Page 1


DRAWING FOR

ART

STUDENTS

ILLUSTRATORS

AND

BY

W.

ALLEN

SEABY

LONDON B.

T.

BATSFORD,

LTD.,

:

94,

HIGH

HOLBORN.


PRINTED

BY

"

HIGHAM

JOHN

HYDE,

MANCHESTER.

COY.

LTD,


PREFACE.

the

In

students,

ruthlessly

first

place

past

and

than

rather

shining I

Next

I

in

untidy

yery

for

Hartrick,

R.W.S.,

life

Paris

for

R.E.,

Dorothy

which

H.

Mr.

Edith

(figs.

only

21

18,

28

and

a),

Mr.

Miss

for intended

to

serve

two

44),

and C.

and

S.

A.

Lumsden, Miss

Pearce

C.

Forbes

Agnes

drawings

various

a

Pearce, Mr.

S.

E.

Mr.

(fig. 43),

Hampton

C.

reproduce

(figs. 31

as

reading

thank

to

25A),

and

i6

for

also me

I

teaching,

C.

Mr.

I must

my

whom

to

line.

Morley

and

drawings

students

are

will, I

to

his

expressive

allowing

(figs.

Johnston

other

and

Prof.

several

(fig. 12),

of

use

for

for

especially

suggestions.

studies

so

examples

Fletcher,

Morley

manuscript,

A.R.B.A.,

horrid

as

my

have

I

They

purpose. up

to

acknowledgments

F.

the

thank

to

apologies failings

them

my

and

art,

it, of

have

own

holding

Mr.

friend,

I understand

whose

my

tender

everything

owe

humble

lights.

must

and

master

for

for

me

offer

must

present,

exploited

pardon

trust,

I

sketches

indications

as

of

method. thanks

My of

the

Mr.

W. The

diagrams

Holbein

the and

authorities,

line with

blocks, no

as

pretence

John for

Castle,

B.

W. to

consent

Hon

the

to

drawings, Mr.

to

Coats'

A.

due Windsor

Library,

Royal

reproduce

also

are

use

be

can

to

to

the

Paterson, his seen,

permission

British who

Crawhall are

Fortescue,

mere

draughtsmanship.

to

Museum obtained

drawing. scribbled


Lastly,

in

necessarily this

know,

is

not

be

a

certain

matters

for need

this

as

of

amount

bad

altogether

important

planned

book

a

the

;

than

A.

College,

University Reading.

April,

192

1.

there

repetition.

student

more

is,

as

one

W.

must

Perhaps all

teachers

telling. SEABY.


CONTENTS.


XX.

DRAWING

AS

A

PREPARATION

FOR

PAINTING

XXI.

XXII.

XXIII.

140

CONVENTION

151

DRAWING

THE

FOR

DRAWINGS

161

ILLUSTRATORS

OF

THE

MASTERS

i66


CHAPTER

I.

INTRODUCTION.

In

these the of

shape

the

with

that

long

no

there

is

a

the

upon

call

it

road

not

counter

of

art

himself

putting

teaching,

for

a

to

fee

him to

show,

one

teacher's

his

in

regarding

ready

be

from

as

cut

off

say,

one

a

small

how

Ingres, faculty,

or

of

a

searched

the

hands

tricks

by rather

student

with

fidence, con-

behind

standing snip

but

and for

whom

mere

"tips,"

training,

severe

insist

classical

the

trick,

series

that

to

power

a

It must

learned

and

Velasquez,

as

all, by

at

every

implication

the

conjuring

a

effort. and

up,

not

to

in

technical

learned

be if

visual

picked

trusts,

to

is

teaching

necessary

Holbein,

in

sees

necessary,

it becomes

This

will,

we

with

the and

one

draughtsmanship by

acquired,

intellectual than

of

when

employment

is

in

poster

correspondence

study

cerning con-

future,

near

etc.,

course,"

art

art,

Degas.

what

be

to

understood

sleight-of-hand must

in

importance

and

Menzel,

of

the

made

are

designing,

remunerative

training

royal

as

sense,

of

"completes

who

the

costume

campaign

great

promise

student

in

illustration,

work, a

prophecies

required and

pattern

press

daily

work

art

advertisement the

when

days,

of with

the a

a

fabric water


DRAWING

2

colour

brush

When

the

FOR

student

has

of art, he

refinements

of

who

a

charlatan, the

he

how

arrived

pretty face.

some

measure

of the all the

into his service

will press

he

dodges and

acquire from

can

The

manipulative processes

study, and

a

as

is made

attempt

an

emphasize the importance of a student-like of mind, and a wise docility in carrying out in themselves

draughtsman

attitude

readers

cavil

emotional

such

at

side

of art

is

rightlyso, yet it is all shall be absolutelythe possess

and

well

the souls

term

a

insisted

the

and

upon,

that the

necessary

more

artist

of his instrument, if he

master

in

if

"tasks," for though

as

of his listeners.

study is necessary

not

should

Nor

equipped.

now-a-days

the

tasks

interesting,but necessary

very

is to be

them

in

to

perhaps

with

concerned

followingchapters,therefore,are

drawing

to

more

command.

can

the

any

is the

that, he

him, but without

more

a

draw

to

at

technique which

teach

can

STUDENTS.

performed, or

are

knowledge one

ART

And

if this

music, still more

is it in

is

striving pictorial

art.

On

the

other

proceed without notion

still

students

But

a

further or

If the

the

the

active

when

be

made the

interest

loses

particular drawing work

will resolve

stippling,mere study has been

drawing

of the is

a

itself into

The

discipline,that they do and

its interest

is better

cannot

pupil.

'do it because

to

eye

of

study

lingersthat drawing

should

like it.

hand

laid

not

acity, pertin-

aside,

for

ing tinkering,embroider-

occupation without observation. made on right lines, if placing,

and proportion, movement grappled with, the drawing

construction has

earned

its

have

place

been in

the


INTRODUCTION.

3

Stairwayof art study, for it has raised the student a step above his previous attempts. A real responsibility rests on

the student, who

he

take

can

much

him

to

drawing; this

some

shut

who

searched

teacher

art

and

far do

can

example.

even

to

himself

his powers his

how

recognise the necessity of of observation and expressionin any artists have only forced themselves slow

long after their school

Degas,

the

by exhortation

Many students are testingtheir powers one

for himself

ascertain

drawing, though

a

help

to

should

days

were

for

up

of observation

exquisitelyfinished

two to

as

over,

witness

while

years

the utmost

picturesof

he

in producing

Paris

street

life. After to

the

some

writer

experience of teaching drawing it that

certain

essentials

of

study,

not

seems

only

ment drawing, but in all art are : (i)the developof proportion,and of the sense by this is meant ing than getting one's measurements more right,but a feelfor good proportions,such as is generally admitted innate in the Italians to a higher degree than in the was lies at hand, for the northern peoples, and the reason

perhaps

former

in

never

while

formed

their

"

lost touch the

with

the

architecture

environment,

of portion, prosculpture,which

classic and

showed

canons

them

proportion

(2) Hardly less important is the qualityof of being oneself, of not apeing another's style. sincerity, Art Students, from their very temperament, are quickly embodied.

impressed,not least by the work of the cleverer students. of of their master Later or on they follow the manner in this up There harm artists they admire. is not much built indeed art tradition has been to a certain point,and


DRAWING

4

in

up with

such

some

character

work

and

follow

to

this

for

and

As

for

teacher

not

after,the work

years

that

and

elusive

students

to

things his

of

which

is

consciously. few,

a

pupil is

what

extent

a

From

way.

work,

to

quality. But

in his

himself

and

of his calculations, former

a

own

for

only

comes

student

the

showing

art

be striven

it out

rare

some

hand

other

quality in

a

to

leave

to

do

to

"style,"that

has

the

others, will feel within

his bent,

spontaneous,

STUDENTS.

while individuality,

character,

comes

ART

On

way.

admiration

wish

FOR

if

happy

to

seen

possess one's show

can

one

art

an

in

style means

drawing;

the

rhythmical line of Botticelli,Ingres and the Oriental the veracity and masters, clarity of Holbein, the

drawing

structural

Certainly every drawings by

school

masters,

frighten students, but

to

of Durer, to

or

only

name

should

have

instil into their minds

the

of

in order

not

they should

that

masters.

reproductions

early and modern, even

few

a

them,

copy

qualitiesthat

to

the

best

drawings possess. The better at

has

student

should

the actual still,

Oxford

and

study such He

will

rhythm peculiarto himself, rhythm, such as the marshalling of in

pyramidal or

group,

or a

Hundred wave-like

effort

to

line

in the

Japanese masters;

but

him

by by

print, with

similarly conscious

which his

we

a

as

seen

sub-conscious

know

the artist

handwriting.

The

master

conscious as

masses

to

of

accent,

all

a

leading

calligraphicflow or

the

Guilder

forms,

only

or

Museum,

that each

see

not

a

Rembrandt's

British

in the

drawings

elsewhere.

reproductions,

we

see

their

the central achieve

Chinese

a

and

rhythmical stroke as

we

ample

might curves

nise recogof


INTRODUCTION.

Rubens,

the sweet

rhythm

of

be

as

this

rhythmical

he

or

mannered

of

movement

the student

should

acquire not

may

drawings,

of

forms

cut

square

in his brush

seen

taught, and

for it,

of Guercino, the staccato

flowing line Fragonard, the

Rembrandt, But

S

examples.

are

the

hand

cannot

consciouslystrive rhythm, but merely a not

touch.

but Composition has been dealt with incidentally, this is a subjectwhich full treatment, while the demands In with how to draw. following chaptersare concerned position practice,however, the two are interwoven, and as comcomprehends all the subjects of art study it stands easily first, and should be given a corresponding

positionin Too

curriculum.

art

any

long has

the

imitation, whereas involves for

attention

it fixes the

the movement have It

to

;

do

concerned

teaching been

art

first stroke

the

dimensions, determines much

so

with

imitation

through composition and well enough, while the student

mainly

but copy The the

opening

writer

advocate

happens

is

the

that he

it be

road, that ideas

drawing

studies

art

subjects will does nothing

allied who

of his art.

those

in

that

show

authority

who

effort

as

against slick sketching.

had

to

deal

has

from

with

abroad,

art

students

and

of but

It

from few

they had been put upon the right proportion,of construction, and of

that of

of

side

Britain, and said

who

of this introduction

sentences

on

kernel

the very

sustained

all parts of could

miss

may

a

composition.

as

might be put this way, that the student

draw

paper

placing and

the first steps of

in other words

not

of

sheet

a

mere

things. It implies a choice,

other

to

on

with


DRAWING

6

had

movement

he

of

called

how

to

inculcated.

This

medals

which

in the own

is

serious

the

end, for students of

work

course

and

will

plainest speaking

only

his

what

sort

great

part of the truth lies in this,that the teacher

of

of

more

anxious

for the

that

student A

steps. may

lose

a

"pulled

out

to

dodges

appear

successful should

the

learning and

better

received.

than

of

Perhaps

the

be

because

tinkered

draw

it is.

wrong

into

during

badly, for

to

shape,

the attach

making

a

more

work

for the student's

be

fire," yet

of

a

be

may

pupil,

of the

completion

contrivances than

clearly enough

proceed by logical and

may

to

shows

have

abandoned

drawing of

work

drawing

medal, but it may

a

is

the

study

for while

student

their

teaching they

thinking the

but

the

"good" drawing

from

pupils,

their

in

free.

command

can

of

cruelty

is

that

seeing

them

of

kindness

wrapped

so

of

way

shake

teacher

no

often

are

draw,

number

faithfulness

criticize with

to

his

hand, tricky

The

right.

matter

been

brilliant

no

the other

on

or,

to

more

and

matter,

ing, draw-

by

taught

the

to

what

not

shows

been

not

force

equal

a

put

fears

manner

Of

has

for overworked, will

drawings,

he

ing teach-

a

stages, have

student

the

that

with

applies

students.

heart

often

the

about

set

to

the successive

out

attempts

this

^how

"

that

clearness, that

in

wanting

them, and

upon

conclusion

the

to

rudiments

Too

muddling

gold

the

carry

STUDENTS.

ART

steadfastlypressed

is often

drawing

be

and

been

reluctantlycome

has

may

FOR

than

artistic method

welfare, may

process

be the

importance bad

drawing


CHAPTER

THE

For

good

BIAS

apprenticeship science of

judged

fresh

of

lease

life

Impressionists fetters

yet

That is

is

necessarily

art

student

who

has

which

by an

it of

the

infant's

evidently the

brightly

eye

eyes

notices and

coloured

one

here

visual a

head.

objects

A

as

a

Post-

perspective

Art

the

in

at

and

by

later to

the

order

to

experience it be

as

Shortly

marked

street

in In

far

the

once

appearances

as

presented

School

the

in

brother

reality

little

the

the

sensations.

light

its

gave

as

used.

observe

may

is

as

and

his

between

study

art.

for

is

term

that

as

or

form

with

the

tion representa-

standards,

appearances,

contempt

relation

the

of

study

company

the

the

it, riveted

upon

absolute

an

establish

gained

based

parts

in

sense

the

say,

practical

erroneous

subject,

an

When

field

same

pictorial

on

from

and

eye

the

put

firmly

to

the

human

to

would

more

reflections

by

gave

workshop.

or

Photography,

perspective,

perspective

distinct

as

studio

occupies

Drawing.

of

study,

art

include it

VISION.

invention

the

to

shadows,

call

we

to

in

is held

OF

ill the

or

impetus

enormous

II.

ible poss-

after

the

it

tries

it

(as

birth

movement to

the

reach

saying


FOR

DRAWING

8

ART

is, it cries for the moon), and tentative in

uncertain

and

If with

from

one

table, the

the

for difficulty, the

exact

small will

adult

with

this

distance

the

how

it has difficulty positionof the object. objects are picked up

the exact

closed

eye

will note

the observer

its efforts,the

are

reaching with its hand

STUDENTS.

it is not

handicap hand

infant's

appreciate the

has

travel

to

estimate

to

easy

to

the

grasp

object. The

child has

continue

its

investigations. It hurts itself by knocking against objects,or falling them, until by dint of practiceand sad experience it over has become called what be at a quite early age may "distance perfect." It has learned to look into space as

the

the

measuring preservation of life,and

waking

our

things the actual Hence

caused

for

are more

knowledge From

moments.

Hence

drawings, nearer

with

is

the

being

shade,

a

apparent

of

not

colour

changes of

confound

to

for

these in life

by the

substance.

sense,

finds that all like the

too

the circle,and

positionof Again, every art the

used

appearance

contempt

change

distance, and

determination

the teacher in

to

is reconstructed.

or

the

space.

essential

is

foreshortening. To the non-artist illusions,deceptions making the daily walk difficult perhaps, but easilyto be overcome

"shadow"

than

the

at

to

wariness, by the

are

looking

distances

light and

by shadows owing

of

Philistine, sub-conscious

a

appearances,

form

artist's way

of

power

throughout of

with

compared

This

perforceto

the

beginners make their object; their ellipses

their horizontal

surfaces

wider,

object warrants.

teacher

knows

that in

a

junior class


THE

BIAS

OF

VISION.

practisingobjectdrawing, there where the pupil has not drawn it from where object as he sees if he

appear

of

drawings

in another

were

object may

an

yet made

appearance, In this

the

found

students

of

the

it would

as

Sometimes

almost

several

two

identical

in

feet apart.

evidentlyexpended projectinghimself into

has

in thus

energy

is, but

case

one

appearance

he

the student, who

case

intellectual

some

will be at least

position. be

by

9

imaginary position,does so because he feels that the view he actuallyhas would give but an imperfect idea of the shape and function of the object,and this gives the an

clue

to

so-called

Egyptian symbol shoulders The

in

of

front

houses,

eye, a

nose

house

a

in

same

mouth

illustrator

less in

pictureamong

same

than

height

In

himself.

depict a profileview and

all these

his

causes

often

add

well, or they depict both

drawing.

one

The

the profile, the legs again in profile. the king twice the size of

of the eye, as

work. in

the head

in the

times

reason,

front view

and

makes

etc., rather

trees,

Children, for the face with

and

in old

see

the mediaeval

several

appear

we

shows

man

bas-relief

Assyrian to

a

view

his attendants, while hero

that

errors

cases

of

a

another ends

of

appearance

ignored. The delineator is obsessed by realities,and of is occupied in presentingthe largest possiblecontent the objectsdepicted. pupil is Similarly,if an object with which a young is

familiar,such

as

a

kitchen

bellows, is laid

upon

the table

drawing lesson, the apparent change of shape due to foreshadowing is apt to be ignored,with in plan,with the result that a view is given of the bellows students The the side view tacked it were. see by as on as

an

exercise

in the


DRAWING

10

a

and

a

imaginary positionenables ing drawvisualize to easily. Such objects more be called wrong an cannot early, ; it merely denotes in these days of realism and photographic vision, an

bird's eye them

STUDENTS.

ART

vision, the ground plans of objectsas

of mental

kind

FOR

view, because

inconvenient

that the lines

sense

follow, for these

may

being concerned of

be

art, the

intricate

making

hard

to

rather

a

the

students,

and

the modern

latter still

or

easiest, but

teacher

with

culty question of diffi-

a

are

of the

between

misunderstanding aspect

It is not

convention.

in the

former

that

sophisticated

or

of traditional

use

conventions. And

indeed before

came

treated alive

of the

vase

and

painters of was

lightand

shade

had

been

cite the

the

the

detailed

quattrocento.

artistic,and

Consideration

might

illuminators, Chinese

representation as enables

periods of greatest charm

splendidly characteristic animals of the Egyptians, the forms with their linear purity,the earlywork

mediaeval

drawing, ,vision

perspective and

scientifically.One

and

Greek

the historic art

triumphed

Japanese

the

naturalistic

all these

periods the

of

vision In

and

over

inconsistencies

of

judged by later standards. of this deference

to

the claims

of

reality

appreciatethe difficulties his students have in grappling with the figure. Beginners the head make too large for the body, the face too big for the skull ; the hair like stringor wire, pre-occupied as which be compassed on cannot a they are with realities, Their vision may be said to be anthropoplane surface. morphic, for they regard everything from the human of standpoint. A house at the end of a long avenue the

art

teacher

to


THE

BIAS

trees, for instance, is it appears,

because

OF

VISION.

likelyto

ii

be drawn

it is the home

much

of man,

largerthan

and

such

as

is

unconsciously emphasized. In this connexion

sucH

beings

all have of

means a

children

old

with

the

symbols but

with

of what

the

an

How

for

but

by

draw

to

and

hide

often or

ready-

draw,

as

the

fog

or

biassed

which,

ago

by

drawing practicethese

by

what

not

this subconscious

it were,

simultaneouslywith

eye

they

their vision

them.

sub-conscious

image plays strange pranks

Sometimes

drawing.

drawing,

immediate

an

re-appear,

long

no

questions freely asked

are

object coloured of

in

are

early childhood,

the students, who

inner

is before

This

in

expectation of

image behold

that there

recipes or symbols.

images

or

before

they see,

noted

In later stages of

answer.

object set

the

draw

to

horse, tree, etc.,

man,

made

taught

series of

a

be

pupils totallyuntrained

as

been

it may

the

student

substitutes

with his

physical proportionsfor those of the be the features of the model, or may previous sitter the drawing. on appear Students' an figure drawings often betray to amusing extent the type they fancy in the opposite sex, is the while inabilityto portray equally common own

an

features

alien

transformed one

looks of

and

racial

type.

The

usual

Italian

model

square-profiledEnglishman. students' for it,"the English look" on is quite ludicrous. foreign models into

a

an physiognomy of even absolutelydifferentiated

allied from

race

like the

that of the

is

When ings draw-

Dutch

The is

English type.


DRAWING

12

concentrated

Much

needed.

it

himself

with

consider

quick

to

before,

and

alter

would

Apart

hasten

lay

a

the

proportion

and

students

outside

people,

young

and

visualize other

illusions

things

from other

of as

teacher's

exuberant

in

artists

youth

they

dealing

care,

than

words

are.

the

already this

often

from

they what

much

it, very

is

students

being;

pose

correct

to

themselves. their

freedom

Too

from

are

they they

as

figure.

from

then

in

variation

some

free

achieve

to

way

human

a

as

young

fetters

subject.

his

model

the

find

only

the

as

subordinate

himself

set

to

get,

a

and

anthropomorphic

sympathy

barely

has

to

which

in

the

forms,

race

himself

intrenched,

He

Perhaps

to.

through

In

model.

of

teach

to

personality,

own

sub-conscious,

alluded

has

impregnably

his

to

these

saw

his

is often

person

student

for

searching

and

differentiation

this

up

The outside

were,

STUDENTS.

ART

observation

make

which

accents

are

FOR

pass

with

of

construction

chief

difficulty

The

well-being

vitality,

make

it

terms

of

begin

to

from

faults

their

difficult

their see

them;

they

to

of

good for

get most

spirits them

to

personality.

own

more

is

truly at

as

length

the see


CHAPTER

III.

PROPORTION.

To

entail

endless

well

give

little

also

may

the of

that

of

head

proportion

lines,

middle

triangles, of

used

to

As

while

verticals

Mr. props

Water

or

in

and

body,

the

horizontals

Sickert

introduced

looks

at

or

in

may once

help

to

13

details

with

the

to

ing build-

the

with

a

develop rules.

by of

times

constructions

elaborate

wrote,

child

begun

number

out

yet

ing, drawa

might

the

once

of

affairs

smothered

blocking

drawing

has

towards

in

The

that

end,

which

be

as

their

affairs.

step

often

of

traces

a

commence

a

felt,

that

practice

otherwise

are

the

the

it will

teach.

to

drawing

assiduously into

measures

left

same

who

which

coached

are

the

to

citizen,

good

is

in human

proportion,

Exercises

eye.

Students

of

sense

the

sense

well

a

proportion be

of

meaning

claim

proportion contend

the

and

humanities

proportioned

made

of

early aim,

will

more

the of

sense

when

has

steady

many

for

leads

up

or

teacher's

rightly pursued,

develop

the

a

teacher

the

of

idea

some

teaching,

teachers

studies

the

be

measured,

as

The

who

student

should

proportion

art

the

give

in

volving insquares

ings scaffoldstudents

found. "There

student,

are

with

too

the


result that the The rules the

edge

of observation

may

be

same

of

rote, tend

by

Students

observation.

blunted."

is somewhat

perspective,the

of

said

hastilylearned

of which, powers

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

DRAWING

14

formal

atrophy

to

sometimes

seem

to receding parallelsare made be expected of all is done that need vanish somewhere, them, with the result that on looking at the drawing we of what has it to be merely a travesty of the forms see been placed before the eye. to

think

that

The

writer

children

class, and asked in

to

pick

showing

there

was

a

drawing

he

out

some

chorus

had

drawing

close

of the

the best

of

of dissent

when

chosen,

for

But

like the box, whereas

Of

not

it had

looked

too

drawing

placed

box

lesson

knowledge

perspective.

or

a

the

the

students

some

lesson.

before

students

the were

handed Papers were perspective rules, and

drawing.

correct

long

with

school

a

teachers, to watch

were

the

at

as

visited

once

become

trainingto Some

long

so

the writer a

the

single

showed

line

the in

was

right proportions,

the other

drawings

were

it

too

high. the student

always ascertain the proportions but the appeal to be fruitful must by measurement, be mainly to the The living model, whether eye. draped or nude, affords practice in proportion readily appreciated by students, for they know people best, and familiar with their own build and proportions. are What known are as common objects do not, to the same this,critical faculty. extent, develop in the student Most junior students calmly make extensive alterations in vases, etc., without qualms of conscience, while, any of doors, such objectsas trees make out still less appeal course

can


PROPORTION.

to

the

of

proportion,for they are assumed by the have ingly contour no or shape, and are accordand chopped about to fit them within the

sense

beginner

IS

to

hacked

limits of the paper. line as junior pupils "drawinga middle causes misproportion, the drawing invariablybeing too wide. With

Sometimes

bad bias.

hands

and

thought

are

to

be

the face too

make a

feet too

from

to

mencement com-

almost

pomorphic proportions result from the anthrothe Young students generally draw small

small, because

becoming. large for the

corresponding share But

a

On

the

head

and

hands other

because

feet

hand it

they

occupies

of their attention.

this neglectof proportion arises great extent which method, along with confused goes

a

bad

begun at the top and worked the student downwards, trustingto his luck to Hence the legs get crowded get the whole on the paper. into less than their share of the space, or the feet perhaps vision.

have

to

The

drawing

is often

be omitted.

proceeds in a random way which positivelystultifies feeling for proportion. One often sees drawings slippingoff the paper, as it were, or for so pushed to right or left,without artistic reason doing. will do much towards securing proRight methods portion. Too

often

No from

head

to

figure,every line

once

the

student

details should foot

be

drawn

establishingthe

object will

furnish

at

whole

some

but first, form.

such

found, the proportion of the parts

steadilyand

safely.

line

Every

line. can

a

This

proceed


1

FOR

DRAWING

6

of

scribble

every

of the model,

rather

contours

An

object.

figurefrom One

than

forms, without their

noting

first

it has

as

results

ing stage the draw-

looking along in the

made

be

pressive ex-

taken.

been

from

should

last

to

good proportion,and

surveying, taking

of the

mass

to

the

all the

see

foot.

to

that

long

so

detail in contour,

with

pre-occupied

of it, is

in

put it in this way,

may

want

or

that at any

early attempt head

drawing

so

far

proportion often

Bad

are

so

that the

from

line

Every

way.

workmanlike,

be

may

method,

Such

considered,

be well

should

in."

sketched

in

dashed

toes

produces a mere badly scrawled detail, cism critiin anyhow, and

by the casual remark

is countered

vicious

of

figure,full

the

features, fingersand

"only

who

by the student,

misunderstood

strangely-

is often

out"

preparation of "blocking

The

is

STUDENTS.

ART

the

making

that is, with

to

the

preparation of

necessary

directions, failure

beginners

as

good proportion

secure

is inevitable.

Obviously every

time.

The

of the

excuse

not

who

intend

draw

the

is familiar

teacher

art

student

legs, that he did

is to

corrective

one

for to

of

want

draw

whole

with

the

lying

omits

room

Such

them.

figure the

scraps

figuresdefeat one of the great aims of the study. The can figure prepared or indicated, the student then concentrate that appeals speciallyto on a passage of

him,

but

exercise or

set

is to be

of the action This

vexed

out

from

head

to

foot

of any

value

as

a

it must

study

in

be, if

the

proportion,

of the

method

question of

figure. gives the clue erasure.

One

to

the

sometimes

of the

treatment sees

a

student


PROPORTION.

rubbing

ing tryingto do so, a largeportionof a drawSuch alteration is at a comparatively late stage. of spirit, vexation and an acknowledgment of a and artistic commencement beginning. With a studentlike

mere

bad

out,

or

little or

This

the paper.

no

by requiresa

for the proportions

is necessary,

erasure

be fixed

should

on

17

the firststrokes certain firmness

the part of the teacher, and

a

self-denial

plantedupon and patience and

inhibitive

of the student, always readilyat the command who with the notion that to the study of the model comes it is possible and commendable that figure to transfer this done in For has he not seen bodily to the paper. not

power

the work

of the artists he

most

admires

?

mences Generallythe procedure is this. The beginner comthe figurein a "blocking out" of his own to draw

fashion.

Horrified

hurriedly covers thus

to

secure

over

the

at

starkness

of

his

the first lines with

likeness, with

the

result

effort, he

detail,hoping that

a

figure

less looking bonethe necessityof the stuand sawdust stuffed. Hence dent occupied learningwhat is at first alien from his thought,(prehe is with realizing the objector figurebefore as before drawing, him), that there is a stage which comes namely preparation,in which the placing on the paper, have to the proportions,and the directions of the forms be studied or analysed without reference to naturalistic students It may be safely said that many treatment. leave art study without having secured the discipline and trainingwhich rigoroussearch after a good preparation appears

represented by

alone To

some

can

contour

lines and

give. students

it is

an

objection that

these

first


1

DRAWING

8

get in the way

strokes

spoil the

out,

has

As

a

as

etc.

