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DRAWING FOR

ART

STUDENTS

ILLUSTRATORS

AND

BY

W.

ALLEN

SEABY

LONDON B.

T.

BATSFORD,

LTD.,

:

94,

HIGH

HOLBORN.


PRINTED

BY

"

HIGHAM

JOHN

HYDE,

MANCHESTER.

COY.

LTD,


PREFACE.

the

In

students,

ruthlessly

first

place

past

and

than

rather

shining I

Next

I

in

untidy

yery

for

Hartrick,

R.W.S.,

life

Paris

for

R.E.,

Dorothy

which

H.

Mr.

Edith

(figs.

only

21

18,

28

and

a),

Mr.

Miss

for intended

to

serve

two

44),

and C.

and

S.

A.

Lumsden, Miss

Pearce

C.

Forbes

Agnes

drawings

various

a

Pearce, Mr.

S.

E.

Mr.

(fig. 43),

Hampton

C.

reproduce

(figs. 31

as

reading

thank

to

25A),

and

i6

for

also me

I

teaching,

C.

Mr.

I must

my

whom

to

line.

Morley

and

drawings

students

are

will, I

to

his

expressive

allowing

(figs.

Johnston

other

and

Prof.

several

(fig. 12),

of

use

for

for

especially

suggestions.

studies

so

examples

Fletcher,

Morley

manuscript,

A.R.B.A.,

horrid

as

my

have

I

They

purpose. up

to

acknowledgments

F.

the

thank

to

apologies failings

them

my

and

art,

it, of

have

own

holding

Mr.

friend,

I understand

whose

my

tender

everything

owe

humble

lights.

must

and

master

for

for

me

offer

must

present,

exploited

pardon

trust,

I

sketches

indications

as

of

method. thanks

My of

the

Mr.

W. The

diagrams

Holbein

the and

authorities,

line with

blocks, no

as

pretence

John for

Castle,

B.

W. to

consent

Hon

the

to

drawings, Mr.

to

Coats'

A.

due Windsor

Library,

Royal

reproduce

also

are

use

be

can

to

to

the

Paterson, his seen,

permission

British who

Crawhall are

Fortescue,

mere

draughtsmanship.

to

Museum obtained

drawing. scribbled


Lastly,

in

necessarily this

know,

is

not

be

a

certain

matters

for need

this

as

of

amount

bad

altogether

important

planned

book

a

the

;

than

A.

College,

University Reading.

April,

192

1.

there

repetition.

student

more

is,

as

one

W.

must

Perhaps all

teachers

telling. SEABY.


CONTENTS.


XX.

DRAWING

AS

A

PREPARATION

FOR

PAINTING

XXI.

XXII.

XXIII.

140

CONVENTION

151

DRAWING

THE

FOR

DRAWINGS

161

ILLUSTRATORS

OF

THE

MASTERS

i66


CHAPTER

I.

INTRODUCTION.

In

these the of

shape

the

with

that

long

no

there

is

a

the

upon

call

it

road

not

counter

of

art

himself

putting

teaching,

for

a

to

fee

him to

show,

one

teacher's

his

in

regarding

ready

be

from

as

cut

off

say,

one

a

small

how

Ingres, faculty,

or

of

a

searched

the

hands

tricks

by rather

student

with

fidence, con-

behind

standing snip

but

and for

whom

mere

"tips,"

training,

severe

insist

classical

the

trick,

series

that

to

power

a

It must

learned

and

Velasquez,

as

all, by

at

every

implication

the

conjuring

a

effort. and

up,

not

to

in

technical

learned

be if

visual

picked

trusts,

to

is

teaching

necessary

Holbein,

in

sees

necessary,

it becomes

This

will,

we

with

the and

one

draughtsmanship by

acquired,

intellectual than

of

when

employment

is

in

poster

correspondence

study

cerning con-

future,

near

etc.,

course,"

art

art,

Degas.

what

be

to

understood

sleight-of-hand must

in

importance

and

Menzel,

of

the

made

are

designing,

remunerative

training

royal

as

sense,

of

"completes

who

the

costume

campaign

great

promise

student

in

illustration,

work, a

prophecies

required and

pattern

press

daily

work

art

advertisement the

when

days,

of with

the a

a

fabric water


DRAWING

2

colour

brush

When

the

FOR

student

has

of art, he

refinements

of

who

a

charlatan, the

he

how

arrived

pretty face.

some

measure

of the all the

into his service

will press

he

dodges and

acquire from

can

The

manipulative processes

study, and

a

as

is made

attempt

an

emphasize the importance of a student-like of mind, and a wise docility in carrying out in themselves

draughtsman

attitude

readers

cavil

emotional

such

at

side

of art

is

rightlyso, yet it is all shall be absolutelythe possess

and

well

the souls

term

a

insisted

the

and

upon,

that the

necessary

more

artist

of his instrument, if he

master

in

if

"tasks," for though

as

of his listeners.

study is necessary

not

should

Nor

equipped.

now-a-days

the

tasks

interesting,but necessary

very

is to be

them

in

to

perhaps

with

concerned

followingchapters,therefore,are

drawing

to

more

command.

can

the

any

is the

that, he

him, but without

more

a

draw

to

at

technique which

teach

can

STUDENTS.

performed, or

are

knowledge one

ART

And

if this

music, still more

is it in

is

striving pictorial

art.

On

the

other

proceed without notion

still

students

But

a

further or

If the

the

the

active

when

be

made the

interest

loses

particular drawing work

will resolve

stippling,mere study has been

drawing

of the is

a

itself into

The

discipline,that they do and

its interest

is better

cannot

pupil.

'do it because

to

eye

of

study

lingersthat drawing

should

like it.

hand

laid

not

acity, pertin-

aside,

for

ing tinkering,embroider-

occupation without observation. made on right lines, if placing,

and proportion, movement grappled with, the drawing

construction has

earned

its

have

place

been in

the


INTRODUCTION.

3

Stairwayof art study, for it has raised the student a step above his previous attempts. A real responsibility rests on

the student, who

he

take

can

much

him

to

drawing; this

some

shut

who

searched

teacher

art

and

far do

can

example.

even

to

himself

his powers his

how

recognise the necessity of of observation and expressionin any artists have only forced themselves slow

long after their school

Degas,

the

by exhortation

Many students are testingtheir powers one

for himself

ascertain

drawing, though

a

help

to

should

days

were

for

up

of observation

exquisitelyfinished

two to

as

over,

witness

while

years

the utmost

picturesof

he

in producing

Paris

street

life. After to

the

some

writer

experience of teaching drawing it that

certain

essentials

of

study,

not

seems

only

ment drawing, but in all art are : (i)the developof proportion,and of the sense by this is meant ing than getting one's measurements more right,but a feelfor good proportions,such as is generally admitted innate in the Italians to a higher degree than in the was lies at hand, for the northern peoples, and the reason

perhaps

former

in

never

while

formed

their

"

lost touch the

with

the

architecture

environment,

of portion, prosculpture,which

classic and

showed

canons

them

proportion

(2) Hardly less important is the qualityof of being oneself, of not apeing another's style. sincerity, Art Students, from their very temperament, are quickly embodied.

impressed,not least by the work of the cleverer students. of of their master Later or on they follow the manner in this up There harm artists they admire. is not much built indeed art tradition has been to a certain point,and


DRAWING

4

in

up with

such

some

character

work

and

follow

to

this

for

and

As

for

teacher

not

after,the work

years

that

and

elusive

students

to

things his

of

which

is

consciously. few,

a

pupil is

what

extent

a

From

way.

work,

to

quality. But

in his

himself

and

of his calculations, former

a

own

for

only

comes

student

the

showing

art

be striven

it out

rare

some

hand

other

quality in

a

to

leave

to

do

to

"style,"that

has

the

others, will feel within

his bent,

spontaneous,

STUDENTS.

while individuality,

character,

comes

ART

On

way.

admiration

wish

FOR

if

happy

to

seen

possess one's show

can

one

art

an

in

style means

drawing;

the

rhythmical line of Botticelli,Ingres and the Oriental the veracity and masters, clarity of Holbein, the

drawing

structural

Certainly every drawings by

school

masters,

frighten students, but

to

of Durer, to

or

only

name

should

have

instil into their minds

the

of

in order

not

they should

that

masters.

reproductions

early and modern, even

few

a

them,

copy

qualitiesthat

to

the

best

drawings possess. The better at

has

student

should

the actual still,

Oxford

and

study such He

will

rhythm peculiarto himself, rhythm, such as the marshalling of in

pyramidal or

group,

or a

Hundred wave-like

effort

to

line

in the

Japanese masters;

but

him

by by

print, with

similarly conscious

which his

we

a

as

seen

sub-conscious

know

the artist

handwriting.

The

master

conscious as

masses

to

of

accent,

all

a

leading

calligraphicflow or

the

Guilder

forms,

only

or

Museum,

that each

see

not

a

Rembrandt's

British

in the

drawings

elsewhere.

reproductions,

we

see

their

the central achieve

Chinese

a

and

rhythmical stroke as

we

ample

might curves

nise recogof


INTRODUCTION.

Rubens,

the sweet

rhythm

of

be

as

this

rhythmical

he

or

mannered

of

movement

the student

should

acquire not

may

drawings,

of

forms

cut

square

in his brush

seen

taught, and

for it,

of Guercino, the staccato

flowing line Fragonard, the

Rembrandt, But

S

examples.

are

the

hand

cannot

consciouslystrive rhythm, but merely a not

touch.

but Composition has been dealt with incidentally, this is a subjectwhich full treatment, while the demands In with how to draw. following chaptersare concerned position practice,however, the two are interwoven, and as comcomprehends all the subjects of art study it stands easily first, and should be given a corresponding

positionin Too

curriculum.

art

any

long has

the

imitation, whereas involves for

attention

it fixes the

the movement have It

to

;

do

concerned

teaching been

art

first stroke

the

dimensions, determines much

so

with

imitation

through composition and well enough, while the student

mainly

but copy The the

opening

writer

advocate

happens

is

the

that he

it be

road, that ideas

drawing

studies

art

subjects will does nothing

allied who

of his art.

those

in

that

show

authority

who

effort

as

against slick sketching.

had

to

deal

has

from

with

abroad,

art

students

and

of but

It

from few

they had been put upon the right proportion,of construction, and of

that of

of

side

Britain, and said

who

of this introduction

sentences

on

kernel

the very

sustained

all parts of could

miss

may

a

composition.

as

might be put this way, that the student

draw

paper

placing and

the first steps of

in other words

not

of

sheet

a

mere

things. It implies a choice,

other

to

on

with


DRAWING

6

had

movement

he

of

called

how

to

inculcated.

