav

*

Ch

ph i

PA L N U M *

US

AE

90° W 270° E

I

SS

TE

I

Dorsa ea Ar gent

NUM

FO

DENSITY: 3.94 (g/cm^3)

BOR E UM

N

H

LA

TA L

SUNLIGHT 44% OF EARTH

MASS: 0.108 (Earth=1)

0

TA N

MEAN RADIUS: 3388.0 km

23.44° 270° W 90° E

P L A N U M*

25.19°

pe

HE

PLANUM 90° W 270° E

Fontana

AO N I A

BASIC INFORMATION:

P

T

AE

Ru

R u pe

DIST TO EARTH: 54–401 million km

us

i

500

R upes

s

E

C ydnu

A

Joly

Du Toit

G

ITI

.

R u pe s

AR

PLAN

A

lco p

MP I

Mellish

Von Karman

re Ar g y

ro

Wegener

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S is y

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27m

Cha

LY

IS

Daly

Phillips

24h

po

E

SS

O

Maraldi

Lyell

500

FO

BA

S

UM

686 DAYS (687 SOLS)

80°

AL

IT AR CH

Austr al e

24h

IA

Au Mosonia nte s

SC A N D I A

1 YEAR = 686 SOLS

IT

co

°E 60 ° W 0 30

1 YEAR = 365 DAYS

AN

al

s nte Mo

MARS

1000

Korolev

EARTH

–90°

I

G

PL

F o ss

L

70°

AR

E

Ch

–60°

phi Sisy

A

YR

Russell

Darwin

ON T

E

E 0° 1 2 0° W 24

24 12 0° E 0° W

B O R

S

V

T

S

A

A S I T

E 0° 33 ° W 30

R up

COLLES

v

–55°

NOACHIS

M

Milankovic

30 0 60 ° E °W

60°

90°

E 0° 21 ° W 0 15

15 21 0° E 0° W

70° 55°

Stokes

–70° –55°

MAPPING MARS 001

180° 55°

Secchi

A

id

240° W 120° E

an

ia

o Sc

pu

lu

Tycho Brahe

Bjerknes

Rossby Huggins

–50°

s

Campbell

210° W 150° E

B

Cruls

180°

–57°

C’


95.32%

Trace amounts of

methane

was recently detected, which may indicate the presence of life on Mars, but may also be produced by a geochemical process, volcanic or hydrothermal activity.

ONS S A E S

Mars ~500km ~200km upper atmosphere

N2: 2.7% Ar: 1.6% O2: 0.13% CO: 0.08% H2O: 0.021% NO: 0.01% Ne: 0.00025% HDO: 0.000085% Kr: 0.00003% Xe: 0.000008%

thermosphere ~80km

middle atmosphere

mesophere ~50km

Lower atmosphere: This is a warm region affected by heat from airborne dust and from the ground.

lower atmosphere thin ice clouds

Exosphere: Typically stated to start at 200 km and higher, this region is where the last wisps of atmosphere merge into the vacuum of space. There is no distinct boundary where the atmosphere ends; it just tapers away. Source: Robbins, Stuart J.; et al. ,2006 "Elemental composition of Mars' atmosphere". Case Western Reserve University Department of Astronomy.

Mars has an

axial tilt of

25.2°

.

ATER W & ICE

50%

water ice

in the upper 1m of the soil.

-180

-135

-90

-45

0

45

90

135

180 90

90

Like Earth, the obliquity of Mars undergoes periodic changes which can lead to long-lasting changes in climate. Once again, the effect is more pronounced on Mars because it lacks the stabilizing influence of a large moon. As a result the obliquity can alter by as much as 45°. The effects of these periodic climate changes can be seen in the layered nature of the ice cap at the Martian north pole. Current research suggests that Mars is in a warm interglacial period which has lasted more than 100,000 years.

Season

Sols

Days

Northern Spring, Southern Autumn: Northern Summer, Southern Winter: Northern Autumn, Southern Spring: Northern Winter, Southern Summer:

193.30 178.64 142.70 153.95

92.764 93.647 89.836 88.997

Because the Mars Global Surveyor was able to observe Mars for 4 Martian years, it was found that Martian weather was similar from year to year. Any differences were directly related to changes in the solar energy that reached Mars. Scientists were even able to accurately predict dust storms that would occur during the landing of Beagle 2. Regional dust storms were discovered to be closely related to where dust was available.

NORTH POLE M AR S

SWEDEN

SOUTH POLE M AR S

90°W

60°

90°W

0

60°

90°E

NORTHERN POLAR CAP 1000 km 1:100.000.

180°

0

90°E

SOUTHERN POLAR CAP

1000 km 1:33.000.0 0 0

(OUTLINE SHOWS WATER ICE CAP UNDERGROUND)

RESIDUAL CAP

ANTARTICA

180°

45

Layered sedimentary deposits are widespread on Mars. These deposits probably consist of both sedimentary rock and poorly indurated or unconsolidated sediments. Thick sedimentary deposits occur in the interior of several canyons in Valles Marineris, within large craters in Arabia and Meridiani Planum (e.g. Henry Crater ), and probably comprise much of the deposits in the northern lowlands (e.g., Vastitas Borealis Formation). The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity landed in an area containing crossbedded (mainly eolian) sandstones. Fluvial-deltaic deposits are present in Eberswalde Crater and elsewhere, and photogeologic evidence suggests that many craters and low lying intercrater areas in the southern highlands contain Noachian-aged lake sediments.

90°E

Source: http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03800 45

The dark areas of Mars are characterised by the mafic rock-forming minerals olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase feldspar.

SWE DE N

90°W

180°

The deep blue areas in the polar regions are believed to contain up to

This implies that there are seasons on Mars, like on Earth. The eccentricity of Mars' orbit is 0.1, ( Earth's 0.02). The large eccentricity causes the insolation on Mars to vary as the planet orbits the Sun. As on Earth, Mars' obliquity dominates the seasons but deu to the large eccentricity, winters in the south are long and cold while those in the North are short and warm.

Observations by NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft show a global view of Mars in intermediate-energy, or epithermal, neutrons. Soil enriched by hydrogen is indicated by the deep blue colors on the map, which show a low intensity of epithermal neutrons. Progressively smaller amounts of hydrogen are shown in the colors light blue, green, yellow and red. The deep blue areas in the polar regions are believed to contain up to 50 percent water ice in the upper one meter (three feet) of the soil. Hydrogen in the far north is hidden at this time beneath a layer of carbon dioxide frost (dry ice). Light blue regions near the equator contain slightly enhanced near-surface hydrogen, which is most likely chemically or physically bound because water ice is not stable near the equator. The view shown here is a map of measurements made during the first three months of mapping using the neutron spectrometer instrument, part of the gamma ray spectrometer instrument suite. The central meridian in this projection is zero degrees longitude. Topographic features are superimposed on the map for geographic reference.

OIL

Sedimentary rocks Cross-bedded sandstones inside Victoria Crater.

~0km

A Comparison of the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars

&S CKS

The mineral olivine occurs all over the planet, but some of the largest concentrations are in Nili Fossae, an area containing Noachian-aged rocks. Another large olivine-rich outcrop is in Ganges Chasma, an eastern side chasm of Valles Marineris (pictured). Olivine weathers rapidly into clay minerals in the presence of liquid water. Therefore, areas with large outcroppings of olivine-bearing rock indicate that liquid water has not been abundant since the rocks formed. Pyroxene minerals are also widespread across the surface. Both low-calcium and high-calciumpyroxenes are present, with the high-calcium varieties associated with younger volcanic shields and the low-calcium forms more common in the old highland terrain. Because enstatite melts at a higher temperature than its high-calcium cousin, some researchers have argued that its presence in the highlands indicates that older magmas on Mars had higher temperatures than younger ones.

Upper atmosphere, or thermosphere: This region has very high temperatures, caused by heating from the Sun. Atmospheric gases start to separate from each other at these altitudes, rather than forming the even mix found in the lower atmospheric layers.

`10km ~10km cummulus clouds

RO

The atmosphere of Mars is a resource of known composition available at any landing site on Mars. It has been proposed that human exploration of Mars could use carbon dioxide (CO2) from Martian atmosphere to make rocket fuel for the return mission. Mission studies that propose using the atmosphere in this way include the Mars Direct proposal of Robert Zubrin and the NASA Design reference mission study. Two major chemical pathways for use of the carbon dioxide are the Sabatier reaction, converting atmospheric carbon dioxide along with additional hydrogen (H2), to produce methane (CH4) and oxygen (O2), and electrolysis, using a zirconia solid oxide electrolyte to split the carbon dioxide into oxygen (O2) and carbon monoxide (CO).