To

virtue

said

long

a

to

come

and

part of the

be

to

rubbed

reply that liness in drawing study. Cleanto godliness,but it next this

one

may

bi^ind.

way

disappear under if rightlyplaced are astonishingly completed study. The form comes first strokes

of fact the

matter

the later work, useful

drawing",have

minor

a

been

certainlylags

of the

paper,

is but

neatness

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

perhaps just outside or inside the first line. In the work his line and his detail all draws of the genius (?) who in knotty swollen "at one contours, go," the result is seen mere exaggerationsof the form. Students

often

They thus their

which

upon

to

soilingtheir drawing. fying to draw piecemeal, stulticompel themselves able feelingfor proportion,and losingthe inestim-

their hands

rest

of paper

sheet

a

use

in order

avoid

to

advantage of seeing the whole

of their work

all the

time.

Many poses, especiallywhere the figure is seated or struction reclining, suggest a simple pyramidal or triangularconsuch

triangleare

shown

as

in

fig.

If the sides

i.

rightin direction,which

to

the lines

that formed

with

the paper,

on

by the

are

correct.

the

drawing being at

the mind attention

As

far

can

as

be

pose,

This

then and

the

enables

without rest

as

given

the

hesitation

regards the to

the

easilyascertained model and comparing the triangleis similar

by holding the pencil againstthe with

of

is

fore proportions therestudent

and

to

proceed

embarrassment

;

first lines undivided

construction

possible drawings should

and

be

artistic

made

pression. ex-

sight


'^~:-^SsJ ._.'i-^rS

Fig.

I

"

\vho3c proportions are reclining figures contained them in by assuming triangles.

Sketches of seated ascertained

:,:"*.

or

'9

easily


-s

f=


PROPORTION.

that

size, before

the

he

as

size

of

model.

the

student

and for

the

a

tracing

Faults

in

on

works, the details

general

he

a

than

the

scale

that

tend

towards

proportions

sight of

the

in

occur

size,

sight with

size,

drawing.

which of

proportions

the

held

glass

often

larger forgets

result

of

pane

proportion

somewhat

with

started,

extremities small

the

commenced

drawings for

is

21

that

is

his

too


IV.

CHAPTER

FORMS.

TYPE

Young

class,

from

emancipation

in

No

drawing.

effect;

They

have,

however,

of

representation

relation

with

the

attention

be

below

trouble.

has

they

say

form

sinuous

on

paid

and

apply

to

is

model's may

the

head

is

of are

but

receding to

unless

its

student

is

level

a

on

muster,

perspective, law

the

to

objects.

drawn,

pass

features

the

equally

inanimate

face

of

principles

the

appreciated,

the

the

then

if

that

drawing

been

observed

learn

the be

If

the

above,

or

be

level

eye

student's,

no

must

cylinders,

eyes

and

form time

every

the

have

to

to

living

example, with

certain

and

our

invariable,

are

appearance

For

feast

now

and

modelling.

subtle

and

shall

we

their

on

perspective

of

cubes

more

life

or

themselves

with

thraldom

the

antique

the

to

hands

shake

to

apt

are

model

promoted

students,

if

even

if

the

eye

parallels intelligently

be

represented.

Again, the

planes the

Especially

head. of

students

the

front are

fail

often

beginners

is and

unable

this side

observe

to

so

in

views,

properly

to

the

regard with

place

to

the the

of

planes the result ear,

three that which


TYPE

persistsin coming

forward

FORMS.

in

a

23

distressing way.

All

forms,

sphere, two

be

may

type

(fig.3). omitting the derived

forms,

the

from square

prism and cylinder.Of course by multiplyingthe faces of the prism one arrives eventuallyat the cylinder, but it will be convenient to keep them separate because

each method

The

cone

ignored in

FIG.

4

they

are

derived

from

the

and

represents

a

ferent dif-

of construction.

pyramid

because

as

cylinder and

may

be

shown square

prism respectively.

Fig.

4.

representationin perspective of objects based the square the prism, depends upon apparent upon of parallels, which is another of saying convergence way The


DRAWING

2+

that

things appear

FOR

smaller

ART

as

STUDENTS.

from

removed

they are

the

eye. of formal cylinder,though for the purposes embedded within a as perspective considered square intricate construction prism, and involving a somewhat for obtaining the curve of the circle in perspective, as regards its circular end, needs not the aid of receding parallels,because when foreshortened, the circle appears which should be drawn such without an as as ellipse, any construction other than determining the direction of its long axis (always at rightangles with the axis of the cylinder). Most natural organic forms are based on the cylinder the trunk and limbs of animals, including human as of representationthese are beings, (though for purposes better considered based on the square as prism),and most of plants and Of fashioned stems trees. objects,all metal produced by or pottery and other objectsof wood form of turning or lathe work, are the based some on also tinware bent beaten around cylinder, as or moulds. cylindrical But

the

Based

the square

prism are furniture and buildings,which man with the right-angle. to construct are building materials as bricks, stone,

on

framed finds In the

it convenient

category

same

and

cement

as

wrought

also boxes, books, etc.

Fig.

shows

5

the

principle

cylinderwhich should be followed, be the position. It is true that some their construct

structures

a

lessons

in formal

prism first,but

of no

constructing the matter

what

students,

may

bering remem-

perspective,laboriously

this is dreadful

slaveryand


TYPE

since the

unnecessary,

sides, and students

the two

that

arcs

fact

no

ends

of circles have in

progress

forming the

straightlines

two

Some

in the face.

short long and aids ruin the feelingfor the curve. pointed owing to the fact appear

diameters, but these the

2S

ellipsesstare one the ellipseon

construct

Sometimes

FORMS.

been

its

object drawing

Fig.

As

drawn. is

a

of

matter

possibleuntil

the

5.

be drawn ellipsecan freely in any of the hand and arm. a single movement If the student lacks this facility five minutes practiceat a blackboard day for a week at squares, circles and, every ellipseswill set him free of these forms for life. One

straightline positionwith

observe

may half

that

beginners

the defect

To

is to

the student

who

and

all

authority "

cure

is content

days,

type forms

trammel, but

once

with

The

head

a

no

standard

has

been

to

reallygreat "

than

draw the

lower

the upper

"

to

it.

in their student is

to

apt

are

ellipseflatter

of the horizontal

notice

to

and

subordinate

artists have reference

this constant

of form referred

himself done to

this the

help, supplying him at of drawing. and a method a

to

as

an

approximation to


the

The

prism.

point

to

between

hand

the arm,

and

and

with

a

male

wrist

the

of the

cylindricalform

of the hand,

this part of

Coming

the

the

the faces

fall under to

cheek this

head,

and line

6.

the

undulating line

marks

should

borne

it must head.

when

seen

this

as

in mind

relate with All

of the

prism,

of

the

from

from

the

light(fig.3),and side

of

difficulties

to

of front

great

by

are

the

and

features.

that the another

the contour

applies with

is

of forehead, cheek-bone,

present

they

or

ing penalty of failling. vigorous model-

straight edge

intersection

planes which obsessed

contour

it turns

the

beginners be

relate

must

prism representing the head

jaw, where

two

the

secure

The

ia

planes of the body

great

with

figure as

the

whole, the student

its

arm

(fig.6).

shape, to

and

forearm

form

characteristic

size

coming

prism

this

and

matches,

gives

replaced by

of

contour

shape- and

in

the flattened

Fig.

link

a

by the failure

caused

compared

be

may

of

more

the

stantly con-

the wrist.

see

large box

between

it modifies

how

arm,

forms

wrist

the

way

distressingeffect

the

of the student to The

the

out

figure

has

teacher

The

students.

to

of the

detail

is another

wrist

gives trouble

which

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

DRAWING

26

edge in question point of view, and

of the further

equal

force

to

It is

a

that

side of the the

trunk


TYPE

and

limbs.

should

The

be

seized is apt

front

sides

and

squareness upon,

roundness

FORMS.

to

of

otherwise

result.

This

the

trunk

woolly

a

especially

unstructural

intersection

of

the

complicated and be watched for. broken, but must (fig.22). This principleof the great planes is shown very clearlyin the statues of the Egyptians. Often the limbs absorbed that the finished figure remains a are as so block. The of course, lay in the material, the reason, of which hardness ing prevented the sculptor from indulgin undercutting and over-modelling, (fig.7). whose

Ruskin, art

close

teaching is always attention

forms.

His

"Modern

be

His

in

cloud be

fully. care-

of

very useful.

systems as

ing vanish-

presents

some

owing

to

rotundity,the

horizon

little lower

read

The

difficulty,as the earth's

of trees,

considered

horizontal. line

on

is also

forms

All

the

type

analyses

interestingand

cloud

to

Painters"

etc., should

should

gave

remarks

construction

cloud

is very

torse

tical prac-

consideration,

worth

the

of the

27

than

line

is

that

a

Fig.

of

earth, but the point is

not

of much

7.

importance.

A


good be

exercise

likened

is

to

of match

(fig.8). landscape painter,Boudin,

The

simple systems of talityis carefullyobserved.

for his

be

clouds

When

in which

An

example

lO;^

to

the

level

determine

drawing from upon

often

the

a

lose

which

the

observed, supply the

(fig.2). Neglect

of

the

horizon-

the

of his work

cannot

eye

is

case

every

receding

or

that of

is sometimes

horizontal

their

more

pose

studied

be

a::^.

approaching

are

effect of distance

Students

bench

a

8.

directlyfrom it,the appearance in this "vertical" sky, but even made

should

clouds

Fig.

which

at

Gallery.

in the National

seen

f^^

be

held

boxes

may

the eye.

above

to

clouds, which

sky full of cumulus

a

number

a

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

DRAWING

28

effort should

surfaces, without

be secured.

grip of type forms or

a

less

recumbent.

when The

figureis lying will, if carefully of the latter. general directions for these simple lines accounts


FORMS.

TYPE

failures

many

to

be

said

drawings

of

which

of

quadrupeds, often

relation

their

because

appreciated, depicts for

its

in

height,

shape

has

an

been

horses, unstable

9.

the

(fig.9). the

and

vague

type A

prism

prism

is not

well-known

alpine landscape

because not

with

and

dogs

as

look

Fic.

The

fore-shortening.

correct

secure

may

same

29

a

which

cow

ciently suffi-

ment advertisemuch

forms

properly foreshortened.

too

long

its underlying


CHAPTER

V.

CONSTRUCTION.

No than

word

is

"construction." it is

terms,

the

only by

constant

be

that

sure

the

tin

a

the

on

detail The

of the

the

example metal

bent

soldered,

is

and

the

give

to

entire

second

use

drawing,

an

of

All

it.

imagine

they

and

simplicity,

discussion

teachers

can

in

are

agreement

build

of

as

that riveted

to

in

form

word

entirely

is

refers

might been to

the

thing.

To

take

made

from

edges

being

bent

base,

composed

has

different

3"

a

One

construction

two

strip

form,

rigidity.

it is

the

flat

a

tion" "construc-

object.

that

cone,

meanings,

First

the

note

may a

distinct

two

artists.

by

into

the

stand under-

uses

when

utmost

has

semi-circular

itself until

we

teacher

shall

used.

terms

actual

the

students

their

the

lapped

handle

bent

of

student

and

technical

other

the

the

"construction"

and

cylinder,

and

they

as

of

lapped

with

constantly

more

with

jargon,

a

questioning

mean

pail

sheet

utter

indiscriminately

may a

to

that

sense

talking

be

word

used

the

apt

meaning

This both

in

to

lips as

that

necessary

are

themselves

teacher's

art

Therefore,

most

word

specialists

to

the

on

into

and of

a

that a

strip

continue

in

investigated. construction

When

one


CONSTRUCTION.

of

speaks that

drawing being well-constructed,

a

it is built

actual

31

up

construction

of lines

and

tones

which

means

one

the

suggest

of the

object depicted. difficult to the beginner than the Nothing is more advice to construct in the drawing. He the model sees all its complexity before him, and with a preconceived notion that drawing is imitation, cannot abstract his gaze from the details in order to search for the long enclosing lines of the figure, and those which indicate its build. A great deal will have been learned if the beginner has been already taught to set up work in clay. In a is obliged to "construct" his study, for way, the modeller he

cannot

at

his model

up

once

arrive

at

a

He

contour.

has

to

build

simple planes before he can think of the surface of here teachers modelling, though even of the way students modelling speak with sorrow evade the problems of constructive modelling, and the haste with which they attempt the more superficial qualities before their study has been carefullyset up with the great planes. On it is fatallyeasy to paper the begin with surface markings before setting down main

lines

students

in

of construction. inclined

There

ignore

to

are

two

construction

"

classes

of

first

the

of detail, only as a mass beginners who can see nature and secondly those students, clever with their fingers, who fancy they can draw well enough without the trouble arrive at a result, by means of "blocking out," and who which of their facility, them in ignorthey think justifies ing construction. may

it

was

that

To

judge produced, and

say

a

the of

latter class

of students

one

drawing can tell unerringlyhow can see, through the facile execu-


DRAWING

32

owing

tion, the wealcnesses

Further, the greater

vision

that difficulty, owing to want

it is of

artist,the

an

lack

of

more

likelyis

drawing. drawing really means in the early stages,

Constructive intellectual

to

construction. he thoroughly

his

construct

to

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

concentrated

looking

training,are

that students,

this time

preciselyat

presents this

and

the model

at

with

uncertainty,which result in slurred and fumbling drawing. Many students, indeed, begin be after a cursory to draw glance. The model should and

embarrassment

scrutinized

well

It is

commenced.

drawing

is made

the

during

Further

perhaps

about

the most As

drawing.

begin

proportions t)f the model and

way,

has

been

forms.

The

essential

based

on

actual with

of the foot drawn

as

dealt

and

movement

a

a

with

sketch more

horror

with

lines

the

to

at

be written

can

what out

or

generally

the pose

less

are

mass

outlines. line from

under

:

A the

those these

the

its aspect, add

figure, a

Attention

to

rag

at

type once

is best to

menced com-

the heel often

are

aimless

giving the impression of stuffed

a

necessarily

pit of the neck

doll

of

give

not

standing pose

the contours,

boneless

like."

of

head

which are

and

haphazard

supporting the weight. Shoulders isolated forms, the result of two

wandering round

This

same.

hope of making it "more preliminary construction

the

extent

some

drawing the

in

being stricken

detail after detail in the To

that

detail,

adds

the

already mentioned,

is that students

happens

work

remains

important caution

that the

minutes

firstfew

marred.

or

drawing is

before

little time

some

substantiallythe drawing

but is

for

with

a

sawdust.

the lines of the collar bones, sternum,

arch


CONSTRUCTION.

of ribs

33

and

this as regards the torse. pelviswill correct The look like Christmas to legs are especially prone have been stockings,because the inner lines of structure omitted. The bulk of the knee, the line of the tibia (in the front view),the lines defining the ankle, and suggesting the stirrup-likemovement of the the foot within ankle, and the backward swing of the heel are important. forward be noted direction in the a Especially should side view of the leg above the ankle, due to the tendon of

the

with

tibialis anticus. result

the

club-like in the

look.

leg,is

to

muscles

thumb

that

be

the

angle forming

at

the elbow,

the

back

these

place

results. and

to

the

to

of the

the

often

angles

show

It should

variations

that

balanced

by

Examples

of the

observed

in the

at

above

in

almost

swelling

a

tendons that

the

the

point

any

the

on

constructional

angle

In

in

with to

that

supinators.

in front.

regard

harmony

considerably

cause

level

same

added

be

is

arm

the

noted

be

great perseverance

the

at

in

positionof

than

slight

forearm, where

It should

lower

come

the

wrist.

to

Indian

lumpy,

a

the contours

crook

owing

on

varying

jointthe hamstring

students

cases

elbow

students,

many

of direction, though

clearlyin up

crop

escapes

takes

leg

change

seen

that

In the knee

the

This

with

above

from

This

both

trying to

distressing

these

torsions

hollow

a

opposite points

figure drawings reproduced

is

contour.

may in

be these

pages. The submit criticism

student his

who

drawing

wishes to

those

of his construction.

to

progress

more

should

advanced

constantly for detailed


CHAPTER

TONE

Young

between

oftentimes First

Here,

to.

the

object

be

the

line

edge

and

often

ignored

edge

of

the

influence

will cast

shadow

they

deem

shade

is

space

of who

shade

to

to

be

rests

with

the

Thus

area

be

H

shade."

of

limb

a

completed

the

on

shadow This into

area

is two

sighted

sharp

light

students bias

negligible

object.

the

reflected

anthropomorphic the

of

by

object

the

"line

their

to

the

is cast

object

divide

for

adhered

(fig. 14).

which

by

and

on

the

the

draw

form.

"shadow"

dark.

object.

adjoining, shadow

if

of

"shade"

by

allowed

they

study

continuous

shadow,

separated

that

explained

the

that

a

draw

a

while

noted

rounded

of

be

light portion

and

clearly

the

the

at

responsible

in

speech,

by beginners,

shade

is

of

encloses

portions, eyes

the

should

must

surface,

from

ground

progress

ordinary

a

on

divided It

in

as

is

kept

be

to

distinction

"shading"

used

terms

been

have

they

privilege

great

a

and

slow

the

it

unfortunate

the

"drawing"

their

is

and

if

especially

consider

work,

"shade,"

to

PRELIMINARY.

STUDY"

students,

outline

VI.

the

on

under

already yet later

compared

the tioned, men-

leave

its

because with

an


TONE

The

STUDY"

line of shade

represents It may

contour

a

be grey

is of great from

seen

and

PRELIMINARY.

indefinite

35

importance

the direction when

because

of the

it

light.

the

tensive, light-areais exas a admitting daylight, or sharp large window and dark when the luminant is a point of artificial light, but it is always present. Students sometimes shade as if the dark gradually merged into the light. This is a convention which is not supported by observation, and should be discouraged. A certain amount of lightis reflected to the object

from

side towards

the

light,but

especiallya

area,

shade

area

stated

in art the

isolated The

school

is that This

is

"the

the

on

in the shade

approaches

of shade.

edge

diction

lightestlight."

it

as

the

near

traceable

It follows

in shade.

darkest

appears

is not

be observed

may

contour

that is to say

area,

near

This

the floor,walls, etc.

that the the

light

The

rule

darkest

dark

clearlyseen

as

is

in small

darks. forms

within

shade

a

often

area

present

great

difficulties to reflected or

darken

beginners,who see them necessarily by light. They outline these forms with black, unduly the concavities, and are distressed to

find that these

lines and

darks

persistin coming forward, and ruin the unity of the shade To area. remedy this between the they should note an interestingcontrast conditions of the expressionof forms in (i)areas in light and (2)areas in shade. First, the surface

by darks, excepting,of are

defined

lipsby darks,

by and

forms course,

darks the

in

ear

below

the

the

light are expressed high lights. The eyelids

the brows,

by lines

and

the

nose

patches of

and

dark.


DRAWING

36 the

In

shade

however,

areas,

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

forms

reflections or

lights. If this region

general tone,

the forms

the

than

as

nostril

the

but

or

otherwise

principleholds

the the

Between

two

lightareas

the

shade

somewhat

as

"like

trees

have

been

for his

walking."

All

well

of this.

aware

remember

student

often

Too like

look

lit from he

again

forms

within

refuse

to

can

be

he

retire, and

no

hard

used

his

impasto keep

to

quiet.

when the

working reflected

emphasizes

area,

the shade

until

them

made

or

area

lights under

of

trol. con-

they actually if

as

glass or

dark

the

outlines

with

the

result

obstinatelystand

lines in the

at

of the darkness,

out

within,

shade

onwards

Rubens

Rubens

strengthens with the

important

particularlycareful

was

"lights"blazing

figure were Or

hold

to

darkened,

show

painters from

his darks

within

Similarlythe must

but

light areas,

forms

the

notice

we

lights. Of light,such

clearly. In soft, ill-defined, edges are are look men shapes in twilightwhen

forms

area

a

attention

another

is

defined, and

well

are

by

intensityof lightthe forms

the

to

by

good.

there

areas

.difference.According in the

reflected

the

cavity receivingno reflected have to be orifice,may ear

actual

an

course,

working of

careful

indicated

is

little more

need

within

expressed

are

china. of

that

forward.

shade, owing

the

the

they

There

to

of

want

illumination. As in

the

light areas

luminant occur

is

below

reflection,coming from in the as

the

upper

generally from the

above, the darks

forms, while

the

main

below, the reflected lightis

part of the concavities

footlightsilluminate

those

of the

parts

of

seen

forms, much the

actor's


TONE

features. both

by

artificial

Fig.

light

STUDY"

ioa

and

light.

shows dark

PRELIMINARY.

the

areas.

general The

37

of

principle drawing

was

ing workmade


CHAPTER

TONE

The

the

witness

will

use

found

the

The the

of

sometimes

was

drawings

this

result

on

Hexterous suitable

being

with

adopted

the

well

materials

lead,

of

the with

students

tending

and paper,

to

Diploma

meeting

of

So

crayon

for

students

38

duction intro-

the

black the

Wellington time, their

up

that

manipulation and

the

Gallery

much

stippling

lustrous

to

implement,

work.

continued a

although

broader

achieved,

continued

the

it;

and

pen

until

favourite in

show

the

these

student

finely pointed

not

was

right

be

renaissance

chalk,

and

art

Maclise

drawn

by a

as

It will

the

red

black a

by

wasted

was

or

Academy,

Blucher,

their

drawing

of

points,

remained

Royal

and

career.

used

and

of

cartoon

the

and

a

silver

plumbago

enormous

of

and

point

his

masters

black

weapons

of chalk

the

of

charcoal,

main

in

him

and

colourmen,

materials

of

as

schools.

art

gold

the

artists'

the

commonly

drawings

use

be

assist

to

the

at

in

of

materials,

in

interest

great

selection

proper far

go

glance

to

takes

prosperity

the

certainly

EXERCISES.

STUDY"

student

art

VII.

pearly

the

ever, howchalk

stump

Unfortunately found of

that the

texture

by

stump was


TONE

obtained.

This

STUDY"

39

ing again refined upon, by touchwith a finelypointed chalk, and by "breading out" black spots, prodigies of industry being performed on such drawings. Thus did the misapplied industry of students The

great

could

EXERCISES.

defeat

the has

stump of

one,

its or

mastery

disadvantages besides drawing to look better than

an

indirectness

with

the stump

a

this it is

The

in the method. and

then of

form.

Also

with

corrects

more

be put in his hand

and

This

used.

be

must

capable

weapon

must

line

over

indiarubber

or

rubber, whereas action

teachers.

producer. The stump touch is always "muzzy," and where a sharpened edge

required bread handicap causes fumbles

of

also other

is

trenchant

efforts

enabling a

in the eyes of indeterminate

student

be

direct

and

is to

gain

if he

in

spite

of

its

ally the rubber, can be made and tinny in character, to produce drawings hard masks and students have been known to to apply paper the drawing and then rub vigorously with bread, thus which they supposed obtaining that clear hard contour indirectness

the

the authorities What The

to

not

of the

one

the

overshot

for form

search

tone,

for

it

making measure

of

It

The

erasure

smoky to

producing

study.

to

mark.

this need, for any

applies also in some implement capable hardly

to

requires an

tentative,allowing him

has

meet

him

drawing practice?,

for

be remembered,

will allow

extent

if he does

is the best material

student, it must

some

its

wanted.

then

which

with

stump,

must

or

the

be

it must

withdraw black

what some-

crayon

acter alters the charsmeared. lead

beautiful be

;

ment imple-

used

This

pencil, an effects,but

directlyor


FOR

DRAWING

40

ART

greasiness results,also it misses chalk.

Moreover

pencil

the

STUDENTS.

the definite black is

the

of the

implement for lead for drawing

using the still go on writing,making zigzag,scratchy marks with the fingers, often closelyresembling written words, which the teacher may pretend to decipher much to the disgust writing,and

of his

students

when

pupil.

Charcoal

meets

most

of the

requirements

very

well.

easilyremoved, allowing several trials of the first It varies from stage of a drawing if reasonably used. underthe soft velvety black of a well burnt stick to one black, burnt, and as hard as an H pencil. From a dense of the finger, the tone be lightened in a can by a sweep No beautiful of the paper. gradation up to the tone other implement gives gradation without great labour, and this labour, as mentioned above, is apt to degenerate It is

into

stippling. in the early By using the softer grades of charcoal trasts stage of the drawing, full emphasis of form and rich conof tone be readilyobtained, while for .detailed can expression, harder charcoal will give all the definition that can be obtained with a or pencil,chalk stump. Chaircoal is,of course, sharpened backwards, like a chalk point. It should be used with a paper of square grain like that known Michallet as or Ingres. Lights may be less emphasized with bread, ordinary indiarubber being usewith charcoal, though "putty" rubber and tinder ma,de from fungus may be used. The student commencing the study of light and shade is often kept to the whitened models and casts whereas what he requiresfor the development of his per-


Fic.

Fig.

Ioa

treatment

10

"

A

drawing in

charcoal from

an

head. anticjue

diagrammaticdrawing showing and shade between the forms in light is

a

the difference in areas

respectively.


4^


TONE

ception of

is work

tone

The

textures.

STUDY"

EXERCISES.

from

43

objectsof varying tones

ordinary still life

group

and

fulfils these

con-

glitionsfairlywell. If set

group, say of three or four student is at once faced with

simple

a

the

up,

main an

is

tones,

exercise

in

composition. Any group may be treated as a square, upright, or oblong composition. The being square and generally the refuge of the weak-minded composer eliminated, until

a

of

series

small

solution satisfactory

a

Now

will

come

a

sketches

should

be

made

is obtained.

tussle

the student's

between

tarian utili-

anthropomorphic tendencies, and his artistic vision. He is very apt, from past experience and judices, preto grade the objects he sees according to the A bottle being agreed value set upon them by mankind. to hold or an object made by man liquid necessary gratefulto him, the student ranks as the most important it at object present, and if allowed, will work away of the supremely indifferent to the remainder group. Another The student from his difficulty crops up here. childhood has been constantlyexhorted by his parents and teachers This maxinl to "do one thing at a time." he is apt to carry out by drawing an'd finishingthe various He has to be taught items in a group after another. one that in artistic practice"one thing at a time" though just something quite as important as in everyday life,means or

different

from

Therefore until he

sees

what the the

is in his mind. student

will not

parts of the group

shapes. Especially should he outliningeach object by itself

make as

refrain without

much tones

from

progress of various

carefully

relation

to

its


probably find it difficult to of the objects in order indications to place first steps in a These desired. drawing as all the teacher's patience elsewhere, demand

down

them

as

mentioned and do

first he

At

neighbour. put

not

Above

all he

will

soot

handling, and

allow

that

of

these

elaborate

be

charcoal, and of tone

Placed

which

be

of

placing

taken

lessly. care-

before

indicated

been

of

refinement

steps

may

ashes

any

is

the group,

near

effect

now

masses

to

attempted, the main tones of the set down firmly,with a soft stick of the student should enjoy the effective be readilyobtained with charcoal. can

contouring

should

group

having

masses

delicacy and

they

notions.

allied with

substance

preparatory

for

allowed

be

moment

a

being a

sketching in the main The

use

not

for

not

must

imagine that charcoal

and

will

pupil'swillingnessto accept admonition, latter's preconceived the accord with

the

and

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

DRAWING

44

the

drawing should

give the

same

in this

earlystage. The forms of the objects may be attended now to, tion Attenellipsesand other forms being carefullydrawn. should also be given to the flan of the group. It is easy enough to indicate the vertical aspects of things, but the positionthey occupy on a horizontal surface, that is the plan, is apt to be ignored. The student might be required to indicate the plan of his group on a scrap of and to compare it with the actual positionof the paper, of the objects objects. By this means interpenetration tone

even

is detected. In

forms

order one

more

of two

completely methods

may

to

be

express

followed.

the The

surface char-


TONE

coal

may

is well

STUDY"

be

sharpened and the whole worked into the grain of the

laborious

process

student.

The

with

tones

the

a

black

of

dull. the

a

very

often which

should

Just

be

until it

This

paper.

is

a

to

and

requirestrengthening,and the fingersinto a pressed between is used to take out as lights,not alterations

been

charcoal

bread

is

correct

or

errors,

in the earlier stages of the

done

the

as

smeared

now

make

to

the

so

calculated

will

have

forms,

over,

gone

If rubbed, this becomes

bread

shape may supposed,

drawing.

45

disgust an ardent second consists in rubbing in the method specting finger,stump, rag or brush, always redark tone such as that representingthe

darks

pelletof

dark

and

bottle.