This

medals

which

in the own

is

serious

the

end, for students of

work

course

and

will

plainest speaking

only

his

what

sort

great

part of the truth lies in this,that the teacher

of

of

more

anxious

for the

that

student A

steps. may

lose

a

"pulled

out

to

dodges

appear

successful should

the

learning and

better

received.

than

of

Perhaps

the

be

because

tinkered

draw

it is.

wrong

into

during

badly, for

to

shape,

the attach

making

a

more

work

for the student's

be

fire," yet

of

a

be

may

pupil,

of the

completion

contrivances than

clearly enough

proceed by logical and

may

to

shows

have

abandoned

drawing of

work

drawing

medal, but it may

a

is

the

study

for while

student

their

teaching they

thinking the

but

the

"good" drawing

from

pupils,

their

in

free.

command

can

of

cruelty

is

that

seeing

them

of

kindness

wrapped

so

of

way

shake

teacher

no

often

are

draw,

number

faithfulness

criticize with

to

his

hand, tricky

The

right.

matter

been

brilliant

no

the other

on

or,

to

more

and

matter,

ing, draw-

by

taught

the

to

what

not

shows

been

not

force

equal

a

put

fears

manner

Of

has

for overworked, will

drawings,

he

ing teach-

a

stages, have

student

the

that

with

applies

students.

heart

often

the

about

set

to

the successive

out

attempts

this

^how

"

that

clearness, that

in

wanting

them, and

upon

conclusion

the

to

rudiments

Too

muddling

gold

the

carry

STUDENTS.

ART

steadfastlypressed

is often

drawing

be

and

been

reluctantlycome

has

may

FOR

than

artistic method

welfare, may

process

be the

importance bad

drawing


CHAPTER

THE

For

good

BIAS

apprenticeship science of

judged

fresh

of

lease

life

Impressionists fetters

yet

That is

is

necessarily

art

student

who

has

which

by an

it of

the

infant's

evidently the

brightly

eye

eyes

notices and

coloured

one

here

visual a

head.

objects

A

as

a

Post-

perspective

Art

the

in

at

and

by

later to

the

order

to

experience it be

as

Shortly

marked

street

in In

far

the

once

appearances

as

presented

School

the

in

brother

reality

little

the

the

sensations.

light

its

gave

as

used.

observe

may

is

as

and

his

between

study

art.

for

is

term

that

as

or

form

with

the

tion representa-

standards,

appearances,

contempt

relation

the

of

study

company

the

the

it, riveted

upon

absolute

an

establish

gained

based

parts

in

sense

the

say,

practical

erroneous

subject,

an

When

field

same

pictorial

on

from

and

eye

the

put

firmly

to

the

human

to

would

more

reflections

by

gave

workshop.

or

Photography,

perspective,

perspective

distinct

as

studio

occupies

Drawing.

of

study,

art

include it

VISION.

invention

the

to

shadows,

call

we

to

in

is held

OF

ill the

or

impetus

enormous

II.

ible poss-

after

the

it

tries

it

(as

birth

movement to

the

reach

saying


FOR

DRAWING

8

ART

is, it cries for the moon), and tentative in

uncertain

and

If with

from

one

table, the

the

for difficulty, the

exact

small will

adult

with

this

distance

the

how

it has difficulty positionof the object. objects are picked up

the exact

closed

eye

will note

the observer

its efforts,the

are

reaching with its hand

STUDENTS.

it is not

handicap hand

infant's

appreciate the

has

travel

to

estimate

to

easy

to

the

grasp

object. The

child has

continue

its

investigations. It hurts itself by knocking against objects,or falling them, until by dint of practiceand sad experience it over has become called what be at a quite early age may "distance perfect." It has learned to look into space as

the

the

measuring preservation of life,and

waking

our

things the actual Hence

caused

for

are more

knowledge From

moments.

Hence

drawings, nearer

with

is

the

being

shade,

a

apparent

of

not

colour

changes of

confound

to

for

these in life

by the

substance.

sense,

finds that all like the

too

the circle,and

positionof Again, every art the

used

appearance

contempt

change

distance, and

determination

the teacher in

to

is reconstructed.

or

the

space.

essential

is

foreshortening. To the non-artist illusions,deceptions making the daily walk difficult perhaps, but easilyto be overcome

"shadow"

than

the

at

to

wariness, by the

are

looking

distances

light and

by shadows owing

of

Philistine, sub-conscious

a

appearances,

form

artist's way

of

power

throughout of

with

compared

This

perforceto

the

beginners make their object; their ellipses

their horizontal

surfaces

wider,

object warrants.

teacher

knows

that in

a

junior class


THE

BIAS

OF

VISION.

practisingobjectdrawing, there where the pupil has not drawn it from where object as he sees if he

appear

of

drawings

in another

were

object may

an

yet made

appearance, In this

the

found

students

of

the

it would

as

Sometimes

almost

several

two

identical

in

feet apart.

evidentlyexpended projectinghimself into

has

in thus

energy

is, but

case

one

appearance

he

the student, who

case

intellectual

some

will be at least

position. be

by

9

imaginary position,does so because he feels that the view he actuallyhas would give but an imperfect idea of the shape and function of the object,and this gives the an

clue

to

so-called

Egyptian symbol shoulders The

in

of

front

houses,

eye, a

nose

house

a

in

same

mouth

illustrator

less in

pictureamong

same

than

height

In

himself.

depict a profileview and

all these

his

causes

often

add

well, or they depict both

drawing.

one

The

the profile, the legs again in profile. the king twice the size of

of the eye, as

work. in

the head

in the

times

reason,

front view

and

makes

etc., rather

trees,

Children, for the face with

and

in old

see

the mediaeval

several

appear

we

shows

man

bas-relief

Assyrian to

a

view

his attendants, while hero

that

errors

cases

of

a

another ends

of

appearance

ignored. The delineator is obsessed by realities,and of is occupied in presentingthe largest possiblecontent the objectsdepicted. pupil is Similarly,if an object with which a young is

familiar,such

as

a

kitchen

bellows, is laid

upon

the table

drawing lesson, the apparent change of shape due to foreshadowing is apt to be ignored,with in plan,with the result that a view is given of the bellows students The the side view tacked it were. see by as on as

an

exercise

in the


DRAWING

10

a

and

a

imaginary positionenables ing drawvisualize to easily. Such objects more be called wrong an cannot early, ; it merely denotes in these days of realism and photographic vision, an

bird's eye them

STUDENTS.

ART

vision, the ground plans of objectsas

of mental

kind

FOR

view, because

inconvenient

that the lines

sense

follow, for these

may

being concerned of

be

art, the

intricate

making

hard

to

rather

a

the

students,

and

the modern

latter still

or

easiest, but

teacher

with

culty question of diffi-

a

are

of the

between

misunderstanding aspect

It is not

convention.

in the

former

that

sophisticated

or

of traditional

use

conventions. And

indeed before

came

treated alive

of the

vase

and

painters of was

lightand

shade

had

been

cite the

the

the

detailed

quattrocento.

artistic,and

Consideration

might

illuminators, Chinese

representation as enables

periods of greatest charm

splendidly characteristic animals of the Egyptians, the forms with their linear purity,the earlywork

mediaeval

drawing, ,vision

perspective and

scientifically.One

and

Greek

the historic art

triumphed

Japanese

the

naturalistic

all these

periods the

of

vision In

and

over

inconsistencies

of

judged by later standards. of this deference

to

the claims

of

reality

appreciatethe difficulties his students have in grappling with the figure. Beginners the head make too large for the body, the face too big for the skull ; the hair like stringor wire, pre-occupied as which be compassed on cannot a they are with realities, Their vision may be said to be anthropoplane surface. morphic, for they regard everything from the human of standpoint. A house at the end of a long avenue the

art

teacher

to


THE

BIAS

trees, for instance, is it appears,

because

OF

VISION.

likelyto

ii

be drawn

it is the home

much

of man,

largerthan

and

such

as

is

unconsciously emphasized. In this connexion

sucH

beings

all have of

means a

children

old

with

the

symbols but

with

of what

the

an

How

for

but

by

draw

to

and

hide

often or

ready-

draw,

as

the

fog

or

biassed

which,

ago

by

drawing practicethese

by

what

not

this subconscious

it were,

simultaneouslywith

eye

they

their vision

them.

sub-conscious

image plays strange pranks

Sometimes

drawing.

drawing,

immediate

an

re-appear,

long

no

questions freely asked

are

object coloured of

in

are

early childhood,

the students, who

inner

is before

This

in

expectation of

image behold

that there

recipes or symbols.

images

or

before

they see,

noted

In later stages of

answer.

object set

the

draw

to

horse, tree, etc.,

man,

made

taught

series of

a

be

pupils totallyuntrained

as

been

it may

the

student

substitutes

with his

physical proportionsfor those of the be the features of the model, or may previous sitter the drawing. on appear Students' an figure drawings often betray to amusing extent the type they fancy in the opposite sex, is the while inabilityto portray equally common own

an

features

alien

transformed one

looks of

and

racial

type.

The

usual

Italian

model

square-profiledEnglishman. students' for it,"the English look" on is quite ludicrous. foreign models into

a

an physiognomy of even absolutelydifferentiated

allied from

race

like the

that of the

is

When ings draw-

Dutch

The is

English type.