Middle atmosphere: Mars has a jetstream, which flows in this region. ~45km

stratosphere ozone layer cirrus clouds

Potential Uses

The scale height of the atmosphere is about 11 kilometres (6.8 mi), somewhat higher than Earth's 7 km. The atmosphere is quite dusty, giving the Martian sky a light brown or orange color when seen from the surface; data from the Mars Exploration Rovers indicate that suspended dust particles within the atmosphere are roughly 1.5 micrometres across. Mars's atmosphere as observed in layers:

CO2

Earth

Other elemental gases found in the Martian atmosphere:

The atmosphere of Mars is relatively thin and is composed of

AT

ERE H P S MO

WINTER CAP (DRY ICE)

DRY ICE SNOWFALL ON M AR S ASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) data have recored evidence of CO2 snowfalls on Mars, unveiling the only known example of CO2 snow falling in our solar system.

-90

-90

-180 0.0

-45

0

3.0

4.5

6.0

45

90

135

180

Mars' south polar residual ice cap is the only place on Mars where frozen CO2 persists on the surface year-round. How the CO2 from Mars' atmosphere gets deposited is still in question. These results shows that snowfall is especially vigorous on top of the residual cap.The finding of snowfall could mean that the type of deposition - snow or frost - is somehow linked to the year-to-year preservation of the residual cap Source: Nasa News Room, released : 11 Sep 2012

Solar radiation incident at top of Martian Atmosphere

MINERALS OF ABUNDANCE

I0= incidence of solar radiation per cm2 (cal/cm2) (planetary day) S0= solar constant. distance from the sun to earth r = instantaneous dist from sun to mars that is determined by planet’s semimajor axis and eccentricity of the planet Ae = semi major axis of the earth’s orbit z = zenith angle of the incident solar radiation, depending on planetary latitude, solar declination and local hour angle of the sun

0º 90º 180º 270º

northern hemisphere, vernal equinox northern hemisphere summer solitisce northern hemisphere, autumn equinox northern hemisphere winter solstice (angle of declination of the sun)

H

6

Atomic Number

Hydrogen 1.007 94

3

2

Be Beryllium 9.012 182

Na

4

5

7

Group 13 5

12

20

Group 14 6

Group 15 7

Group 16 8

Group 17 9

Helium 4.002 60 10

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

Boron 10.811

Carbon 12.0107

Nitrogen 14.0067

Oxygen 15.9994

Fluorine 18.998 4032

Neon 20.1797

13

14

15

16

17

18

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

Group 3

Group 4

Group 5

Group 6

Group 7

Group 8

Group 9

Group 10

Group 11

Group 12

Aluminum 26.981 5386

Silicon 28.0855

Phosphorus 30.973 762

Sulfur 32.065

Chlorine 35.453

Argon 39.948

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

K

Ca

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

Potassium 39.0983

Calcium 40.078

Scandium 44.955 912

Titanium 47.867

Vanadium 50.9415

Chromium 51.9961

Manganese 54.938 045

Iron 55.845

Cobalt 58.933 195

Nickel 58.6934

Copper 63.546

Zinc 65.409

Gallium 69.723

Germanium 72.64

Arsenic 74.921 60

Selenium 78.96

Bromine 79.904

Krypton 83.798

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

I

54

Xe

Iodine 126.904 47

Xenon 131.293

Rb

Sr

Y

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

Rubidium 85.4678

Strontium 87.62

Yttrium 88.905 85

Zirconium 91.224

Niobium 92.906 38

Molybdenum 95.94

Technetium (98)

Ruthenium 101.07

Rhodium 102.905 50

Palladium 106.42

Silver 107.8682

Cadmium 112.411

Indium 114.818

Tin 118.710

Antimony 121.760

Tellurium 127.60

55

6

2

He

Carbon 12.0107

Mg

Sodium Magnesium 22.989 769 28 24.3050 19

Average Atomic Mass

4

Li Lithium 6.941 11

3

Name

Group 2

Group 18

C

Symbol

56

57

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

Cs

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

W

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

Cesium 132.905 4519

Barium 137.327

Lanthanum 138.905 47

Hafnium 178.49

Tantalum 180.947 88

Tungsten 183.84

Rhenium 186.207

Osmium 190.23

Iridium 192.217

Platinum 195.084

Gold 196.966 569

Mercury 200.59

Thallium 204.3833

Lead 207.2

Bismuth 208.980 40

Polonium (209)

Astatine (210)

Radon (222)

87

88

89

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

112

114

116

Fr

Ra

Ac

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

Ds

Rg

Uub*

Uuq*

Uuh*

Francium (223)

Radium (226)

Actinium (227)

Rutherfordium (261)

Dubnium (262)

Seaborgium (266)

Bohrium (264)

Hassium (277)

Meitnerium (268)

Darmstadtium (271)

Roentgenium (272)

Ununbium (285)

Ununquadium (289)

Ununhexium (292)

Periodic Table of the Elements

SOIL COMPOSITION O, Oxygen Si, Silicon Fe, Iron K, Potassium Ca, Calcium Mg, Magnesium S, Sulfur Al, Aluminum Cs, Cesium

40 - 45% 18 -25% 12- 15% 8% 3 - 5% 3 - 6% 2 - 5% 2 - 5% 0.1 - 0.5%

2 30 00 35 0 0

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

350 350 300 200

350 300

0 90º

0

400 500

200 100

100

Solar radiation incident on Martian surface

LATITUDE

Variation of obliquity = 14.9º to 35.5º Variation of eccentricty = 0.004 to 0.741

1

1

Group 1

O, Oxygen Si, Silicon Fe, Iron Mg, Magnesium Ca, Calcium S, Sulfur Al, Aluminum Na, Sodium K, Potassium Cl, Chlorine

Mars has experienced extensive cyclical variation in the intensity and distribution of incidence solar radiation. LATITUDE

The incidence of the solar radiation on the surface of a planet depends on: Due to the 2. planetary latitude 3. planetary seasons thin atmosphere on 1. atmospheric turbitity mars and the lack of magnetic field around During the great martian dust storm of 1971, the daily insolation in the planet decreased because the global atmospheric turbitity increased and consequently, the temperature of the it, Mars is highly I0 = (S0 / (r/Ae)2) cos z atmosphere too. It is expressed as vulnerable from space, mainly

solar and cosmic rays.

ENTS M E L E

-90

1.5

CO2 freezes at -125ºC to become what is known as dry ice. The recent discovery established clouds that are composed of CO2 - flakes of Martian air - which are thick enough to result in snowfall accumulation at the surface. The snow falls occurred from clouds around the south pole in winter (NASA's Phoenix Lander mission in 2008 observed falling water-ice snow on northern Mars.) The new analysis based on data from observations in the south pole during southern Mars winter in 2006-07, identifys a tall CO2 cloud about 500 km diameter persisting over the pole and smaller, shorter-lived, lower-altitude CO2 ice clouds at latitudes from 70 to 80 degrees south.

180º

600

100

270º

360º

SOLAR LONTITUDE (SEASON)

Maximum radiation in the Northern and Southern Poles because of the continuous daylight in Martian poles: S: 600 cal/cm2 N: 400 cal/cm2 in Earth poles: S: 1100 cal/cm2 N: 1000 cal/cm2

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

300 200 100

0

300 400 500

200 100 0 0º

90º

100

180º

SOLAR LONTITUDE (SEASON)

Solar radiation incident on Martian surface

Solar radiation incident on Martian surface

270º

360º

Clear sky conditions: Greater insolation in the soutern polar region than the northern, thus southern winter is longer and colder.

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

0 50 100

200

150 100 50

0

200 150 100 50 0 0º

90º

200 325 100 180º

SOLAR LONTITUDE (SEASON)

Middle conditions: Maximum incidence in the equator.

270º

360º

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

0

10

20 20 15 10

35 40

0 0º

90º

180º

SOLAR LONTITUDE (SEASON)

270º

360º

Martian dust storms: Maximum insolation in the tropics, and only small amounts of solar radiation are reaching the polar regions.

Physical properties

LIGH

TION A D A T &R

-135

New estimates of water ice on Mars suggest there may be larger reservoirs of underground ice at non-polar latitudes. The map here shows “water-equivalent hydrogen”. Oranges and redson the map (values greater than weight 4.5 % water-equivalent hydrogen at the surface) point out areas where the amount of deeply buried water ice is greater than what can fit in the pore spaces of the surface rocks.