Some

chisel

EXERCISES.

makes

implement

an

readiness

with for

shaping

lights. careful edge study. It should be noted Lastly comes that the places where the edges melt into the adjacent demand much tone as study as the definite edge. For black bottle will probably have instance some a part adjacent to shade, and the edge in this area may appear it. All than the tone behind lighter(owing to reflection) this printhe edges must be followed and dealt with on ciple, it yet the study should show the aim with which the representation of a few masses of commenced was "

If these

varying tones.

of the work, the

the progress of

success

The

as

an

exercise

Rosetti, who

exercise

have

in

fallen short

in tone.

pots and

humdrum

to

bottles, and

those wanted

safelybe said that to attempt disciplineafforded by a course

it may the

confused

become

study will

seem

may

scorned

paintangels,yet painting without

have

tones

like to

oil of


46

DRAWING

form

to

and

drawing

tone

failure.

court

in

the

of

means

contend is

brushes

he

has

varying the

rough

sketch

the

stump,

it

does

be

watercolour, 13

on

of

are

examples

Michallet the

drawing

seen

it

palest

delude

affords of

paper,

being

the

still

is

paper,

lucky

no

life

and carried

and

paints,

is

greys,

and

as

far

the

once

to

itself

lends

Also, with

and, Figs,

made this

as

In

may

with medium be

to

unlike

an

approaching

accidents.

that

show

palette,

amenable

deserved,

studies

tion atten-

etc.

at

student

Anything

the

time

expression.

surface.

on

equipment

gives

skill,

complete not

of

beauty

which

by

tone

vehicles,

rag,

manipulative or

his

sented pre-

simplest

study

his

paint

material

and

of

degrees

to

knife,

blacks

of

deal

the

varied

a

implements,

his

simple

a

such

here

are

to

is

these,

as

by

commences

great

a

palette

velvety

most

that

tone

solved

has

with

and

charcoal

who

lines

of

and

monochrome,

occupied

such

some

way,

student

with,

STUDENTS.

problems

simplest

oil

ART

on

The

The

means.

to

FOR

traneous ex-

cellence ex-

unlike

ii,

charcoal allows desired.

12,


Fif-.

12

A

charcnal

stuJ\- \\hich of

a

sIioh's how

far

the

drawing being carrieel. 47

material will allov\'


Fic.

14.


CHAPTER

THE

INTRODUCTORY.

FIGURE"

Students

usually

promoted

being

VIII.

working

from

method,

and both'

the

to

life

also

time

knowledge

some

before

needful,

very

class.

have

they

casts

the

through

pass

before

antique

It

is held

to

gain

facility in

of

human

tions, propor-

that

the

attacking

by

living

figure. That

latter

this

student

command

can

students

young

skilfully, and they human

their On

with

the

other

The

hand

thus,

as

of

of

form, a

by

not

perceive

not

which

god-like

keen

use

their

materials

sense

of

proportion,

for

living figure, in

they

practical

a

person.

the

teachers

art

the

past,

in marble

in

stir his

the. subtle

the

fine

49

a

are

way

antique

of

means

classical

bronze,

or

of

aware

sole

and

whole,

artistic

figures cannot

viewed

classroom,

from

to

express

proportions

and

the

the He

consciousness.

variations

sculptor sought The

as

the

see

architectural

be

must

antique

cannot

them

an

their

3ull plaster does (does

using

student

part from

torn

a

to

though

but

questioned,

acquainted

all

sculptor creatqd

them

see

able

the

equipment

structure.

disadvantages

the

be

the

and

be

not

have

not

may

own

training. as

not

may

themselves,

with

the

need

familiar

are

all the

study requires

living

his

idea

flow

of

of line


DRAWING

so

above

escape

him, and

that he

finds himself slows

counts

for

so

FOR

all the

and

stand

statues

quietening in

down much

STUDENTS.

ART

his attack ; he of fever

loses that touch

in the

of

study

quietly

so

untarily involwhich

drawing.

an ordinary school life educationists postpone until the child mind has abstract study like grammar of in the train to take interest developed sufficiently thought. So it is with art students, who, after working from the livingmodel, willinglyturn to the antique, and for its enthusiasm study it with more profitand more noble qualities than would have been possible to them coming to it without preparation. The problems of the human see figurethey now presented in typicalform, and of proportion which they can more they recognisea canon the great variations readilygrasp, after having observed in a series of livingmodels. to the study of the Coming now living figure, the

In

should

student

understand

that

a

deal

great

than

more

copying is implied, for it embodies aspects of many art study,spacing, composition, structure, and especially proportion. mere

There

are

certain

difficulties which

the

beginner,and these it may be well the anthropomorphic attitude of mind student be already referred to must teacher. The former is likelyto be that figure before him to the extent imitation must

seems

be made

words

the

There

are

all as

important. The like the figureas

student's so

many

power

of

things to

will to

discuss.

on

First

the part of the

combated

by the obsessed by the the necessityfor drawing, he thinks, possible. In other

selection be

surely meet

attended

is to

dormant. that

the


drawing

THE

FIGURE"

is apt to

be

trunk, limbs, etc.,

fingersand The

INTRODUCTORY.

a

to

mere

say

assembling of members, as nothing of details such

toe-nails.

teacher, therefore, has from

drawing recreate

the

figure.

material

a

Ji

These

by the emphasize

accumulation

person

and

point out the aims of not are necessarilyto

to

of

parts,

the nakedness of the especiallynot to do. The to figure,as beginners are prone figure is selected as a specialsubject of study because the nude form more presents problems of line and structure which and trenchantlythan any other material 'directly be

can

before

set

What

should

him. the

teacher

emphasize

the first step

as

in

be answer studying the living figure? The may ! The movement given in a word living figure is of posing in a state of suspended animation, and a sense there must be in any movement positionof the figure. Either the movement the has preceded the or pose, "

latter is about

Beginners

rarelyor

never

If, say,

the

inclination

this.

branch

of

hand, but

an

lumpy as

figureseems this

inclines

the torse all heads that what

or

limbs.

and the

as

eye.

they figuredisplays. the

be

amount

of

sittingupright,

in the pose of the balance order to an

The

the student

and stiff,

seen

upright at

are

is not,

untrained

in

to

of arrested

sense

leans, they diminish

often

drawing

of this

action

Especiallyis

him

be said here

figuresare

that the

which

To

action.

often oblivious

torse

so

obliquityof

into

give as much

nearly so.

head,

are

pass

Their

movement.

or

to

novice

rarelysees

attention.

suffers

from

It may in every

unskilled an supposes, teacher's efforts are The

he


DRAWING

52

FOR

constantly directed

ART

STUDENTS.

the

development of the visual of analysing, judging inclinations, faculty, the power measuring proportions, finding the lines which indicate the structure,

in all of which

Cleverness, akin be

deemed

such if

the

to

ideas

they

a

kind

essential be

must

criticism

then

measuring should corroborate

too

that

to

it

figures,torses

is

figure

can

(fig. 15.)

used

only

be

eye

have be

can

may

of

out

a

school

of art,

of direction

course

Even as

if these

a

plumbing and secondary aid, to

mechanical

suffers and

question of limbs

inclinations

these

directed.

a

aids

loses

movement

represented

or

entertainment,

an

that the main

freely,the the

effects

produces

there.

be

be

be trained.

to

indiscriminatingpublic, but

an

criticism, for

Coming once

by

at

gently laughed

should

needs

eye

juggling,which

find utterance

ever

employed

of

the

lightningsketches

It is to the eye and

to

in

ance. self-reli-

realise

we

through direction. general direction, A

suggested by lines.

represented

direction

at

All and

seated

three

by

are

lines.

Students

a unwilling to commence study in their with such simple preparation generally show lack of vitality and work a they begin by movement; seizing on the forms, and consequently the general idea

them.

escapes

of the

The

mischief

drawing.

No

amount

at

occurs

of delicate

piecemeal, will compensate The whole intelligentconstruction. Too often surveyed at the outset. be

drawn

round

the contours,

proportion and

with

movement.

the

ment commence-

detail, if it

for the

lack

figure should the

the result that the

eye

of be

wanders

drawing

lacks


Fig.

15

"

Sketches

showing the

movement

of the

first lines

or

figureand 53

"directions" its

which

proportions.

settle the


Fig

1

6

"

appearance

A

drawing made with charcoal on Michallet. The and is the quality weight to solidity due as much of the line as to the shading.

of

54


THE

FIGURE"

INTRODUCTORY.

determine

line

a

should

then

student

The

which

on

to

ring figure,this line occurperhaps within the contour, again coincidingwith it. When drawing a standing

build

or

55

the

female

attracted

forms the

breast

and

rich

the

by

is often

student

figure,the

of the and

of

contours

the

with

hips,

result that these

cented ac-

features

aggerated. ex-

are

figure should built on a simpler line,in this a vertical through the pit of The

be case

the

neck

ankle

and

It should

leg. that this is not but

one

pose,

porting sup-

be noted

arbitraryline, actuallyexisting in the in the being traceable

median

again I 6a).

of the

line

an

of

between

Such

the

and

ment commence-

unpopular

student, for it is head

requiresstudious

torse,

legs.,(fig.

simple

a

is

the

with

work,

analysisof

thi an

the

forms. ginner Unfortunately also the behas often acquired, from old habit

method

and of

force

drawing

of tradition which

con^

a


generally

sists

is

even

common

The

case

who

student

be

may has

surprised when acquired it. and

one

fail in Rather

so

Ingres forth.

reproducing set

he

tells him

entirely used

to

If you the

yourselfto

between

did

of

parts, and in

fear

is

of draw

having by

one

the torso, then

the

be bound

to

the

effect.

whole

ing proportionsexist-

gain the mastery

to

this

giving expression to

action, don't be afraid of exaggeration. to

and

wretched

a

would

you

harmony

motion, and

has

"Don't

say

language

a

unconscious

fix the relative

the several

the life and

over

is

of

spoken,

French

in succession, the head, then

and

arms,

he

that

with

heard

his tutor

though

accent,

possessing great facility.

compared never

is

method

vicious

a

scending de-

and

top

reached, that is if

are

Such

students

among

the

at

feet

till the

for them.

room

STUDENTS.

beginning

in

piecemeal there

ART

FOR

DRAWING

56

What

you

have

is lukewarmness."

He should to face. difficulty of seeing on his pupils, and not impose his own way thus deprive them of their individuality, seek to bias nor their own self-expression. A student's feelingfor form stark, indeed may verge on perchance be somewhat may ugliness,to the point of exaggerating or caricaturingthe form, but the wise teacher will be shy of admonishing' such a student, of advising him to look for smoothness^ or character, individuality and beauty, because grace in that strength may be the chief note pupil's future The

work.

teacher

There

of individual is sincere.

has another

is

room

in the world

expression. The

of

art

touchstone

Imitation, posing, conscious

for all

manner

is whether

seeking after

it a


THE

Style on But

part of students

where

the student's

of method is

firm

on

of method

his craft,he

should

his teacher, who

is

The

wanting of

because

of

taught

brush.

In

implements

of

or

put himself

entirelyin

guide

his students

cannot

demned. con-

be

must

of the

use

loudly

materials, the

pencil

a

of the

too

student

hold

to

and

be

cannot

work

ground. how

S7

knowledge

of

or

everything,even matters

INTRODUCTORY.

the

his lack teacher

FIGURE"

of

the hands unless

they

him.

trust

That

introduces

should

work

confine

himself

The

at

the

the

question whether

the model

before

entirelyto

the ofi"ce of adviser

of

exponents

the

or

with

modes

new

teacher

his students,

of

and

or

critic.

teaching,

as

practised in junior schools, incline to the latter view. before his They say that directlya teacher demonstrates scholars, he is biassingtheir vision, is preventing their

seeing the object for themselves, and is obtruding his vision of things to the detriment of their personal own expression. This is very true provided that the teacher's inhibition

above,

out

of

the

does must

relations

not

be

extend

method,

to

taught; but

between

there and

teacher

which,

as

is another

pointed aspect

pupils, an aspect dealing with art

special importance in at the same who students are spending all their hours ing, study. They are apt to be discouraged after long toiltheir be tempted to look upon and consequently may his rounds, merely as critic, teacher as he visits them on This is a real danger, and it is carper and fault-finder. which

is

of

of the teacher in die power he will regard himself not

to as

overcome

one

it.

If he is wise

aloof, in another

sphere.


DRAWING

58 that

of

professional

the

relationshipof

closer

students, but

to

with

work

spiritof comradeship

in the

them

which

pupils.

his

as

is It is

paint and draw before the occasionallyis to exhibit

at

stimulates

once

the class

its best efforts.

to

Again

a

with the

a

carried, much

sulk

good

Velasquez,

methods

should

in it.

has

R.

short,

and

drawing

may

be

should

not

flag

A.

is

the teacher

M.

Stevenson, in

interestingcomments

some

of the great teacher

Carolus

on

which

Duran,

by all students, weak-kneed

be read

In order

a

of his task while

himself

his life of

fallen

has far

that

drawing, showing

the

that the student

the continuance interest

how

ceed pro-

result.

may

willing to the

of

this it follows at

is convinced

exercise, and if the teacher

demonstration

From

to inability

confesses

sometimes

genuine, and works on the pupil's vision ways

what

giving

an

student

is

case

in

or

to

descends con-

brother, who

elder

an

tasks

willing to work at the same certainlydangerous always a

occasionally

who

artist

criticise the efforts of the novice, but

to

much

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

or

otherwise.

proportionstudents should work at distance of some the model. Then the a yards from natural tendency to draw sight size can be utilized. By holding up the drawing alongside the model (fig. 17) the be checked proportion may effectually. very Students "to to

to

secure

should

be

never

admonished

fairlyfill the paper," because the

natural

scale

travelling,as it were, direct Sickert

road has

to

of the at

the

violence

drawing, same

the

rate.

was

the method

large,"

is thus eye

This

good proportion, and,

pointed out,

"draw

to

as

done

and

hand

is the

most

Mr.

Walter

of the masters.


THE

If the

drawing finer

a

is too

INTRODUCTORY.

small

the student

treatment, use

FIGURE"

in scale to allow

should

drawing should

length.

Students

that the lower with

a

A

half

consequent few

go

nearer

of

the

adequate model

or

point.

Fig.

The

59

words

17.

frequentlyviewed at arm's often hold the drawing too close, sa of the paper is practically out of sight, detriment to the proportions.

may

be

be

said

on

the vexed

question of


DRAWING

6o

Some

backgrounds.

of

This

present.

figure of

it

backgrounds

for

is

line,

merely

not

other

study.

of

is

isolated

tone

of

background the

in

remarks

the

on

should

Edge

by be

can

aspect

Study.

than

considered

graphic photo-

with

as

of

art

ground back-

but

existing

show

line

degree whether

general in

detail

this

by

expressive The

the

tone

its

;

as

of

tion. atten-

side

purpose

use

will

lighter is

that

drawn

the

of

studying

suggested.

treatment

or

high

be

for

edge

This

its

the flow

the

figure

the

from

share

for

of

from

space,

darker

is

figure.

it

background of

emphasis

it

that

"

the

studies

degrade

to

he

devised

view,

structure,

with is

be

mistaken

a

their

nor

the

may

drawing

concerned

be

that

tone;

demand

not

can

tone

imply

not

itself

make

in

figure,

the

exercises

To

does

is

but

study,

etc.,

student

is

contended,

complete

indicate

accessories

exercise

an

shall

any

tone

composition,

aspect ;

be

must

imply

The

such

with

for

zeal

their

in

students

their

background,

the

STUDENTS.

ART

teachers, that

insist

expression, tone

FOR

of the

tone

in

of the


CHAPTER

FIGURE"

THE

The

trick

there where

flounder

clearly

that

a

cleverness the

study,

form."

not more

less

form.

they

a

a

and

eye

rigorous

intellectual

Drawing

legerdemain, de

tour

a

Of

study.

judges

handling,

and

others shows

art

prevented

not

course

ease,

of

history

a

fqrce

students,

seeming

good

of

master

by

what

is to

say

from

men

exhibition

the

removes

painter

a

that should

be

which the

called

mastery

to

make

with

track

of can

figure 6i

a

down

will

by

form, be may

pencil, the

does but

this,

facility,

give

demanHall

needing

brought

to

divided

by

subtleties

exercises

and

be

"search

the

understand

students

trained

attained

technique

over

practice

mere

scrutiny

capacity from

to

been

contours

been

has

drawing

has

efforts

painful

suppose the

the

smart

It is difficult

whereas

ing

But

by gaily tracing

or

for

of

That

come

with

the

place.

facility

close

of

or

of

opinion

fingers,

task

a

FORM.

facility among

among

of

and

kind

a

facility has

while

highest

The

for

of

want

fame,

achieving

from

of

fail.

general

trouble

no

degrees

or

is clever

accomplishes

one

may

by

with

FOR

the

drawing

done

varying

are

SEARCH

shares

oiEE lightly with

thrown

of

often

that

public

conjuring

of

THE

beginner

outside

IX.

the

bear. into

two


62

DRAWING

FOR

STUDENTS.

ART

types of exercise.

One, very important, is the time sketch, recording the main facts of the figure,and varying main

the method one's

at

by

Such

pose.

searching

more

which

indeed

sketches

only

far he

with

expression of form The

strokes, allows

and

of the

have

To

Charcoal,

mention

or

been

the

be

nor

aware

words,

upon

ally. gener-

redundancy of

to

Further, is

stump

neither

in this kind

it,for

condemn

to

definite stroke.

a

elsewhere, supplies the best

particularkind

full range

a

agreed

in breadth.

broad produced with ease well pointed,lines can when

to

student

in this detailed

engage

point leads

be

It has

to

more

for limited

of himself,

sure

not

indicated

as

for this

pencil.

The

technique necessary

tentative

incapable of making

weapon

sketch.

the

at

scale, and

which

pencilor crayon is wanting

of exercise. it is

arrive

to

can

materials

as

expression of form,

time

be

not

character

requiressupplementing

small

a

deals

his scrutiny. In other pursue really learnt \o search for the form.

not

The

on

sketch

time

line, and

student

of the

periods of time, will he has

the

detailed

the

the time

according to

of

work

and

enables

methods

summary

of how

search

flow

movement,

in the

who

visual

disposal. Generally

mainly with shown

and

With

of attack.

of tone,

masses

be drawn of tone

and

it

can

also,

finelyas with

as

from

a

velvety black

palest grey. Figs,

io,

other

square

measuring suitable

etc.,

drawn

with

charcoal

on

Michallet

the sheets of which, grained paper, 19" x 24", are of the dimensions most

about

for normal

it is difficult to

were

eyes.

If

one

keep the whole

draws of the

largerscale drawing under

to

a


^"^UJ^

M

Fig.

I

8

"

A

charcoal

itscompletion. An

drawingmuch

exampleof has been

rubbed

and

otherwise ill-treatedsince

edgestud)-.Every inch studied. carefully 63

of the contour


p,f,^ in the

,g pose

This

by

all its defects, shows

drawing, with the student

and

a

determination

to

secure

a

great an

interest

taken

of expression

it.


THE

FIGURE"

SEARCH

THE

FOR

65

FORM.

proportion, and in gradation of accent, are Even if drawings, say for a apt to occur. be decoration, were wanted, they should large mural drawn first to this scale, and then enlarged by squaring life drawings by other method. There or are some surveillance, and

errors

in

Albert

South

Kensington,

Moore,

nearly so,

but

at

the method

does

not

full size

drawn to

seem

or

pensating com-

possess

advantages. elsewhere. indicated The as procedure is the same of The student should, as always, mark top and bottom find the main line from head his drawing, and at once to of the figure foot. Next follows the general structure of dark with a plan lightlysketched in of the masses ing It is at this point that the proportionsof the drawtone. coal should be scrutinized,and if found wanting, the charstrokes, which be

can

obliterated

first should

at

with

a

few

be

flicks

lightand of

delicate, It

duster.

a

emphasized too stronglythat this stage is most crucial,and tests severelya student's powers of selection and how hours analysis. The drawing, no matter many tially or days are required for its completion, will be substanin proportion, and general scheme of light and Hence the importance (dark,what it is at an earlystage. of self-criticism,and if necessary of beginning afresh. cannot

No

The of

over

be

alterations time

for

should

of moment erasure

has

proportion reveal they convict Hints

passed, and

themselves the

his first steps, and

foundation.

then

on

be made

student

as

of

at

a

late stage.

if great

errors

the

drawing progresses, heedlessly slurring

on a failingto build further procedufe are given

of

sure

where. else-


66

DRAWING

With

regard

drawing

of

Michallet

(Dn the other to

hand

these, it

seems

however

important.

indicated

forms. a

order

be used

is well

arily prim-

focus

to

it be

can

and

grounded

his attention

deal

great

figuredemand

extremities, and show

them.

on

from

involve

Poor

the

done,

consideration

drawings

of hands

lack of construction, and

and

the

as struction con-

of the

least construction

at

in

detail,

on

elsewhere, in showing that the action and of the

mass

A

feet

proportion,construction

distract

figurein

such

and

spent

figureshould

of

pity to

a

lines of the

main

shall be

until the student

and

hands

head,

the

the nude

schools

some

certainlythe difficulties

time

give rightnotions

movement,

In

full size, and

that considerable

coal feet, the char-

and

gives opportunity for

paper

constructing properly

pemand

STUDENTS.

in detail.

out

made

are

ART

extremities,hands

to

on

iworking these studies

FOR

of their

feet

of articulation

always

with

the

limbs. Studies

from

the nude

in appearance

innocently)doing (duce

a

naked

because

the wrong

person,

sometimes

are

the

thing.

making

a

almost

student He

sort

of

is

graphic porno-

(quite

tries to

reproinventory of

fingers,toe-nails,etc^ physical characteristics,so many Such drawings usually lack the higher interests of the of light figure,the flow of line,the rhythm of the accents and dark, the unity of the long line of shade running the figure and revealingthe "cubist" typicalshape. down These

things sought after, the student

wrong,

no

matter

how

much

he hankers

cannot

go

far

after realism.

Unfortunately this wrongly realistic drawing has in


THE

FIGURE"

the past been has

been

rewarded,

honest

students

evince

they put

in.

Another loss of

and

evil

SEARCH

by

looks

One

often

student

they

the

omit

insistence a same

than

on

figurewith weight of

in character.

over-elaborated, while

has

6j

FORM.

ground that the student

sees

monotonous

masses

fussy and gives an

model

what

resultingfrom

details,all of about

the dark

the

on

FOR

which

sincere, qualitieshowever

rather

rhythm.

shaded

The

THE

by what

realityis carefully tone, and

The

reference

drawing to

the

impression of simplicityand breadth. been too busy to catch the rhythm of

the

referred darks have been to as modelling. The and accents, certainlytone rhythm is akin to that of music. The figure,perhaps, has dark hair, the contrast between that and the white brow giving the strongest

Lower,

accent.

is weakened,

on

be

the face and

neck

the accent

of dark

the

armpit, while the shade the torse and lower limbs again on areas diminish ebb and in strength an flow, or rhythm throughout the figure, giving at once varietyand breadth. This supplies a method of procedure. The main masses to

strengthenedagain,say,

at

"

of middle

should

accent

be

struck, the

stronger

and

following in their places, and keeping of has been made the their relative pitch. Mention make between (division students drawing and arbitrarily shading. They often show that they do not consider shading as drawing. They work away laboriouslyat

weaker

some

accents

dark

patch without

varying contour, use

is

or

indeed

of their darks.

expressing structure

exploring its borders, its without consideringthe structural

ever

Shading is only useful where it: It should and revealing form.


68

be

DRAWING

FOR

busy, that is giving

ART

STUDENTS.

due

emphasis to the line of which emphasizes the meeting of the planes. Form is expressed by light against dark, and form

should

Shading

be drawn

without

bricks

into

and

drawing

then

be backed

may

be

field without

a

this

by shading.

up

with

compared

attempting

shade

ing bring-

build

to

with

them. As

pointed

into

two

and

forms

In the shade

subdued.

the crannies

affords

drawing shows be

may

the line of

have

what

is

abundance

has

that the eye

applied

to

been

happens

of

the

not

of

focusing into

pore

forbids

it,while for

opportunity

finished

fullyexplored forms

meeting of angles, such

it meets

the

quiet

are

to

of

lighting

the would-be

edge.

its shade

brought together

at

normal

need

no

planes

are

conditions

for Nature

area,

armpit, where

lines may

usual under

Often, however,

searching study.

the former

the eye, the forms

There

unity.

divided

seen

equal distribution

an

of the dark

light area

the test

from

Hence of

which

area

removed

is destructive

but

object is

any

In lightand dark. under sharply defined

is the further

the

elsewhere,

areas,

lighting. and

out

junction?

in

as

The

fashion,

some

What

;

is the

actual

shape of the dark these unless be and

full

of

shade

reveal the

he

ask self himpatch? The student must questionsas he approaches such passages, for exercises a vigilantscrutiny his drawing will observed insufficiently shapes. Lastly,light

the

closest

Velasquez, marked

is not

does merely utilitarian,

forms, but has attention. we

are

If

beauty of its

a we

conscious

series of beautiful

not

look of

passages

say a

own

at

subtle of

serve

an

well

only

worth

interior

yet

light and

to

by

clearly shade,


i

Fig.

20

"

An

unfinished

drawingshowing the varyingtextures.

use

oi eharcoal

in

expressing


";' ;?m;^.--r':-^:--^^^

Fig.

2 1

"

Dr.ivNing with charco;ilon 70

Michallet

paper.


THE

of

FIGURE"

THE

SEARCH

FORM.

FOR

71

rich

velvety darks against liquid lights, or of light He edges melting mysteriouslyinto background tones.

showed and be

how

us

look

to

the

seeing eye discerns finer,for example, to be

of trees, than

the

before

a

the flesh

tone

it

such

the

enhance

to

of the

subtle

The

these and

clump

or

dark

a

can

ting cut-

spray

constantlyvarying

tiful Equally beaunude figure posed semi-translucencyof

scene.

in the

quiet background. seems

in

passage

passages

What

wood

in any

lightwith

examines

in nature,

tone

everywhere.

seen

in full

some

the eye

as

are

trunk

it,or

across

sequence

a

beauty of

the

at

contrasts,

varied

and

effects

presents

that

light in strong tone reveals. An arm against a gleaming knee chest, or the darks of a hand or against a thigh fullyilluminated are things to wonder at, and not merely because they are strikingexamples of the relief of one form call the stereoscopic against another, of what one may but because beautiful they are appearance, of lightand shade. students' To judge from passages They say drawings they sternlyignore beauty of tone. some

in

most

effect that

they

are

not

to

be turned

aside

from

their

^

purpose,

which

and

proportions, to

the

express

is to draw

the details.

the model,

they omitted

fail to

see

being, to fix the

indicate

the

of tone.

But

shade

them,

an

and

structure,

he

to

to

be

part of their

finds

ignored

are or

essential

Shading, to them, consists stripingor stipplingtheir study with beauty.

pose

selecting from they really were would be delighted,even though

he considered

training,the study effects of light and students

human

If

the teacher what

a

tha;t these because

attracted in tone,

the

by their

industriously monotonous


full

yet (dark

of

the

the

too

of

variety "invisible" away,

dark

a

in the

in it;

they give

the

perceive

the

not

outline

the

sharply against

comes

do

the

melts

edge where

light, or with

figure in light contrasts

their

follow

trenchant, brilliant

the

hand,

fail to

they

nor

where

places

"

do

they

^while

light

the

in

lights

many

patch,

for

the

of the

contour

shade

other

the

on

darks

edge,

spots,

nor,

where

the

its

too

drawing

no

of

boundary

STUDENTS.

"

many

often

has

ART

variety

wrong

and

areas,

shading

the

FOR

DRAWING

72

darker

the

background. On

other

the

hand

subtlety generally form

figure. the

against

to

except

keen

a

of the

tones

though

line,

some

in

Students thick not

black

perceive

perhaps

on

the

faint,

the

a

drawing

paper,

do

of

delicate

the

realize

not

implement a

hardly

thigh

by

of

6

draw

B a

is

the

line

as

clear

thigh.

edge

a

as

they but

do

also

different

sities inten-

of.

They

capable

pencil, if

a

is

delicate

a

passage, the

visible in the

near

of

a

seen

is there

of the

plane

of

knee

track, partly because

cart

A

knees

expressed

this

well-lit

a

of the

sharp edge

upper

that will

be

the

refinement

they

and

border

a

edge

must

by

the

like

understand

right

the

represent

because

their should

line

top

utmost

illuminated.

little difference

so

cases

often

and

the

where

areas

thighs

thigh presents

suggesting

tone

the

thigh

thighs, yet

two

of

passages

similarly

of

near

eye,

there, and or

another

The

further

are

lighter

is that

example

common

the

in

against

comes

seated

there

used

lightly as

delicately a

6 H.


CHAPTER

THE

The

doubt whole

sketch,

of

course

The

for

study

be,

may

of

the

directly,

in

without

erasure.

point

a

itself

of

has

limited

time,

his

weakness,

also.