DRAWING

12

concentrated

Much

needed.

it

himself

with

consider

quick

to

before,

and

alter

would

Apart

hasten

lay

a

the

proportion

and

students

outside

people,

young

and

visualize other

illusions

things

from other

of as

teacher's

exuberant

in

artists

youth

they

dealing

care,

than

words

are.

the

already this

often

from

they what

much

it, very

is

students

being;

pose

correct

to

themselves. their

freedom

Too

from

are

they they

as

figure.

from

then

in

variation

some

free

achieve

to

way

human

a

as

young

fetters

subject.

his

model

the

find

only

the

as

subordinate

himself

set

to

get,

a

and

anthropomorphic

sympathy

barely

has

to

which

in

the

forms,

race

himself

intrenched,

He

Perhaps

to.

through

In

model.

of

teach

to

personality,

own

sub-conscious,

alluded

has

impregnably

his

to

these

saw

his

is often

person

student

for

searching

and

differentiation

this

up

The outside

were,

STUDENTS.

ART

observation

make

which

accents

are

FOR

pass

with

of

construction

chief

difficulty

The

well-being

vitality,

make

it

terms

of

begin

to

from

faults

their

difficult

their see

them;

they

to

of

good for

get most

spirits them

to

personality.

own

more

is

truly at

as

length

the see


CHAPTER

III.

PROPORTION.

To

entail

endless

well

give

little

also

may

the of

that

of

head

proportion

lines,

middle

triangles, of

used

to

As

while

verticals

Mr. props

Water

or

in

and

body,

the

horizontals

Sickert

introduced

looks

at

or

in

may once

help

to

13

details

with

the

to

ing build-

the

with

a

develop rules.

by of

times

constructions

elaborate

wrote,

child

begun

number

out

yet

ing, drawa

might

the

once

of

affairs

smothered

blocking

drawing

has

towards

in

The

that

end,

which

be

as

their

affairs.

step

often

of

traces

a

commence

a

felt,

that

practice

otherwise

are

the

the

it will

teach.

to

drawing

assiduously into

measures

left

same

who

which

coached

are

the

to

citizen,

good

is

in human

proportion,

Exercises

eye.

Students

of

sense

the

sense

well

a

proportion be

of

meaning

claim

proportion contend

the

and

humanities

proportioned

made

of

early aim,

will

more

the of

sense

when

has

steady

many

for

leads

up

or

teacher's

rightly pursued,

develop

the

a

teacher

the

of

idea

some

teaching,

teachers

studies

the

be

measured,

as

The

who

student

should

proportion

art

the

give

in

volving insquares

ings scaffoldstudents

found. "There

student,

are

with

too

the


result that the The rules the

edge

of observation

may

be

same

of

rote, tend

by

Students

observation.

blunted."

is somewhat

perspective,the

of

said

hastilylearned

of which, powers

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

DRAWING

14

formal

atrophy

to

sometimes

seem

to receding parallelsare made be expected of all is done that need vanish somewhere, them, with the result that on looking at the drawing we of what has it to be merely a travesty of the forms see been placed before the eye. to

think

that

The

writer

children

class, and asked in

to

pick

showing

there

was

a

drawing

he

out

some

chorus

had

drawing

close

of the

the best

of

of dissent

when

chosen,

for

But

like the box, whereas

Of

not

it had

looked

too

drawing

placed

box

lesson

knowledge

perspective.

or

a

the

the

students

some

lesson.

before

students

the were

handed Papers were perspective rules, and

drawing.

correct

long

with

school

a

teachers, to watch

were

the

at

as

visited

once

become

trainingto Some

long

so

the writer a

the

single

showed

line

the in

was

right proportions,

the other

drawings

were

it

too

high. the student

always ascertain the proportions but the appeal to be fruitful must by measurement, be mainly to the The living model, whether eye. draped or nude, affords practice in proportion readily appreciated by students, for they know people best, and familiar with their own build and proportions. are What known are as common objects do not, to the same this,critical faculty. extent, develop in the student Most junior students calmly make extensive alterations in vases, etc., without qualms of conscience, while, any of doors, such objectsas trees make out still less appeal course

can


PROPORTION.

to

the

of

proportion,for they are assumed by the have ingly contour no or shape, and are accordand chopped about to fit them within the

sense

beginner

IS

to

hacked

limits of the paper. line as junior pupils "drawinga middle causes misproportion, the drawing invariablybeing too wide. With

Sometimes

bad bias.

hands

and

thought

are

to

be

the face too

make a

feet too

from

to

mencement com-

almost

pomorphic proportions result from the anthrothe Young students generally draw small

small, because

becoming. large for the

corresponding share But

a

On

the

head

and

hands other

because

feet

hand it

they

occupies

of their attention.

this neglectof proportion arises great extent which method, along with confused goes

a

bad

begun at the top and worked the student downwards, trustingto his luck to Hence the legs get crowded get the whole on the paper. into less than their share of the space, or the feet perhaps vision.

have

to

The

drawing

is often

be omitted.

proceeds in a random way which positivelystultifies feeling for proportion. One often sees drawings slippingoff the paper, as it were, or for so pushed to right or left,without artistic reason doing. will do much towards securing proRight methods portion. Too

often

No from

head

to

figure,every line

once

the

student

details should foot

be

drawn

establishingthe

object will

furnish

at

whole

some

but first, form.

such

found, the proportion of the parts

steadilyand

safely.

line

Every

line. can

a

This

proceed


1

FOR

DRAWING

6

of

scribble

every

of the model,

rather

contours

An

object.

figurefrom One

than

forms, without their

noting

first

it has

as

results

ing stage the draw-

looking along in the

made

be

pressive ex-

taken.

been

from

should

last

to

good proportion,and

surveying, taking

of the

mass

to

the

all the

see

foot.

to

that

long

so

detail in contour,

with

pre-occupied

of it, is

in

put it in this way,

may

want

or

that at any

early attempt head

drawing

so

far

proportion often

Bad

are

so

that the

from

line

Every

way.

workmanlike,

be

may

method,

Such

considered,

be well

should

in."

sketched

in

dashed

toes

produces a mere badly scrawled detail, cism critiin anyhow, and

by the casual remark

is countered

vicious

of

figure,full

the

features, fingersand

"only

who

by the student,

misunderstood

strangely-

is often

out"

preparation of "blocking

The

is

STUDENTS.

ART

the

making

that is, with

to

the

preparation of

necessary

directions, failure

beginners

as

good proportion

secure

is inevitable.

Obviously every

time.

The

of the

excuse

not

who

intend

draw

the

is familiar

teacher

art

student

legs, that he did

is to

corrective

one

for to

of

want

draw

whole

with

the

lying

omits

room

Such

them.

figure the

scraps

figuresdefeat one of the great aims of the study. The can figure prepared or indicated, the student then concentrate that appeals speciallyto on a passage of

him,

but

exercise or

set

is to be

of the action This

vexed

out

from

head

to

foot

of any

value

as

a

it must

study

in

be, if

the

proportion,

of the

method

question of

figure. gives the clue erasure.

One

to

the

sometimes

of the

treatment sees

a

student


PROPORTION.

rubbing

ing tryingto do so, a largeportionof a drawSuch alteration is at a comparatively late stage. of spirit, vexation and an acknowledgment of a and artistic commencement beginning. With a studentlike

mere

bad

out,

or

little or

This

the paper.

no

by requiresa

for the proportions

is necessary,

erasure

be fixed

should

on

17

the firststrokes certain firmness

the part of the teacher, and

a

self-denial

plantedupon and patience and

inhibitive

of the student, always readilyat the command who with the notion that to the study of the model comes it is possible and commendable that figure to transfer this done in For has he not seen bodily to the paper. not

power

the work

of the artists he

most

admires

?

mences Generallythe procedure is this. The beginner comthe figurein a "blocking out" of his own to draw

fashion.

Horrified

hurriedly covers thus

to

secure

over

the

at

starkness

of

his

the first lines with

likeness, with

the

result

effort, he

detail,hoping that

a

figure

less looking bonethe necessityof the stuand sawdust stuffed. Hence dent occupied learningwhat is at first alien from his thought,(prehe is with realizing the objector figurebefore as before drawing, him), that there is a stage which comes namely preparation,in which the placing on the paper, have to the proportions,and the directions of the forms be studied or analysed without reference to naturalistic students It may be safely said that many treatment. leave art study without having secured the discipline and trainingwhich rigoroussearch after a good preparation appears

represented by

alone To

some

can

contour

lines and

give. students

it is

an

objection that

these

first


1

DRAWING

8

get in the way

strokes

spoil the

out,

has

As

a

as

etc.

To

virtue

said

long

a

to

come

and

part of the

be

to

rubbed

reply that liness in drawing study. Cleanto godliness,but it next this

one

may

bi^ind.

way

disappear under if rightlyplaced are astonishingly completed study. The form comes first strokes

of fact the

matter

the later work, useful

drawing",have

minor

a

been

certainlylags

of the

paper,

is but

neatness

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

perhaps just outside or inside the first line. In the work his line and his detail all draws of the genius (?) who in knotty swollen "at one contours, go," the result is seen mere exaggerationsof the form. Students

often

They thus their

which

upon

to

soilingtheir drawing. fying to draw piecemeal, stulticompel themselves able feelingfor proportion,and losingthe inestim-

their hands

rest

of paper

sheet

a

use

in order

avoid

to

advantage of seeing the whole

of their work

all the

time.

Many poses, especiallywhere the figure is seated or struction reclining, suggest a simple pyramidal or triangularconsuch

triangleare

shown

as

in

fig.

If the sides

i.

rightin direction,which

to

the lines

that formed

with

the paper,

on

by the

are

correct.

the

drawing being at

the mind attention

As

far

can

as

be

pose,

This

then and

the

enables

without rest

as

given

the

hesitation

regards the to

the

easilyascertained model and comparing the triangleis similar

by holding the pencil againstthe with

of

is

fore proportions therestudent

and

to

proceed

embarrassment

;

first lines undivided

construction

possible drawings should

and

be

artistic

made

pression. ex-

sight


'^~:-^SsJ ._.'i-^rS

Fig.

I

"

\vho3c proportions are reclining figures contained them in by assuming triangles.

Sketches of seated ascertained

:,:"*.

or

'9

easily


-s

f=


PROPORTION.

that

size, before

the

he

as

size

of

model.

the

student

and for

the

a

tracing

Faults

in

on

works, the details

general

he

a

than

the

scale

that

tend

towards

proportions

sight of

the

in

occur

size,

sight with

size,

drawing.

which of

proportions

the

held

glass

often

larger forgets

result

of

pane

proportion

somewhat

with

started,

extremities small

the

commenced

drawings for

is

21

that

is

his

too


IV.