LATITUDE

-45

2 30 00 0

-45

http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/2005/2888/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_table fti.neep.wisc.edu/neep533/.../lecture19.pdf http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2003/ 2003JE002060.shtml


AUGUST

S EP T EM BER

JULY

O C TOBER NOVEMBER

J U NE

DEC EM B ER

MAY J AN UARY FEBRUA RY

V rtian

of Ma

10%

EY S VALL

NOES A C L O

ce is surfa

d by

covere

Ancie

64.9

64.9

HECATES THOLUS ELYSIUM MONS HECATES THOLUS

25.1 THARSIS MONTES

OLYMPUS MONS 0

crate pact

er im

f few

nce o

Prese

64.9

ALBA

MAMERS VALLIS HERBUS VALLIS TINJAR VALLIS APSUS VALLIS

25.1

UTOPIA PLANITIA

0

25.1

ELYSIUM PLANITIA

0

TYRRHENA PATERA

ARSIA MONS

64.9

25.1

25.1

0

25.1

25.1

25.1

64.9

64.9

SYRTIS

ISIDIS

ELYSIUM

MAJOR

TEMPE

MEDUSAE FOSSAE 25.1

THAUMASIA

DAEDALIA

64.9

OLYMPUS

MAJOR

0

9

25.1

THAUMASIA

NOACHIS HELLAS

S

64.9

8

DAEDALIA

THARSIS

3

2

THAUMASIA

NOACHIS ARGYRE

64.9

SYRTIS

ARABIA

ISIDIS

10

ELYSIUM

MAJOR

VALL MAR ES INER IS

HELLAS

ARGYRE

13

CHRYSE

ELYSIUM

ISIDIS

VALL MAR ES INER IS

NOACHIS ARGYRE

SYRTIS

ARABIA

THARSIS

0

VASTITAS BOREALIS

25.1

CHRYSE OLYMPUS

VALL MAR ES INER IS

GALLE DUNES

64.9

ARGYRE PLANITIA

DAEDALIA

25.1

ARABIA

SAND DUNES

HELLAS 64.9

0

DUNES

ARABIA PLANITIA

25.1

TEMPE

25.1

CHRYSE

THARSIS

14

5

ALBA

TEMPE

OLYMPUS

7

15

64.9

ALBA

25.1

DUNES AND DUST

L

VASTITAS BOREALIS

64.9

ALBA

SEA OF SAND 0

ORIA T A U EQ N

VASTITAS BOREALIS

64.9

MOREUX DUNES

THARSIS PLANITIA

SABIS VALLIS ABUS VALLIS

25.1

VASTITAS BOREALIS

64.9

APS C R POLA

N ES U D SAND

CHRYSE PLANITIA

OLYMPUS

ASCRAEUS MONS PAVONIS MONS

ERS T A R C

rs

terr tered

nt cra

volc

MARCH

NS PLAI

ain

reas anic a

S N O ITI D N RS CO O T C A F

APRIL

1

11

6

16

1 Gullies, streaks, ripples and dust devil tracks on Russell Crater Dunes.

2 Exposure of Layers and Minerals in Candor Chasma. Cliff along a layered deposit in Valles Marineris. Erosion by wind has carved V-shaped patterns along the edges of layers.

3 Victoria Crater at Meridiani Planum(~ 800m). Layered sedimentary rocks are exposed along the inner wall of the crater, and boulders fallen from the crater wall are visible on the crater.

4 Dark sand cascades down top of dunes leaving dark surface streaks - streaks that might

5 Part of the Abalos Undae dune field. The sands appear blueish because of their basaltic composition, while the lighter areas are probably covered in dust.

6 A 4 km diameter "swiss cheese" terrain typical of the south polar cap. The bright areas in this image are covered by carbon dioxide frost.

7 Avalanches on Mars' North Polar Scarps. Material, likely including fine-grained ice, dust and large blocks, has detached from a towering cliff and cascaded to the gentler slopes below.

8 Dunes in a crater in Newton Basin that are eroding or covering a more coherent rock structure below.

9 Fuzzy-looking landscape near Tharsis Montes. The out-of-focus regions indicates an extremely smooth surface, which is due to a thick layer of dust blanketing the landscape.

10 A valley in Elysium region volcanic rise region.

11 Scalloped sand dunes in the southern hemisphere, displays seasonal frost on S-facing slopes, highlighting some regular patterns, as the frost forms only on parts of the ripples.

12 Serpent Dust Devil of Mars by HiRISE camera on NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

13 Intersecting swirling trails left by the earlier passage of dust devils across sand dunes, as they lifted lighter reddish-pink dust and exposed the darker material below.

14 A large barchan (crescent-shaped) dune, in a region where some dunes have been observed shrinking over several years.

15 Linear dunes in the north polar region. Networks of cracks between the linear dunes and may indicate that ice-rich permafrost is present or was geologically present recently.

16 The dark fans of dust seen in this image comes from the surface below the layer of ice, carried to the top by gas venting from below. Bright streaks in this image are fresh frost. Image Credit: HiRISE, MRO, LPL (U. Arizona), NASA

larger than in earth

Flows

longer than in earth

THARSIS PLANITA

ht:

18 km

ht: ht: ht: ht:

17 km 14 km 8 km 4 km

GLACIERS

Heavily cratered eg. Hellas Planita

NORTHERN PLAINS

Little relief; Probably formed by oceans and its surface is composed of sediments. e.g. Utopia Planita, Chryse Planita

NORTHERN HEMISPHERE

Sparsely cratered eg. Cuenca Borealis

These dune fields cover an area the size of Texas in a band at the edge of Mars' north polar cap. Most data suggested they were fairly static, but new satellite observations have shown that towering sand dunes are actually dynamic and active.

Polar caps on Mars changes dramatically with the seasons. In winter, the caps become much larger as CO2 freezes on the surface . This happens when the temperature drops to about 150K, and the cap extends down to about latitude 50° by the beginning of spring.

If the ice from the south pole was distributed uniformly over the Martian surface, it would cover the planet 36 feet deep in liquid water. But the flood plains seen on the surface suggest that there was over 10 times as much water originally present on Mars.

Dry; resembles terrestial river. Systems probably formed by slow erosion of running water

CHANNELS

Probably formed by release of water from lakes and explosive eruptions of groundwater

VALLES MARINERIS

Several interconnected canyons. Formed by erosion, but mostly by deformation of crust. MAR S

OLYMPUS MONS

8%

M

USA

IRO

SILICON

MOUNT EVEREST

Valles M

arineris

MAUNA LOA

22km

IRON

Mount Everest

Highest point in Earth

5km

M 8.

1%

SIL

G

EN

Length: 446 km Depth: 1.6 km Width: 6-29 km

-8km Hellas Planitia -11,5km -5km

H

-15km

Lowest point in Mars

Relief in Mars: 29km

S O I L C O MP O S I TI O N

Mariana Trench

Lowest point in Earth

Relief in Earth: 20km

SOUTHERN POLAR CAP

DUST DEVILS

NORTH POLE

Dust devils occur when the sun warms up the air near a flat, dry surface. The warm air then rises quickly through the cooler air and begins spinning while moving ahead. This spinning, moving cell may pick up dust and sand and leave behind a clean surface. Martian dust devils can be up to fifty times as wide and ten times as high as terrestrial dust devils, and large ones may pose a threat to terrestrial technology sent to Mars. Dust devils have been reported to clean dust of the solar panels of two Rovers in Mars, restoring power levels and exapanding work productivity.

During the summer, the caps recede but never completely disappear. The permanent cap at the Martian north pole is formed not of dry ice, but of water ice. The residual north polar cap has been measured to be about 1000 km in diameter with a thickness of about 3 km.

6,

37

8

km

3,

39

0

H ighest daytime temperatures during one M ars year [K ]

L egend

km

°C 30 20 10 0 -10 -15 -20 -30 -60 -70 -90 -100 -110 -120 -125 -130

K 303 293 283 273 263 258 253 243 213 203 183 173 163 153 148 143

1 61 126 193 257 317 371 421 468 514 562 612 668 φ

Ls 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 350

RADIATION

35km (min)

SOUTH POLE The south polar cap is much smaller, ~350 km in size and thicker than the north cap. It is formed of dry ice with an unknown thickness of water ice. Here, the temperature never gets above 150K, so the dry ice survives the summer. The caps are different because of the eccentricity of the Martian orbit which is over five times that of the Earth, and larger than all planets except Mercury and Pluto. This results in the planet being significantly further from the sun during summer at the south pole.

EARTH

40km (avg)

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

MARS

Due to the thin atmosphere on Mars and no magnetic field around it, Mars is highly vulnerable to radiation from space, namely solar radiation and cosmic rays.

CORE

SNOWING CORE SENARIO Sulphur 10-14 % (by weight) COMPLETELY MOLTEN CORE

Just like Earth, Mars is a Terrestrial planet. Meaning that they have approximately the same type of structure: a central metallic core, mostly iron, with ax) SULPHIDE CORE SENARIO (m a surrounding silicate mantle. The crust of Terres80km Sulphur 14-16 % (by weight) trial planets canyons, mountains, Just like the core of the earth the core of mars is under transformation. The final have stage of this transformationcraters, is a completely crystalized, MARS EARTH solid core. The graphic show two different senarios ofand this transformation depending on the amount of sulphur in the core CRUST THICKNESS volcanoes. (The crust of the Earth is only one third as thick as INITIAL CRYSTALIZATIONEUTECTIC STAGE

FULLY CRYSTALIZED

Mars's crust, relative to the sizes of the planets.)