It

stands

in

careful

is

and

judgment

drawings,

produce, searchings

are

for

form

test

which

more

his to

student's

be

not

less

or

73

personality

the

his

tentative,

and

drawing,

there

are

drawing,

much

ledge know-

governing

teaching

days so

The

judge.

any

previous

taken

under

practically

artistic

a

ledge know-

impressions

his

in

make

to

exercise

principles

profit by

"

the

they spond corre-

of

observation,

the

have to

seen

now

the

and

as

They

therefore

embodied to

the

down

his

of

failure

on

set

plain

are

simple

a

in

result

trained

structure,

prolonged

but

and

paper

plastic representation, his

to

the

has

of

antique

accumulation

slow

student

he

and

the

experimental.

the

the

of

means

laboratory,

on

which

to

by

and

In

is without

called, exercise

testing

vigorous

with

science

discussion

exhibits

form,

tone,

somewhat a

and

be

to

come

study.

deliberate

are

in

vital

drawing

search

life, the

it has

as

really

the

SKETCHING.

TIME

FIGURE"

time

X.

but

study.

and

weeks

drawings though

it His to

as

with-


FOR

DRAWING

74

disciplinehe would

their

out

As

portions which to

the

seem

the

occupy

wanted here

for

"Science students

having

dead

same

of

much

serious

fever

and

on

where

all parts of That

any

continuous

a

is

but

it is

point in his he deprecates drawing to the this

condemned

also true

also

other, is bound

that

a

include

to

It cannot

study.

made

be

may

of ecstatic but

study is perhaps best looked

art

all be

at

as

a

pleasure,with interludes

nevertheless

accept

the

above

favourite

play the to

"

temper

upon

long, vigorous pastime, affordinga few

a

game,

own

drew

heat.

Art

"

Alfred

true

Reference

pages,

study, like

art

that

comments

of finish.

in these

which

often

Making,"

work

to

level

emphatically course

Holme's

Picture

of

those

fragments, but accumulating facts they

others

particularjob.

C. H.

Mr.

to

a

about

interesting, or It is

studying, but

not

were

most

paper.

Stevens, Leighton and they

be drawn

figure always, not merely

whole

and the sight-size,

figureshould

the

suggested above,

chance

the

ill-prepared to

come

exercise.

direct

more

STUDENTS.

ART

game

hold

under

sport

a as

a

"

and

have

observe

the

on,

to

as

will

descriptionof

their

such

it is necessary

to

the

sporting temperament rules,and to keep one's,

all circumstances.

Therefore, given the essential condition that

application

sportsmen

many

pretty close

pursuit. And properly,to

of close

moments

of the

cise, exer-

figureis to be doing something, standing firmly erect, sittingpassively,or lying prone, it will be that there is no hardship in indicatingthe whole of seen the

the

figure. The

sense

of

proportion

is the

more

fully^


THE

exercised, student the

FIGURE"

and

also

should

extremely important that the the pose nearly always demands

representation of the whole

clearlyin

the

should

brought

be

erect

75

it is

that

see

SKETCHING.

TIME

It is necessary

pose.

down

the feet

to

is shown

figure. This

that the

that these

"

lines

shall be

clearlyindicated, so that the figurestands firmlyand with How

weight.

often

does

one

students, standing figureswhich blown

with

over

In many

the whole

of the extremities.

the

on

drawing

often

paper shows

is the absence Another

to

line is shattered

Further,

of

proportion by the proportionsof the paper the

occupies the long;

if it

often

proportionsof long way of the

allowed the

drawing.

paper

occupies the short

to

way

of

the

the

opposite direction.

rules the better,but

one

at

first be

settled.

come

by

division

The

figurethe

first lines not

lines of direction.

the refinement Next

of the

sense

dictate

and

If the

figure

drawn

too

it is

paper

The

fewer

that in

mencing com-

limits shall

extreme

the only suggest and the placing.

they also fix the limits the main facts,the essential structure,

movement, Then

drawing

least is necessary,

of outline

should

No

is

the inanimate

"

it is often

disproportioned in a

there

biassing of the student's

of

dominate

drawing

by

extremity for which

an

is the

is

by

is

room.

which

be

float ?

no

sheet

could

obliged to -place it,to see nicely. The effect of piecemeal itself very plainly. A glaring

figure,the student

it goes

instance

almost

seem

of

drawings

which

sway,

composition of

the

cases

the omission

that

breath, or

a

in the

see

attempt

be made

at

at

pressed ex-

detail

or

this stage.

establishingof the chief planes,the

comes

the

of the

figureinto

dark

and

light,or rather

the


76

DRAV/ING

FOR

STUDENTS.

ART

determining of the edge dividing these edge again should the actual

as

that of the

"

difficult for the novice, obsessed of the be well

"shading"

Fig.

as

its

by

use

student

the

line

grasped

as

a

must

first be

this and Fig.

22

it

seen

as

the subtleties shows

to

the form

so a

contour

plex com-

from

light. The stage is sion divihe is by his own shading. It would dropped altogether,

to

cause

confusion, the

shading of details. follows a parallelcourse

mean

the

"direction," which line created

a

quite as

This

22.

tone, however,

bony contours,

were

is apt

expression. As

into the subtle and

teacher

understanding

Expression by with

as

study into drawing and

if the term

it is

being indeed

contour,

point of view

another

for simplified,

be

planes.

contour

first

must

later will

be

be

resolved

by the overlapping of muscular shading or expression by tone

plane without variation, of edge being left to a later stage. divided into two planes under the mass

or


THE

influence

of

trenchant

way.

because

sunlight,which Study

take

darks

lose

out

maps

of the nude

the

of

77

All

this

figurein

the

sunlight is valuable

in

tones half-

the

Also

planes.

dull, sooty qualitythey

in the studio.

on

SKETCHING.

TIME

of this clear division and

to

FIGURE"

apt

are

lucid

is definite and

out with-

blackness. Students

often

spend

shading while oblivious as

variety of

great

directions The

and

being

set

This

thoughts, for alterations,the

on

the

student

general build of

work

in

backed

by

up

later.

worked

over

the

for second

of the

each

from

subtleties

to

Next

line is drawn

the

referred

contour

influence

and

of the

set

lines

comes

in

shade

detail

background

stages the figurehas

on

worked

been

foot, and the resultingfinish is not that

and piecemeal tinkering,but of rightmethod treatment by logicalsteps. Further, the method that the interest is sustained the

then

edges

artistic

of

often

out

giving general

and

to

late.

figure.

of these

head

the

of

too

his steps and

figure. The

of direction

stage will be

next

adjoining tone. the edge study

at, and

the contour In

the

comes

The

a

alongsidethe

is the stage

retrace

now

expressing form.

Lastly

are

should

be held

simple indications, the structural

these

of

in the contours

in its essentials

out

plane, the drawing should

The

just

tone,

accompanied by neglect of

be

for self-criticism.

model

of

proportion.

figurenow

and

hollow

and

drawing of the figuremay

minutiae

on

generalplane of

the

to

curve

time

much

ensures

during the exercise.

student, after completing the

head

or

Too. other


DRAWING

78

ART

FOR

STUDENTS.

remainder

turns to the interestingpassages, akin to disgust or weariness.

Of

above

suggested time ten

it is not

course

allotted or

a

pose

may

a

left with

if omitted

force the students when

they

his

impressions in

for

a

hours'

be

The has

at

be

to

kept to

20

order.

session

In these

have

must

to

30

attempt the

is called

time

fragment.

a

beginner requires from two

supposed that the method adopted continuously. The Quite short poses of vary.

suggested above

stages

even

be

thing some-

be

whole, otherwise

a

themselves the

should

five minutes

even

figureas

to

to

with

they find

brief attempts but

compressed,

in mind.

minutes

As to

a

rule down

set

following arrangement any

rate

the

with

met

approval of students after several years' experiment. First a sittingof forty-five minutes, followed by ten or fifteen or

minutes'

the

time

same

of

remainder minute

poses,

engender

a

the

given

to

being

excitement

of twenty

pose

exercise.

memory

a

minutes

with

taken

last

which

makes

ten

or

because a

The five

they

longer pose

slow.

Referring again

First

made

to

question of movement,

the

tion men-

theory of Dynamic Symmetry It is not proposed set forth by Mr. as Jay Hambidge. discussion of the theory here; it will proto enter on a bably provoke much discussion and controversy, but tw" points of interest in drawing from the life arise out of it. may

be

a

sittingis occupied

these

certain

dull and

seem

Next

rest.

it would

than

a

appear

that

a

maximum

amount

of

ment move-

within figure is contained If the rectangleenclosingthe figureis narrower the action subsides, the figureshuts up square, obtains

square.

of the

when

the

a

as


THE

it

a

If

were.

FIGURE"

the

the

square,

which

to

is

within

important

that

points

rectangle. points

the

by

other

the

diagonals

If action

hand of

a

other

maximum

is

and

than acter char-

lines

oblique

pass

weakens.

widened.

rectangle

of

directions

flags

wider

creeping

enclosing

and

the the

is

rectangle

the of

give

79

partake

as

division

be,

the

to

emphasized

may

SKETCHING.

on

begins

the

it

important

rectangle

action

Secondly, whatever

TIME

movement

to

less


CHAPTER

XI.

RELATED

the

When some

of Too

often

out.

For

do

not

in

real

and

been

is

rhythmical, so

and

meet,

shoulder. or

the

lines

of

gestures in

heads

The pass

varying

laying

a

speakers

are

to

one

80

a

all

the

more

the Two the

conversation,

hand

creates

consciously

degrees.

the

on

establish

which

from

in

dancing,

unstudied,

are

incline

movements

union

and

a

another.

now

other's

sympathetic

unified

not

a

gestures

In is

they

people

their

line

from

if

even

watch

them.

and

because

not

we

intercourse,

why

so

constantly

the

emotion

their

wonder

When

in

year

figure

will

pression ex-

exercises.

a

remain

between

and

These

form. and

ordinary

speaker

bond

then

and

movement,

also

earnest

more

link

movements

expresses

people

line

in

but

because

line

of

art

a

take

They

cinema,

form

the

and

happily.

the

appropriate other

they

with

figure

a

single figure

together.

in

or

the

isolated,

crowded

and

devise

to

at

draw

to

line

others,

seen

movements

which

add

together

life

of

compositions

book,

are

learned

time

plod

their

come

number

it is

students

have

they

has

proportion

detail,

sketch

their

pupil

of

sense

FIGURES.

and two

In

but a

trolling con-

one, more


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", -J

"

4)i4%N

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.

~-"S3k2.;-,(^Q

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X

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-fe'tJ *^-""sr^7^,-j""

:

F"ic.. 23.

'-"7


#

V.)

Fig.

24

"

A

chalk

conlinucel together,

drawing hv One

the

li\ Wattcau. lines

alniojt

'flic

lines

of

the

arms

flow

drapery on the lady'sshoulders. expects the lady to rise. of

the

82


RELATED

obvious

case,

FIGURES.

figurebowed

one

83

in

grief, and

the

other

bending sympatheticallytowards her, the lines flow in together so obviously that the idea of consolation is complete without the necessityfor appropriate sorrow facial expression. The lines of the figuresexpress the emotion. In

such

exercises

for at

sought

an

first

then

seeing the be looked

must

In such

for.

(fig.23

associations

be drawn, and Two a

The

a

the variations

given

in which

cup

round

knees

the Or

the face

follow

the

again they form

be

useless

to

is

eye

combination

The

25). figurespullingor holding as

and

arms

hands

one.

entwined

arms

controllingline. of

feet

the

should

be

position. Attention in the figurein grief which is held, or where clasped shape of the latter, (fig.

in their

the hands

to

must

other, for the

standing with

or

relations

be

the

hands

sympathetic

should

23).

the two

of the

and

than

worse

by the united

good instance

noted, form

"

two

as

figuresseated

furnish

It is

figures detached.

hands, the lines formed must

controlling lines

earlystage. figureand then

'draw

one

these

a

bowl

when

they

are

used

to

'drink from. These three

few

exercises more

minutes, Such

to act

emotional

A

need

to

will be

wait

of

for professional

ready, for

a

their parts.

will enable

work

by combinations

be followed

figures. There is no models, for pupils in turn

or

whether

may

the student

gestures and

to

face the

combinations

scious uncon-

of real life,

sympathetic or antagonistic. friend

once

told

the

writer

that

when

making


DRAWING

84

Studies

for'

violent select

figures space

locked

posed of

the

the

to

wrestlers

into

the

shape,

could

sketch, be

examined.

wrestling,

had

a

the

so

time

only

indicating

suggestion with

Afterwards,

legs. fit

in

perhaps

with

together,

between

of he

that

pyramidal

say

STUDENTS.

compositions

movements

contour,

a

of

series the

were

models detail

a

ART

FOR

the

structure

to

the

of

the

of

aid and


CHAPTER

XII.

EDGE

If the

white

a

ball of

contour

The

being Then, into to

the normal

of

or

solidity

by

noticing and

searching It

for

achievement sense

of

of

the

portraits public frames.

to

but

be

discussed

But For reveals

the

be art

the

natural

almost

poster

everything,

which

on

those

The which

has he but

difficult

to

students

to

to

uses

flattens

whether of the

the

the

learn

the

the

broad

it also.

the

losing

is

object

really

out"

"coming

student

lighting,

is

stage

point

artistic. are

of

roundness

on

This

this

the

plane

or

exist

to

contours.

to

the

melts

paintings

are

at

relief

galleries to

for

dark.

ceases

following is lost.

ground back-

contour

take

to

grey.

the

and

or

accustomed

necessary

declares

light

Drawings

outline

of

also,

light

relieve,

that

against

tell

the

by

such

the

in

weapons. which

made

so

background,

grey

disappears,

14).

flatness

is

'depicted,

where

form,

hardly

need

tell

between

(fig.

the

a

will

outline

represent, not

will

side

appearance

where

to

dark

the

be

only

can

side

points,

one,

before

midway

sight,

objects

see

the

two

dark

placed

light

tone

a

at

be

the of

contour

STUDY.

vulgar

admiring of

their of

use

all

outline In

these


DRAWING

86

the student

pages

ART

FOR

considered

is not

strivingto acquire a mastery by know

far he

can

will prove

Experiment the

whole

If the dark

figureis

all in All

results.

lightand

shade

with

the

lightwithout realistic

from

made

of this

use

In other

that whenever flatness

a

lightbehind the

spectator

shadow, and

again

have

painters

melting of words

a

used

a

the ness flat-

strong

and

the contour

continuous

results.

it,it shows

Caravaggio onwards,

,

points. an

student

clearlydefined,

viewed

ment move-

of realistic treatment.

the

to

as

do this he must

to

flat;if the light is behind

and

figureis seen

have

is

contour

and

in the way

go

and

structure

over

but

composing,

as

of the appearance,

means

how

STUDENTS.

all such way the half-

at

outline

implies

incompletelyexpressed figure. This

paradox suppliesthe clue to the study of form by light and shade, in its simplest terms. The

placed

object,whether before

in nature must

one

in

smudging The

background midway

in

the half

to

tone

between

tone

be the

tone

of

object. Now

Yet

livingfigure,should

or

dark, that is, equal in

light and the

a

cast

outline

backgrounds

line takes

its a

tone,

only edges. be always

"

cannot

one

in order

to

reveal

part of the object,nor

degree of background.

line the

a

outlines

no

imaginary line sensed

an

the

by

are

outlines;

use

is not

but

object and

there

contrast

This

tone

contrast

varying in intensityor

even

form.

of the background,

by the in

the

eye,

and

between can

presenting re-

the

be represented

width.

The

less mechanical ground backor place of a more and gives opportunity for close edge study


EDGE

which

is

insisted

87

STUDY.

practically absent

backgrounds

where

are

upon.

From

the

character

possibleto

determine

can

looking at

see

on

of

the

of the

the tone

be One

background.

that the model

18

fig.

it should

outline

posed

was

ground background, although this backis exhas been omitted pressed intentionally. This by the strength of the line where the lightfalls of that part of the the contour, and by the softness on in shade, which contour approached the background so nearly in tone that a clearlydrawn outline would have before

low

a

toned

falsified the relations. To

backgrounds

put

livingmodel and

is to waste

behind

studies

better spent

time

antique or edge study,

of the on

confuses

consists drawing with painting, which in spreading tone. essentially Drawings by students who overlook this principleof effect. expressive contour, have a vague indeterminate The of the lightside is often drawn contour timidly and faintlywith the mistaken notion that any line on that side is too

dark.

round

the the

draw

Or

In

contour.

figureby

environment,

still,a

worse

this

itself

which

as

case

hard

line

is

students

if it could

is unthinkable.

are

drawn

all

trying to

exist without

Expressive

an

ing draw-

All implies not only the figurebut its background. other drawing is mere diagram making, very necessary at times, but alien to the aim in this connexion, of realising the figure as student-like completely as direct and methods

will allow.

The

place

old way a

white

of screen

simplifyingthe behind

the

student's

object.

task This

to

was was


supposed the

trouble

any

regard

in

forced

furthest

from

behind

forward

him, though

reflected

for, and

the

the spectator

of the

is determined

contour

the

spoilingthe

been

ening the black-

the

lightfalls the

lightside being and

pose,

of

effect

the

allow

taught to

of the pose

important,the emphasis way

was

it not.

saw

destroyed by

was

right). Also

had

though they

by the

on

or

destroyed

students

most

emphasis

this

(becausegenerallythe lightis

contrast

light,which

Lastly,and

that

show

shade, which

in

contour

the left

to

edge by

still did,

will

First, the glare of the background

the exercise.

unduly

thus

from

consideration

moment's

a

ruined

the

student

freeingthe

drawn

of the paper

background.

But

this

STUDENTS.

ART

represent the whiteness

to

thus

upon, to

FOR

DRAWING

88

figure,and

the

on

white

background, ineffective,

rendered

making

unity of

treatment

impossible. Another

feature

is the 'dark

the But

edge of

solidityor

for if eye

is

looks

one

from

should

should

the dark

follow

not, when

?

be

to

to

the

tioned men-

lightand to

as

beginner looks

The a

line

compassed a

at

accordingly. in that way,

flower

the line of shade

that is,the eye in

be

painted so

object,as

round

any

of the

or

puts down

is not

mass

Hence

contours.

student and

object,and

at

drawn

of the form

naturallyattracted

lightarea the

an

should

edge, both

shall it be

the volume

express

edge study which

of the

nature

How

areas.

of

pot, the

dividing the

forgetsto

look

at

representing solidity,the action

drawing

of the

the contours

unbiassed of the

eye,

object,


EDGE

look

directlyat them, will at

contours

Here

one

comes

controversy art

schools

of

and

especiallythe

important and

very

draw

to

a

he

these limitations.

has

agitated

student

he

sees,

to

student

has

he finds it

is

follow

worked

at

quite impossible

to

of his materials,

conventions of

ing interest-

the

what

before

limitations

restrict his efforts,and

;

blur somewhat,

and

already mentioned, which all periods. Not seldom

this advice, for the

argument

of focus

a

upon

implored to be honest; nature faithfully. But a drawing five minutes follow

these

but at the line of shade, when fall out

once

89

STUDY.

pictorial representation,

will be

wise

Honesty

one

it is for greengrocers,

not

to

try

stand under-

to

rule out

can

of the

for artists,at least

in this connexion. The whether

immediate he shall

problem before emphasize the edges

the result that he loses the effect of

appearing as

if cut the

on

of card,

out

volume

of

the

is

of his

object,with roundness, the object

whether

or

student

the

he

shall

centrate con-

object by blurring his

and Netherlandish edges. The primitive Italians their paintersadopted the earlier method, and we see work flat in spite of much to be essentially pains taken to

model

followed

the form.

Leonardo

him, have

chosen

da to

Vinci, and the

accentuate

If the Venus by blurringthe contours. the National Gallery be examined, it will of the

contour

and

fro

cheek

that

the

and

shoulder

has

those

of be

been

who

roundness

Velasquez seen

in

that the

brushed

to

edge is almost lost. Sir Joshua Reynolds often made edges wonderfullyenveloped. Early portraits(three-quarter view),however, show the hard edge of the further cheek; consequently the so


DRAWING

90

weakened

nose,

face.

by

If the

hand, the

at

nose

lines

from

contours

be

which

translated

form.

The

moral

of

form

modelling Extreme

the

to

by teachers, the

Fig.

1

consist

in

of

the

marked

always

that

eyesight.

disadvantage

a

he

Jupiter with

be

Students

interest to their outline

the

of

contour

unvarying line such

contours.

Holman

often

by

produced

that the the way

wishing

to

accentuate

tinguish dis-

eye.

figure need

is

as

noted

naked a

We

Hunt's

like that, for he could

saw

It should

in

to

consideration

into

taken

in

success

keen

on

sight is often

of the line is conditioned on

be

depend

that the

8 shows

piece of wire.

drawing

was

the contours

to

powerful sight of

moons

an

show

seems

not

not

pictures. Doubtless the

he

because

sight is losing its first sharpness.

whose

result

forward.

comes

canvas.

of

and

by the

providing himself with exact drawn were to paint. His portraits exact painted ones, and he wanted

does

students,

covered

be

of

all this

keenness

young

or

Holbeins

Windsor

by tracingon The

into

cheek

the

hard

are

pressed against the

appears

relieves

once

the definite purpose

with

see

of

STUDENTS.

ART

contrast,

contour

Holbein's

to

FOR

not

by

a

ness expressive-

the

light falls

give variety and it in

an

arbitrary

ence especiallywhere bony forms crop up, without refernatural lightingwill give this to the lighting. But and artificial emphasis more trulythan any invented

way,

method. careful and well constructed Judged by this standard many the drawings are yet mere diagrams, because varietyof the edge is disregarded. This is seen, too, in cases

as

mentioned

above

where

the

contours

of

two


91


Fig.

2

5a

"

A An

drawing made with charcoal on Michallct. example ot variet\' of edge treatment. 9^


EDGE

forms

both

delicate

in

and

light,

of

Appreciation of

consideration of

object

an

consists of

in

the

shape strength

;

the of

the

at

many

ankle,

the

the

line

three

arms

of

various

in

will

pose,

creasings

Y

the

ignore

down

to

armpit, and

limb

that

one

Y's,

of

arm,

meeting of

neck

overlappings.

course,

and

they-

that

so

never

the

lines,

with

show

are

will

irregular as

generally-

together

come

pinned

These

a

by"

contours,

fault of

say

emphasis be

any

opposite

The

of

stimulated

be

"the

Observation

contours

lines.

points

that

handling..

refined

may

contours

two

would

eye

three

and

the

strength.

occurs,

edge

delicate,,

These

most

emphasis."

in

if

of

dogma

drawing

Further,

the

variety

the

vary

same

vary.

demand

being

contour

nearer

visible.

scarcely

contours

93.

the

overlap,

perhaps

sharp-edged

STUDY.

a

Y

equalwise other-

point occur

shoulder,,


CHAPTER

XIII.

ARTISTIC

Artistic

from

the

if of

books

the

students

armpit, of

key

for Lessons

careful

of

sake..

"Intellectual

work

of

out

now

of

study

in

the

is the

rather

his

print,

hardest

be

used

played dis-

than

"Lectures but

student,

art

that

mean

it should

figure,

Moody,

book

a

the

not

that

but

the

definitely

more

does

ical anatom-

tighten

to

mark

This

studied,

be

own

Art,"

the

worth

may

construction

its

on

they

regions.

not

the

to

that

so

for

figure

model

their

from

Fresh

the

the

ing look-

diagrams,

flayed.

ask

ings draw-

Many

astray.

search

even

those

should

been

when

perspective,

anatomical

mere

had

the

forms

student

a

are

model

They

or

a

figure

diagrams

anatomy as

leads

details. knee the

often

like

so-called,

Anatomy,

ill- digested,

as

ANATOMY.

says

work

of

and

well

one

:

"

all. .

consider,

Just effort

the

for

plague work,

figure,

to

necessary

ankle.

The

you you

instance,

at

will

making

^unsatisfactory

least

get

of

that

twice

into

trouble

and

a

it will

:

time

every sum

details

will

total a

of

.

of

probably

delay

you

.

the

avoiding and

knowledge

feelings

94

of

position

week

a

altogether work

result

the

master

want

the

your

draw

the

annoyance,

hundred

times


ARTISTIC

ANATOMY.

9S

thought which

greater than the expenditure of time and would at

have

importance

framework

and

and

the

crops

indicates and

difficulty

the

surmount

to

necessary

first."

First in

bone

been

clear

muscular

shows

and

avoid

the

It settles the

at

bony ment move-

the

jointswhere

build, it

its actual

of form

accents

by a squareness appreciatedif the

be

must

wooliness.

fill up

masses

of the

knowledge

almost

shape, which

to

clear

proportions,and important

cut

drawing is

a

its articulations.

up

the

is

On

the gaps

the other

and

the

hand

suggest

first

the

great lines of the pose. All surface

the

parts of the skeleton

forms

should

the shoulders

be

determine

which

the

carefullystudied, and especially

hips. The former may be described as a floating girdle,for they are attached only by the collar in the breastbone), bones the remainder the notches (to. ments. attachand tendinous being free except for muscular and

Hence

the

comparative freedom

of action, while

the

of clavicle, complexity of structure, the combination humerus and scapula,add to the difficulty of expressing

the

forms.

The

hips, on

girdle,firmlyattached

to

the

other

the backbone.

hand, form The

two

a

fixed

halves

of

the shoulder

girdlecan move independently,but the hip girdle moves only as a whole, like a basket tilted. When in a standing that the pose the hips are aslant,this means is restingthe weight on model the leg to the side where the

hip basket is higher, and therefore a vertical line 'drawn, say, through the pit of the neck, will pass through

the

ankle

of that

leg, which

.support the weight.

The

slants other

inwards

in order

to

leg, v/hich carries little


or

FOR

DRAWING

96

ART

STUDENTS.

weight, droops

no

with

the lower

the

hips,

knee

of

lower

than

side of the

hence

that

is

leg

that of the

supporting leg. And by way of compensation head

and

often

slant

opposite

tion, direc-

the

shoulders in the

forming the

long

which

lines

radiating

lines of the and

right angles,

of

series

a

cross

at

pose

steady

it.

(fig.26). reduced

be

may

articulations

main

The

simplest terms such

similar

to

the

in

thing Some-

construction

the

ment commence-

drawing

every

which

has

All

structure.

of any

and

movement

to

i6a,

fig.

this

figure

claim

diagram

26.

form of

a

fig.

like must

by

is shown

as

their

to

tions articula-

the

ers including the shouldare represented by cross lines.

study

It is for want of

these

articulations

of the

crossingsor

that

the

draw-

FlG.

26.


ARTISTIC

ANATOMY.

ings of beginners look boneless to have no ankles, and appear

hips. It should be largelysupplies the

noted

97

and

wrists,

to

they

nothing of

say

especially,and

skeleton

the

crossings of

that these

reason,

for

yet wooden,

extremities

clearly in

is

the

the

is caused the

that is

a

the

ankle

inner than

the

of the

matter

construction.

bony In

elbow

obliquity by the fact

higher

outer,

seen

In

ankle.

latter

lique. ob-

are

This

and

the

elbow

the

slant

from

comes

origin than

the

of

the

the

supinators being higher of

those

the

flexors. Fig.

shows

26

these

in

FiG.

roborates In these

with

cross

some

mind

is that anatomical construction

in

from

a

cor-

drawing the figure.

degree of torsion

point at

in

borne

to

lines,all marking the bony

radiate

be

point 27.

rightprocedure

poses

ings slanting crossat an earlystage the drawing. The

no

or

as

in

fig.

muscular

great distance

27,

ture, struc-

from

the


The

figure.

students of to

showing

as

which

line think

of

or

and

teacher, and

cause

these

The

drawing and

often

the

figure

in action

throne.