CHAPTER

FORMS.

TYPE

Young

class,

from

emancipation

in

No

drawing.

effect;

They

have,

however,

of

representation

relation

with

the

attention

be

below

trouble.

has

they

say

form

sinuous

on

paid

and

apply

to

is

model's may

the

head

is

of are

but

receding to

unless

its

student

is

level

a

on

muster,

perspective, law

the

to

objects.

drawn,

pass

features

the

equally

inanimate

face

of

principles

the

appreciated,

the

the

then

if

that

drawing

been

observed

learn

the be

If

the

above,

or

be

level

eye

student's,

no

must

cylinders,

eyes

and

form time

every

the

have

to

to

living

example, with

certain

and

our

invariable,

are

appearance

For

feast

now

and

modelling.

subtle

and

shall

we

their

on

perspective

of

cubes

more

life

or

themselves

with

thraldom

the

antique

the

to

hands

shake

to

apt

are

model

promoted

students,

if

even

if

the

eye

parallels intelligently

be

represented.

Again, the

planes the

Especially

head. of

students

the

front are

fail

often

beginners

is and

unable

this side

observe

to

so

in

views,

properly

to

the

regard with

place

to

the the

of

planes the result ear,

three that which


TYPE

persistsin coming

forward

FORMS.

in

a

23

distressing way.

All

forms,

sphere, two

be

may

type

(fig.3). omitting the derived

forms,

the

from square

prism and cylinder.Of course by multiplyingthe faces of the prism one arrives eventuallyat the cylinder, but it will be convenient to keep them separate because

each method

The

cone

ignored in

FIG.

4

they

are

derived

from

the

and

represents

a

ferent dif-

of construction.

pyramid

because

as

cylinder and

may

be

shown square

prism respectively.

Fig.

4.

representationin perspective of objects based the square the prism, depends upon apparent upon of parallels, which is another of saying convergence way The


DRAWING

2+

that

things appear

FOR

smaller

ART

as

STUDENTS.

from

removed

they are

the

eye. of formal cylinder,though for the purposes embedded within a as perspective considered square intricate construction prism, and involving a somewhat for obtaining the curve of the circle in perspective, as regards its circular end, needs not the aid of receding parallels,because when foreshortened, the circle appears which should be drawn such without an as as ellipse, any construction other than determining the direction of its long axis (always at rightangles with the axis of the cylinder). Most natural organic forms are based on the cylinder the trunk and limbs of animals, including human as of representationthese are beings, (though for purposes better considered based on the square as prism),and most of plants and Of fashioned stems trees. objects,all metal produced by or pottery and other objectsof wood form of turning or lathe work, are the based some on also tinware bent beaten around cylinder, as or moulds. cylindrical But

the

Based

the square

prism are furniture and buildings,which man with the right-angle. to construct are building materials as bricks, stone,

on

framed finds In the

it convenient

category

same

and

cement

as

wrought

also boxes, books, etc.

Fig.

shows

5

the

principle

cylinderwhich should be followed, be the position. It is true that some their construct

structures

a

lessons

in formal

prism first,but

of no

constructing the matter

what

students,

may

bering remem-

perspective,laboriously

this is dreadful

slaveryand


TYPE

since the

unnecessary,

sides, and students

the two

that

arcs

fact

no

ends

of circles have in

progress

forming the

straightlines

two

Some

in the face.

short long and aids ruin the feelingfor the curve. pointed owing to the fact appear

diameters, but these the

2S

ellipsesstare one the ellipseon

construct

Sometimes

FORMS.

been

its

object drawing

Fig.

As

drawn. is

a

of

matter

possibleuntil

the

5.

be drawn ellipsecan freely in any of the hand and arm. a single movement If the student lacks this facility five minutes practiceat a blackboard day for a week at squares, circles and, every ellipseswill set him free of these forms for life. One

straightline positionwith

observe

may half

that

beginners

the defect

To

is to

the student

who

and

all

authority "

cure

is content

days,

type forms

trammel, but

once

with

The

head

a

no

standard

has

been

to

reallygreat "

than

draw the

lower

the upper

"

to

it.

in their student is

to

apt

are

ellipseflatter

of the horizontal

notice

to

and

subordinate

artists have reference

this constant

of form referred

himself done to

this the

help, supplying him at of drawing. and a method a

to

as

an

approximation to


the

The

prism.

point

to

between

hand

the arm,

and

and

with

a

male

wrist

the

of the

cylindricalform

of the hand,

this part of

Coming

the

the

the faces

fall under to

cheek this

head,

and line

6.

the

undulating line

marks

should

borne

it must head.

when

seen

this

as

in mind

relate with All

of the

prism,

of

the

from

from

the

light(fig.3),and side

of

difficulties

to

of front

great

by

are

the

and

features.

that the another

the contour

applies with

is

of forehead, cheek-bone,

present

they

or

ing penalty of failling. vigorous model-

straight edge

intersection

planes which obsessed

contour

it turns

the

beginners be

relate

must

prism representing the head

jaw, where

two

the

secure

The

ia

planes of the body

great

with

figure as

the

whole, the student

its

arm

(fig.6).

shape, to

and

forearm

form

characteristic

size

coming

prism

this

and

matches,

gives

replaced by

of

contour

shape- and

in

the flattened

Fig.

link

a

by the failure

caused

compared

be

may

of

more

the

stantly con-

the wrist.

see

large box

between

it modifies

how

arm,

forms

wrist

the

way

distressingeffect

the

of the student to The

the

out

figure

has

teacher

The

students.

to

of the

detail

is another

wrist

gives trouble

which

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

DRAWING

26

edge in question point of view, and

of the further

equal

force

to

It is

a

that

side of the the

trunk


TYPE

and

limbs.

should

The

be

seized is apt

front

sides

and

squareness upon,

roundness

FORMS.

to

of

otherwise

result.

This

the

trunk

woolly

a

especially

unstructural

intersection

of

the

complicated and be watched for. broken, but must (fig.22). This principleof the great planes is shown very clearlyin the statues of the Egyptians. Often the limbs absorbed that the finished figure remains a are as so block. The of course, lay in the material, the reason, of which hardness ing prevented the sculptor from indulgin undercutting and over-modelling, (fig.7). whose

Ruskin, art

close

teaching is always attention

forms.

His

"Modern

be

His

in

cloud be

fully. care-

of

very useful.

systems as

ing vanish-

presents

some

owing

to

rotundity,the

horizon

little lower

read

The

difficulty,as the earth's

of trees,

considered

horizontal. line

on

is also

forms

All

the

type

analyses

interestingand

cloud

to

Painters"

etc., should

should

gave

remarks

construction

cloud

is very

torse

tical prac-

consideration,

worth

the

of the

27

than

line

is

that

a

Fig.

of

earth, but the point is

not

of much

7.

importance.

A


good be

exercise

likened

is

to

of match

(fig.8). landscape painter,Boudin,

The

simple systems of talityis carefullyobserved.

for his

be

clouds

When

in which

An

example

lO;^

to

the

level

determine

drawing from upon

often

the

a

lose

which

the

observed, supply the

(fig.2). Neglect

of

the

horizon-

the

of his work

cannot

eye

is

case

every

receding

or

that of

is sometimes

horizontal

their

more

pose

studied

be

a::^.

approaching

are

effect of distance

Students

bench

a

8.

directlyfrom it,the appearance in this "vertical" sky, but even made

should

clouds

Fig.

which

at

Gallery.

in the National

seen

f^^

be

held

boxes

may

the eye.

above

to

clouds, which

sky full of cumulus

a

number

a

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

DRAWING

28

effort should

surfaces, without

be secured.

grip of type forms or

a

less

recumbent.

when The

figureis lying will, if carefully of the latter. general directions for these simple lines accounts


FORMS.

TYPE

failures

many

to

be

said

drawings

of

which

of

quadrupeds, often

relation

their

because

appreciated, depicts for

its

in

height,

shape

has

an

been

horses, unstable

9.

the

(fig.9). the

and

vague

type A

prism

prism

is not

well-known

alpine landscape

because not

with

and

dogs

as

look

Fic.

The

fore-shortening.

correct

secure

may

same

29

a

which

cow

ciently suffi-

ment advertisemuch

forms

properly foreshortened.

too

long

its underlying


CHAPTER

V.

CONSTRUCTION.

No than

word

is

"construction." it is

terms,

the

only by

constant

be

that

sure

the

tin

a

the

on

detail The

of the

the

example metal

bent

soldered,

is

and

the

give

to

entire

second

use

drawing,

an

of

All

it.

imagine

they

and

simplicity,

discussion

teachers

can

in

are

agreement

build

of

as

that riveted

to

in

form

word

entirely

is

refers

might been to

the

thing.