4M

hot rock

push the surface up

%

1000 km

Ls 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 350

The Medusae Fossae Formation is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars

M

RT H

27

-10km

RT

NORTHERN POLAR CAP

1 61 126 193 257 317 371 421 468 514 562 612 668

1.5

EA

ON

.7

EA

Grand Canyon Colorado

Length: 4000 km Depth: 7 km Width: 200 km

0km

IC

XY

Vertical scale exagerated 4 times

Valles Marineris

less density

10km

INIU

120km

A smaler volcanic rise, measuring 2000km across and 6 km high. Main volcanoes: Hecates Albor Elysium Tholus Tholus Mons Ø: 180 km 240 km 160 km ht: 7 km 15 km 4.5 km

Olympus Mons

Highest point in Mars

15km

8,5km

5.0%

ALUM

Olympus mons is the highest peak in solar system.

ELYSIUM PLANITA

CUENCA BOREALIS

This gas flow destabilizes the sand on Mars' sand dunes, causing sand avalanches and creating new alcoves, gullies and sand aprons on Martian dunes. In some places, hundreds of cubic yards of sand have avalanched down the face of the dunes.

21km %

CALCIUM 3.6%

O

125km

Recent discovery of the presence of water ice in the euquatorial belt of Mars has lead to change in directioin of rover missions. Studies of water on Mars can now be carried out in the more tolerable climate in the Equator, where previous studies were made inaccesible in the polar regions by its harsh climate.

%

M 2.8

Sea level 624km

2.6

SODIU

8,5km 4km

Mauna Loa

HELLAS PLANITA

The dunes are covered by a seasonal CO2 frost that forms in early autumn and remains until late spring. Grainflow is triggered by when the CO2 frost sublimes seasonally.

20km

OXY GEN

Olympus Mons

M

SIU

S TA

PO

L owest ni httime temperature [K ]

Sol

EQUATORIAL

Though Mars is smaller than Earth, its reliefs are larger than Earth’s. Also, Mars has larger land mass when as compared to Earth.

27.7%

ATMOSPHERE & CLIMATE

MOVEMENT OF SAND

Craters in young surfaces are lesseroded Ø: 8500 km

8.1%

ALUMINIUM

PAVONIS MONS

st

M

3.6

% N 5.0

ASCRAEUS MONS

(Formed ~3900 mil years ago)

%

SO CIU L CA

ARSIA MONS

Evere

2.

DIU

(Largest impact on mars)

Craters in old surfaces are more eroded Ø: 7000 km depth: 8 km

OTH E M AG RS 1. 6% NE SIU M 2.1 %

Ø: 350-450 km

Ø: 624 km ht: 25 km

VALLEYS

(longer than valley)

It is a large plain of volcanic rock, measuring more than 8000km across and up to 8km in height. It is the center of volcanic activity on Mars.

ICE AND WATER ON MARS

SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE

During one Martian year measured at 0° longitude, various latituted. Source: MGS T E S J un 2000. - Apr. 2002.

Magma chambers

FEATURES

Composed of lava flows eg. Tharsis Planita

FEATURES

I NN ER C O RE O U TE R C O RE 1,520-1,840km MA N TLE 1,550-1,870km

Quiet volcanic eruption/ basaltic lava / explosive ash eruption

FEATURES

VOLCANIC PLAINS

FEATURES

Rivers, lakes and deltas

400km S H A L LOW M A NTL E

SIZE 1-2km across 2000km long

I NN ER C O RE 1,220km O U TE R C O RE 2,328km LO E WR MA N TL E 2,311km

FEATURES Effusive eruptions

OTHERS 1.6 % MAGNES IUM 2.1 % SSIU M 2. 6%

10- larger than earth 100X volcanoes

POTA

SIZE

appear at first to be trees standing in front of the lighter regions.

G O.RAV M EA38 OITY ARS RT F H cold rock

more density

pull the surface down

MANTEL CONVECTION

A A’

B B’

C C’

o

HELLAS

64.9

D D’

E E’

x100 vertical exaggeration


RECONSTITUTING SAND

a self-constructing air-born(e) typology

C

Dolly Foo

<SAND + ROBOTICS = FLIGHT ASSEMBLED ARCHITECTURE>

<what to build with>

<SAND + SOLAR = SOLAR SINTER>

<SAND + SONAR = ACOUSTIC LEVITATION>

<SAND + BACTERIA = BIO- ARCHITECTURAL LANDSCAPE>

The atmosphere of Mars is a resource of known composition available at any landing site on Mars. It has been proposed that human exploration of Mars could use carbon dioxide (CO2) from Martian atmosphere to make rocket fuel for the return mission.Two major chemical pathways for use of CO2 are the Sabatier reaction, converting atmospheric CO2 along with additional hydrogen (H2), to produce methane (CH4) and oxygen (O2), and electrolysis, using a zirconia solid oxide electrolyte to split the carbon dioxide into oxygen (O2) and carbon monoxide (CO).

<Material study> This is a perspective view of the Nili Patera dune field. A HiRISE image has been draped over a digital elevation model of Mars. Colors correspond to the amplitude of the ripple's displacement extracted by image correlation between two HiRISE observations separated by 105 days. Cool colors (blue) correspond to less than 75 cm of displacement whereas warm colors (red) correspond to 4.5+ meters.

Sand, dust and powder What is the composite of Marsian sand, what are the properties, how different it is from sand on earth. Also study the extend and periods of sandstorm and how it affects NASA’s explorations. Identify similar conditions on Earth for case study. Study sand and its structural properties in existing constructional technology.

3D PRINTING WITH SAND Case study: ETH Digital Fabrications and Robotic Systems http://www.dfab.arch.ethz.ch/web/e/forschung/index.html

<Topological study> Features on Mars – sand dunes, volcanoes, tunnels, Hellas Planita, equatorial belt, wind patterns, heating patterns SI, SILICON + FE, IRON MG, MAGNESIUM CA, CALCIUM 0, OXYGEN CA, CALCIUM S, SULFUR AL, ALUMINUM NA, SODIUM K, POTASSIUM CL, CHLORINE

+

= ???

Image credit: Bagnold’s illustration on salation of sand

SUN LIGHTING WIND RADIATION WATER BACTERIA

.

.

SALTATION OF SAND From the Latin verb “to jump,” this is the process whereby sand grains move in the wind by individual leaps, and, landing on a hard surface, bounce off again; if a grain lands amongst other grains on the surface of a dune, the impact kicks some of them up into the wind and the crowd of flying grains grows. It is these two contrasting behaviours – bouncing versus splashing – that explain the self-accumulating nature of dunes. Over a hard surface of rocks and pebbles, the trajectories of individual grains are high into the air, and they keep on bouncing. As soon as they hit a soft surface of a dune, they kick off more grains, but the trajectories are lower and

Flight Assembled Architecture, 2011-2012, FRAC Centre Orléans Flight Assembled Architecture is the first architectural installation assembled by flying robots, free from the touch of human hands. The installation is an expression of a rigorous architectural design by Gramazio & Kohler and a visionary robotic system by Raffaello D’Andrea. Flight Assembled Architecture consists of over 1.500 modules which are placed by a multitude of quadrotor helicopters, collaborating according to mathematical algorithms that translate digital design data to the behavior of the flying machines. In this way, the flying vehicles, together, extend themselves as “living” architectural machines and complete the composition from their dynamic formation of movement and building performance. Within the build, an architectural vision of a 600m high “vertical village” for 30’000 inhabitants unfolds as model in 1:100 scale. This newly founded village is located in the rural area of Meuse, taking advantage of an existing TGV connection that brings its inhabitants to Paris in less than one hour. It is from this quest of an “ideal” self-sustaining habitat that the authors pursue

Dust storm on Mars. Image credit: NASA/JPL

Image credit: Markus Kayser

SOLAR SINTERS Case study: markus kayser, 2011 The Solar Sinter - The Potential of Desert Manufacturing In a world increasingly concerned with questions of energy production and raw material shortages, the Solar Sinter project explores the potential of desert manufacturing, where energy and material occur in abundance. In this experiment sunlight and sand are used as raw energy and material to produce glass objects using a 3D printing process, that combines natural energy