A

freely

of form

which

This

take

turning

of the

contracts,

on

study

the

neck

contraction

of

observation

a

students

applied are

such.

to

nude

of the

have

walks

should

artistic

and

from

consist

in the

marking

the

the

model

changes-

often

the

manuals.

the

forward,

and

muscle

mastoid

on

that

turns

the

of what

place

will

head correct

to

of the

that the

in

right

that

supposed

sterno-cleido

the

process

it follows

is often

takes

the

is

misinterpreted

neck

rotates,

It

which

(sternocleido mastoid)

muscle

left.

for

anatomy,

regular

When

skull

the

to

wrongly

as

students

model

detail

head. the

studied

be

and

singly

place.

being brought

is turned

them

Usually they

above.

the

book

a

the

much

exercise

anatomical

function

of the

will, the

should

An

for

only glimpse

at

muscles

the

mentioned

is when

is not

students

the the

by

by showing

learning

should

regular

moving

skull

of

is answerable

Too

imagined

are

is rendered

service

fashion

in groups,

seen

figure,

in

effect.

anatomical

but

real

a

old

detached

the

across

apt

are

whether

lines,

rhythmical

for

composition

They

them.

is the

interest

an

for the

basis

mystifies

sometimes

that

direction

structural

a

has

matter

in

closer

the

movement

The

radiation.

of

point

the

greater

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

DRAWING

98

the

head the

side, error.


"^"ir""""J**""?="MMi(f"?""i'^'

Fig.

28

"

A

The

drawing

with

reticent

use

black

and

white

of the white

99

chalk

on

chalk should

gre)' Michallet be noted.

paper.


Fjg. Swan. white

20

A

"

The

drawing to

hlaclv and wliitc chalk paper with should be noted the work and the

blue

of simplicity

chalk is used

untouched.

on

divide

the

figureinto

a

few

by ]. M. way

the

planes. Large areas are [BritishMuseum.


CHAPTER

DRAWINGS

Toned used

it

for in this

of

when

light."

With

perforce of

most

the

to

Work

toned

on

to

with

as

passages

the

closely One

making

paper,

of

common

error

a

to

freely

it to for

the

be

times some-

"in

the

the

the

as

more

paper

side, and less

or

much

with

hence

work

white

dark

tone

so

paper, on

say,

the

the

empty.

the

follows

light more

painting. be

may

its

disregarded assumed

of

as

and

dark,

method

white,

on

lighter tones

completed

(and owing

on

is concerned

method

tone,

is it suitable

modelling

is to

is done

the

the

this

use

tone

That

paper

half

or

Leighton's drawings

chalk

the

cease.

leave

is

carefully-

Especially

it fosters

black

or

modelling

tendency

first

should

for

pencil

often

known.

painting

drawing,

is

for

middle

Lord

and

chalk

studies,

labour.

object approaches

the

has

and

well

are

white

and

ready-made

drapery studies,

medium

PAPER.

making

a

time

saves

Students

of

when

provides

hence

TONED

black

with

painters,

chosen, and

ON

paper

by

XIV.

noted

drawing

the

tone

the

result

It is that

in black

completeness

white), afterwards

lights, with

here.

the

of

that

the

has

eye

the

using

the

on.

paper white

all the

tones

of

toned

consciousl suband chalk are

falsified. When

drawing

on

toned

paper

lOI

the

figure

should

be

G2.


DRAWING

102

in order

examined assumed

The

be

to

black

indicate

the

place

the

emphasis),a

black

of

space

representing the

two,

should

chosen

paper.

the main

in order should

of

cases

being

ture, struc-

chalk

white

for

plain paper tone

the

be substituted

(except

be

may

place the figure,to

suggest

lights. Generally the

touch

not

chalk

to

areas

that of

to

first to

and

darks,

which

in tone

be used

the white

STUDENTS.

determine

to

may

chief

the

ART

equivalent

chalk

then to

FOR

special

left between

the

standing for the

as

tone

of paper. Often darkens

when

close

the

would

best

have

drawing if

corresponds with In

of

if

drapery only, as short and

arm

at

form

the

drapery from

be

a

be

found

Moody's with

of

a

that

be

the

(fig.29).

horse.

should

be

draw

the

They sometimes continuity of

the

figuremuch

of

by the pull of

and

there

deep parts

of the

folds

the stuff rests

upon

it,and

carefully searched

interestingmatter

in Leonardo "Lectures

in Lanteri's

-paper is the

Beginners

planes

the

right place and

fullyclothed

the

of

ing points of support, this often resultseries of radiating curves. It should

figure,for

deal

in

only

the

beautiful

shapes should

good

clothes

suggested by

remembered the

a

on

Even

the

in

untouched

sleeve, having omitted

a

hand. is

that the tone

it is in the

beneath.

student

tone,

draped figuresevidence

form

the

half

of the model,

the tones

drawing from

sought

The

the

paper

of the exercise

sufficed.

part of the

stop

toned

on

unduly the parts approaching

finding at paper

working

on

da

out.

sent reprethese

(fig.28).

A

concerning drapery will Vinci's in "Notes," and

Art," while

"Modelling,"

Vol.

the II.

subject is

dealt


CHAPTER

EARLY

AND

MODERN

REPRESENTATION

OF

If

Botticelli's of

are

Venus,

the

model.

than

the his

The

Judged

in

never

the

in

and

and

Italian

is

no

the

detracts

the

his

are

Art

of

Chinese

of the

convention

rather derived

drawn

has

perhaps

from

even

or

is

in

lack

a

of

is this

especially

work,

contemporary

ground,

forbids

the

perhaps

clear

sentation repre-

invariably

were

Botticelli's

might Japanese

be

struction con-

shown. of

beauty said

masters,

to so

claim easy

contours.

and

Trecento

generally lightly

empirical

He

the

He and

rather

and

from

form.

from

directly

"sympathetic"

there

on

which

toes,

way

with

fluent

exhibit

all

suavity

kinship

firmly

which

nude.

those

foreshortening

of

line

like

stand

extreme

this

the

figure generally,

to

seem

All

of

as

form.

sculpture,

standards,

feet, which,

the

because

modern

by in

seen

classic

late

so

noticed

worked

not

is

engravings

contemporary

of

observation. of

one

are

student

evidently

reminiscences

even

mannerisms

treatment

of

result

examined,

the

to

has

painter

be

certain

interest

great

The

on

FORM.

early painting

an

XV.

shaded

Quattrocento

forms.

expression

personal observation,

than

that

of

from

wall

painting.

103

The

periods

a


Leonardo the

FOR

DRAWING

104

rules

da Vinci

In

shade.

their soft

his work

formulated

all that and

expression of form

are

of shade"

the "lines

seen

by light and He

smoky (sfumato) appearance.

or

first notable

light and

STUDENTS.

changed

the

governing

ART

academic, and

shade,

as

his work

on

in schools

taught

now

the

and the

was

teaching of of art,

was

founded. Since

Leonardo

the

"appearance."

upon

light and

shade

study

of

The

photograph,

it is, and

as

drawing has depended

essentially

simulating the

endless

has tightened the chain of gradations of natural lighting, tradition.

Consequently

honest,

to

draw

students

what

they

students

to

conceded,

if the

represented,what is called

object with the

are

limits

it is clear that it is

plane surface

curved

if the

advice. main test

be

ful, truth-

nature

Moral

issues

thing

is

of the convention

is

for be

of appearance

its environment

"

to

be

which'

drawing?

First a

But

be artists.

to

copy

to

see,

impossible task and misleading are needlessly dragged in. The

told

are

quite impossibleto show

on

gradationsof lightoccurring on a the student do In attempting to so himself, loses his way, and consequently

all the

surface.

merely deceives all profitfrom his study of drawing in line and tone. and The great realistic painters,such as the Dutch the Spaniards, chose a few tones. They painted in the general tone, and into this they brushed the dark and the the latter they placed the high light, On light tones. and in the dark the reflected light. Their practiceshows that these

few

Drawings

tones

made

are

with

the essential the stump

are

ones.

speciallyopen

to


EARLY

the

AND

MODERN

REPRESENTATION

objection that

FORM.

OF

loj

working, students delude themselves with the idea that they are making a complete expression of the tones of the subject,whereas the fictitious relief, apparently destroying the plane of the paper, surface is a vulgar and meretricious quality,crushing the student's powers of artistic appreciation. Students

should

convention, and

continuous

by

understand

all

that

drawing

is

a

impossible fullyto realise any of a trick,(thehistoryof Art is object,except by means full of instances, from the grapes of Appelles onwards), and should be urged not the to cofy object, but to express In the

and

a

more

essentials

those the

sense

they try

more

made

from

make

the outlines for

they their

their be

can

discern.

drawings like, gence. artistic intelliartistic effort,

an

drawing

cannot

be

art.

a

of the

old-fashioned

practice Outline contour or drawing, such ornament (withsections)drawn by art

disposes at outline drawing.

architect

to

artistic intention, for

with

This

as

which

of form

they cloud and confuse Every drawing done should

divorced

of

it is

that

of carver

once

to

follow, is

a

convention

used

fessionall pro-

study, pursued for long periods,it is of things. of interest in the appearance but

destructive

Nothing

as

written

is intended

above

to

relieve

the

of taking his drawing as responsibility have far as possible. We only to look at the great the at early work, say, of Velasquez, masters,

student

from

Rembrandt, Holbein,

to

the

Franz see

Hals,

what

into their work, what

an an

and

amount

incredible

at

the

drawings

of

eyesight they put: of pains they amount

of


io6

DRAWING

with

took

in

himself and

a

felt

A with

the

by

exhibit

the

could

be

is

expression not

'decorative

He

done.

only effect

of

detail,

that

in

the

he

may

pots student

reported

once

and

sculptor

decorator effect

wish

the

to

his

on

of

secure.

but

figures realistic

most

hands

he

that

declared

with

incompatible

not

writer

skin

the

meant

possible

homely

on

modern

any

the

spent

pseudo-decorative

of

pores

light

living

modern

the

slurring

very

of

great

a

of

speaking

of

friend

Velasquez

etc.

hardly

which

degree

necessary.

obtained

and

a

conversation

who,

of

to

dress, effect

the

studying

pans,

has

of

details

mere

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

a

true

enhancing

would if

it

mode

artist, the


CHAPTER

DRAWING

Many

their

themselves

student

the

interest

visual

taught

those

in

them,

thus

which

he

nose,

and

field

of

desired.

drawing

quite his

than

basis

of

an

and

moments,

have

thoroughly

not

then

are

They

memory.

of

may

really

Consequently

at

of

with after

107

its

used fact of whole

the

art.

it

it and

being

outline

often

takes

sometimes are

times some-

for

reproduce

at

the

of

over

present

to

their

subject. for

construction

looked

share

the

Pupils

expected

the

some

Lecocq,

intricate

examined

acquainted

the

extended

form.

have

of

statement

imaginative

definite

after

naturally

was

practised

long

drawing

he

precise

those

object

and

exercise

and

in

art

copies,

teaching

as

other

shown

structure.

his

representative

missing

they

first

His this

clear

had

necessity

form,

flat

the

obtaining

Memory lines

from

had

of

the

definite

a

days

from

has

schools

by

have

translation

The

emphasized of

retention

memory

Boisbaudran

taken

especially

Lecocq

necessity

from

over.

de

now

from

drawing

were

Lecocq

MEMORY.

artists

in

days

of

writings in

FROM

professional

train

to

XVI.

it

few

a

from

superficially, made

themselves

proportions memory

but

vision

and has

a


DRAWING

io8

become

FOR

ART

dim, they elaborate

STUDENTS.

with

imaginary details. objectintimatelybefore they can memory,

its construction, and be

be

points of view, and, if need class of students

teacher

art

is often

student

know

must

it from

draw

scrutinized

the

memory;

found

from

the power

of

form

find the memory

various

gives the

memory

slackest

The

moments.

be

to

from

be, handled.

drawing

puzzling

some

They

especiallyits proportions, should

ascertained; it should A

drawing from

their so-called

far ahead

art

of his fellows

in

and reproduces seemingly without visualizing, of effort,while students with more developed sense may

Galton, how

in

"series

a

definition to

"lOo

and

"Inquiriesinto of

visualize

to

"the some

in full

light and

colour,

defined

that

a

memory,

form, while power

at

with

as

others

power,

dimness

the

saw

they could,

a

the mental

breakfast

that while

they the

to

would

the

illumination,

work," he asked

table." scene

the

The

answers

perfectlyclearly, objects so sharply

they said, have

experienced not

addressed

distinguished in

were

of illumination, an

number

Faculty," tells image"

fields of intellectual

showed

had

Human

least half of whom

in other

or

difficult.

very

queries related

colouring of at

men,

science them

in his

exercise

admit

them

drawn in

gaps

their of

indistinctness that

they had

any

all of

vizualizing. the power of drawing

Whether

"gift" or

not, there

obtained

when

is

memory

no

doubt work

is

from

memory

be

that the best results

regarded

not

as

a

are

merely

part of the study of drawing, but as a system in itself, for instance, that practised by the Japanese. such as,

(figs.30, 30A).


The

late

DRAWING

FROM

Joseph

Crawhall

MEMORY.

was

109

of

example

an

a

ing train-

in art studies

work. His early exclusively through memory directed were by his father, who taught him to

observe, and rubber were

then

thrown

secured.

records

allowed,

not

was

make

aside

All

and

until

through

from

attempts,

the

desired

life this habit

completely artistic expressionof and him some was

his friends

have

after another,

one

impression was of seeking after

his visual

told

India-

memory.

their

memory,

sisted, per-

seeing

at

sorrow

a

destroy beautiful drawings, which, however, lacked qualityhe sought. His desire to express himself and overwhelming when it manifested spontaneous,

itself,and

often

at

interestingfeature which

had

the most was

inconvenient

the sudden

lain dormant

for

emergence a

Another

times. of

sions impres-

long period.

One

of

an episode drawings, the subject of which was from the Spanish bull-ring,was made fifteen years after such a scene, he had actuallywitnessed (fig.31).

his latest

subjects,animals and birds, and of his of expression, watercolour medium linen, show him on been much influenced to have by the Japanese. It is that at his death his studio was significant empty save for two were no drawings. There partly finished of study, no bundles of notes, and no stacks of records above, he destroyed all 'drawings,for as mentioned His drawings are hard to see, no public imperfect work. gallerieshaving acquired any, but a good many ductions reproHis

choice

of

of his work volumes But

gift,it

of the while

can

be

seen

scattered

among

the

"Studio."

Crawhall

is evident

that

may

have

all art

been

students

a

case can

of

special profitby a a


DRAWING

no

trainingin

FOR

and

memory,

ART

STUDENTS.

from

gain

it certain

important

benefits. Whistler draw

to

he

way

it before

painted

pupil

of

Millet

of

his nocturnes on

his

the

the

artist who

Menpes'

on

trained

self himof the

account

the spot with

and

scene,

described

a

the

friend, effect;

consciousness

picture the

Lecocq,

an

and

memory,

interestingreading.

very a

from

his back

kept

instance

an

studied

turned

and

is

We

during the evening, following morning, makes may

of whose

some

almost students

consider he

him

knew.

example of a painter,who lounged about Barbizon, apparently the laziest man there, but all the time absorbing the form and spiritof the peasant life in his studies he "squeezed around him. Afterwards the sponge" and produced those paintings,of which the simplicityof the composition, the largeness of the forms and the unity of the whole, make it certain that they were not produced out of doors under an umbrella, and amid the distractions of details and variety,which invariably when

occur

When

Chinese

is another

paintingfrom nature. looks at the drawings and paintingsof the one work is and one Japanese all memory of the expression of the intimate character at one

is

"

amazed

"

extends with the structure to the familiarity minutest detail. drawing Early exercises in memory insist on the take should of this quality and note the students exercises being of objectswith which are examine familiar, or which they can closely. The procedure such steps as of examination might follow some these : (i)general proportions;(2)type form, as cube or cylinder,on which the objectis based ; (3)main line of form.

The

"


DRAWING

FROM

MEMORY.

enclosing shape; (4)construction Quite another type of exercise students

visualize

iii

in detail of the

object. asking the

in

consists

familiar

object,which, however, is not produced at the time. An interestingexercise is which Mr. Catterson Smith has initiated,consisting one of drawing with the eyes closed. The exercise allows the following of the mental image by the hand without the embarrassment of seeing how far short the drawing comes. Certainly this method gives good results in to

composition, the and rhythmical. In take

into account

being generally animated

movement

the

drawing

a

figurefrom its powers

it will be well

memory,

of movement.

Most

to

really moving, the sky,

interesting pictorial material is evanescent, shifting. The clouds chase one another across birds fly, animals walk, trot or gallop,water flows,breaks and in into foam, or marshals people meet waves, If drawing is separate, all the time constantlymoving. of this living cinematographic attempted in presence full of finds one's sketchbook picture, too often one line is lucky to shreds and secure a patches. One without the detail. suggesting the movement A training in memory drawing of the right sort is ditions wanted, and it should consist in approximating the conThe

of the world

those

to

life

model

Every period of memory

a -was

exercise, and All

suitable.

most

such

pose unable

which to

is

outside

posing, say

work

should

it is well art

students

It is these

for

time

include

at

consider

to

sketching. least

what

will remember

captivatedthem,

keep.

the studio.

but poses

which full

one

will be ing attack-

the model of

action


DRAWING

112

which model such and

required for

are

should

which,

in this

the

STUDENTS.

exercise.

memory

The

as

rule, is the despair of

a

be

kept

meanwhile

for

pose

be

to

case

student

model

then

the

seconds

the

before

The

the

the proportions

seek

students pose

to

need

may

for

firm foundation

a

repetitions

During

examine

but

(fig.32).

drawing,

times

students

only.

shall establish

generalization. The

is obtained.

drawing

the life room,

figure,searching

rests, while

several

be resumed

action

the

of the

their first

express

few

a

watches

movement

The

for

long line which

the

and

the

ART

required to take up a vigorous attitude, as throwing,running or thrusting,where the limbs fine general line, a extended torse to furnish are a

pose

to

FOR

the

of

construction,

the

and

ing. is standespeciallythe placing of the feet if the model the lightand shade, so far as it explainsthe Even structure, further

from

lines.

exercise

This

has draw

to

also

method

than

and

those

of

rarely found

action.

on

secures

are

When

a

often

drawings

better

made

is that

the

in the

life room,

model

is put up

from

with

the model

student model

the for

this

a

point of sitting what

sees

in

is

strong"

long period,the

necessarilydegenerates,because other muscles brought into play. An experienced sitter is often adept at making slightcompensating alterations in view to assisting With the model, aids such a pose.

pose

the

proportion, for working on the right principle,, the big to little,the proportions are seized from

continuously. Another advantage too

The

advantage of forcing the students

commencement,

view

memorized.

be

constructive

right good

may

are an

the as


y

o

P

r:il

"

m

o

i2

c

,o

OJ

-S

C

4J

0-3

'"S

3

ii

"T3

Oh

3

^

U

S."P

-P-C

"

o "

Dh

3

3

O

re

Oh

b

r: c re

a,

;

H

"I3

o

O

t-:

"-"e

-"i-'^aam".-CM'.

Ji

a

o

:


CO

F,c.

30A" of

easy

to

The

every see

Japanese natural

what

an

or

asset

this is

to

behind

left

have

masters

fashioned

object existing a

is without

of

system such

114

a

memory

legacy.

preciseand in

their

direct

country.

drawing.

The

ings' drawIt west

is


u

"5


Fk:.

3IA

"

Drawing ncbs

with of

charcoal

the

contour

on

Michallct should

he

paper.

noted.

The

scnsitivc-


DRAWING

a

wedge

placed

often both

used, cases

Students, with and

the feel

or

a

under

a

hand

the in

complete

seeing notion

FROM

aggrieved

heel the

act

of

if

model

they

ground, is

pushing

original

the

posed

is the

a

are

supported, idea. imbued

become

used,

detect

the

off

of

devices the

117

when

contradiction

these that

MEMORY.

fixed

slightest

object, tion. devia-


CHAPTER

XVII.

ANIMALS.

Animals, material

including

for

they

follow

can

dove

the

will

and

of

bird's

tend be

A

lives

for

is

of

the

and

the

In

and

its

of

in

dari,

smaller

a

who

captive

the

larger slow

easiest

its

but,

contour,

structure,

other

of

creatures

of

most

and

seed

tinuous con-

the

on

other

however,

which,

other

it is

being

a

118

in

or

and

perfect health, It

has

of

the

none

birds,

domesticated

model more

box

daily,

corn,

without

eminently

(fig. 33).

small

a

keep.

to

examined

it

their

a

watching.

or

plumage

render

of

reason

requires only

movements

birds,

by

and

complexity

a

once

captivity, apparently

fondled

be

suffering. order,

of

nervousness

may

the

which

dove,

years

of

one

even

comparatively

at

by careful

handful

a

which

beings

bodily

the

discerned

cage,

rapid

student

of

feathers,

unify

hide

to

common

is

The

overlap,

may

their

movements

human

plumage

simplification.

hand,

The

eye.

position

the

of

reason

excellent

are

record.

to

easy

The

find

and

quadrupeds

in

insects,

by the

quicken

changes

makes,

and

because,

study,

movements,

birds

fright

or

beauty

of

sedate

than

those

suitable

for

study.


'yiMnA^-^

Fig.

32

"

A

memory

figureindicates the

drawing movement

the

of

a

figure in strong action.

the long curve by establishing and trunk rightleg. 119

The

upper

running down


EAfi,

Covie;i^Ts

#"

J ^' ARIES

U'APUtAli

-Eco,VDAR|E5

BUTT

OFVVINq^_

pfi.iM Allies

Fif:.

3 3

"

Sketches

of

a

dove

shewing

the

arrangement

ot

the

plumage.


ANIMALS.

It should birds are

first be

impressed upon approximate to

in their structure like than

more

specializedarm, radius, wrist

and

unlike.

and

IZI

if

thumb

The dove

a

student

that

that of animals

"

wing, for instance, is a is handled, the humerus, detected.

be

can

the

The

butt

of

wrist, but it is wing corresponds with the human fullythan the latter, capable of doubling or flexingmore the

that

so a

small

the form

the

bird

compass,

of

a

Z.

when

weaker

rest

the humerus, The

providing attachments beat primarieswhich and

at

in structure,

for

the

and

fingershave

the

air; the

grow

pack

forearm

and

hand

the

can

from

strong

wing into

hand

taking

coalesced,

pinions

or

secondaries, softer the fore-arm

and

the


DRAWING

122

FOR

so-called

scapulars

the

feathers

long

the

coverts,

from

that

of

but

leaving naked

in tracts,

occur

handling

when

all

distributed

not

are

or

great force.

a

feathers

the

of

strongly together by feathers from the flight

being bound

large bird demands Especially should it be noted wing of

bases

plumes

smaller

by

ligaments, so that the removal the

The

humerus.

the

covered,

are

whole

STUDENTS.

ART

bird,

a

the

over

body

If the dove

areas.

be

carefully and its breast feathers blown of the breast, void of feathers, will aside, the large area be seen. Again all the feathers of the upper surface, with the exception of the smaller wing coverts, overlap turned

over

tiles of

like the

might be said noted

that the

overlapping, and the secondaries In hold

it

by

feathers,

the

the

as

a

if

the

on

from

a

The

The

may

wing, be

the be

its

wings

primaries. taken

to

flight

the part of the bird

elbow

may

close

tips of the

the on

of the

thumb

bird

point of

in

lowest

the

it should

wing,

should

care

movement

side

the a

by

not

joint.

the

the lowest

folding over

seen

living wing

sudden

reverse

above.

be

wrist, and

might dislocate felt

watches

one

and

regards

primary is

feather

uppermost

its beak

As

first

will

examining

that the

so

be that next

to

tail feather.

outermost

be

roof,

a

but

be is

distinctly

never

felt, and

its

seen

little

(fig.34). leg or shank is a specialized corresponding with the human be felt higher up under the may

of feathers noted, group What is known the as

foot, the joint above ankle. skin

knee

cap

of the flank. The

the

The

big

back toe,

claw

is

acting as

more

like the

it does

in

human

thumb

opposition.

than

It should


S"^iW'"',i^

123


,

,^.;,,J_^-,-,,^^,^^^-,,,,^.,J-. --^

2

^A S

c

a.

^

^

Z

2

""

S

g

3

-"

1"= o

-/"

'."-f

\

";

"^

"iii^si

12+

5


ANIMALS.

be

noticed

that this claw

125

jointsonly, counting its articulation with the foot, the second claw three joints, the third four, and the fourth or outside claw five joints. This is usually the smallest and weakest digit,like the The

neck

slippingin the

in the

the

S

of the

and is

S

knows

with

a

and

has

an

in the sternum.

the

shape,

When

neck

a

at

fulness

is stretched

its fulness.

the neck

carved

S

corresponding

alarmed

curvature

takes

commonly

notch

when

who

fowl, the lower

As back

of, a bird is determined

area

and

framework,

a

emphasized

losing its

dorsal

bird

of

out

neck, while

everyone or

two

little toe.

human

ease

has

hence

is

by a fixed bony quite incapable of change of

shape. The

anatomical

closelywith

more

of

structure

that of

man.

mammals As

corresponds

in birds, however,

is called the specialized. What the of the foreleg of the horse corresponds with knee human wrist, the hock of the hind leg being analagous As in man the shoulder with the heel of man. girdleis ments. attachconnected with the trunk mainly by muscular the force the horse Hence jumping off with afforded by the bony continuityof the trunk, and pelvis, the hands

feet

and

are

impact of, say, four tons, on of the elasticity of the which, by reason lands

the

with

an

shoulders

to

the

trunk, sustain

the

its fore feet, attachment

shock

of

without

injury. This

markedly

freedom in

of the shoulder

loose

limbed

girdleshows

creatures

like the

walking, the slingingof the body between fore foot is When a causing it to sway.

itself very cat

the front advanced

when

legs the


126

DRAWING

shoulder

that side is

on

the other

FOR

STUDENTS.

ART

depressed, because

the

forelegon

side is

supporting the weight, the arrangement of the slant of the hip-basket when a reminding one the weight on rests one leg. (fig.35). In the person of broad

case

leg

is advanced

pelvis is

horse, when

the

as

from

raised

or

hind

ground the tilt of the

the

in motion,

studying quadrupeds

should

first try

animal

like the

represent the walk

to

which

cow,

would

of

slowly moving exactly as a

a

its limbs

uses

A

hind

followed

immediately by the foreleg on

the

same

followed

by

its

hind

the other

leg

moves,

leg

forward

child

do.

student

the

crawling Then

a

pronounced.

very

When

animals

backed

moves

side.

foreleg.

(fig.35). Manuals

of

comparative

for detailed

in

the

man

it will suffice to

Here

structures.

of the

statements

is continuous

arm

should

anatomy

with

bony

point the

and

out

be

muscular

that

shoulder

sulted con-

justas

and

the

quadrupeds. The legs should be considered not merely as those parts which protrude from the trunk, for the foreleg includes the shoulder with it,and similarlythe hind leg is blade, which moves involved with the pelvis. In both cases structural lines reach to the back. (Fig. 35). In the case of shaggy and hairy animals like the bear leg

and

with

the

wolf

whorls

the

should

Speaking student

set

be

of

with

of the hair

and

of the hair

the influence

studied.

generally

is often

drawings content

hip, so

shown

animals.

of forms, where

the

mental

by the

too

He

aims

he

should

attitude

of

the

irregularlines of his at depicting a large look

for

controlling


ANIMALS.

lines,

orderly

especially which

to

be

sticking stuffed

in The

alive, out

specimen.

to

of

seldom

shows, in

regard power

Not

symmetry.

and

arrangement

true

fly.

127

odd

by

a

its

places,

birds

and

flight

of

drawing

it

has

creatures

and

regularity a

and

raggedness, that

insects,

implies

been

is

This

structure.

bird

by

purporting the drawn

feathers from

a


CHAPTER

XVIII.

LANDSCAPE.

from

Drawing from

the

tone,

but

crowd

large with,

as

interiors feels

be

taken

of

much

and those

should At

a

Lastly,

not

a

certain there

there

drawn distance is

the

a

the more

the

of

eye. as

is, he

large

Corot

whereas

surveyed

the

difficulty

of

distant A

distant

foreground legs prosaic

cow,

object and but

in

horns

his

one

his

kept

from

scene

aerial

spective, per-

weakened

the

forms

is

that

so

area,

what

vision

of

Degas,

wrongly,

quite

detail the

nearer

figures,

is

called,

blurred

example. a

begin,

to

a

grappled

be

angle

the

embraced

size, that

it is

be

whether

relative embrace

to to

has

one

For

the

Then as

where

of

problems

estimating

have

of

out

new

eye

and

defect

work

the

tower,

or

narrow.

amongst

distance.

with

in, and

dancers,

oneself

accent

tree

a

question

or

with

figures a

the

wide

be

to

as

also

is to

area

such

object

dilating

it were,

as

of

and

line

the

landscape,

difficulties

The

of,

proportions,

from students

or

figure,

construction,

in

When

buildings

them.

living

the

suffer

all

small. at

upon

from

practice

subjects

these

whether

doors,

life

gives

antique,

relatively

being

still

as

compared

for in

instance, miniature.

disappear.

immediately

press-


LANDSCAPE.