To

take

made

from

edges

being

bent

base,

composed

has

different

3"

a

One

construction

two

strip

form,

rigidity.

it is

the

flat

a

tion" "construc-

object.

that

cone,

meanings,

First

the

note

may a

distinct

two

artists.

by

into

the

stand under-

uses

when

utmost

has

semi-circular

itself until

we

teacher

shall

used.

terms

actual

the

students

their

the

lapped

handle

bent

of

student

and

technical

other

the

the

"construction"

and

cylinder,

and

they

as

of

lapped

with

constantly

more

with

jargon,

a

questioning

mean

pail

sheet

utter

indiscriminately

may a

to

that

sense

talking

be

word

used

the

apt

meaning

This both

in

to

lips as

that

necessary

are

themselves

teacher's

art

Therefore,

most

word

specialists

to

the

on

into

and of

a

that a

strip

continue

in

investigated. construction

When

one


CONSTRUCTION.

of

speaks that

drawing being well-constructed,

a

it is built

actual

31

up

construction

of lines

and

tones

which

means

one

the

suggest

of the

object depicted. difficult to the beginner than the Nothing is more advice to construct in the drawing. He the model sees all its complexity before him, and with a preconceived notion that drawing is imitation, cannot abstract his gaze from the details in order to search for the long enclosing lines of the figure, and those which indicate its build. A great deal will have been learned if the beginner has been already taught to set up work in clay. In a is obliged to "construct" his study, for way, the modeller he

cannot

at

his model

up

once

arrive

at

a

He

contour.

has

to

build

simple planes before he can think of the surface of here teachers modelling, though even of the way students modelling speak with sorrow evade the problems of constructive modelling, and the haste with which they attempt the more superficial qualities before their study has been carefullyset up with the great planes. On it is fatallyeasy to paper the begin with surface markings before setting down main

lines

students

in

of construction. inclined

There

ignore

to

are

two

construction

"

classes

of

first

the

of detail, only as a mass beginners who can see nature and secondly those students, clever with their fingers, who fancy they can draw well enough without the trouble arrive at a result, by means of "blocking out," and who which of their facility, them in ignorthey think justifies ing construction. may

it

was

that

To

judge produced, and

say

a

the of

latter class

of students

one

drawing can tell unerringlyhow can see, through the facile execu-


DRAWING

32

owing

tion, the wealcnesses

Further, the greater

vision

that difficulty, owing to want

it is of

artist,the

an

lack

of

more

likelyis

drawing. drawing really means in the early stages,

Constructive intellectual

to

construction. he thoroughly

his

construct

to

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

concentrated

looking

training,are

that students,

this time

preciselyat

presents this

and

the model

at

with

uncertainty,which result in slurred and fumbling drawing. Many students, indeed, begin be after a cursory to draw glance. The model should and

embarrassment

scrutinized

well

It is

commenced.

drawing

is made

the

during

Further

perhaps

about

the most As

drawing.

begin

proportions t)f the model and

way,

has

been

forms.

The

essential

based

on

actual with

of the foot drawn

as

dealt

and

movement

a

a

with

sketch more

horror

with

lines

the

to

at

be written

can

what out

or

generally

the pose

less

are

mass

outlines. line from

under

:

A the

those these

the

its aspect, add

figure, a

Attention

to

rag

at

type once

is best to

menced com-

the heel often

are

aimless

giving the impression of stuffed

a

necessarily

pit of the neck

doll

of

give

not

standing pose

the contours,

boneless

like."

of

head

which are

and

haphazard

supporting the weight. Shoulders isolated forms, the result of two

wandering round

This

same.

hope of making it "more preliminary construction

the

extent

some

drawing the

in

being stricken

detail after detail in the To

that

detail,

adds

the

already mentioned,

is that students

happens

work

remains

important caution

that the

minutes

firstfew

marred.

or

drawing is

before

little time

some

substantiallythe drawing

but is

for

with

a

sawdust.

the lines of the collar bones, sternum,

arch


CONSTRUCTION.

of ribs

33

and

this as regards the torse. pelviswill correct The look like Christmas to legs are especially prone have been stockings,because the inner lines of structure omitted. The bulk of the knee, the line of the tibia (in the front view),the lines defining the ankle, and suggesting the stirrup-likemovement of the the foot within ankle, and the backward swing of the heel are important. forward be noted direction in the a Especially should side view of the leg above the ankle, due to the tendon of

the

with

tibialis anticus. result

the

club-like in the

look.

leg,is

to

muscles

thumb

that

be

the

angle forming

at

the elbow,

the

back

these

place

results. and

to

the

to

of the

the

often

angles

show

It should

variations

that

balanced

by

Examples

of the

observed

in the

at

above

in

almost

swelling

a

tendons that

the

the

point

any

the

on

constructional

angle

In

in

with to

that

supinators.

in front.

regard

harmony

considerably

cause

level

same

added

be

is

arm

the

noted

be

great perseverance

the

at

in

positionof

than

slight

forearm, where

It should

lower

come

the

wrist.

to

Indian

lumpy,

a

the contours

crook

owing

on

varying

jointthe hamstring

students

cases

elbow

students,

many

of direction, though

clearlyin up

crop

escapes

takes

leg

change

seen

that

In the knee

the

This

with

above

from

This

both

trying to

distressing

these

torsions

hollow

a

opposite points

figure drawings reproduced

is

contour.

may in

be these

pages. The submit criticism

student his

who

drawing

wishes to

those

of his construction.

to

progress

more

should

advanced

constantly for detailed


CHAPTER

TONE

Young

between

oftentimes First

Here,

to.

the

object

be

the

line

edge

and

often

ignored

edge

of

the

influence

will cast

shadow

they

deem

shade

is

space

of who

shade

to

to

be

rests

with

the

Thus

area

be

H

shade."

of

limb

a

completed

the

on

shadow This into

area

is two

sighted

sharp

light

students bias

negligible

object.

the

reflected

anthropomorphic the

of

by

object

the

"line

their

to

the

is cast

object

divide

for

adhered

(fig. 14).

which

by

and

on

the

the

draw

form.

"shadow"

dark.

object.

adjoining, shadow

if

of

"shade"

by

allowed

they

study

continuous

shadow,

separated

that

explained

the

that

a

draw

a

while

noted

rounded

of

be

light portion

and

clearly

the

the

at

responsible

in

speech,

by beginners,

shade

is

of

encloses

portions, eyes

the

should

must

surface,

from

ground

progress

ordinary

a

on

divided It

in

as

is

kept

be

to

distinction

"shading"

used

terms

been

have

they

privilege

great

a

and

slow

the

it

unfortunate

the

"drawing"

their

is

and

if

especially

consider

work,

"shade,"

to

PRELIMINARY.

STUDY"

students,

outline

VI.

the

on

under

already yet later

compared

the tioned, men-

leave

its

because with

an


TONE

The

STUDY"

line of shade

represents It may

contour

a

be grey

is of great from

seen

and

PRELIMINARY.

indefinite

35

importance

the direction when

because

of the

it

light.

the

tensive, light-areais exas a admitting daylight, or sharp large window and dark when the luminant is a point of artificial light, but it is always present. Students sometimes shade as if the dark gradually merged into the light. This is a convention which is not supported by observation, and should be discouraged. A certain amount of lightis reflected to the object

from

side towards

the

light,but

especiallya

area,

shade

area

stated

in art the

isolated The

school

is that This

is

"the

the

on

in the shade

approaches

of shade.

edge

diction

lightestlight."

it

as

the

near

traceable

It follows

in shade.

darkest

appears

is not

be observed

may

contour

that is to say

area,

near

This

the floor,walls, etc.

that the the

light

The

rule

darkest

dark

clearlyseen

as

is

in small

darks. forms

within

shade

a

often

area

present

great

difficulties to reflected or

darken

beginners,who see them necessarily by light. They outline these forms with black, unduly the concavities, and are distressed to

find that these

lines and

darks

persistin coming forward, and ruin the unity of the shade To area. remedy this between the they should note an interestingcontrast conditions of the expressionof forms in (i)areas in light and (2)areas in shade. First, the surface

by darks, excepting,of are

defined

lipsby darks,

by and

forms course,

darks the

in

ear

below

the

the

light are expressed high lights. The eyelids

the brows,

by lines

and

the

nose

patches of

and

dark.


DRAWING

36 the

In

shade

however,

areas,

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

forms

reflections or

lights. If this region

general tone,

the forms

the

than

as

nostril

the

but

or

otherwise

principleholds

the the

Between

two

lightareas

the

shade

somewhat

as

"like

trees

have

been

for his

walking."

All

well

of this.

aware

remember

student

often

Too like

look

lit from he

again

forms

within

refuse

to

can

be

he

retire, and

no

hard

used

his

impasto keep

to

quiet.

when the

working reflected

emphasizes

area,

the shade

until

them

made

or

area

lights under

of

trol. con-

they actually if

as

glass or

dark

the

outlines

with

the

result

obstinatelystand

lines in the

at

of the darkness,

out

within,

shade

onwards

Rubens

Rubens

strengthens with the

important

particularlycareful

was

"lights"blazing

figure were Or

hold

to

darkened,

show

painters from

his darks

within

Similarlythe must

but

light areas,

forms

the

notice

we

lights. Of light,such

clearly. In soft, ill-defined, edges are are look men shapes in twilightwhen

forms

area

a

attention

another

is

defined, and

well

are

by

intensityof lightthe forms

the

to

by

good.

there

areas

.difference.According in the

reflected

the

cavity receivingno reflected have to be orifice,may ear

actual

an

course,

working of

careful

indicated

is

little more

need

within

expressed

are

china. of

that

forward.

shade, owing

the

the

they

There

to

of

want

illumination. As in

the

light areas

luminant occur

is

below

reflection,coming from in the as

the

upper

generally from the

above, the darks

forms, while

the

main

below, the reflected lightis

part of the concavities

footlightsilluminate

those

of the

parts

of

seen

forms, much the

actor's


TONE

features. both

by

artificial

Fig.

light

STUDY"

ioa

and

light.

shows dark

PRELIMINARY.

the

areas.

general The

37

of

principle drawing

was

ing workmade


CHAPTER

TONE

The

the

witness

will

use

found

the

The the

of

sometimes

was

drawings

this

result

on

Hexterous suitable

being

with

adopted

the

well

materials

lead,

of

the with

students

tending

and paper,

to

Diploma

meeting

of

So

crayon

for

students

38

duction intro-

the

black the

Wellington time, their

up

that

manipulation and

the

Gallery

much

stippling

lustrous

to

implement,

work.

continued a

although

broader

achieved,

continued

the

it;

and

pen

until

favourite in

show

the

these

student

finely pointed

not

was

right

be

renaissance

chalk,

and

art

Maclise

drawn

by a

as

It will

the

red

black a

by

wasted

was

or

Academy,

Blucher,

their

drawing

of

points,

remained

Royal

and

career.

used

and

of

cartoon

the

and

a

silver

plumbago

enormous

of

and

point

his

masters

black

weapons

of chalk

the

of

charcoal,

main

in

him

and

colourmen,

materials

of

as

schools.

art

gold

the

artists'

the

commonly

drawings

use

be

assist

to

the

at

in

of

materials,

in

interest

great

selection

proper far

go

glance

to

takes

prosperity

the

certainly

EXERCISES.

STUDY"

student

art

VII.

pearly

the

ever, howchalk

stump

Unfortunately found of

that the

texture

by

stump was


TONE

obtained.