ACOUSTIC LEVITATION - DISLODGING MARTIAN DUST Finding ways of dealing with the fine dust is a high priority because the problems it can cause could drastically affect any long-term exploration. The thin atmosphere on Mars means dust particles are not as rounded as they would be on Earth and can remain quite sharp and abrasive, and they have a high electrostatic charge, which means the fine dust clings to everything and can penetrate space suit air locks, and make solar panels inoperable. The researchers from the Department of Physics and Materials Science Program carried out a feasibility study to develop an acoustic dust removing system for use in space stations or habitations on the Moon or Mars. They found a high-pitched (13.8 kHz, 128 dB) standing wave of sound emitted from a 3 cm aperture tweeter and focused on a reflector 9 cm away was strong enough to dislodge and move extremely fine (<2 µm diameter) dust particles on the reflector surface. The sound waves overcome the van der Waals adhesive force that binds dust particles to the surface, and creates

SAND BAGS The project – a kind of bio-architectural test-landscape – would thus "go from a balloon-like pneumatic structure filled with bacillus pasteurii, which would then be released into the sand and allowed to solidify the same into a permacultural architecture."


up sand from the bare stony areas between them – they grow by and more small modules will appear on Mars and a settlement of such metal

All dust storms on Mars, no matter what size, are powered by sunshine. Solar attracting more sand. “Why did they absorb nourishment and with airlocks appear, enlarging the usage surface of the heating warms the martian atmosphere and causes the air cylinders, to move, liftinglinked dust continue to grow will instead of allowing the sand to spread out evenly off the ground. over the desert asscientific finer dust grains do?” was and one ofrobots Bagnold’s growing Martian base. Various equipment can be sent,

including Because the martian atmosphere is thin--about 1% as dense as Earth's atones sea level--only the smallest dust grains hang in the air. Airborne dust on Mars is about as fine as cigarette smoke.

questions. This was, he thought, something that “could be explored enabling production based on local resources.

at home in England under laboratory-controlled conditions” - and so began his rigorous science. Two of the most important revelations of Bagnold’s work are the process ofof saltation and the of Stage II: These resources will allow construction habitats forrole several dozen or different threshold velocities for the wind. from Earth. A transport Dust storms often begin in Hellas Basin, the biggest hole inmore the ground in the Alsotwo people. deployable habitats can be brought

entire solar system ( 6 km deep and 2000 km across), Over the years since it module 8 m in diameter and height, instead of a return vehicle can contain struchas accumulated plenty of dust, and because the basin is so deep, air at the bottom is about 10 degrees or so warmer than air at the top. This gradient tures packed in a way portable architecture is packed on Earth. Thus, without drives winds, which can carry dust all the way out of the crater, and envelops up using local resources or more complex methods large habitable space can be to a quarter of the Martian surface.

gained. This is theaccumulated issue I am trying to solve in this paper. sand adds to performace of settlements may appear on the surface of the future large human structure Red Planet. They will be covered by great domes or placed underground. Terraforming and change of the atmosphere into one suitable for breathing will last for living unit 100 years.

It was also reported that an enormous dust storm that exploded on Mars in 2001, which shrouded the planet in haze and raised the temperature of its upper III: In the atmosphere 30 deg. C.(article-Planet Gobbling Dust StormsStage (Science@NASA))

This was a solar-powered, semi-automated low-tech laser cutter, that used the power of the sun to drive it and directly harnessed its rays through a glass ball lens to ‘laser’ cut 2D components using a cam-guided system. The Sun-Cutter produced components in thin plywood with an aesthetic quality that was a curious hybrid of machine-made and “nature craft” due to the crudeness of its mechanism and cutting beam optics, alongside variations in solar intensity due to weather fluctuations.

for applications away from Earth. The technology is cheap and uses readily found parts, but there is one enormous problem: it will only work when it is sealed inside a space station or other habitation. It will not work where there is no atmosphere (such as the moon) or where the atmosphere is low pressure and thin (such as Mars) because sound is a pressure wave that travels through the air. This limits its usefulness because inside an enclosed space station there would be relatively little dust, and probably other readilyavailable means of removing it without resorting to acoustic levitation.

SUN+SAND: Silicia sand when heated to melting point and allowed to cool solidifies as glass. This process of converting a powdery substance via a heating process into a solid form is The paper is published in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of known as sintering and has in recent years become a central America in January. process in design prototyping known as 3D printing. By using the sun’s rays instead of a laser and sand instead of resins, The basis of an entirely new solar-powered machine and production proSelf-supporting structural unit having a series of repititious cess for making glass objects that taps into the abundant supgeometrical modules. (Patented, Ron Resch ,1968) plies of sun and sand to be found in the deserts of the world.

sand as insulation

DESIGN PROPOSAL

LOCATION

AGENDA

Site: Current choice of location includes the Nili Patera dune field in the Syrtis Major. Ideal location will in in the equatorial tropics where there will be maximum insolation even during dust storms (20-40 cal/cm2). Sand storms are inextricably tied to the micro climate and temperatures on Mar. While it could be that sand storm occurs because of a rise in temperature (variance), it could also be that the sand in the atmosphere itself becomes an insulating. Harnessing dust storms and suspended sand particles to create

AGENDA

local building material, while clearing up the atmosphere to improve visibility and habitability of Mars. To explore new methods of production for sustainable , selfdeployed construction. To discuss the immanence and potentials of dust - by convention defined to be kept out and away - into a handy, accessible resource, working in line with natural phenomenons and not against it. In the process of which, translating immaterial moments to spatial ecstasies in the unyieldingly harsh landscape of Mars.

PROGRAMME

My project presents a support infrastructure for production of built material, which This investigation seeks take on a multidisciplinary character in doubles up as the search of emerging realities and parallels, in a transOption 1: Materials/ Geological research facility planetary fashion. Option 2: Launching/landing base.

WHEN

The structure I propose in my project is modular to allow for growth of the base according Harnessing dust storms and suspended sand particles to create to the arising needs. Similar modules can arrive depending on functional demands. local building material, while clearing up the atmosphere to Flexibility of the base modules themselves allows them to be assembled in various ways improve visibility and habitability of Mars. to attain different structures. To explore new methods of production for sustainable , self-

deployed construction. To discuss the immanence and potentials of dust - by convention defined to be kept out and away - into a

The foundation of the base does not require terrain leveling, instead the base columns handy, accessible resource, working in line with natural phenomenons and not againstait. In the process of which, translating are strengthen over time as sand and dust composite deposits on it, until it reaches immaterial moments to spatial ecstasies in the unyieldingly certain stiffness and stability for human inhabitation. harsh landscape of Mars. New technology could also be applied back on Earth to counter the destructive forces of sandstorms and desertification.

Modularity investigationto seeks The proposed solution is characterized by a high level of unification ofThis elements, thetake on a multidisciplinary character in search of emerging realities and parallels, in a transfurthest possible extent. It allows exchange of functions between the the individual domes in planetary fashion. case one of them is damaged. Each module also serves as pressurised volumes in which various functions can take place in each of the four wings, with a central atrium where one access the vertical circulation tunnel. Mars dust storms are of great interest to scientists. Even though several spacecraft have observed the storms

LOCATION

first hand, scientists are no closer to a definitive answer. For now, the storms on Mars are going to continue to present challenges to planning a human mission to the planet.

Pneumatic architecture. All dust storms on Mars, no matter whatconstruction size, are powered by sunshine. Solar While adapting the technologies of portable architecture to the potential of heating warms the martian atmosphere and causes the air to move, lifting dust off the ground. space architecture three concepts were suitable: metal, pneuBecausedeemed the martianmost atmosphere is thin--about 1%mixed as denseand as Earth's at sea level--only the smallest dust grains hang in the air. Airborne dust Mars is about as fineeasily as cigarette matic structures. Pneumatic architecture allows structure toonbe taken down andsmoke. reconstructued at another location.Dust Thestorms skinoften canbegin alsoin be prefabricated suit the adherHellas Basin, the biggestto hole in the ground in the entire solar system ( 6 km deep and 2000 kmin across), thedetermines years since it hasthe accumulated plenty or of dust, and because the basin is so deep, air at ance property of sand and dust particles MarsOver that movement the bottom is about 10 degrees or so warmer than air at the top. This gradient drives winds, which can carry dust saltation of sand. S all the way out of the crater, and envelops up to a quarter of the Martian surface. It was also reported that an enormous dust storm that exploded on Mars in 2001, which shrouded the planet in haze and raised the temperature of its upper atmosphere 30 deg. C.(article-Planet Gobbling Dust Storms (Science@NASA))

DESIGN

Site: Current choice of location includes the Nili Patera dune field in the Syrtis Major. Ideal location will in in the equatorial tropics where there will be maximum insolation even during dust storms (20-40 cal/cm2). and parallels, in a trans-planetary fashion. Sand storms are inextricably tied to the micro climate and temperatures on Mar. While it could be that sand storm occurs because of a rise in temperature (variance), it could also be that the sand in the atmosphere itself becomes an insulating (or heating?) agent itself? To be researched on in detail.