"

129

ing problem of the vanishing of receding parallelsof building,etc., especiallythose above the eye. For excellent

material.

Turner, and

mansions

country

in handling facility It has

often

draw

thing to horizontal

matters, his

by

buildings afford early studies of

ruins, laid the foundation

been

of

his

of architecture.

masses

remarked

of doors

out

that

is the

plane. Upright

Houses,

easy.

all these

disciplinein

earth's

things and

trees, mountains

the

difficult

most

surface

"

the

comparatively people correspond are

in

positionwith the vertical plane on which in theory one is drawing, but fields,roads, rivers, clouds, flightsof birds, etc., at rightangles to this plane are apt to give trouble. The bias of vision causes such objects to be drawn if they were as oblique planes sloping upwards to and a a high,vanishing line. Clouds suffer especially, "vertical sky" is very common in student's work. In this connexion flock of sheep would be a good a surface. test of a student's to depict a horizontal power Their backs form level plane which a persistsalthough the individual and

Jacque and

elements

drew

in the

In reference

sheep

to

move

well

and

fro.

Anton

constructed, both

Mauve

ally anatomic-

mass.

to

this

question of the representation of

plane, it should be noted that ancient art, such as the Egyptian tomb paintings and Assyrian bas of reliefs,ignored it in favour of the processional form composition,in which the feet rest on what corresponds with the ground line of formal perspective. One often finds children doing the same thing; their figureswalk

the horizontal

along

the bottom

edge

of the

paper,

the

ground

plane


DRAWING

130

FOR

being assumed.

Some

STUDENTS.

ART

of the

Italian

great

decorators

adopted this device, which gave dignity and loftiness to in their compositions. It is to be seen Mantegna's "Caesar's Triumph," at Hampton Court. One

fruitful

of the most

of

causes

failure to obtain

a

close to the

horizontalityis beginning the foreground too Corot

eye.

remarked

should

In

ahead.

size without

the

resents,

which

work, and

the

rightly,because the

understand

to

of

much

figures are

figures, which

distance

and

"

his

necessity of

constantly

work

ively instinct-

betrays a

convention

a

a

ground fore-

layman

such

as

some

disproportion between

enormous

in modern

us

this way

middle

and

failure

for,

this respect,

above, he generally began his foreground

distance

startle

in

studied

be

of

representation. Art

students

material

for

often

too

study of

form

think

and

of

composition, but

sketchingground. Incidentallythey outdoors

by working in hours soon

of

July and the day.

after the

only

August,

They had

sun

to

should

form, and

yet few

doors, compared

to art

with

students the

tax

painting box, had

vanished.

numbers

of

the powers

conditions

seen

erally gen-

middle

the

a

selves them-

lend

precision'and are

mere

Corot, who,

scene

heat

certain

a

also

his

up

the

a

as

ties their difficul-

to

remember

risen, shut

as

not

weather, and

choosing

artist,but these very

drawing,

add

in fine

remarking that the beauty of Painting in bright sunlightand well-trained

landscape

fixityof

drawing

out

sketching with

of

water

colour. Masters the

of

point from

landscape have Claude

onwards.

studied If

out

of doors

with

composition is the


LANDSCAPE.

theme, washes which

study, loves from

of grey

to

dip

the gay in do

the fundamental

material

as

smooth,

the

water

structural

of contour,

or

he often But

order.

pigments the student They divert his attention Such of his composition. surface of water, rough or

masses

because

give opportunity for

will

colour

allow.

varying aspects

well-defined

and

black

or

rocks, the

trees,

the student

and

not

13 r

systems, often

of cloud

its appearance,

while

in its

apparent

laws, yet

fuse con-

based

on

ity irregular-

ties, its f ugitiveness,presents great difficulfails to discern

if the student

the is to

underlying structure realize the meaning

draughtmanship, which, however, is of no value unless all has to one something to say, a message express, visible natural phenomena are profitableexercises.

of

himself make landscapist,for instance, must know must intimately acquainted with tree structure, much time to devote one species from another, and must than drawing rather painting,because by drawing one The

arrives

at

a

clearer

branching

structure

clothed

summer

analysisof as

seen

in

structure,

winter, the

the

bones,

way

this

or

is

of which have by foliage,the masses form for each species. Even the kind of a characteristic the edges of the masses stroke by which are expressed be sought, for example, the saw-like edge of the oak must horse chestnut. the more lobate edge of the walnut or or off the of trees were much The old drawing books not so out-of-date considered when mark, though now they began their study of tree forms with a page of scribbled for each tree, but which the foliage a recipe as it were student will arrive at as a result of his own striving. in

"

The

study

of rocks, hills and

mountains,

of reflec-


DRAWING

132

tions

in

water

must

for

watching "Modern in

by

and, its

is

not

a

who

students paper make

of than

worse

is

of

will

student's

attention

form

which

planes

being

perspective

be

the

a

the

of

will

from,

of

drawn

to

earth,

the

of

groundwork

enables

interpenetration,

the

student

under

the

define

simplest

planes

broad and

pictorial to

the

because

the

sea,

to

and

reflections

assistance,

greatest

on

approximating

including

and

is

perspective

formal

conditions

be

surfaces

of

course

the

will

the

up

perspective

parallel

as

vision

ordinary

shadows,

known

but

useless,

lines,

those

hold

working

are

ceived. con-

indeed

and

occasionally

they

a

was

well

always

perspective,

scene

should

mistakes.

what

common-sense

and

the

value

great

Ruskin

were

and

Ruskin's

philosophy,

art

exercises

always

eye,

of

is

teaching.

art

eyes,

outrageous

Much

its

of

their

that

tumbling

form.

of

much

manual

and

waves

searching

same

from

his

cover

of

orderliness

practical

use

to

the

apart

and

STUDENTS.

forms

contains

teacher,

This

ART

and

structure

for

art

great

not

studied

respect

studied

their

the

Painters"

this

be

and

water, be

FOR

sky.

These

composition their

relations

conditions.


CHAPTER

XIX.

PLANT

Mr.

speaks his

own

all

their

G.

R.

of

the

FORM.

in

Hatton,

difficulty he of

sense

the

and

own

a

finds

peculiar

in

one

of

his

books,

to

his

pupils

conveying of

beauty

distinct

quite

in

passage

from

flowers that

beauty

a

"

children

of

or

women.

Students' of

appreciation

are

depicting.

by

a

this

a

eye,

of

a

plant's

or

to

plant

wonder

a

itself

for of

spite only

of a

growth,

itself

true

eye we

orderly

to

according

careless

way

to

holes fails

call

the

or

broken

to

see

this

of

of

among stems

order,

that

insects

accidental of

laws

the

but

sorts

beautiful.

and

attacks

distribution

its order

structure.

133

to

Yet the

all

to

irregular,

winds, all,

consider

liable

so

it is

above

invested,

are

we

lack

they

irregularity.

that

varying

by

caterpillar

which

any

and

foot, cold

parasites, and,

arranges

in

is not

careless

shows

frail

is in

they

If

view.

think

they

untidy

same

so

form

the

their

betray

shrubs,

superficial

caused

always

the

appearance

Exposed

of

and

trees

with

often

plants

beauty

seedling,

the

accident,

the

the

merely

delicacy of

of

Like

careless is

of

drawings

velopment de-

light, yet its

growth,

plants, it

it

and

succeeds,

and

beauty


DRAWING

134

FOR

ART

STUDENTS.

A

plant in flower may be compared with a beautiful woman putting on her most tainly ceralluring raiment, and in expressingthis beauty we allow to succeed must the plant personality, almost must we imagine that we ourselves are plants,that we desire to ignore the ravages of insects,etc., to

that

so

we

the flower

see

may

it desires

as

be.

liness, securingorderof drawing understand that the method must we It is drawing value. previously used is here of the same bit by bit,flower, stalk, leaves, as they happen to come, nately and that produces irregularity ugliness; and unfortuTo

ensure

some

flowers The

it.

and

parts

lend

plant

that

the

exhibits

energy

of

for

in each

growth

in all its structure,

For

their base the

that often the

reallypassive,

flowers, in the

and or

growth

new

of its stems,

curve

it

that

in the

which

is often

vigorous the

prints should

drawing

rendered

case

of the

of

be desired.

Their have

The

is

plants

a

slack

corolla

which

action

it tamer

In this connexion

example,

with

of human

makes

be studied. for

can

delicate

most

form

in the

passive.

that

in the

instance, the springing forth of

reveals, just as

to

not

be noted,

It should

pose.

is

in the line

energy

unheeded.

unlike

like

scrutinyof its a model sitting

folding un-

from varies

species, (fig.38).

This

from

quite

long

a

separate

of

want

or

flower

of its leaves

the axils and

a

remain

to

seems

this method

to

invites

rather

in

success

themselves

passively,prepared however,

of

measure

and

the

curve

often

petals quite

the flower have

we

seen

inclining

more

Japanese drawings anjd renderings all the

of the

vigour petals unfold

and and

santhemu chryment move-

twist.


PLANT

and

yet show

the

FORM.

135

subordinating power

of radiation.

student's

flower

the

that of slack

drawing of the same dominant impression being

Therefore, human

first strokes

the

as

figureshould of the torse

of stem

and

should Crane

and

general

first be

that if the hand

here

so

of

contour

of

(figs.36

passed a

of

fact

leaves

or

the

of

a

the type,

living

a

singleform. The authority fond of drawing a bunch of downy was just mentioned ducklings squattingtogether in the farmyard, producing in the jnass to a full-grown duck. a strong resemblance The rounded lines of the elm and chestnut produced by structure

to merge

of small

myriads in winter

into

Walter

remarkable

the flowers

line

flowers

which

varying according to growth that parts of

curve

law

line,to a

the

the directions

foliageor 38). Mr.

"

It is

over

of

the characteristic

mass

conformed.

be

plant,it describes exemplifying the tend

limbs,

this the "invisible"

leaves

or

untidyness.

drawing

a

this,

misses

its inclination,and

down.

set

called

once

blossoms

show

of

often

A

a

leaf forms, and

by the leafless twigs

are

a

similar

formed

curve

examples

further

of the

law. Given

drawing

a

structural

lines,it should

details in the set no

how

matter

nor

lines of

proceed The

leaf may lobes

many

be or

seen

to

to

tormented

have

divisions

main

expression of the

groups

flower, too, has

like the

the

with

of leaves its main

into which

its type

buttercups and wild

being shape, its edge

form, often

roses,

and

no

by wind, etc., the separate petals, irregularlythey are turned or twisted, the main for, if one growth should be carefullylooked

how

how

plant commenced

a

manner.

Each

up.

cup-shaped, matter

same

each

down,

breaks

of


DRAWING

136 dared

to

the

A^

to

the student

to

when

Day

well

are

it may

structure,

Lewis

as

if the eyes

of

purposes

here, but

one

student's

study

There

drawing?

a

may

as

of

wrote

once

used

be

drawing

the structure

will

full of

from

the

express

But

design. defeats

as

the

form this

of work

that his

needle

can

be

a

for

drawing

is of

A

contain

the

much

so

is

the

to

attempt

an

of

for purposes treatment,

for

only

use

study

design purposes. must

when

decorative

drawing

opinion

sometimes

not

required

one

can

much

be

never

Every

etcher

than

more

tain cer-

the

use.

Therefore

the

suggestion

drawing

instead

of

however

careful

and

student's

is made

deliberate, should

powers

what

structure

is

because

the

completely

the

more

degree

possible in likely is

a a

he

that the

outline be

allow, first because

detailed

more

here

being expressed by

it is beneficial,showing

drawing,

of

sees

in outline

flat pattern.

"

bodily appropriated knows

plant

flat,would-be

itself,for such

kinds

One

shading that is of industry.

it may

as

far should

how

difference

some

fails him.

result of observation

Drawing

is

of form,

that the limit is reached

say

observation

plant drawing

the

its forms

in

regular

mencement com-

far wrong.

go For

as

the

at

artistic anatomy

as

figure,though,

plant drawing,

take

and

of botanical

knowledge

a

the

not

plant should

a

orderly

more

STUDENTS.

plant appears.

valuable from

ART

it,a drawing of

say

be than

FOR

an

student have

as

far

exercise

of refinement

drawing, and to

merely,

carried as

plant

and

secondly

expresses

his

mastered

the


of the tulip tree branch shows that leaves a in conform and to i rregular wayward underlying arrangement, apparently this T he is flower in case ellipses. beautifully cup-shaped. shapes, rhythmical

Fig.

37

"

^This sketch of

'37


Pic.

38

"

^These sketches of or

line of

plantsshow

growth, too

often

that each

has its own species by the designer. disregarded

.38

curve


PLANT

of

Structure

be

for

the

and

these

it may

which

which

universal

the

take

consciously, seen

in

The

structure

of

the

plant beauty

produce

for

as

noted

it were,

takes

the

the

forms

Every

ing draw-

in

of

of

acceptance

how to

of

that

to

clearly

instinctive the

plant

the

of

sense

form

the

as

all

as

stance, in-

an

the

plant

which

is

flowers,

stems, of

of

law,

this

obey

of

radiation,

lines

the

seem

clearly

leaves,

etc.

principles,

the

radiation

acknowledge

to

the

appeal

in

contrast,

all

are

for

all

clearly

repetition, variety

its

to

ing underlyin

most

seen

dentally, inci-

only

discovered

accounts

given

here

principles

be

be

cognizance

as

but

its first law

form.

generally of

snippets

space on

drawing

at

the

student

the detail

Without

rendering. plant

the

design.

arrangement

seems

the

and

principle, be

Speaking to

is

general

one

it will

the

will

treated

may

line

perhaps

motive

To

they

of

assent

and

that

principles

continuity

exemplified,

be

perhaps

The

radiation,

beauty,

useful

more

can

said

while

may

form.

in

be

studies, form,

plant

the

composition

but

natural

and

139

reference.

Design

way

plant,

FORM.

one's page

should

rather

should an

and

be exercise

plant

than

taking

disposal

be

of

a

posed com-

with

arrangement

carefully in

is apt

carefully

liberties the

form

considered.

composition.

the

of


CHAPTER

DRAWING

AS

XX.

PREPARATION

A

FOR

PAINTING.

"Make is

colour,"

or

it

of

"pite

often

maxim

a

the

that

groundwork,

other

first

stages, with

a

the

less

more

or

made

with

etc.,

being

sort

the

charcoal,

or

-edges,

the

one

paint

to

outlines the

be

first

firmly

resolves

shows

hard

and

140

a

of

to

two

is seduced the

model

oil,

a

is often of

is

features,

dismayed

strokes

of

within at

ment. implein

portrait

one

meagre

for

painting

a

of

keep

ing. paint-

into

one

outlines

broad

to

implement

then

the

which

well

is that

work

point,

chalk,

or

which

for

an

the

pencil

expression

pencil,

use

characteristic

exercise

under

a

or

work

firmly drawn,

if

with

charcoal of

rule,

a

be

must

be

student

dividing

made

complete

find, disappear

"brush,

thus

brush,

With

doing

as

it will

a

nay

without

preparation

confronts

always

not

painting

and

exist,

in

yet

conceded,

be

form,

useful

must,

does

by

to

often,

very

may

colour

to

commencing

advice

after

said

he

Assuming

to

of

search

drawing

a

brush.

a

into

the

than

?) the It

difficulty which

The this

it

constitutes

what

"discuss

hear

study

be

hardly

can

students

of

careful

by

before

success.

ensure

guarded

drawing art

because

(or

demanded,

colour

careful

a

the

the one's

edges,


15 C

I ON

141


c

c

^^

5

-Q

3 O ^

C c

ti o

c

-I---'

6

142

J


DRAWING

and,

AS

the

PREPARATION

A

PAINTING.

FOR

145

tours being held up to the light,the conhaloes surrounding the forms, indicating as appear absence of of paint, and an consequently a poor way technique. painting,a wretched of Now it is preciselyalong those contours that much the work lies. Here the "passages" of colour, where are on

colour

and

tone

The student change or pass across. weld his edges, here melting into a broad ment, envelopIn there being brought sharply together. the of Velasquez as already mentioned, the contours

should

Venus

of cheek round

and

the

these

canvas

shoulder the

knees

areas

are

edges

edges, it will

another

medium

suffer.

premier," or

in

remains

a

that than

worse

be

must ;

the

painting is

successive detailed

useless.

seized

upon

in the

stages

initial

as

placing made

an

matters

drawing

the strokes

of the

charcoal dusted

should out

"au

the forms

here,

for haste

excuse

with

not,

written

Nothing

finished

be

to

or

be

if need

fact is

however, ness careless-

carefully be, until

of the planes,and significant

direction another

student,

of

the

as

is

and

not

Especially should

and

forms

been

have

which "portrait," method

is interested

painting that a preparatory drawing in seen be a positivehindrance. Further, earlyon the details,his planes will

the

considered, and lines

be

too

Whether

well

are

student

may

if he concentrates

in passages defined, because

sharply focused.

more

Therefore, if the of his

blurred, whereas

are

showing the general their proportion one to

settled.

often

the

should

This

case,

is

is not

easy

gloating

be achieved, however,

consist the torse

in

over

if the the

by right

tips for securing likeness. be considered.

It is in work-


DRAWING

144

FOR

STUDENTS.

ART

reallylearns the background, they afford to paint : for, with ample The wherein the brush. to wield planes,of course, space and in the head to be seen also, but they are smaller are not are more complicated. Unfortunately, students seldom so preoccupied with the portrait that the torse ing

these

out

receives desire

but

to

a

broad

planes

small

share

make

a

the student

that

It is

of attention.

portraitrather

than

perhaps the to paint that

learn

to

distressingmedley of colours on face and the beginner'scanvas. Colour, on body often seen instead of being united, is isolated, in spots of many hues, unrelated, like a patchwork quilt. But the study of colour, like that of drawing, should itself first concern with the big facts. The novice fails to see that every has a complexion varying in each individual case, person and and showing not only in the face, but in the hands in variations are made throughout the body. Whatever in relation to local colour should be carefullyconsidered the this general hue. the value of painting from Hence human tions figure,giving as it does practice in generalizain regard to colour, and in looking at colour in the for main search just as in drawing, it demands mass, brings

the

about

directions

and

chief

planes to

the detail should

which

be

subordinated. When

study for oil painting is being

a

should

charcoal

first be

the relations the forms, all details can

then

extraneous

umber

be

of the

rubbed

on on

search

to

masses

and

out

the

position, com-

the directions

of

being disregarded, (fig.39). This

lightly dusted

matter

and

used

prepared,

the the

canvas,

off, so and

as a

paletteuntil

to

brush

leave

no

dipped in nearly dry, may


DRAWING

be

AS

employed

to

A

fix the main

stage further.

a

the surface

paint.

so

This

in

where passages

turpentine may is

may

in

water

preparation are

according

seductive

muddled

most

dragged

of the

over

with

canvas

drawing

in

and

between

sharpen

to

That

making

painting, as drawing

a

The

a

is

drawing

pencil, the

with

the

lead

leads

the

student

to

of colour

make

a

resulting

fusion conperformance. This sharp distinction between

earlier it has and

the

paintingbegins.

clearlyseen.

inartistic

of

that the evil effects of

colour

itself,the addition

and

the contour

is, the whole

in line before

tradition

to

from

comes

made

be used

influence of which

study comflete a

be

should

the tooth

required.

be studied

It is however

in

fillup

the preparation

carry

broad

contrast

done

brush

145

courages edge suggests envelopment and disbrush tight painting. If desired, a clean

dipped

bad

to

PAINTING.

forms, and

The

not

as

FOR

PREPARATION

shading.

paintingis painting,it is better to used as drawing, especiallywhen

been But

consider

to

seen

whereas water

be

oil

colour

a transparently on white which should be practised by surface, a method student before attempting gouache or mixed every All judges speak of water methods. colour drawings, and in the earlyartists' colourman's catalogue, the water which it colour brush is referred to as a "pencil,"a name would be useful to resuscitate,for beginners seem to regard a brush as an implement for sf reading or flooding

colour, ignoring its chief merit and show

most

even

the

noted

here

of

the

same

care

pen

in

obtaining,a

in incisiveness

that while

shape

its makers

flexible and

in the west, are

which

one

point surpassing be fluency. It may

one

generally

or

two

considered

brushes, all sufficient


DRAWING

146

FOR

the

equipment

by

brushes

made

ART

student

of

STUDENTS.

water-colour, in

Japan

speciallyfor certain effects,wide flat brushes for broad washes, long pointed ones for drawing and writing, etc., so that the outfit comprises many are

brushes. It the

might be mentioned,

proud

have

of brushes

owners

long for

that while usefulness.

their

outworn

brush, the point of which used

also, that students

rough work.

has

For

effective A

often once

watercolour

disappeared,

successful

are

only

can

be

student

drawing, a

periodicallyadd to his stock of brushes. The Japanese painterdoes no preliminarysketching. He makes his drawing, and backs it up widi at once washes of colour. The western student, aiming at other results feels the necessity for a more tentative method, and certainly, if the caution that he is throughout making be insisted on, there is no reason a drawing in colour why the pencil preparation should betray a lack of unity with the following stage in colour. And it is to be a drawing as must

in transparent

done

rubbing be

to

oil

or

more

washing

out, there is need

intimate

and

complete

for this

than

without

preparation

in the

of the

case

study. students,

But

colour, have

a

are

prone

notion

makes

a

ever

to

anxious slur

every

time

of definite

mark

to

indulge their

this

over

that the strokes

forgettingthat

taste

in

preparation. They

of the brush

it is laid upon

shape, whether

need

not

the

dark

show,

paper or

it

light.

of insufficient preparation occur frequent cases outdoor landscape composition, where the boundaries

The in

colour, directly and

most

of the forms

are

hastilysketched

without

regard

to

their


DRAWING

AS

Structure

or

students studio

are

A

PREPARATION

their

edge

faced

with

work, from

the

fresh

has

such

still life,the

figure or

simplicityof the forms

147

study the complication. In their In

contrasts. a

PAINTING.

FOR

allowed

of

tive compara-

plete fairlycom-

a

rendering. But out-of-doors there are numberless small shapes which, though merging into largerones, yet distract the eye by their multitude and complexity. The multitudinous trees, cloud

forms, Often

beginner. and

forms, such

blades

as

etc., present

he

inartistic fashion

solves

the

a

of grass,

real

to difficulty

in

problem

by stroking,spotting

of

leaves

a

the

utilitarian

or

dashing

irregularsplashes on the paper to imitate this apparent and in the process loses the orderliness, the irregularity, of leaves and series, the radiating arrangements branches. Here

insistence

an

the student

from

is it to

necessary

likeness

be

must

a

rightpreparationmay

fallingtoo low

that the

be shown

can

on

more

search

in the artistic scale.

complex the subjectthe the significant forms, out

got through choice

and

not

save

He more

that

through

'dashingthe brush on the paper in the hope of securing happy shapes, and that everything that is to be coloured Some of Turner's unfinished firstbe plottedout. should from this point of view. drawings should be examined and Such importance did he attach to a good preparation, so

drawing coloured shows work

his colour

was

sure

in

that he not

pencil,giving all

it when

away

from

the time

the

a

reallyprepare drawing painted over.

beginners'work

one

seldom to

subject.

that his lines is not

In

sense,

often

for the

finds

made

his

this stage, and Close

scrutiny colouring; the

pencillingwhich


DRAWING

14-8 is of

STUDENTS.

rather

colouring,but

the

to

use

no

ART

FOR

carelesslyand with of the subtlety that takes no count a profusion of strokes of definition. of the brush point and its power Shading especiallyis out of court, leading, as it does, to dirty features, hands, etc.,

sketched

hindrance;

a

are

in

colour. On

all should

carefullydrawn, for instance the space for two hands as clasped in the sitter, (fig. 40.) Every portion lap of a female of the be prepared, the main composition should masses

the

other

and

their relations,the directions

hand,

position of details,such

the

indicated Such

without

be

the features, should

as

being completed

brush

to

full

play

its

in

charming

be

pencil.

a

composition, gives

connecting lines, and

the

of

in terms

preparation strengthens the

emphasis

of forms, while

power

finallygives the of elaborating

detail.

pencil work,

The 30

long

as

it does

not

of course, interfere

with

carried

be

may

the

far

very

right function

of

the brush. A

simple

41), and oil

exercise

it may

noted

here

to

for water

be considered.

colour

That

a

that

painting, revellingas it does

quite unsuitable are

be

be

would

(fig.

still life group a

suits

subjectwhich

in rich dark

colour, is charm

if its qualityand

is to say, if the student

is to

given opportunityof studying his medium, in this case should colour, the masses approach lighter tone water be

rather are

than

darker.

Rich, glowing hues

in water

only possibleif the study is kept small Finally,the

contour

of the dark

within, that of the light,outside

area

the form.

colours

in scale.

should

be drawn


colour

of stilllite with a pencil The stud)preparation. or pencillines are emphaticwhere strong passages occur, but are lighter the of of the The to even according degree envelopment edge. disappear is not a drawing, but a preparation. pencilling

Fig.

a

I

A

water


*l "^

/r

"

/I 7

^1

Fic,

^2

"

A

drawing b)

Holbein.

150

[Windsor

Castle.


CHAPTER

XXI.

CONVENTION.

Hitherto

"Is

appearance.

always be

student's

discern

is

mass

of

outlook.

artistic

insisted

on

indeed,

the

'dark, yet

of

in

cautioned

that

that

inartistic. control and time

set

down

has

now

beginning, form

of

select necessary

art

and

of

the

figure,

in

that he

the has

revealed

are

pose

these

the

pages

fidelity in

that

to

assumed that

some

for

co-ordinate

simplifications

will his

that

of

compel

facts

which

151

in his

art

him

been

only

has

is the

still

harmony demands,

to

vulgar

subject

this

and

impossible,

selected

convention

practical chosen

see

his

his

and

light

student

face

can

to

the

been

has

leads

essentially

precision him

is

nature

that he

by

student

direction

presentment

come

level

planes

its

the

low

the

vision,

with

his

has

if it be

his

over

reveals

that

nature

absolute

But

shown

can

eye

to

of

pseudo-photographic

the

truth

attempt

any

been

must

Though as

constantly

selection

that

detail

on

though

test,

everything

it has

based

as

the

proviso

unselected

beauty

treated been

draw

and

far

so

has

To

impossible,

been

the

by

aim.

beginner's

and

it like?"

accompanied

the

has

drawing

a

and some

calmly

facts,

the

only

the

particular further with whether

to

the


it be

painting,engraving, mural

Of

drawing

course

of

portraitdrawings added

studies

as

of what

is

custom

of his

his

business

transfer

features

them

very

good

one,

limitinglines

did.

have were

a

understood of

forms

is

canvas

if he

as

is

of the face.

the

to

might

typicalinstance Holbein, following the

Here

the

master

to

certainly drew actual

a

The

for the fact that these

but

convention. and

day,

itself.

One

that.

tion. illustra-

or

in

end

an

Ingres show portraits.

by

meant

especiallythe to

for

decoration

be

may

of Holbein,

those

made

be

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

DRAWING

152

a

his

portrait, intended

he

Whether

it to

He

secondary matter.

What

wanted

he

all including subject'sfeatures the construction of the planes was subordinate to while drawing these boundaries that,and in consequence, with the most scrupulous care, he ignored in a great of the and necessarilyso, the give and take measure, and backward lighting, the envelopment, the forward of Sir in the drawing Thus of the edges. movement with a firm line Elliott Knight (fig.42) the nose is drawn the general throughout, though it is certain that under condition of lightingthat part of the nose seen against the

cheek

would

accented

line.

a

form, and

it

worked

enabled

seems

as

him

of refinement. for instance

be

of

supply

wanted

to

intention

itself.

subtlety

Almost

vision

Holbein

conscious

created and

"

in actual

But

without

convention

delicacy

not

of his

the

was

Within vision

to

see

If the

examined,

and

be

seen

what

with

which a

he

mum maxi-

the closed how

!

discerned

under

represent

his

part, his

limits

be

can

of

sure

his

these

line between it will

be

on

if the restrictions

strong and

so

lips

it varies.