This

STUDY"

39

ing again refined upon, by touchwith a finelypointed chalk, and by "breading out" black spots, prodigies of industry being performed on such drawings. Thus did the misapplied industry of students The

great

could

EXERCISES.

defeat

the has

stump of

one,

its or

mastery

disadvantages besides drawing to look better than

an

indirectness

with

the stump

a

this it is

The

in the method. and

then of

form.

Also

with

corrects

more

be put in his hand

and

This

used.

be

must

capable

weapon

must

line

over

indiarubber

or

rubber, whereas action

teachers.

producer. The stump touch is always "muzzy," and where a sharpened edge

required bread handicap causes fumbles

of

also other

is

trenchant

efforts

enabling a

in the eyes of indeterminate

student

be

direct

and

is to

gain

if he

in

spite

of

its

ally the rubber, can be made and tinny in character, to produce drawings hard masks and students have been known to to apply paper the drawing and then rub vigorously with bread, thus which they supposed obtaining that clear hard contour indirectness

the

the authorities What The

to

not

of the

one

the

overshot

for form

search

tone,

for

it

making measure

of

It

The

erasure

smoky to

producing

study.

to

mark.

this need, for any

applies also in some implement capable hardly

to

requires an

tentative,allowing him

has

meet

him

drawing practice?,

for

be remembered,

will allow

extent

if he does

is the best material

student, it must

some

its

wanted.

then

which

with

stump,

must

or

the

be

it must

withdraw black

what some-

crayon

acter alters the charsmeared. lead

beautiful be

;

ment imple-

used

This

pencil, an effects,but

directlyor


FOR

DRAWING

40

ART

greasiness results,also it misses chalk.

Moreover

pencil

the

STUDENTS.

the definite black is

the

of the

implement for lead for drawing

using the still go on writing,making zigzag,scratchy marks with the fingers, often closelyresembling written words, which the teacher may pretend to decipher much to the disgust writing,and

of his

students

when

pupil.

Charcoal

meets

most

of the

requirements

very

well.

easilyremoved, allowing several trials of the first It varies from stage of a drawing if reasonably used. underthe soft velvety black of a well burnt stick to one black, burnt, and as hard as an H pencil. From a dense of the finger, the tone be lightened in a can by a sweep No beautiful of the paper. gradation up to the tone other implement gives gradation without great labour, and this labour, as mentioned above, is apt to degenerate It is

into

stippling. in the early By using the softer grades of charcoal trasts stage of the drawing, full emphasis of form and rich conof tone be readilyobtained, while for .detailed can expression, harder charcoal will give all the definition that can be obtained with a or pencil,chalk stump. Chaircoal is,of course, sharpened backwards, like a chalk point. It should be used with a paper of square grain like that known Michallet as or Ingres. Lights may be less emphasized with bread, ordinary indiarubber being usewith charcoal, though "putty" rubber and tinder ma,de from fungus may be used. The student commencing the study of light and shade is often kept to the whitened models and casts whereas what he requiresfor the development of his per-


Fic.

Fig.

Ioa

treatment

10

"

A

drawing in

charcoal from

an

head. anticjue

diagrammaticdrawing showing and shade between the forms in light is

a

the difference in areas

respectively.


4^


TONE

ception of

is work

tone

The

textures.

STUDY"

EXERCISES.

from

43

objectsof varying tones

ordinary still life

group

and

fulfils these

con-

glitionsfairlywell. If set

group, say of three or four student is at once faced with

simple

a

the

up,

main an

is

tones,

exercise

in

composition. Any group may be treated as a square, upright, or oblong composition. The being square and generally the refuge of the weak-minded composer eliminated, until

a

of

series

small

solution satisfactory

a

Now

will

come

a

sketches

should

be

made

is obtained.

tussle

the student's

between

tarian utili-

anthropomorphic tendencies, and his artistic vision. He is very apt, from past experience and judices, preto grade the objects he sees according to the A bottle being agreed value set upon them by mankind. to hold or an object made by man liquid necessary gratefulto him, the student ranks as the most important it at object present, and if allowed, will work away of the supremely indifferent to the remainder group. Another The student from his difficulty crops up here. childhood has been constantlyexhorted by his parents and teachers This maxinl to "do one thing at a time." he is apt to carry out by drawing an'd finishingthe various He has to be taught items in a group after another. one that in artistic practice"one thing at a time" though just something quite as important as in everyday life,means or

different

from

Therefore until he

sees

what the the

is in his mind. student

will not

parts of the group

shapes. Especially should he outliningeach object by itself

make as

refrain without

much tones

from

progress of various

carefully

relation

to

its


probably find it difficult to of the objects in order indications to place first steps in a These desired. drawing as all the teacher's patience elsewhere, demand

down

them

as

mentioned and do

first he

At

neighbour. put

not

Above

all he

will

soot

handling, and

allow

that

of

these

elaborate

be

charcoal, and of tone

Placed

which

be

of

placing

taken

lessly. care-

before

indicated

been

of

refinement

steps

may

ashes

any

is

the group,

near

effect

now

masses

to

attempted, the main tones of the set down firmly,with a soft stick of the student should enjoy the effective be readilyobtained with charcoal. can

contouring

should

group

having

masses

delicacy and

they

notions.

allied with

substance

preparatory

for

allowed

be

moment

a

being a

sketching in the main The

use

not

for

not

must

imagine that charcoal

and

will

pupil'swillingnessto accept admonition, latter's preconceived the accord with

the

and

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

DRAWING

44

the

drawing should

give the

same

in this

earlystage. The forms of the objects may be attended now to, tion Attenellipsesand other forms being carefullydrawn. should also be given to the flan of the group. It is easy enough to indicate the vertical aspects of things, but the positionthey occupy on a horizontal surface, that is the plan, is apt to be ignored. The student might be required to indicate the plan of his group on a scrap of and to compare it with the actual positionof the paper, of the objects objects. By this means interpenetration tone

even

is detected. In

forms

order one

more

of two

completely methods

may

to

be

express

followed.

the The

surface char-


TONE

coal

may

is well

STUDY"

be

sharpened and the whole worked into the grain of the

laborious

process

student.

The

with

tones

the

a

black

of

dull. the

a

very

often which

should

Just

be

until it

This

paper.

is

a

to

and

requirestrengthening,and the fingersinto a pressed between is used to take out as lights,not alterations

been

charcoal

bread

is

correct

or

errors,

in the earlier stages of the

done

the

as

smeared

now

make

to

the

so

calculated

will

have

forms,

over,

gone

If rubbed, this becomes

bread

shape may supposed,

drawing.

45

disgust an ardent second consists in rubbing in the method specting finger,stump, rag or brush, always redark tone such as that representingthe

darks

pelletof

dark

and

bottle.

Some

chisel

EXERCISES.

makes

implement

an

readiness

with for

shaping

lights. careful edge study. It should be noted Lastly comes that the places where the edges melt into the adjacent demand much tone as study as the definite edge. For black bottle will probably have instance some a part adjacent to shade, and the edge in this area may appear it. All than the tone behind lighter(owing to reflection) this printhe edges must be followed and dealt with on ciple, it yet the study should show the aim with which the representation of a few masses of commenced was "

If these

varying tones.

of the work, the

the progress of

success

The

as

an

exercise

Rosetti, who

exercise

have

in

fallen short

in tone.

pots and

humdrum

to

bottles, and

those wanted

safelybe said that to attempt disciplineafforded by a course

it may the

confused

become

study will

seem

may

scorned

paintangels,yet painting without

have

tones

like to

oil of


46

DRAWING

form

to

and

drawing

tone

failure.

court

in

the

of

means

contend is

brushes

he

has

varying the

rough

sketch

the

stump,

it

does

be

watercolour, 13

on

of

are

examples

Michallet the

drawing

seen

it

palest

delude

affords of

paper,

being

the

still

is

paper,

lucky

no

life

and carried

and

paints,

is

greys,

and

as

far

the

once

to

itself

lends

Also, with

and, Figs,

made this

as

In

may

with medium be

to

unlike

an

approaching

accidents.

that

show

palette,

amenable

deserved,

studies

tion atten-

etc.

at

student

Anything

the

time

expression.

surface.

on

equipment

gives

skill,

complete not

of

beauty

which

by

tone

vehicles,

rag,

manipulative or

his

sented pre-

simplest

study

his

paint

material

and

of

degrees

to

knife,

blacks

of

deal

the

varied

a

implements,

his

simple

a

such

here

are

to

is

these,

as

by

commences

great

a

palette

velvety

most

that

tone

solved

has

with

and

charcoal

who

lines

of

and

monochrome,

occupied

such

some

way,

student

with,

STUDENTS.

problems

simplest

oil

ART

on

The

The

means.

to

FOR

traneous ex-

cellence ex-

unlike

ii,

charcoal allows desired.

12,


Fif-.

12

A

charcnal

stuJ\- \\hich of

a

sIioh's how

far

the

drawing being carrieel. 47

material will allov\'


Fic.

14.


CHAPTER

THE

INTRODUCTORY.

FIGURE"

Students

usually

promoted

being

VIII.

working

from

method,

and both'

the

to

life

also

time

knowledge

some

before

needful,

very

class.

have

they

casts

the

through

pass

before

antique

It

is held

to

gain

facility in

of

human

tions, propor-

that

the

attacking

by

living

figure. That

latter

this

student

command

can

students

young

skilfully, and they human

their On

with

the

other

The

hand

thus,

as

of

of

form, a

by

not

perceive

not

which

god-like

keen

use

their

materials

sense

of

proportion,

for

living figure, in

they

practical

a

person.

the

teachers

art

the

past,

in marble

in

stir his

the. subtle

the

fine

49

a

are

way

antique

of

means

classical

bronze,

or

of

aware

sole

and

whole,

artistic

figures cannot

viewed

classroom,

from

to

express

proportions

and

the

the He

consciousness.

variations

sculptor sought The

as

the

see

architectural

be

must

antique

cannot

them

an

their

3ull plaster does (does

using

student

part from

torn

a

to

though

but

questioned,

acquainted

all

sculptor creatqd

them

see

able

the

equipment

structure.

disadvantages

the

be

the

and

be

not

have

not

may

own

training. as

not

may

themselves,

with

the

need

familiar

are

all the

study requires

living

his

idea

flow

of

of line


DRAWING

so

above

escape

him, and

that he

finds himself slows

counts

for

so

FOR

all the

and

stand

statues

quietening in

down much

STUDENTS.