PROGRAMME Option 1: Materials production and storage infrastructure and research base. Option 2: Landing/lauchning pad and materials facility. Mars dust storms are of great interest to scientists. Even though several spacecraft have observed the storms first hand, scientists are no closer to a definitive answer. For now, the storms on Mars are going to continue to present challenges to planning a human mission to the planet. All dust storms on Mars, no matter what size, are powered by sunshine. Solar heating warms the martian atmosphere and causes the air to move, lifting dust off the ground. Because the martian atmosphere is thin--about 1% as dense as Earth's at sea level--only the smallest dust

CONCEPT EXPLORATION

This investigation seeks take on a multidisciplinary character in the search of emerging realities and parallels, in a trans-planetary fashion.

WHEN Intermediate stage between I &II will be the focus of the project, where few small and tight research base are set up in anticipation of more teams working on Mars. More dwelling structure have to be built to increase habitable space in a short span of time, and limited resource from Earth. An infrastructural set up for the production of local built materials will have to be set up. Large structure need not always require specific ground preparation, a combination of portable installations, robotics assembly and working with natural elements can yield quick results. Base development stages. Stage I: Manned missions to Mars can be launched every 3 years. Slowly more and more small modules will appear on Mars and a settlement of such metal cylinders, linked with airlocks will appear, enlarging the usage surface of the growing Martian base. Various scientific equipment and robots can be sent, including ones enabling production based on local resources. Stage II: These resources will allow construction of habitats for several dozen or more people. Also deployable habitats can be brought from Earth. A transport module 8 m in diameter and height, instead of a return vehicle can contain structures packed in a way portable architecture is packed on Earth. Thus, without using local resources or more complex methods large habitable space can be gained. This is the issue I am trying to solve in this paper. Stage III: In the future large human settlements may appear on the surface of the Red Planet. They will be covered by great domes or placed underground. Terraforming and change of the atmosphere into one suitable for breathing will last for 100 years.

LOCATION Site: Current choice of location includes the Nili Patera dune field in the Syrtis Major. Ideal location will in in the equatorial tropics where there will be maximum insolation even during dust storms (20-40 cal/cm2). Sand storms are inextricably tied to the micro climate and temperatures on Mar. While it could be that sand storm occurs because of a rise in temperature (variance), it could also be that the sand in the atmosphere itself becomes an insulating.

The structure I propose in my project is modular to allow for growth of the base according to the arising needs. Similar modules can arrive depending on functional demands. Flexibility of the base modules themselves allows them to be assembled in various ways to attain different structures.

sand as insulation

A particular microorganism, Bacillus Pasteurii, is flushed through the dunescape (an analogy could be made to an oversized 3d printer), which causes a biological reaction that turns the sand into solid sandstone. The initial reactions finish within 24 hours; it would take about a week to saturate the sand enough to make the structure habitable. The bacteria are non-patogenic and die in the process of solidifying the sand. This part of the project relies upon research carried out by professor Jason De Jong's team at the Soil Interactions Laboratory, UC Davis (http://www.sil.ucdavis.edu/people-jason.htm)

To explore new methods of production for sustainable , self-deployed construction. To discuss the immanence and potentials of dust - by convention defined to be kept out and away - into a handy, accessible resource, working in line with natural phenomenons and not against it. In the process of which, translating immaterial moments to spatial ecstasies in the unyieldingly harsh landscape of Mars.

My project presents a support infrastructure for production of built material, which doubles up as Option 1: Materials/ Geological research facility Option 2: Launching/landing base.

living unit

BACTERIA AS GLUE Case study: Dune, Magnus Larsson (http://www.magnuslarsson.com/architecture/dune.asp)

Harnessing dust storms and suspended sand particles to create local building material, while clearing up the atmosphere to improve visibility and habitability of Mars.

PROGRAMME

accumulated sand adds to performace of structure

conceivable (structurally sound) surface along their way, with the loose sand acting as a jig before being excavated to create the necessary voids. If we allow ourselves to dream, we could even fantasise about ways in which the wind could do a lot of this work for us: solidifying parts of the surface to force the grains of sand to align in certain patterns, certain shapes, having the wind blow out our voids, creating a structure that would change and change again over the course of a decade, a century, a millenium.

The foundation of the base does not require terrain leveling, instead the base columns are strengthen over time as sand and dust composite deposits on it, until it reaches a certain stiffness and stability for human inhabitation. Modularity The proposed solution is characterized by a high level of unification of elements, to the furthest possible extent. It allows exchange of functions between the individual domes in case one of them is damaged. Each module also serves as pressurised volumes in which various functions can take place in each of the four wings, with a central atrium where one access the vertical circulation tunnel. Pneumatic architecture. While adapting the technologies of portable architecture to the construction potential of space architecture three concepts were deemed most suitable: metal, mixed and pneumatic structures. Pneumatic architecture allows structure to be taken down easily and reconstructued at another location. The skin can also be prefabricated to suit the adherance property of sand and dust particles in Mars that determines the movement or saltation of sand. S

Self-supporting structural unit having a series of repititious geometrical modules. (Patented, Ron Resch ,1968)


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<where exactl y to build?> Current choice of location incl udes the Nili location will in Patera dune fie in the equato ld in the Syrti ri al during dust st s Major. Ideal orms (20-40 ca tropics where there will be maximum inso l/cm2). lation even <what to build with?> The atmosph ere of Mars is al a resource of Mars. It has be or. 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The Sun lens to ‘laser’ e ionaco ryns is esti, cvoqualit -Cutter produc dy> an daedst nhe cutvi2D s u u t s l cr y a af th ed of at was a curiou components in esto tslic sthaen cruden ogic t” du s he i l – s o o n s p r th hy o in o f a br ess of its mec c id of machine <T s ns in onlaMr intens er o hanism and cu opgitetar l res so pattiteyr due to wea and “n e peow D urheelicdi tting beam op sed-m thad at 2 t Featu s, heating ther fluctuatio u s c e r’ dcl ns. n seid alhi that tiucs, alonags e igitve patterSUN+SAN in riatiodns utter, ll lens to ‘l in tehva c ,t > r s y e e D l d s : co S c a s u ili a i m t t l ci b pl a h s n e sa h s e e l e nd c r v s when heated n u a icais -te gln asos. te logTh tod m low lein ht a gl ced compo e and “nat ons obu 11 pr el p g oc ti 0 h ng ild u e es 2 m t c po s o S of , in a e r co r R i c an T u h d t < formSis TE yse nveri-tiang ed -maol sodlid utoampowide prdodallow variat rays bs ng s ksiant R INknow “viler diti tteer vi chineto co em taunc ca aat arnkuas er C gsi e ifies as ed ts ry Ssu bu ,insg s m n a d SOLprAotot m n an s a f o e he : d l u e o r ha y a n in s e d d g , in r i pr yp u e re w s a r caf oc in t ce i o h c g es h b t nt i s kn ne s p T t y r ye ow in y w e . ar to p l h e ly n r t s s a as v o be so a m c a “ 3D l co lid e u e m aam C insteasd a so pr tingsy. sB t y us curio ndedir uiin ng be central process in design an ded it ,aTh exlyisft sucn’ s wa ofdre ens utstira gs of new wasinag thaend vsi ba i si t Th ys r a instead of a la m as an h pri ocues a t o s en c t ti e y re s t a m ly fi fo n i i l r se ne s g m i r ho d w a ak i an s solar-powered ure.xItis l sandolid qujects mechan an as heun usining gl tfo etisc ob machine oodl so to s ntes de . h c th s eth t doin at a n n s o ta t an t i ps e o r. a i in f a p pu pr d t to n se o od the abundant llowe ouue n rts th s or ua hrs on com cess i ucti asuppliesg of ld eneesw osu sign with a cruof . r fluct r d d e d p n d e u o a h n o t t i tu n r n an re , Fslig ea pu ati ssd sa nto oin the plyw a d be ting p ce via a he tral proce and nd ue to ity due to w s l d e ” e t m r f n o n tu , s cra ated t ery substa come a ce of a laser oduction inten e r h a l e n o d e b e r d in s instea nd wh and p ears b a pow and to icia sa onverting in recent y sun’s rays d machine sun and s l i S : has s of c were SAND g the ies of SUN+ his proces ntering and g. By usin w solar-po dant suppl i T n e n s . printi rely n e abu glass known as as 3D s of an enti aps into th s i n w m o r fo kn at t asi cts th The b typing proto of resins, glass obje . ld d g instea for makin of the wor s s t s r dese proce in the d n u o f

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his is a perspe ctive view of th e Nili Patera du raped over a di ne field. A HiR gital elevation ISE image has model of Mars. f the ripple's di been Colors correspo splacement ex nd to the ampl tracted by imag bservations se itude e correlation be parated by 105 tween two HiR days. Cool colo m of displacem IS E rs (blue) correspo ent whereas w nd to less than arm colors (red redit: Californi 75 ) co a Institute of Te rrespond to 4. 5+ meters. chnology]

printing with sand se study: ETH D igital Fabrica ://www.d tion fab.arch.ethz.