CONVENTION.

how

unlike

it is to the hard

would

assume

to

form

the

out

point

of the

ends

two

forms, with

this

It varies

purpose.

length,sdftening here, tightening there, far from drawing it as a mere line, Holbein

especiallythe his

might ignorantly

one

suffice for Holbein's

that

searched

wire-like

its

throughout

showing

153

line

of it.

like result.

a

that Holbein

out

One It

below,

above,

and

might examine ungracious

seems

is uncertain

all after of

sometimes

alignment of his features, that he occasionallyplaces the eyes too the high, and that he frequently makes further eye too large,while noting however its distinctive

the

forms.

Starting assume

a

convention grace

have

then

for

and

a

his

The

beauty.

referred

definite end.

sculpture,and attain

Holbein's

method

priorithat each form of art of drawing, which has linked

already been

made

from

in them

ideal.

He

They are

seen

demanded

demands with

examples

as

mainly

are

the the

master's

might its

it a

of Alfred

sketches to

we

of

own

ent dependStevens

drawings

studies efforts

for to

highest degree of

drawing his figureswith solidity and weight, plasticity, for they were into stone bronze. He to be translated or ignored the accidentals of light and shade, and rough hewed his figureswith broad strokes indicatingthe actual as a biologistcuts up his tiny bone into structure, much of sections,or a geographer constructs a number a relief lines, (figs.61, 62). by contour map the movement was important still to Stevens of the meticulous his of exactness figures. Here forms is replaced by a rain of lines,one Holbein's might in, but always with the aim of securing the say scribbled More


DRAWING

154

freedom

Utmost

FOR

of movement

lines,say, of the back several for his

ART

positions.

and

twice

In

a

word

He

poise.

moved

thrice,he drew

or

artistic purpose,

own

STUDENTS.

the

used

master

made

of it

an

the in

arm

drawing

tool to express

a

his ideals. Each

form

be taken

and

suited

pictorialrepresentation in turn could shown from to demand tion drawing a conven-

to

of

its needs.

The

etcher

planes of his subject; he makes the eye, foreground forms near delicacy

that

shows an

his

distances the

drawings

etcher; without

acid

bath

it is

not

float

the

seizes

use

of force

but

with

from

have

been

likely that

the

delicacyof the more rendered so directly.

the

distant

it.

of the

parts would

his

tenderest Fig.

made

43

by of the

prompting

force

great

hold

to

the

away

sub-conscious

the

on

darks

and been

have

Similarly fig. study for an etching shows 44 a with the resources of the clearlythat it has been made craft always in view. The foreground great sign and the darks dominate the composition, while background it lightly is kept tender and quiet,as would happen were bitten on a plate. But more than this,there is the knowledge of the limitations of etching,that it is a convention and not imitative process, that it depends on variety an of line and shape, hence insistence on these. an Every in the background has its individual window treatment : no

two

degree

are

alike ; also many

of finish than

for it is

the

parts

etchingwas

worked

to

intended

to

are

impossible to put the whole of have than must more etching; one needling the plate from a drawing.

a

a

closer

display, drawing into an

one

can

use

in


C

" .

"^

-i"J

T3

U

"^

G

O

^

O

flj

m

^

'=^

s

rt

-5

'55

"u rt

^


^

Fig.

j|.4 A "

Jr,u\ingin

lead

penciland black wrapping paper. "

56

chalk

"//

nn

ife

p.,

cream-colnurcd


CONVENTION.

The

historyof

further of the

of the

their work

convention based

with

engraver

being

followed

with and

form

In the dark

by lights.

areas

line in the

associate

we

way

they emphasized line. Examples of

lightareas black

of the

in old volumes

seen

"Good

Words,"

Phil

May,

might

omission

throwing

off

hatching

cross

insisting

forth

in these

Bewick.

their forms

that dark

in

white

the

But

in the

clearlywith

illustrations

these

or

more

pages,

by darks, and areas they used with

still

though

that followed

"Gornhill," "Once

a

may a

the be

Week,"

etc.

who

built up

sometimes It

his

illustrators

freedom

one

closelywhat has been set is expressed in lightareas

less

in

vides pro-

facsimile, yet found

in

one

necessary,

The

lines, though

ruled

aids and

white

and

succeeded

had

that of Bewick,

on

in black

of convention.

early sixties,who

tools, mechanical on

illustration

examples

the thraldom

157

omitted

an

the

own

convention

line of the

ination, elim-

by

white

collar.

retrogradestep, for the objectivevision which contrasted

be said that this

suggested

his

was

a

But oddly with the rest of his very abstract convention. he perhaps considered it as a joke, or more probably it assisted in giving that looseness and freedom he which desired. His

misleading to young students who think that they can do easilythe same sort of thing, but disclosed his method as by his friends and himself is another drawing necessary to example of the strenuous the convention he really drew most employed. He the drawing with minutely and carefully; then went over his fat

work

is rather

line,omitting details,or redrew

from

memory.

A


DRAWING

158

friend

told

FOR

the writer

of

ART

STUDENTS.

policeman posing in May's studio. The artist made drawing after drawing till the floor was littered,then, the sitter paid and gone, another made drawing was embodying the character as learned in making the previous sketches. The methods two both

employed character

led

a

the

to

result, insistence

same

by qualityof line

and

omission

of

on

superfluous

detail. If the

subject be

that of mural

the flatness of the wall

composition, lights and be

darks,

followed

which

One

naturallyturns

the

thirteenth

without

necessitated

of

Thus

impossible. work

in

the stillsoft

times.

shade The

and plaster,

fresh

on

in

of

work

outline

the

same

militated

plaster had

to

plaster manner

istic against real-

had

cartoon

the

painting

damp

time

the

if such

even

the

practiceof There

or

short

a

forcible

conditions.

The

contour.

conditions

the

lightand

in those

above

fresco, the only method

proceed with some speed, for in dried, rendering further progress

trated concen-

and

centuries.

other than water,

serves pre-

representation must

the

fourteenth

clearlydefined

a

colour

of

the Italian traditional

to

and

vehicle

of violent

or

harmonizes

technique of buon

the absence

by

convention

a

painting,which

been

stood under-

traced

was

colouringproceeded

on

without

delay. Unfortunately the climate declared

unsuited

to

this

of

simple and

although Mrs. Sargant Florence conditions of the ordinary weather indeed. She points out that pure districts with

a

great cities has been

our

high rainfall.

Her

beautiful

technique,

that

asserts

this country fresco own

it stands well

very

flourished

frescoes

at

in

Oak-


CONVENTION.

ham

and

elsewhere

have

satisfactorily.The succeeding stylesof the craft wandered Mural

stood

influence

of

test

of fresco

this climate felt

been

has

by

time

a

dangerous paths of realism.

in the

painting then

the

painting,although for

mural

of crafts where

number

159

be

may

taken

as

drawing is viewed

type of

the

without

a

ence insist-

emphasis is laid on of light being the accidents the line and structure, ignored. Moody's interestingchart of the styles of lightor shade,

on

paintingshould he shows

be consulted

that the

of the imitative broad

simple

Florentine This class.

lightsand

the

in this connexion.

In this

darks, sparkling but spotty,

with panel pictures contrast melting into the light, of

Dutch shadows

the the

frescoes.

supplies the While

which

rather

or

clue

students

drawing practicein the life studying the principleson

to

are

the

is based, it is representationby appearance well to make the problem as simple as possible,avoiding have complications of lighting. These arrangements been noted earlier. The lightsshould be kept strictly in one direction and limited in area, so that the planes are clearlyseparated by lightand dark. But

the

advanced

student

should

conditions. figureunder less restricted should be expanded so that it envelops the strength of the dark planes, and reduces the

small

spotty darks, while

the contour

to

prepare

becomes

The the

of the

early Florentine

it lighterthan darker

than

the bulk

more

the

masses

of the

are

pletely com-

ground, back-

lightareas

of dark.

frescoes, the backgrounds

light figure,

eliminates

visible,this being assisted by varying the

making figure,or

study

In the

generally


i6o

DRAWING

in

light

while

tone,

Pompeii

light

and

understood

to

than

the

the

colour,

in

still

are

of forms

for

ever,

But

movement

them

on

strained con-

in

reduced

contour.

and

structure

but

be convention.

linear

a

there

the

to

will

student

extent

some

shade

that

frescoes

the

them.

subordinated

and

of

rich

or

conditions

adopt

light

tone

against

to

The

in

such

Under

STUDENTS.

ART

backgrounds

the

dark

are

telling

FOR

should

it

are

be portant im-

more

will

success

sity, inten-

mainly

depend. It

is

forms

of

ever

conscious

path

who of

to

order

will

achieve

mannerism

will in

with

he

the

he

what

facility and

what

of

do

study ;

be

conventions

see

complexities

new

draws

to

student

advances

conscious

inability one

he

of

more

in

art

heedful

as

the

investigate

to

plastic the

plays; But

needless

and

stereotyped

that

for

of

drawing,

better

his

limitations

ease

and

is form.

he

and it

on

himself.

draws

he

the

is

other

drawing

part

the

desires,

of

well, downward

is the

his for


CHAPTER

DRAWING

FOR

There

comes

school,

has

He

to

is

which he

is at

he

be

may

to

is build

regularity

the

and

which

art

little

a

the

has

portrait

both

on

professional,

time

be

to

turned

be

done

painter the

is

and

temptuous con-

classroom.

the

bond

In in

in

or

same

vocations.

worker

from

freedom

his

It must a

attitude

unlimited

draughtsman,

newly-fledged a

be

of

longer

work,

he

In

feeling

no

his

discipline

a

?

promptness.

heavy

merely

becoming

his

whether

lies

as

precepts

with

advertisement

necessity

words,

and

of

and

first

at

methods

stages

it

study.

sculptor,

as

is

his

of

period

What

regard

for

leaves

whether

emancipated

professional

the

hack

merest

he

his

word)

career,

happily

the

fashion,

some

of

a

up

with

out

Does

student

the

designer.

pardoned

now

the

art

or

last

of He

his

?

drawing

when

(save

finished

illustrator

towards

ILLUSTRATORS.

time

a

begin

painter,

XXII.

other

danger

ceasing

to

of be

a

student. But and

if the

stimulated,

faithfully attitude

of

student's if

pressed mind

logical

can

form

methods

him,

upon

which

in

interest

never

i6i

he

of will be

has

been

work have

eradicated.

aroused

have

been

acquired Granted

an


1

DRAWING

62

specialconditions of his life work are onerous, yet the artist they tend to crush the artistic spirit, and almost mels, degrading tramsuperiorto commercial and produces good work in spite of, perhaps

the

that

that rises

of these fetters. Of

because know

his

all

with

his

use

possible precision,the illustrator

must

brush

and

pen

work,

art

him

that

That student

is his

art

is to

and

depict

editors

But

in

world

"

will not

includes

fail

to

he the

people

in

the

look

life

was

for his models

searching for type book, but his to to

him.

Thus

need

of

reminds

memory

a

panion. life-longcom-

is asked authors

by

artistic motive

and

effect.

despair, for the poorest in the interestingmaterial has the illustrator's spirithe not

most

His

his

chosen

often

to

eye

be interested

room

interesting un-

remains

his craft, he

in his

will be

possible subjects for

are

how

touch

and

him

in the

artist,will

an

the illustrator,who

if he

and

interestingto others. all

at

incidents any

that

"

or

paid for, some

drawing will be

without

people

is

sustains

studies

and

spite of

situation

he

for instance

scenes

and

which

be able to

career.

such

Take

he

is

duce pro-

plate

a

beyond that,

worker, if he

what

him

say

as

the

must to

bite

poorly paid

how

matter

be,

spiritwithin

But

freely.

no

give something above

know

must

worker

be able to

it may

the

art

every

how

of the

doing

course

portraitpainter must

The

job.

likeness, the etcher

a

to

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

work, a

and

make

busy life,for

to

it

him

pencil. His study he must only the beginning ; now will everywhere. He always be

and

character.

his

He

may

use

trainingwill be of still more

the lot, the

study continually and

a

sketch value

happy lot, of the illustrator is by remaining a student, his


DRAWING

work

will

show

FOR

163

ILLUSTRATORS.

increasingcharacter,

and

freshness

pliability. The

designer on

for the search

for form.

birds, clouds, lines are

all his

of

in

All

branches

show sketches

of

art

The

will store

will make but

the

them

it matters with

not

if

form.

of

stable Con-

the momentary

structure,

with

great

studies

is to

obtain

actual

Holbein, but the

the

on

dependence

same

pencilstudies for

people,

and

unexpected Gainsborough suggested

new

drawings of the composition and arrangement, and enabled him to revise his ideals freely, unhampered by the fetters with which laid upon the canvas and left to oilpaintonce and alter. The to choose dry binds a painter'sfreedom have been already referred to portraitheads of Holbein as an example of drawing put to a direct practicaluse by the painter,and certainlyfew portrait painters like to attack a canvas without Reference preliminarystudies. be made to the masterly charcoal drawings by Mr. may Sargent preparatory to painting. Here the material is directness and force, its qualitiesbeing exused with ploited movements,

while

his search

and

worker

stored

exhibit

his interest in tree

of Rodin,

animals

lose them, the mind

necessity

of the field,insects,

sea,

others

numberless

this

accept

methodical

quickened, and

drawing.

upon

and

The

and

must

flowers

portfolios ; the

envelopes

the eye is

The

of land

province.

his studies backs

his part,

skill.

The

character

investigatethe outlines as

a

means

for of

personality,searching

evident

the

of the

of the sitter,not

tracing as getting into

for

intention

in

the

forms

and

of

case

close touch

to

with,

accents


1

FOR

DRAWING

64

STUDENTS.

ART

Ukeness

and

character.

when

exterior

Lastly refer to an one immediately practical form may of of illustration. The number publications and ing magazines devoted to engineeringof all kinds is increasIn regard to the illustrations and will increase. so required, photography once depended upon is proving failure, for its focus just misses the precision a dark it becomes required, while impossible, when which

give

interiors

at

have

to

assumed

are

growing the

appearance of

The

able

to

express

mechanism

as

the

formidable

the

apart from a

say,

becomes One to

and

from

work

century,

to

may

the sham those

structure.

of his

use

pencil,

pearwood

drawing

how

a

curves

machine

precision the relations of valves

gearing and

the it

student such

means a

clear

in

seen

spective. per-

grapple

can

subjects present,

brings about articulate the

such

its

expression, That

drawing.

the hands

own

of

an

is

artist

of art. the

himself

what

matter

his

difficulties

with

mechanical

and

squares

the

returns

interest

mechanism.

unaided

practicalvalue of drawing of machinery in a

coverings

of

well-trained

simplicityof

convention,

to

with

elaborate

Only the

tee

the

explain in

works, and

while

by

quadrants,

be

show

and

perspective,geometry

without

with

to

convention

new

draughtsman

must

or

drawing machinery is demanding a high degree of appreciationof of things togetherwith sound ledge knowa a

up,

be revealed be removed

to

Therefore

once

truth that what

in is suitable be

ruins

for

the artist chooses

expression no its nature. We are emancipated and picturesquenessof the i8th

mannerisms

art

of the great Italian

stylefrom


DRAWING

165

ILLUSTRATORS.

FOR

i

Botticelli

onwards

losing

its

which

time

to

hanker

instance, find

may

close

world

of

divided

express

of

trained

in

a

new

the matchbox

artist.

the

for

forms.

students

study

No

are

using century,

tax

the

own

drew

ings build-

And

to-day

of

drawing world

for

longer

need

the and

interesting their and

material.

commonest

their

the

categories,

fourteenth

would

the round

travelling

two

in

them.

saw

and

Trecento

They

they

as

material

into for

Italians form

picturesque.

stimulating

commonplace, the

raw

without

and be

the

suitable

hand

at

strange

after

the

interested

too

were

while

appropriated

ages

Italians,

early

artists

for

we

The

spirit.

Quattrocento

later

find

Even

powers

as

eyes

interest

to

of

did

the

fully best


CHAPTER

DRAWINGS

THE

first

The to

in

district,

race.

Much

being

in

The

Kensington. on

of

ceiling

the

Altamira

in

Northern

of

the

the

finest

the

preoccupation had

hunters,

of

races

and

of

and

the

not

than

possessed

that

fire, and

cave

paintings,

bone

and

ivory

of

with

this

animals of

ponies

practised

of

man

whom

fabricated

he buried the

sculpture,

his

dead.

scratchings represent

1

66

They

for

physical

in

But

of

modern beetle

earlier is

nothing

known

implements,

stone

all

Practically on

ception ex-

pottery

no

the

were

doubtful

equal

with

show

They

the

the

were

of

cave

among

period.

tillage.

confused

the

art.

period,

the

animals

other

instanced

with

no

they

be

Neanderthal

be

South

at

of

early

this

men

capacity

must

and

may

of

domestic

rough

brain

and

browed other

the

from,

drinking form

no

of

Spain,

series

a

Museum

chambers

these

to

common,

bison

Dor-

Palaeolithic

paid

History

the

examples

been

are

man

the

and

later

fairly

are

of

one

the

late

paintings

by

Pyrenees

of

Natural

the

paintings

by

has

reproductions

view

on

the

tenanted

once

attention

and

works,

of

caves

MASTERS.

and

drawings

the

dogne

THE

OF

known

found

be

XXIII.

bone,

animals,

and

though

the the here


"t.(tiJiJ'"Si"

-.!.

.

" a

e o u

.'I* rife:'. --

oil.

.

167

"

-

(I


fii!ra!^jt5ilgngl!l!TM?pi]iM^P

Fk. are

etc.,

46.

A

yet

brush

"

puzzling the

details

drawing such

purity

of

as

from

the

line

a

and

Athenian

white

smallness

the

of

the

vase

man's

suggestion

of

(c}rLndrical).

hands, form

the

should

be

of

his

feet,

closcl}' studied.

[British 168

there

Though

parallelism

Museum.


THE

and

there

DRAWINGS

found

are

THE

OF

MASTERS.

of female

statuettes

169

figuresmostly

in form.

gross

The

roof

of Altamira

is covered

with

full-sized

oured col-

drawings of paintings of animals, bison, horses, and pigs. They are outlined in black and washed with red, brown and from yellow pigments made

deer over

various

iron of

have

and

proportionand been

never

used

have

while

to

in

nothing

a

of movement the

the

express

show

They

freedom

a

surpassed

conventions

growths,

earths.

manganese

which

extremely simplified with

hair

and

structure

common

rectness cor-

the

childish

The of savages. livingraces placing of the legs is practically in accord with photographs of to the artist's quickness of eye moving animals testifying ings drawIn particular and keenness of observation. some scrawls

of most

of

mortally wounded their legscrumpled

with

the

over

memorized

a

back

bison beneath

show

phenomenon

in the last death them well

how with

and the

the tail vibrating

draughtsman

he must

which

spasm,

been:

have

perfectlyfamiliar. Other

famous

deer The

drawing

Hunters. animals them.

horses

of the

on

are

the

the walls

reindeer, from

of

drawings

of

caves

and

moths, mam-

bone.

on

Thayngen,

and

the

crossing a river, from Lorthet, {Ancient close observation of the a Sollas), show and a certain ease and freedom in representing knowledge of one They reveal the anatomical his prey, repeatedly skinned and dismembered

red

three

who

has

the

habits

so

and

examples

deer

and

movements

study. And primitivethat

these

of which

drawings

like the beasts

have were

been

made

his lifelong

by

of the field he had

a

man

to

go


down

he

though and

river

the

to

the great

certain

extinct

with

On

risk the the

humorous

said

here

sabre-toothed

strange,

he

whom

be

drawings,

tiger

enormous

is sometimes

that

tilian repassociated

had

become

before.

what

much. in

modern

ages

Of

to

bear, yet

cave

creatures, in

had

have

may

It may

drink.

to

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

DRAWING

170

call

we

the roof

composition we at

Altamira

must

not

the creatures

expect are

fitted

being superimposed on closelyas possible,some others, the idea apparent being to give the impression of Elsewhere a we great herd. get the usual panoramic in the Egyptian and as composition of early art much casionally Assyrian freizes. One animal follows another, and octhere is a somewhat impressionistic representation of a herd of horses or deer indicated by a row of heads would and forepartsmuch as one see glancing along the front rank. as

What

strikes

is that

one

rather than be

that

desires of the and

the

artist

art

consciouslydecorative. connected

of his

appetite,much objectthey desire say

thus

this earliest

his

a

picture with

children, in

as

boat

is sentational repreIt may

or

the

the

absence

doll, will draw

it

satisfytheir craving. Apparently this early man desired his drawings in line and colour to be as like as possible, which is perhaps why Mr. Clive Bell dislikes them. be symbolic They may even of food to be used by the soul after death as in Egyptian also exhibits exceedingly well-drawn animals. art which But in Egypt had grown ancient civilization up an where the priesthood ruled and prescribed minutely the conventions

to

some

of the

extent

forms

in the

paintings

which

min-


c;

"

.5

u ,"

17"

S

c


Fig.

48

"

A

eyebrows and too

drawing b)' Holbein. the

line between

the

Great

lips.

care

The

has far

eye

been

given

appears

to

Museum. [British

large. 172

the

somewhat


A Certain forms which were drawing by Holbein. evidentl)' 49 deemed essential to the likeness have been careiull)redrawn with a hard

Fic.

point on

"

the

nostrils and

thin

the line

films

of

charcoal

the separating

or

chalk.

lips. "73

These

are

the

the eyelids, Castle. [Windsor


Fig.

50

"

In

than veracity

Tedeschi, a could

this

drawing by

the fanciful armour, known model to a

only have

been

drawn

of

Leonardo and

da Vinci

bear

the|features have

more

great resemblance to the elder of generation art students. Such a profile an

Italian

"74

a

by

an

Italian.

Museum. [British


istered made the

to

DRAWINGS

the

national

Egyptian

down we

if

see

of

the British

drawings,

and

birds

in which

attention

of

the work

and

dogs

the relief is

men.

clearer

a

Their

horses

as

reproduced

people

are

eye

in

a

baboons and

and

simple

same

The

bas-reliefs or

ter, alabas-

hurry,and be

often

considered

convention

as

of the

brawny frame,

a

have

when

than

good,

the

in soft gypsum

so

with

laid

who

especiallythe

slightthat the work may a drawing. Here again there is a human figure,with swollen muscles on and again also the sculptorsseem to animals

those

the

proportions, structure

cut

are

victorious

a

however

Dead,

as

Museum of

portrayed in

in consequence

they are in much convention used by the cave as was men. a parallel course. Assyrian art runs

in the British

been

Authorities, or the wall paintings

the cats,

drawn

movement,

has

was

of the

lifelike in their

are

man

175

Apparently

book

the

Museum

and

Reference

and representation,

consult

we

religion.

the

escaped

the rules

MASTERS.

of form.

canon

had

THE

OF

the way

already to

animals

by

THE

looked

at

they attempted

their lions better,the

is depicted a lioness being the slab whereon dragging herself along the ground, her hind quarters (fig.45.) She is having been paralysed by an arrow, most

famous

roaring,the

skin

relief is little that down

the

more

artist must

with

inquireswhat their last the

i inch, and

than have

witnessed

the

line

of

drawings were drawings are

artists have

can again one this sight,and

his memory

successive made

by

plain to

become

The

in agony.

wrinkled

nose

convincing clearness

Following

At

of her

vision

see

interested

on

their in

the

set

of it.

nationalities the Greeks.

say

one

tunately Forvases.

forms


FOR

DRAWING

176 of

and

man

though

we

than

a

little more

was

will

convenient

be

backgrounds

called

paintings but they

them

of

worked

have

time

with

(fig46.) both

drawing

has

The

the

features

with

out

The

are

necessarilystringentto

long step

a

Once

more

of

the convention

form

a

the

degree

the

parting of the

the

gothic tradition

one

ways

of

comes

"

^Albert

the

to

^that of

"

Durer

"

of

being

material man

stained

leads

forms

the

but

the conditions

the

to

specialqualityof

the

in the

line is still there

is subordinated

step, and

ence. rever-

stiff fingersimplore,

craft of which a

serve

they fill

until

window, the angularityof the medieval

and

ities necess-

figure is hidden

draperies. The

now

Another

is

sentiment.

and

command.

or

out

turn

his line with the utmost

the medievals

to

it is

with

to

of the

out

expanded

are

stretched

lines of the

The

had

grasped by the priesthood to figurehas to express hope, fear,

face ; the hands

glass.

draughtsman

been

religion. The

deprecate,

he

;

arose

used

regards technique

as

long

speed

He

the Greeks

From

are

draughtsman's soul was all the the point of his brush, which duced proand utmost sensibility. flexibility

on

line of

a

They

his

his eye,

concentrated

The

study.

some

occupation. but

economy,

in.

are

his convention

quantity, and of his

painted

not

are

closest

the

Greek

vase

reallybrush drawings and fluency of expression that makes

and

ease,

worthy

must a

an

paintings sculpture. It vase paintings,

the white

examine

to

painter

vase

best

yet the

the best

the

with

that the

workman

where

done

STUDENTS.

assume

may

little behind

but

lag

ART

"

who who

the

ciated asso-

glass. stood

at

inherited

angular forms, piped draperies

scriptural subject matter,

yet reached

out

to

the


-^

c

o

W

3 SO

" -T3

^ -

I-,

"?

.."

s

"

"U

1J

iT

C

o

:

'77

-Q

xJ


'^-' "aj;'^;

Fk;.

noted.

52

"

A It

chalk is lull

concerned

drawing h) Raphael. 'I'he interest in form should be The of overlapping contours. drawing is hut little the photographicaspect of the model. with '78


""0

f

'.""*"!.. "js"'.i;' "isaa^*;

in black and red cliajk. A drawingb)-Ruhens Fig. 5 3 He the We than darks. certain that the be there was lights by may "

under

the chin than is shewn

lightand shade studymerely; arch,is what he has achieved. seems

alive.

by

him.

the The

But

he

wanted

this

"

drew more

to

be

more

tone

not

a

of the sitter, alert, expression listening, full of is The face drawing vitality. Museum. [British 179


5-1- A chalk drav\ingby Rubens. head to the knees should be noted "

Fk..

The as

descendingfrom the unitingthe arms. [BritishMuseum.

fine line

also that


THE

DRAWINGS

Renaissance, with

figureas

and

him

other

type of

curiosityin

the

which

accentuate

Durer's

might

of

in the

career

town,

things. horses,

in his

want

unclothed of architectural

mass

the as

artist made

an

He he

He

style.

new

had

drew

be the

to

was an

intense

the

ancient

in armour,

men

thing every-

engravings and woodcuts, and

illustrator he makes

an

the

of all his

use

Like

drawings.

Japanese he drew and redrew his subject until he line perfect,and like them he was ing, always simplifyrefininghis line down to its lowest terms, often until

was

it became

a

But

pen.

the result that every

(fig.47.)

were

came

have

must

from

ture, struc-

of Durer's are

studied

his efforts to

the

sents repre-

full of

or

persons. Durer, and

make

his line

possible of the form, the bend of the ankle, the twistingof the neck, and the radiation as

much

toes

or

express or

the

Crane

of

study

to

they be of plants,animals,

Walter

his mannerisms

him

stroke

trick

a

fact; his simplest drawings

whether

anatomy,

motive,

forced simplification

definite

a

wrist

decorative

mere

this

with

of

and

i8i

in the

a

forms

of his native he

as

interest

draughtsman. and as such great illustrator,

world's

roofs

of

MASTERS.

myth,

forms

conditions

the very

THE

its renewed

in classic

seen

The

OF

not

as

fingers,with

interested

the

in structure

result cried

that out

people that

he

who was

deforming the figure. The criticism shows the necessity of a draughtsman constantlycomparing his convention with and

natural

form, of self criticism.

it is the most

He

difficult thing to do so,

should

avoid,

fallinginto

ruts

It is expression,mannerisms, that is unnatural form. student curiouslyenough whose work is full of the young for he seems them from to absorb undigested conventions of


1

DRAWING

82

FOR

ART

STUDENTS.

unconsciously abstracts from of the artist he admires, its tricks of handling, the work revealed close rather than the good qualities only on study. That is why copying is to be deprecated,for this practice does not always imply study. What study is and what it involves students will do well to ponder over. the nursery

Of

onwards.