ART

his attack ; he of fever

loses that touch

in the

of

study

quietly

so

untarily involwhich

drawing.

an ordinary school life educationists postpone until the child mind has abstract study like grammar of in the train to take interest developed sufficiently thought. So it is with art students, who, after working from the livingmodel, willinglyturn to the antique, and for its enthusiasm study it with more profitand more noble qualities than would have been possible to them coming to it without preparation. The problems of the human see figurethey now presented in typicalform, and of proportion which they can more they recognisea canon the great variations readilygrasp, after having observed in a series of livingmodels. to the study of the Coming now living figure, the

In

should

student

understand

that

a

deal

great

than

more

copying is implied, for it embodies aspects of many art study,spacing, composition, structure, and especially proportion. mere

There

are

certain

difficulties which

the

beginner,and these it may be well the anthropomorphic attitude of mind student be already referred to must teacher. The former is likelyto be that figure before him to the extent imitation must

seems

be made

words

the

There

are

all as

important. The like the figureas

student's so

many

power

of

things to

will to

discuss.

on

First

the part of the

combated

by the obsessed by the the necessityfor drawing, he thinks, possible. In other

selection be

surely meet

attended

is to

dormant. that

the


drawing

THE

FIGURE"

is apt to

be

trunk, limbs, etc.,

fingersand The

INTRODUCTORY.

a

to

mere

say

assembling of members, as nothing of details such

toe-nails.

teacher, therefore, has from

drawing recreate

the

figure.

material

a

Ji

These

by the emphasize

accumulation

person

and

point out the aims of not are necessarilyto

to

of

parts,

the nakedness of the especiallynot to do. The to figure,as beginners are prone figure is selected as a specialsubject of study because the nude form more presents problems of line and structure which and trenchantlythan any other material 'directly be

can

before

set

What

should

him. the

teacher

emphasize

the first step

as

in

be answer studying the living figure? The may ! The movement given in a word living figure is of posing in a state of suspended animation, and a sense there must be in any movement positionof the figure. Either the movement the has preceded the or pose, "

latter is about

Beginners

rarelyor

never

If, say,

the

inclination

this.

branch

of

hand, but

an

lumpy as

figureseems this

inclines

the torse all heads that what

or

limbs.

and the

as

eye.

they figuredisplays. the

be

amount

of

sittingupright,

in the pose of the balance order to an

The

the student

and stiff,

seen

upright at

are

is not,

untrained

in

to

of arrested

sense

leans, they diminish

often

drawing

of this

action

Especiallyis

him

be said here

figuresare

that the

which

To

action.

often oblivious

torse

so

obliquityof

into

give as much

nearly so.

head,

are

pass

Their

movement.

or

to

novice

rarelysees

attention.

suffers

from

It may in every

unskilled an supposes, teacher's efforts are The

he


DRAWING

52

FOR

constantly directed

ART

STUDENTS.

the

development of the visual of analysing, judging inclinations, faculty, the power measuring proportions, finding the lines which indicate the structure,

in all of which

Cleverness, akin be

deemed

such if

the

to

ideas

they

a

kind

essential be

must

criticism

then

measuring should corroborate

too

that

to

it

figures,torses

is

figure

can

(fig. 15.)

used

only

be

eye

have be

can

may

of

out

a

school

of art,

of direction

course

Even as

if these

a

plumbing and secondary aid, to

mechanical

suffers and

question of limbs

inclinations

these

directed.

a

aids

loses

movement

represented

or

entertainment,

an

that the main

freely,the the

effects

produces

there.

be

be

be trained.

to

indiscriminatingpublic, but

an

criticism, for

Coming once

by

at

gently laughed

should

needs

eye

juggling,which

find utterance

ever

employed

of

the

lightningsketches

It is to the eye and

to

in

ance. self-reli-

realise

we

through direction. general direction, A

suggested by lines.

represented

direction

at

All and

seated

three

by

are

lines.

Students

a unwilling to commence study in their with such simple preparation generally show lack of vitality and work a they begin by movement; seizing on the forms, and consequently the general idea

them.

escapes

of the

The

mischief

drawing.

No

amount

at

occurs

of delicate

piecemeal, will compensate The whole intelligentconstruction. Too often surveyed at the outset. be

drawn

round

the contours,

proportion and

with

movement.

the

ment commence-

detail, if it

for the

lack

figure should the

the result that the

eye

of be

wanders

drawing

lacks


Fig.

15

"

Sketches

showing the

movement

of the

first lines

or

figureand 53

"directions" its

which

proportions.

settle the


Fig

1

6

"

appearance

A

drawing made with charcoal on Michallet. The and is the quality weight to solidity due as much of the line as to the shading.

of

54


THE

FIGURE"

INTRODUCTORY.

determine

line

a

should

then

student

The

which

on

to

ring figure,this line occurperhaps within the contour, again coincidingwith it. When drawing a standing

build

or

55

the

female

attracted

forms the

breast

and

rich

the

by

is often

student

figure,the

of the and

of

contours

the

with

hips,

result that these

cented ac-

features

aggerated. ex-

are

figure should built on a simpler line,in this a vertical through the pit of The

be case

the

neck

ankle

and

It should

leg. that this is not but

one

pose,

porting sup-

be noted

arbitraryline, actuallyexisting in the in the being traceable

median

again I 6a).

of the

line

an

of

between

Such

the

and

ment commence-

unpopular

student, for it is head

requiresstudious

torse,

legs.,(fig.

simple

a

is

the

with

work,

analysisof

thi an

the

forms. ginner Unfortunately also the behas often acquired, from old habit

method

and of

force

drawing

of tradition which

con^

a


generally

sists

is

even

common

The

case

who

student

be

may has

surprised when acquired it. and

one

fail in Rather

so

Ingres forth.

reproducing set

he

tells him

entirely used

to

If you the

yourselfto

between

did

of

parts, and in

fear

is

of draw

having by

one

the torso, then

the

be bound

to

the

effect.

whole

ing proportionsexist-

gain the mastery

to

this

giving expression to

action, don't be afraid of exaggeration. to

and

wretched

a

would

you

harmony

motion, and

has

"Don't

say

language

a

unconscious

fix the relative

the several

the life and

over

is

of

spoken,

French

in succession, the head, then

and

arms,

he

that

with

heard

his tutor

though

accent,

possessing great facility.

compared never

is

method

vicious

a

scending de-

and

top

reached, that is if

are

Such

students

among

the

at

feet

till the

for them.

room

STUDENTS.

beginning

in

piecemeal there

ART

FOR

DRAWING

56

What

you

have

is lukewarmness."

He should to face. difficulty of seeing on his pupils, and not impose his own way thus deprive them of their individuality, seek to bias nor their own self-expression. A student's feelingfor form stark, indeed may verge on perchance be somewhat may ugliness,to the point of exaggerating or caricaturingthe form, but the wise teacher will be shy of admonishing' such a student, of advising him to look for smoothness^ or character, individuality and beauty, because grace in that strength may be the chief note pupil's future The

work.

teacher

There

of individual is sincere.

has another

is

room

in the world

expression. The

of

art

touchstone

Imitation, posing, conscious

for all

manner

is whether

seeking after

it a


THE

Style on But

part of students

where

the student's

of method is

firm

on

of method

his craft,he

should

his teacher, who

is

The

wanting of

because

of

taught

brush.

In

implements

of

or

put himself

entirelyin

guide

his students

cannot

demned. con-

be

must

of the

use

loudly

materials, the

pencil

a

of the

too

student

hold

to

and

be

cannot

work

ground. how

S7

knowledge

of

or

everything,even matters

INTRODUCTORY.

the

his lack teacher

FIGURE"

of

the hands unless

they

him.

trust

That

introduces

should

work

confine

himself

The

at

the

the

question whether

the model

before

entirelyto

the ofi"ce of adviser

of

exponents

the

or

with

modes

new

teacher

his students,

of

and

or

critic.

teaching,

as

practised in junior schools, incline to the latter view. before his They say that directlya teacher demonstrates scholars, he is biassingtheir vision, is preventing their

seeing the object for themselves, and is obtruding his vision of things to the detriment of their personal own expression. This is very true provided that the teacher's inhibition

above,

out

of

the

does must

relations

not

be

extend

method,

to

taught; but

between

there and

teacher

which,

as

is another

pointed aspect

pupils, an aspect dealing with art

special importance in at the same who students are spending all their hours ing, study. They are apt to be discouraged after long toiltheir be tempted to look upon and consequently may his rounds, merely as critic, teacher as he visits them on This is a real danger, and it is carper and fault-finder. which

is

of

of the teacher in die power he will regard himself not

to as

overcome

one

it.

If he is wise

aloof, in another

sphere.


DRAWING

58 that

of

professional

the

relationshipof

closer

students, but

to

with

work

spiritof comradeship

in the

them

which

pupils.

his

as

is It is

paint and draw before the occasionallyis to exhibit

at

stimulates

once

the class

its best efforts.

to

Again

a

with the

a

carried, much

sulk

good

Velasquez,

methods

should

in it.

has

R.

short,

and

drawing

may

be

should

not

flag

A.

is

the teacher

M.

Stevenson, in

interestingcomments

some

of the great teacher

Carolus

on

which

Duran,

by all students, weak-kneed

be read

In order

a

of his task while

himself

his life of

fallen

has far

that

drawing, showing

the

that the student

the continuance interest

how

ceed pro-

result.

may

willing to the

of

this it follows at

is convinced

exercise, and if the teacher

demonstration

From

to inability

confesses

sometimes

genuine, and works on the pupil's vision ways

what

giving

an

student

is

case

in

or

to

descends con-

brother, who

elder

an

tasks

willing to work at the same certainlydangerous always a

occasionally

who

artist

criticise the efforts of the novice, but

to

much

STUDENTS.