ch/web/e/fors

SAND BAGS The project – a kind of bio-architectural test-landscape – would thus "go from a balloon-like pneumatic structure filled with bacillus pasteurii, which would then be released into the sand and allowed to solidify the same into a permacultural architecture." Different types of construction methods involving pile systems that could probably be used to get the bacteria down into the sand – a procedure that would be analogous to using an oversized 3D printer, solidifying parts of the dune as needed. The piles would be pushed through the dune surface and a first layer of bacteria spread out, solidifying an initial surface within the dune. They would then be pulled up, creating almost any conceivable (structurally sound) surface along their way, with the loose sand acting as a jig before being excavated to create the necessary voids. If we allow ourselves to dream, we could even fantasise about ways in which the wind could do a lot of this work for us: solidifying parts of the surface to force the grains of sand to align in certain patterns, certain shapes, having the wind blow out our voids, creating a structure that would change and change again over the course of a decade, a century, a millenium. INFLATING WITH SAND PNEUMATIC ARCHITECTURE

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ht Assembled Architecture, 2011-2012, FR ht Assembled AC Architecture is the first arch Centre Orléans ying robots, fr itectural instal ee from the to lation assembl uch of human ession of a rigo ed hands. The in rous architec st allation is an tural design by nary robotic sy Gramazio & K stem by Raffa ohler and a ello D’Andrea. sts of over 1.50 Flight Assem 0 modules whi bl ed Architectur ch are placed opters, collab e by a multitude orating accord of quadrotor ing to mathem l design data atical algorith to the behavior ms that transl of the flying m es, together, ate achines. In th extend themse is way, the flyi lves as “living” ete the compo ng architectural sition from th machines and eir dynamic fo ng performan rmation of mov ce. Within the ement and build, an arch al village” for itectural vision 30’000 inhabi of tants unfolds a 600m high founded villag as model in 1: e is located in 100 scale. Th the rural area ting TGV conn is of Meuse, taki ection that br ng advantage ings its inhabi is from this qu of tants to Paris est of an “ide in less than on al” self-susta a radical new e ining habitat way of thinking that the author and materializ ght Assembled s ing verticality Architecture. in architec-

BACTERIA AS GLUE Case study: Dune, Magnus Larsson

(http://www.magnuslarsson.com/architecture/dune.asp)

A particular microorganism, Bacillus Pasteurii, is flushed through the dunescape (an analogy could be made to an oversized 3d printer), which causes a biological reaction that turns the sand into solid sandstone. The initial reactions finish within 24 hours; it would take about a week to saturate the sand enough to make the structure habitable. The bacteria are non-patogenic and die in the process of solidifying the sand. This part of the project relies upon research carried out by professor Jason De Jong's team at the Soil Interactions Laboratory, UC Davis SI, SILICON +

FE, IRON MG, MAGNESIUM CA, CALCIUM 0, OXYGEN CA, CALCIUM S, SULFUR

+ SUN LIGHTING WIND RADIATION WATER BACTERIA

= ???


AGENDA Harnessing dust storms and suspended sand particles to create local building material on Mars, through a combination of low technology (wind movement) and advanced material science, to create a landscape of infrastructural entities.

ORIGAMI ARCHITECTURE = MODULAR SYSTEM + DEPLOYABLE STRUCTURE + PNEUMATIC SKIN

In a intermediate stage of human exploration on Mars, where few small research base have already been set up in anticipation of a larger human colony on Mars. More infrastructure will have to be built to increase habitable space, without adding to the ever increasing pay load. An infrastructural system for the production of local built materials will have to be set up. Large structure need not always require specific ground preparation, a combination of deployable installations, robotics assembly, working with natural elements can yield quick results.

The foundation of the base does not require terrain leveling, instead the base structure strengthen over time as sand and dust composite deposits on it, until it reaches a certain stiffness and stability for human inhabitation.

SAND + DEPOSITION = SHELTER + LANDSCAPE The structures are deployed and are allowed to grow for an appropriate amount of time before it gains sufficient stiffness and insulating factor for human occupany. In this interim period of construct, the structure will serve as temporary storm shelters for rovers and other space exploration vehicles, and also as the begining attempts at introducing human landmarks and artifacts for our navigational instincts.

SYSTEM

The proposal is based on systematic growth by algorithm. The goal is to find a sequence that is allows for universal growth in various configurations for a fixed set of modules. Each module serves as unpressurised volumes in which various functions and plug-in vehicular programs can take place . While adapting the technologies of portable architecture to the construction potential of space architecture three concepts were deemed most suitable: metal, mixed and pneumatic structures. Pneumatic architecture allows structure to be taken down easily and reconstructued at another location. The skin can also be prefabricated to suit the adherance property of sand and dust particles in Mars that determines the movement or saltation of sand. S


SYSTEM DEPLOYMENT / DEPOSITION

WIND TUNNEL TESTS

SITE & ENVIRONMENT ENDEAVOUR CRATER & DUNESCAPE ENDEAVOUR IS AN IMPACT CRATER LOCATED IN MERIDIANI PLANUM ON MARS. DIAMETER: 22KM, DEPTH: 300M

MORE THAN 10% OF THE SURFACE AREA ON MARS IS COVERED BY WINDBLOWN SAND DUNES. IN 2008 SAND DUNES WAS REPORTED TO BE ACTIVE ON MARS.

Ideal location will in in the equatorial tropics where there will be maximum insolation even during dust storms (20-40 cal/cm2).

Studies shown that two 20m wide dome dune disappeared and a thrid shrank by 15%, though larger dunes did not show apparant change

Sand storms are inextricably tied to the micro climate and temperatures on Mar. While it could be that sand storm occurs because of a rise in temperature (variance), it could also be that the sand in the atmosphere itself becomes an insulating agent that triggers the

Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) images of sand dunes on Mars (courtesy of NASA/JPL/MSSS). L-R: a. Barchan dunes at Arkhangelsky crater, near 41.0◦S, 25.0◦ W; b. north polar dunes near 77.6◦N, 103.6◦ W; bimodal sand dunes near c. 48.6◦S, 25.5◦ W; d. 49.6◦S, 352.9◦ W, and e. 76.4◦N, 272.9◦W.


M SERIES SHELTER

DEPLOYABLE RAPID ASSEMBLY SHELTERS (MARTIAN) FOO YU YU DOLLY

ABOUT

Single exterior cover DRASH Series Shelters provide emergency response personnel with a variety of rapidly-deployable, rugged, lightweight, man-portable and userfriendly soft-walled shelters. Deployed or taken down by only 2 - 4 personnel within a matter of minutes without the need for special tools or dealing with loose parts, the shelter design is based on the the folding patterns of origami science. DRASH is a free-standing, selfsupporting structure that requires no power or air to erect. Additionally, there are no obstructions such as center poles or locking devices needed to keep the shelter erect. The frame of the Shelter is manufactured from reinforced Mylar速 and Titanite速, a rugged and durable aerospace material, with a flex strength 270% greater than that of aluminum, giving the DRASH Shelter the ability to withstand dust storms, solar radiation and the harsh Martian environment. Kit of Parts(K.O.P): Each shelter comes with a retainer/housing case, repair kit, Velcro belt, wind lines and a steel pin stake set.

ITERATIONS Shelter Model: Exterior Dimensions: AD2SEVA AD3SEVA AD4SEVA AD5SEVA AD6SEVA AD2SEVB AD3SEVB AD4SEVB AD5SEVB AD6SEVB

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

x x x x x x x x x x

10 15 20 25 30 8 12 15 20 20

x x x x x x x x x x

14 14 10 10 10 10 10 10 12 14

(W x L x H)

Interior Dimensions : 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

x x x x x x x x x x

10 15 20 25 30 8 12 16 20 24

x x x x x x x x x x

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

Weight (kg): 40 50 56 50 65 40 40 50 60 65


THE SITUATION... SUIT UP GUYS!!

HOUSTON, WE’VE GOT A PROBLEM...

and get

IT’S LITERALLY A

DRASH

MICROMETEORITE!

out of the bag.

WE SURE GOT LUCKY...

We’re sending Beetle 2 over to take a look.

S.O.P

Darn those dust devils !

!!!

HOUSTON, WE’RE LOSING PRESSURE IN HERE!

uh-oh.

WHAT IS

Okay, you two set up the shelter, I’ll be inspecting the damage.

?