Holbein he

Durer

was

has

much

the

capitals and looked and

motes

style,with But

acanthus.

forms

new

his model

at

said in these pages.

with

an

its classical

when

Italy Giotto Byzantine manner.

broke His

conventions

eye

cleared

from

away

the

Italians

all

and

But

he took

who

to

be

used

grace,

were

Botticelli has

done. the

It

articulations.

the

of Italian

a

clear

was

power,

animals

are

towards

turn

century

the

tryingto draw and knowing quite how it

been

knowledge

referred

to

much

of its structure

da Vinci

Leonardo

formal

more

and

figureconstantlywith

nude

yet without

and

through the fourteenth

examining nature paint like the model, though not was

aside,

weight and

figureshave

recollections.

naturalism

ings, mould-

confronted

he

and

though his accessories, his hills,trees merest

design

(figs.42, 48, 49.)

beams,

In

the

Like

draughtsman, and could

new

his sitter he put all the and

been

great pen

a

in facility

with

He

with

the

as

one

poetic and

sitive inqui-

of the organizing spiritand full measure facultywho did everything to form what may be called the academic convention, especiallyin regard to light and shade, except actuallyto set up a school of art. (fig. and 50.) The study of perspective,involving shadows scientific

reflections,and to

direct the

of anatomy

study of

art

with

in the

its dissections

same

path.

did much


Fig. line. drawn

Many their

55

This

"

The as

one

pose

unassuming drawingb}'Ruhens

quiet

as

form, and

students do

not

it the

is,is full of action. difficult turn

realize the loss of

and crouching much figures sitting i8j

shows beautiful The

feet should

of the head

lengthin high.

too

such

has been a

rh}'thmof be

noted,

attacked.

pose and

make

Museum. [British


'i

-s

6

P

C

^

O

^

3i

6

"

"1^

i8+

m

^73

^


''"

"'511

'i. i

M'

f:-^'ij

7!

r-\

Fig.

57

"

Note

how

of

One

while

number

the

at two

Ingres' portrait drawings Full

Rome. arms

have of

been the

of

search unified.

form

i8s

of

for

he

which

form

and

F.very fold

beneath.

made

a

rhythmical in the

clothes

."

great line. tells


.V/

' .

p[c. He

'lUl^-.i

58 has

It:a

drawing by J. F. Millet been quick to seize the forms The drawing hanging garments. "

A

chalk

186

which which has

shows

his

from

emerge a

rhythm

method

of

its

the own.

clearly. heavy,


THE

In the

DRAWINGS

drawings

of

OF

THE

Mantegna

MASTERS.

one

spirit. So insistent shading is simpler and more summary

to

the classic

the

convention

whom

Durer

covers

na's the This

easiest

with

section

by the shading

through of

and

while

it does

hand not

etchers. drawn

the than

each

which

of

a

is

gesting sugmuch

Mantegdiagonally, the

across

allow

stereoscopicform

them

convention

a

straightlines

of the

movement

that

draughtsmen, of example. Durer

round

mass,

engravers

consists

realized, almost

the

line

in its method

the chief

as

closer return

a

is the

northern

lines drawn

northern

convention

the

by

be cited

may

his forms a

used

used

sees

187

paper.

certain seen

over-

in work

simple and direct and defines the planes more clearly. The tendency ever since has been to adopt it for the study of form, and lend mediums like charcoal, chalk, pencil and pen themselves to it. Even a modern pen draughtsman like Mr. G. D. Armour it almost uses exclusively. the northern

produced by

engravers,

is

giant yet learned all his could academic teachers his impart, and transformed he drew it was to study by his volcanic genius. When reveal structure, and especiallythe overlapping of coii^ though if he chose he tours, rather than the appearance, with shading in the could load his surfaces correct Italian style. He was preoccupied with the figure as material in design ; he combined his raw nudes, grouped them, flung them togetherin ropes, festoons and swirls, and held togetherby his great line running round torses (fig.51.) along limbs, Michael

Rubens

drawings

Angelo, though

trained and

in Italian

sketches

for

a

methods

made

numberless

compositions; many

of

the


1

FOR

DRAWING

88

latter however shows

how and

smile,

painted

are a

the

him

in

The

Women prance,

of red

masses

Philip and

health.

robust

his

gise ener-

Queen

pleased with

well

When

turns

one

to

of people by Velasquez, a man and therefore more race likelyto realize the different character, very personalitiesare

portraitsof the

their

vivid

work

ment, tempera-

own

of his age.

of people portraits

are

and

themselves

.his

flamboyant attitudes, horses

composition.

painted by the

by

swirl in the wind, and

curtains

His

in monochrome.

the tendencies

by

strike

men

STUDENTS.

is dominated

man

also

ART

own

national

same

revealed, cold, indifferent

and

of

spirit. He

command

a

full

is

equally this

show

drawings of Rubens

The

passive.

of the

one

of

measure

few

very

ance exubercould

who

action; his

vitalityand

amplitude of gesture well as of form. as (figs.54 55.) His study of Michael Angelo shows in his work though mingled with his own

figuresmove

with

temperament

; in

he

substituted

painted with a

strict

In other

He

of

dark

masses

round

of

his

But

went

with

words

for lights,

drew

he

both

refused and

the

to

drew

his

far

beyond

drawing a

of

mere

a

trait por-

of his pleasant disposition the smile

with

rather

the minimum

than

the

of

light

dirty his drawing with the

he

as

exercised

He

In

gained his end to him

violence

he

his material.

over means.

achieved

shade.

latter's elemental

the

(fig.53) he

head

features, and

the

mastery

a

an

jovialturbulence.

he is concerned

sitter.

and

place of

economy

woman's ;

a

freedom, with

rather

by working

the

lightswere

mere

essence

of

form. In

Holland,

Rembrandt

among

the

Italianizing


Fig.

59.

"

A

drawing

in

pencilby Lord Leighton.

189


Fi(.. 60.

"

A

drawing by

Lord

chalk

Lcighton,made on

brown

with

black

and

white

paper.

190 I

t


THE

Dutchmen

DRAWINGS

stood

OF

alone.

he

and

types below

sat

at

191

again like

for his

Durer

etchings is

his window

of the

costumes

MASTERS.

Here

Holbein, his subject matter Bible, though

THE

Jewish

and

folk

and

from

the

accepted who

the

swarmed

they do to this day. He like Durer was always of his so-called accumulating material, though many drawings are compositions set down hastilyas they came into his head^ and often with splendid emphasis on the is the very artist. significantlines. He type of an in his sombre some ones Every event, and there were as

call forth from

him

speech or letter, but drawings, in which he sought new of expressing ways outlook. When his wife lay dying, he himself, a new made in a slightpen-drawing of her, pinched and wan After her death he wandered lets bed. by creeks and hamoutside Amsterdam drawing with simple pen strokes career,

what

seems

he

which

saw,

to

roads,

the

latter cannot

Holland

all is

now

of Marken,

be

trees

found

clean who

into their ancient

and

hasten

and

not

tumble-down

there

any

more;

houses, for

tidy,especiallythe themselves

and

in

wives fish-

their children

they see an excursion full of tourists,approaching. These drawings steamer, of compressed expression,for while models brandt Remare for his loss, he thus tryingto solace himself was of was subconsciouslyworking out like Durer a method puttingthings down in their simplestterms. Many paintershave left but few drawings, a prominent instance that he

attacked

preliminarywork stripsof canvas

dress when

being Velasquez. It has been thought the canvas without his composition on for there are picturesby him where been have added, t)ecause,as he pro-


DRAWING

192

FOR

But

of the

should

clearly defined

the

nor

his brushwork

he showed

He

far

goes

draws

beyond

bringing of

two

With

contour.

light haloes that

they

the

he

which

other

no

the brush

of and

in

a

a

or

from

quite for he

real sense,

earlier

the

forms

Velasquez

welded

round

But became

centre

Some

of

master

one

;

passage

where his

he

the

paint is

edges together

placed

in

accents

degrees of intensityto suggest nearness by blurring edges he quietened the forms

the

brandt, Rem-

means

different eye,

the

not

of

was

technique of painting, the surfaces of paint sharply together in a is held to the some paintersif the canvas

appear

non-existent. so

with

had

why

edge of Holbein, but in

knowledge

a

suggesting atmosphere, reaches.

He

feeling for humanity

the

Rubens,

more

drawings is no reason neglectVelasquez for

greatest of draughtsmen.

of

swagger

subject demanded

of

absence

of form

the student one

the

STUDENTS.

of the

ceeded, the development space.

ART

to

the

farthest

of interest.

of the dwarf

jesterportraitspainted with less of the decorum and stiffness of the court portraits, if he did them to pleasehimself, show the height of his as a as draughtsman. powers In France during the Renaissance, the artists looked it largely to Italy for inspirationand guidance. But was

Jean Clouet

school with

who

founded

portraitdrawing. He settled descendants painted a vast series

For first made

Clouets

Flanders

of

his

medium

from

and

these,

as

did

Holbein

drawings in black being already much and

their followers

and

made

in

some

red

in

a

Paris

of small

years

great and traits. por-

later,he

chalk, the latter

use

numbers

in

Italy. of these

The por-


THE

trait

DRAWINGS

OF

drawings, justlyfamed

Later

Watteau

the method

with

and

has

the

193

delicacy and

by

method

other

cision. pre-

period used position figurecom-

artists of his

vigour applying

more

revived

MASTERS.

for their

other

generally. W. Strang, followed

Mr.

THE

it to

modern

men, draughts-

for his series

of

portrait

heads. Claude

is

noteworthy

as

of the

one

But these study or sketch outdoors. mostly with the brush, are rather studies

first

paintersto drawings made of composition "

of trees and tree trunks, lightfalls on groups and divides the composition into masses of shade, though of he certainly drew twining ivy and slender branches foliageagainst the sky. but vainly for some One; wishes drawings of still how

life

the

by Chardin,

to

his fat bottles, and

Watteau red

and

Here

how

he

indicated

their effect

against

note

left numberless

black

chalk

handed

artist who

the volume his

of

grounds. quiet back-

drawings mostly

with

down

Clouets.

from

the

the

valued

drawing for what it was worth He wanted above to him. everything movement the surface but suggesting easy and langorous perhaps on fire,vivacityand alertness, a hidden (fig.24). The of lady seated on the ground with her hand on the arm The the gallant is about to rise. ment impression of movethe of the rising is conveyed, while contrast in the voluminous with the scrumpled legs hidden torse was

an

skirt is stated rather

than

with

conviction.

the brush

in

making

Watteau

used

the chalk

his studies, because

he


FOR

DRAWING

194

hard

the

that

knew

trenchantly with

ART

point

STUDENTS.

enabled and

structure

medium

has of

its

line

and

structure

work.?

Drawing him

helped on

him

the material The

of

any

essential

it,with the result that

with

charcoal

arrive

to

which

the

on

the

at

he proposes is

era

draughtsman

to

so

that

posing im-

specialto

those

Jean Dominique most

recent.

or

point would

the

banner

perhaps the

early

of the

use.

reached.

now

use

facts of

mind

essentials, without

of the academic

had

movement

with

or

clashing with

conventions

modern

there

against the

skilful His are

pencil

cleverness

those

who

place his drawings before the student is to disaster, luring him to attempt by trickerywhat no court ever, howbut Ingres could one accomplish. His methods are plain in his drawings, reproductions of which edition (now out of print). He be seen in Newne's may surveyed the pose, sketched in the leading lines,studied the structure beneath the clothes with lightstrokes before he concentrated details. He made on portrait many for a few francs apiece, and as drawings while in Rome time

was

of the The

that

little that is of direct

required for the carrying out

approaches legerdemain, declare

to

impressed

not

Ingres,the upholder romantic

convention,

study contains

still has

worse

have

own

his studies

only to find that this gard demanding the disre-

water-colour

say

for

drawing

make

student

more

It is preeminently

rather

or

the

does

everything not

the water-colour and

often

deal

to

movement.

painter's drawing painting. How for a picture,in

him

to

short, gave

most

of it to the head, the remainder

drawing being left with

finish he gaye

to

the

the surface

first strokes forms

showing.

of the face is of


THE

DRAWINGS

MASTERS.

THE

OF

195

possible only to himself, though well worth the keenest attention,for it could have been compassed only

course

by

a

close

study

Francois

Jean Barbizon

(fig.57.)

of the structure,

Millet for his

groups

is

be

to

drawings.

noted He

was

painted in series. A picture was earlier one, and suggested by an to which corollary,and as it were completed it. He

artist who

whole

depictthe

life of the French

the

among

peasants

a

type

of

influenced it formed wished

a

to

of his time,

privations and how these varied during the year. His mode of study required first and always the close observation rather than actual painting from which model and he despised as tending to scenery,

their labours

and

numberless of notes triviality.Consequently he made in rural figures engaged occupations, mainly from His drawings show without finickydetail the memory. character of his subject; even the and bodily structure its appropriate weight and coarseto have ness drapery seems of texture, while the action leisurely and untKeatrical is expressed with a sombre strength, (fig.58). Puvis of

de

in

art

Chavannes

mural

great

after the

had

established

themselves

and

therefore

Paris

methods,

their

worked

commonly

decorations used

for

excellent, so

are

made

with

drawing solid

the

charcoal from

and

the

great schools and

studies the

life.

feet

Of

the

only the

drawings studies

of

His

ballet

ings draw-

weighty are his figures, ground and the structure

of the great French the

for his

implement

firmlyplanted on the C. H. Shannon for throughout. Mr. cared squared off for transferringto the canvas.

the

settled

dancers

has

master are

one

Degas,

familiar

to


FOR

DRAWING

196

and

Engli"h students, and

Degas,

only observed

is

of what

one

of

on

seek

and

after careful

for.

account

diagrams

or

subjects

his

His

scrutiny. This is not

home,

drawings

of his power

been

out,

pointed

angled lens, not from

His

width

would

one

of space

have

taken

might expect Degas his

and

accents,

The

Sickert, and In made

which

were

closest

the etc.

black

They

careful

very

the

also

with

so

form

his

Adolf

drawings

attention

in the

And

as

one

placing of

into

merged

the

on

the

by Mr.

master

Menzel

than

to

highly

are

reproduced

depicted

non-accented

during other

any

ground. back-

for

is

use

and

details

in

charcoal.

in Newne's

of costume,

realistic and A

of

a

a

made

his

head.

long

there

life are

pictures,

and

needing architecture, mostly with

characteristic

series, but

Walter

painter. They

mainly historical in character

chalk

scene

take

the

over

has wide

a or

he

to

reproduced three views

painter's studies, that

all

the head

turn

as

one

Burlington Magazine recently published

Germany more

with

were

by the drawing.

illuminating articles

some

is

to

equally

where

those

passages,

lie

may

those

sittingamong

up was

it

as

to

always

surveying a stage

were

if

as

drew

did

opposite

figures are

in this respect

he

if he

as

distance, but

a

that

so

that

tery mas-

easy

the

are

so

feeling

depicted in relationshipwith their surroundings and of the secrets

His

though Degas

at

of form.

maps

an

throne, and

a

that the artistic

call "at homeness"

may

always

analyse

stuck

naturallydo they move

quietlyand

not

like models

look

never

reproductions.

prolonged study, achieved intimacy in his drawings.

of

extraordinarydegree people

mostly from

these

without

not

STUDENTS.

ART

are

selection very

few


Fic.

6

1

"

A

drawing

in

red

197

chalk

b)- Alfred

Stevens.


Fig. should

62

"

be

A

drawing

avoided

by

in

red

students. from

chnlk

Alfred

by The

the

198

colour form.

Ste\'cns. distracts

Red their

challc

attention


THE

originalsto

DRAWINGS

be

though

with

attained

an

methods.

recliningfemale The

etc.,

been

made

must

have

fingerthe

There

is

figuresfrom at top speed

used show

his

insistence

chalk

a

the

drawing of the

Parthenon

pen

Menzel's the use

of

schools.

similar

a

drawn

on

two

must

yet

method,

for several

of his

with

of the features

accents

stump

for

some

omitted.

methods

continent

and

which

the silveryshading done

having been

reason

on

In

everythingis there. indicated and their ample forms figureswere gested sugof the drapery by smudges of chalk, the accents bein being set down firmly on this preparation. Hol-

portraitheads or

Britain.

199

of Durer, one tenacityhe reminds almost photographic vision, a result not by stippling, but by direct and

however

summary

have

in

seen

MASTERS.

in his

and

structure

THE

OF

which

charcoal,

have

must

perhaps a

aroused

much for the

account

favourite

interest

medium

sive exclu-

of his, in the

spared no pains to get on intimate with his subject material, the current terms militaryand life of Germany, the most court exacting in details of His importance as his^ equipment and social custom. torian was acknowledged, and on several occasions suspended their business, while important conferences art

Menzel

took

Menzel

out

his

grouping. In England, of the painters,Gainsborough is costumes

perhaps

book

sketch

and

made

notes

of

or

because

he

had

brilliant most more

famous time.

group

of

for his He

portrait drawings,

obtained

a

rather silvery quality but the portraitsare quick sketches for composition than studies of form, and

beautiful

the

same

may

be

said of his

landscapes.


FOR

DRAWING

3O0

STUDENTS.

ART

illustrators of the sixties the

The

period

should

be

magazines treasured by every

and

bought

figure composition, Millais, Charles others, by Walker, Sandys, and many British

though engraver. over

crinolines,and

and

trousers

nothing, the the

beyond century,

to

The

removed

be

of the

they liked, but

print and

astonishing who

never

debt

nation

work

pointed

his

is

been

the

for

of

all his or

teaching.

out, in his

output

the

need

late

somewhat

copying

of

what

size of

added

mensely im-

he

sidered con-

influenced

close

study

bits of

perhaps Turner of

Durer and

even

himself

not

a

few

understood as

he

But

etc.

of

in this

teaching

art

an

ignored partlybecause

exercises

drawings

what He

for

his

sketches,

of

considered.

Of

structure.

has

his

to

the actual

thousands

when

number

acknowledged to

draw

to

sometimes

which

had

draughtsmen

the wood

on

emphasized

and

reasons

look

must

period is not the eighteenth

of

present-day men

in reverse,

finished

advocated

that these

drew

left the

direction

are

their difl"culties.

Turner

growth

The

is the dress

remembered

the freedom

Ruskin

the student

the other. as

.however

romantic.

seem

to

gave

absorb

trations the illus-

pronounces

fashions

everything,and

to

one

It must

the

is

art

yet far enough

scale

their enthusiasm

the

perhaps

old-fashioned.

not

Fred

brightestin the history of The illustrations art. are really drawings of the second-hand at through the medium The ing ignorant and youthful student on turnof these magazines glances at the the pages

that decade

pegtop

student

Keane,

of

made

of which

Ruskin

he

have their has

landscape displayed ex-


Fig.

63

A

"

drawing A

Grunewald. back

as

in

women

worl"

on

dark

of great

shows

paper

ot

an

and vitality

old woman's

head

force. The

skull

through the head clearly

by

Matthias

high at the coveringwhich, though

have been quite familiar with, he draws with draughtsman mast it for the firsttime if he had seen the rightattitude as inquisitivcness of Museum. drawing. for a student [British

the

"


^''Af

* :'

.s e O

3

iH

3

fe

13


Fig.

65

The

dominant

"

A

drawingin

red chalk

line of the pose

by Giorgioneof

starts

a

nude

with the head and

in stnjng action. then travels down

the spinal column the legs. The to head, hands .along feet shew and limbs. the lessobservation than the torse espechally

the neck

203

and


Fig.

66

brush. is lull ot

"

compositionby Frngonard. An example of drawing with the The drawing .ibruptsquare rh)thm of stroke is very evident. secured by givingthe "directions" their full degree ot movement, A

The

obliquity.

Museum. [British


THE

DRAWINGS

lie of the

ground,

the

hills he

made

the

and

movements

of

invisible

curves,

into the

the

drawings by well and of

drawings

desired

modern

forms

of

position. com-

masses

to

large

leading the

point. those

in

by

line

Lord

production, frequent re-

of art/

in schools were

in

forms

his

of their

reason

of

tion percep-

conform

masters

by

exhibition

points of of the art of

some

known

plant

keen

a

;

home

at

of cloud

had

city wall

or

master

was

picture to

are

salient

trees,

and

He

form

folds

profound understanding

a

made

mountain,

Leighton

equally

was

of water.

whether

Of

cleavage of rocks, the

clear, and

rhythm and He

"ye

the

205

of natural

perspectiveand arrangement

showing the

MASTERS.

of the structure

traordinaryknowledge the

THE

OF

His

early

Ruskin's

with

teaching. Delicacy and precisionare of

range

and

curve

leaves.

The

sufficient

to

is

movement

emphasis though detach

the forms.

of the flower

stalks should

of the flower

heads

level and

shown

has been

the spaces

in

given

observed. are

The No

and

understand

white

chalk

the forms

on

brown

under

paper.

the

and is

upon

lines

arrangement two

are

on

a

unequal.

Leighton's drapery studies (fig.60) show which has been widely adopted. They were black

full

a

the stalks

to

subtly varying

be noted.

between

59, yet

insisted

not

The

fig.

He

a

technique made

took

drapery,sometimes

with

pains to ing mak-

The preliminary drawing from the nude. study be looked in must as a working drawing,to be used upon therefore giving the fullest possible cona painting,and tent a

of forms, which

accounts

for its over

accentuation.


Alfred

be

6i, 62, should and

be noted

It should

the

how the

model, dominates

by the figure. The the

the

were

Figs.

to.

61

fig.

ment move-

pre-occupationof the master. form curved grasped by the line of

and

shoulders

the

across

reverse

The

well marked.

jointsare

in

repeated

curve

a

pose,

is continued

arms

In

carefully.

studied

structure

referred

already been

has

Stevens

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

DRAWING

2o6

back.

and to place the right arm repeated attempts of the model that the involuntary movements show

hand

The

seized was

give increased

to

on

of the few

one

the

planes, and

body, which drawing.

A

amplitude

the

drawing

and

portraitsgave studied

used

are

much of

to

suggest

solidityof in any

as

for his

and him

cannot

structure

him

method

should to

be

the

"cubist"

"shading"

academic

In

is reverted

the to.

noted.

have

practised in the

as

He the

linear

by Cuneo

is said

utmost.

the

of the forms

drypoints drawings prove

numerous

ment move-

rendering of the left shoulder.

The

of

as

instance

repeated below,

study

lines

upon

curious

arm

Whistler

give all the

give the weight and

to

is insisted

in the

occurs

shade

the

62

FIG.

who

draughtsmen

Stevens

pose.

figureexhibits.

the human In

vitalityto the

were

art

deprecated schools

the

yet his

are tially essenlithographs which to have exploited drawing to be called a skilled draughtsman,

and

details

of the

great trouble, yet he

bands

will

in his

always

be

delicate

and perception of the sinuous flexible in line,of the gradation of tone and the value of the right place of accent. he According to Mempes once

described

went

on

his

all fours

method

with

that

of

drawing

of other

which

masters.

however He

first


Fig.

67

"

subordinated

A

sketch to

the

in pen action

and and

ink

and

rhythm

of dark.

wash

by

of line and

Guercino. the

Everything

phicingof the

accents

[BritishMuseum. 207

is


head The Loggan. dra\Aing b)-David in the oval. low might be able to D}namic too Symmetry seems with do because this is so the features that show not happen to coincide the Museum. of the ellipse.[British rectangle enclosing important divisions Fig.

68

"

A

wonderfully

detailed

"

"

zo8


THE

focus

his

placed

where

bridge,

he

ease'

chose

the

went

While

studied

living

masters

the

taken

But in

that

of

form

as

will

will

book

only

the

practice with.

and

mind

his

part

elsewhere

he the

to

necessarily, of line

master

should

work

take

and

of

closely

be

those of

The

there

are

aspect

of

movement,

for

terrors

results;

long

but

which line

of

must

masters

not

be

form and

structure

If

the

student

will

nor

been

has

theories

new

it is evident have

he

with

lines, the him,

haps per-

draughtsmen

concerned

light. such

some

whom

troversies con-

negligible.

are

been

on

those

great

no

the and

omission

has

by

in

admire

of

pages

methods' the

work

the

to

of form,

study

interest

certainly

movements

new

no

their

keen

with.

that

reference

any in the

a

will

and

revealed

have

without

upon

grounded

by

dealt

the

three-fold

well

that

movements

new

sympathy

implying

appearance

been

to

all in these

its

lines

threw

omitted

be

His

close

himself

living, or

he

whatever

is made

Vierge

will

to-day

in

as

detail

in

must

darks.

student

found most

this

or

memory.

mention

or

of

feels

figure, tower

a

composition,

express

masters

chapter

though

From

Reference

of

be

209

all illustrators.

by

This

to

many

placing

the

it. of his

his

barely

may

one

wanted

at.

so

MASTERS.

THE

interest, it might

on

trained

he

OF

masses

work

to

way

of he

establishing at

DRAWINGS

he

be

that

in

sanctioned

could

have

founded con-

this

by been


INDEX.

"

heavy

in

figures

The

N.B.

Illustrations

which

Anatomy,

98

94,

118,

Animals, Artists

123

120,

127,

:

4

Correggio,

Frontispiece

Crawhall,

Watteau,

82,

Whistler,

206

Degas,

3,

196

Durer,

4,

171,

167,

175

from,

Drawing

Vase,

168,

175

60

Backgrounds,

176

Vision,

of

Bias

204

Birds,

Gainsborough,

7

121

120,

199

Botticelli,

203

Giorgione,

4

182 201

Griinewald,

Guercino,

90,

4,

207

172,

152,

182

173,

185,

194

189,

190,

Leonardo

da

4,

Drawings,

Chinese

Leighton,

Clouds,

Vinci,

182

174,

208

Lorenzo

de

Maclise,

38

Costume

Menzel,

196

Crawhall,

Michael

Angelo,

Millet,

186,

33

"

160

151

"

Frontispiece

Correggio,

177

139

30

Convention, 202

48,

no

5,

Construction,

Loggan,

Credi,

47, 116

27

Composition,

205

92,

70,

69,

63,

54,

42,

41,

Studies,

Charcoal

150,

171

100,

99,

Drawings,

Chalk

91,

5,

Holbein,

Ingres,

193

115

109,

Giotto,

on

Bas-Relief,

Athenian

Fragonard,

pages

occur.

Assyrian

Botticelli,

142

Study, 109,

115

Forms,

Cylindrical

23,

24,

25

for,

154,

195

178

Raphael, Rembrandt,

5,

4,

Degas,

188

184,

Rubens,

5,

Ruskin,

27,

Stevens,

179,

183,

139

Durer,

187

4,

171,

176

132

153,

Velasquez,

180,

196

3,

Design,

89

Reynolds,

Vierge,

those

indicate

type

197,

198,

206

Edge

Study,

Etching,

igi

155

209

211

Pencil

85 Studies


INDEX.

212

Face,

Oil

22

19, 20, Studies, Figure 84, 53, 54, 55, 59,

70, Form,

103

Form,

Search

64,

63,

73

79

"

106

"

61-72

Pencil

Plant

203

44,

142

156

14

Form,

133

124,

139,

"

137,

189

"

7 21

182

Giotto,

Griinewald,

201

Guercino,

Quadrupeds,

29

207

91,

5,

178

Raphael, Head,

43,

Post-Impressionists, Proportion, 3, 13

199

tion Prepara-

a

148, 141,

22

138,

Giorgione,

as "

Drawings,

Planes,

204

Gaiasborough,

144

Drawing

Painting,

Perspective,

for, 39,

Fragonard,

141,

for, 140

Sketching,

Time

Figure,

32,

Painting,

"

119

116,

92,

49

22

Recumbent

Holbein,

150,

go,

4,

172,

152,

182

173,

Forms,

Related

Rembrandt,

for,

Drawing

161

82

188

89

Re5molds, Illustration,

84, 81,

"

184,

5,

4,

28

20, 80

Figures,

Rubens.

5,

Ruskin,

27,

180,

179,

183,

187

"

132

165

Ingres,

185,

4,

194

of, 3 198,

Sincerity, Quality Stevens,

Drawings,

Japanese

113,

no,

114

Still

Life,

Style,

197,

153,

4

Sub-consciousness, 128

Landscape, "

Lay

"

in

Leighton,

189,

Leonardo

da

Light

and

Study,

190,

208

Lorenzo

de

182

46,

"

Memory

38 Drawing,

Menzel,

196

Michael

Millet,

41

T5rpe Forms,

Movement,

Velasquez, Vierge, 209

107

177

195 51,

52,

"

on,

10

1

22

29

"

202

"

117,

53

191

Bias

of,

7

"

12

119

Water

Angelo, 186,

34

102

Vision, Maclise,

46 drawing

Study, Paper,

Toned

174, 34

Credi,

Tone

141

205

Vinci,

Shade,

Loggan,

11

132

"

Oil

of

206

42

Colour

Watteau,

82,

Whistler,

206

Wrist,

26

Drawing, 193

142,

149

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