THE VEHICLE (SEV) On planetary surfaces, astronauts will need surface mobility to explore multiple sites across the lunar and Martian surfaces. The SEV surface concept has the small, pressurized cabin mounted on a wheeled chassis that would enable a mobile form of exploration. These two components could be delivered to the planetary surface together, or as separate elements. The SEV can provide the astronauts’ main mode of transportation, and – unlike the unpressurized Apollo lunar rover – also allow them to go on long excursions without the restrictions imposed by spacesuits. The pressurized cabin has a suitport that allows the crew to get into their spacesuits and out of the vehicle faster than before, enabling multiple, short spacewalks as an alternative to one long spacewalk. FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS • PASSENGER CAPACITY: Crew of 2, up to 4 in emergencies • MOBILITY: Up to 10km/ hour, mobility chassis wheel able to pivot 360º, allowing it to drive in any direction SPECIFICATIONS: Weight: 3,000 kg Payload: 997 kg Length: 4.48 m Height: 3.048 m feet

Wheelbase: 3.9 m Wheels: 4.7x 1 m in diameter, 0.3 m wide

1 Suitports: Allow suit donning and vehicle egress in less than 10 minutes with minimal gas loss. 8

2 Pressurized Rover: Low-mass, low-volume design makes it possible to have two vehicles on a planetary lunar surface, greatly extending the range of safe exploration.

5

6

3 Chariot Style Aft Driving Station: Enables crew to drive rover while conducting moonwalks.

9

4 Pivoting Wheels:

Enables crab-style driving for docking and maneuvering on steep terrain.

Sequence of structural components of SEV

45.72 cm

1.3 Nm 20°

1.3 Nm 150°

12.7

33.02 cm 81.3 cm

Optimum one-handed work envelope. 66.04 cm diagonally

1.3 Nm 150°

4.5 Nm 180° Shoulder flexion/extension

Shoulder adduction/ abduction 140.97 cm

Shoulder movement (lateral-medial)

SEV TYPE A

Max 66 cm

Mobility range measured in: Torque (Nm) and Angle of motion (degrees)

DIM: (WxLxH) 4 x 4.5 x 3m

Optimum two-handed work envelope 40.64 cm diagonally

58.4 cm

12.4 Nm 150°

0.68 Nm 180° Forearm mobility and wrist rotation

53 cm

Waist mobility side to side rotation

18

1.3 Nm 130° Elbow flexion/extension

15°

Working range A

capacity: 2 person, in emergency; 4 person SEV TYPE A

B

Superior (70° ) Max 84.8 cm Superior Temporal (62° )

1.3 Nm 40°

5 Docking Hatch: 8 Suit Portable Allows crew members to Life Support move fr om the rover to a System habitat, an ascent module Reduces mass, or another rover. cost, volume and complexity. 6 Ice-shielded Lock / 9 Fusible Heat Sink: Lock surrounded by 2.5 cm of frozen water provides radiation protection. Same ice is used as a fusible heat sink, rejecting heat energ y by melting ice instead of evaporating water to vacuum. 7 Work Package Interface: Allows attachment of modular work packages (e.g. winch, cable, backhoe or crane).

The Space Exploration Vehicle Characteristics (Surface Concept)

137.16 cm

B BA A A A M M M M

1. Phone Mission Control 2. Check IMV meter 3. Await instructions

1.3 Nm 40°

Ankle extension (A) and flexion (B)

2.7 Nm 10° Hip abduction (leg straight)

5.4 Nm 90° Hip and waist flexion/extension Average 191.9 cm

Temporal (85° )

Inferior Temporal (85° )

1.3 Nm 150°

2.7 Nm 70°

Knee flexion: kneeling

Hip flexion

1.3 Nm 120°

Inferior (70° )

Knee mobility: flexion standing

Field of view

The Astronaut Scale

Dimensions

DIM: (WxLxH) 4 x 8 x 3m capacity: 4 person, in emergency; 6 person

Modular Design: Pressurized Rover and chassis may be deliver on separate landers or pre-integrated on one lander.


HOW TO USE YOUR DRASH SHELTER

A

curtain track and storage for airbag sub-assembly

B

wheels positioned at maximum width

BASE GRID (1m x 1m):

20 x 14

PLAN

1:100

FLOOR PLAN

1:100

ROOF PLAN

1:100

FOLDING PATTERN

20% <core>

life-support

75%

DEPLOYMENT PROCESS: SET-UP PACKING

<ancillary>

800

FUNCTIONAL PLAN

4 500

500

500

500

2000 thickness

500

adaptive functions


20% <core>

life-support

75%

<ancillary>

DEPLOYMENT PROCESS

FOLDING PATTERN

20 x 14

PLAN

1:100

FLOOR PLAN

1:100

ROOF PLAN

FUNCTIONAL PLAN

1:100 800

BASE GRID (1m x 1m):

4 500

PACKING

500

500

500

2000 thickness

500

adaptive functions


DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR INFLATED / PRESSURISED SPACES

1 3

AIR LOCK / ACCESS

Airlocks are required at entrances to prevent loss of internal air-pressure. Eg. revolving door, airlock portals, zippers, Velcro. When using a double wall construction; one doesn't need a proper door.

MEMBRANE/ MATERIALITY

The skin of pneumatic system determines much spatial quality of the construct. In responding to environmental demands, and by integrating material technologies, one can look for qualities like scales in translucency or elasticity. Materials can be highfrequency sealed, glued or just stitched. Other qualities are; non static, lightweight, strong, resistant to tearing, self-repairing. Considerations are made to use microfibers, nonwovens, woven vecram (used in the space industry), metallic foils, plastic films.

2

MYLAR

7

4

ANCHORING

> Ballast > Earth/Water Ballast Anchorage Syste > Sandbags > Ground Anchorage System > Surface Ground Anchors > Underground Anchors 1_Architects of air’s anchorage by pins 800mm x 25mm diameter. 2_Ballast anchorage usually takes the form of sandbags or concrete blocks in units of 125k, to come to a total weight from 5 - 12 tons

INFLATABLES IN SPACE Radar RelfectiveSpheres [5]

5

6

These radar calibration reflector spheres have been manufactured since the very earliest days of Raven Industries and Aerostar International still manufactures them today.

8

Mars Pathfinder [8]

The Mars Pathfinder airbag system was designed to protect the lander regardless of its orientation upon impact with the surface of the planet. The system also was designed to handle lateral movement as well as vertical descent. The huge, multi-lobed air bags, which will envelope and protect the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft before it impacts the surface of Mars. The air bags are composed of four large bags with six smaller, interconnected spheres within each bag. The bags measure 5 m tall and about 5 m in diameter. As Pathfinder is descending to the Martian surface on a parachute, an onboard altimeter inside the lander will monitor its distance from the ground. The computer will inflate these large air bags about 100 meters above the surface of Mars.

INFLATED SPACES - Spaces measuring the physical body as a co-structure in its inflated surrounding membrane

Reinf. cable w/ thimble & swaged sleeve end anchor shackle

membrane liner

bent strap or rod in concrete

Inflatable Antenna [7]

Credit: STS-77 Crew, Space Shuttle Endeavor, NASA, 1996 The Inflatable Antenna Experiment was as part of a Spartan satellite. The antenna is roughly the size of a tennis court and is even visible from Earth. The function of an antenna is to broadcast radio messages, and the large dish at the end helps focus radio waves into a narrow beam which can be detected over long distances.

steel angle

9

removable expansion anchor (for temporary installation)h

Typical anchor detail

10

TransHab/ Space Hotel [6]

Bigelow Aerospace’s inflatable Space Station continues the work on expandable space habitation of the TransHab Successfully verifying Bigelow Aerospace’s proprietary folding and packing techniques.

STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR [10] Pressurised Construction

Pneumatic Constr.

Dual

Air Controlled

Walled

Air Supported Rib

Structures

Air Inflated Hybrid Struc-

OTHER ST RUC T

HEMPLANET INFLATED RIB STRUCTURE A framework of pressurised tubes which supports a  weatherproof membrane in tension. [Thermosplastic polyurethane TPU bladder to keep the air inside and a polyester-laminated fabric outer jacker for protection and stability].

ORMS AL F UR

Air Stabilised

Cables and nets divide the membrane into a number of small elements, with small radii of curvature (when pressurised, thus reducing membrane stresses. A major portion of the stresses is transferred to the netting when the membrane presses against the net under the influence of the internal pressure. Large spans can be achieved with thin transparent membranes.

Total Pneumatic Hybrid

Partial Pneumatic Hybrid

`

FOLDING/PACKING [11] Air Bag Technology

In asembling the airbag/cover, the airbag is initially prefolded to a predetermined configuration outside the cover. The prefolded air bag is then inserted as a unit into the cavity defined within the cover.

11

Origami


004_Studio AAD  

Studio AAD, 2012 NASA, Mars Habitat Extreme Environments and Future Landscape: Master Course in Architectural Design, LUNDS UNIVERSITET C...