ART

FOR

or

otherwise.

proportionstudents should work at distance of some the model. Then the a yards from natural tendency to draw sight size can be utilized. By holding up the drawing alongside the model (fig. 17) the be checked proportion may effectually. very Students "to to

to

secure

should

be

never

admonished

fairlyfill the paper," because the

natural

scale

travelling,as it were, direct Sickert

road has

to

of the at

the

violence

drawing, same

the

rate.

was

the method

large,"

is thus eye

This

good proportion, and,

pointed out,

"draw

to

as

done

and

hand

is the

most

Mr.

Walter

of the masters.


THE

If the

drawing finer

a

is too

INTRODUCTORY.

small

the student

treatment, use

FIGURE"

in scale to allow

should

drawing should

length.

Students

that the lower with

a

A

half

consequent few

go

nearer

of

the

adequate model

or

point.

Fig.

The

59

words

17.

frequentlyviewed at arm's often hold the drawing too close, sa of the paper is practically out of sight, detriment to the proportions.

may

be

be

said

on

the vexed

question of


DRAWING

6o

Some

backgrounds.

of

This

present.

figure of

it

backgrounds

for

is

line,

merely

not

other

study.

of

is

isolated

tone

of

background the

in

remarks

the

on

should

Edge

by be

can

aspect

Study.

than

considered

graphic photo-

with

as

of

art

ground back-

but

existing

show

line

degree whether

general in

detail

this

by

expressive The

the

tone

its

;

as

of

tion. atten-

side

purpose

use

will

lighter is

that

drawn

the

of

studying

suggested.

treatment

or

high

be

for

edge

This

its

the flow

the

figure

the

from

share

for

of

from

space,

darker

is

figure.

it

background of

emphasis

it

that

"

the

studies

degrade

to

he

devised

view,

structure,

with is

be

mistaken

a

their

nor

the

may

drawing

concerned

be

that

tone;

demand

not

can

tone

imply

not

itself

make

in

figure,

the

exercises

To

does

is

but

study,

etc.,

student

is

contended,

complete

indicate

accessories

exercise

an

shall

any

tone

composition,

aspect ;

be

must

imply

The

such

with

for

zeal

their

in

students

their

background,

the

STUDENTS.

ART

teachers, that

insist

expression, tone

FOR

of the

tone

in

of the


CHAPTER

FIGURE"

THE

The

trick

there where

flounder

clearly

that

a

cleverness the

study,

form."

not more

less

form.

they

a

a

and

eye

rigorous

intellectual

Drawing

legerdemain, de

tour

a

Of

study.

judges

handling,

and

others shows

art

prevented

not

course

ease,

of

history

a

fqrce

students,

seeming

good

of

master

by

what

is to

say

from

men

exhibition

the

removes

painter

a

that should

be

which the

called

mastery

to

make

with

track

of can

figure 6i

a

down

will

by

form, be may

pencil, the

does but

this,

facility,

give

demanHall

needing

brought

to

divided

by

subtleties

exercises

and

be

"search

the

understand

students

trained

attained

technique

over

practice

mere

scrutiny

capacity from

to

been

contours

been

has

drawing

has

efforts

painful

suppose the

the

smart

It is difficult

whereas

ing

But

by gaily tracing

or

for

of

That

come

with

the

place.

facility

close

of

or

of

opinion

fingers,

task

a

FORM.

facility among

among

of

and

kind

a

facility has

while

highest

The

for

of

want

fame,

achieving

from

of

fail.

general

trouble

no

degrees

or

is clever

accomplishes

one

may

by

with

FOR

the

drawing

done

varying

are

SEARCH

shares

oiEE lightly with

thrown

of

often

that

public

conjuring

of

THE

beginner

outside

IX.

the

bear. into

two


62

DRAWING

FOR

STUDENTS.

ART

types of exercise.

One, very important, is the time sketch, recording the main facts of the figure,and varying main

the method one's

at

by

Such

pose.

searching

more

which

indeed

sketches

only

far he

with

expression of form The

strokes, allows

and

of the

have

To

Charcoal,

mention

or

been

the

be

nor

aware

words,

upon

ally. gener-

redundancy of

to

Further, is

stump

neither

in this kind

it,for

condemn

to

definite stroke.

a

elsewhere, supplies the best

particularkind

full range

a

agreed

in breadth.

broad produced with ease well pointed,lines can when

to

student

in this detailed

engage

point leads

be

It has

to

more

for limited

of himself,

sure

not

indicated

as

for this

pencil.

The

technique necessary

tentative

incapable of making

weapon

sketch.

the

at

scale, and

which

pencilor crayon is wanting

of exercise. it is

arrive

to

can

materials

as

expression of form,

time

be

not

character

requiressupplementing

small

a

deals

his scrutiny. In other pursue really learnt \o search for the form.

not

The

on

sketch

time

line, and

student

of the

periods of time, will he has

the

detailed

the

the time

according to

of

work

and

enables

methods

summary

of how

search

flow

movement,

in the

who

visual

disposal. Generally

mainly with shown

and

With

of attack.

of tone,

masses

be drawn of tone

and

it

can

also,

finelyas with

as

from

a

velvety black

palest grey. Figs,

io,

other

square

measuring suitable

etc.,

drawn

with

charcoal

on

Michallet

the sheets of which, grained paper, 19" x 24", are of the dimensions most

about

for normal

it is difficult to

were

eyes.

If

one

keep the whole

draws of the

largerscale drawing under

to

a


^"^UJ^

M

Fig.

I

8

"

A

charcoal

itscompletion. An

drawingmuch

exampleof has been

rubbed

and

otherwise ill-treatedsince

edgestud)-.Every inch studied. carefully 63

of the contour


p,f,^ in the

,g pose

This

by

all its defects, shows

drawing, with the student

and

a

determination

to

secure

a

great an

interest

taken

of expression

it.


THE

FIGURE"

SEARCH

THE

FOR

65

FORM.

proportion, and in gradation of accent, are Even if drawings, say for a apt to occur. be decoration, were wanted, they should large mural drawn first to this scale, and then enlarged by squaring life drawings by other method. There or are some surveillance, and

errors

in

Albert

South

Kensington,

Moore,

nearly so,

but

at

the method

does

not

full size

drawn to

seem

or

pensating com-

possess

advantages. elsewhere. indicated The as procedure is the same of The student should, as always, mark top and bottom find the main line from head his drawing, and at once to of the figure foot. Next follows the general structure of dark with a plan lightlysketched in of the masses ing It is at this point that the proportionsof the drawtone. coal should be scrutinized,and if found wanting, the charstrokes, which be

can

obliterated

first should

at

with

a

few

be

flicks

lightand of

delicate, It

duster.

a

emphasized too stronglythat this stage is most crucial,and tests severelya student's powers of selection and how hours analysis. The drawing, no matter many tially or days are required for its completion, will be substanin proportion, and general scheme of light and Hence the importance (dark,what it is at an earlystage. of self-criticism,and if necessary of beginning afresh. cannot

No

The of

over

be

alterations time

for

should

of moment erasure

has

proportion reveal they convict Hints

passed, and

themselves the

his first steps, and

foundation.

then

on

be made

student

as

of

at

a

late stage.

if great

errors

the

drawing progresses, heedlessly slurring

on a failingto build further procedufe are given

of

sure

where. else-


66

DRAWING

With

regard

drawing

of

Michallet

(Dn the other to

hand

these, it

seems

however

important.

indicated

forms. a

order

be used

is well

arily prim-

focus

to

it be

can

and

grounded

his attention

deal

great

figuredemand

extremities, and show

them.

on

from

involve

Poor

the

done,

consideration

drawings

of hands

lack of construction, and

and

the

as struction con-

of the

least construction

at

in

detail,

on

elsewhere, in showing that the action and of the

mass

A

feet

proportion,construction

distract

figurein

such

and

spent

figureshould

of

pity to

a

lines of the

main

shall be

until the student

and

hands

head,

the

the nude

schools

some

certainlythe difficulties

time

give rightnotions

movement,

In

full size, and

that considerable

coal feet, the char-

and

gives opportunity for

paper

constructing properly

pemand

STUDENTS.

in detail.

out

made

are

ART

extremities,hands

to

on

iworking these studies

FOR

of their

feet

of articulation

always

with

the

limbs. Studies

from

the nude

in appearance

innocently)doing (duce

a

naked

because

the wrong

person,

sometimes

are

the

thing.

making

a

almost

student He

sort

of

is

graphic porno-

(quite

tries to

reproinventory of

fingers,toe-nails,etc^ physical characteristics,so many Such drawings usually lack the higher interests of the of light figure,the flow of line,the rhythm of the accents and dark, the unity of the long line of shade running the figure and revealingthe "cubist" typicalshape. down These

things sought after, the student

wrong,

no

matter

how

much

he hankers

cannot

go

far

after realism.

Unfortunately this wrongly realistic drawing has in


THE

FIGURE"

the past been has

been

rewarded,

honest

students

evince

they put

in.

Another loss of

and

evil

SEARCH

by

looks

One

often

student

they

the

omit

insistence a same

than

on

figurewith weight of

in character.

over-elaborated, while

has

6j

FORM.

ground that the student

sees

monotonous

masses

fussy and gives an

model

what

resultingfrom

details,all of about

the dark

the

on

FOR

which

sincere, qualitieshowever

rather

rhythm.

shaded

The

THE

by what

realityis carefully tone, and

The

reference

drawing to

the

impression of simplicityand breadth. been too busy to catch the rhythm of

the

referred darks have been to as modelling. The and accents, certainlytone rhythm is akin to that of music. The figure,perhaps, has dark hair, the contrast between that and the white brow giving the strongest

Lower,

accent.

is weakened,

on

be

the face and

neck

the accent

of dark

the

armpit, while the shade the torse and lower limbs again on areas diminish ebb and in strength an flow, or rhythm throughout the figure, giving at once varietyand breadth. This supplies a method of procedure. The main masses to

strengthenedagain,say,

at

"

of middle

should

accent

be

struck, the

stronger

and

following in their places, and keeping of has been made the their relative pitch. Mention make between (division students drawing and arbitrarily shading. They often show that they do not consider shading as drawing. They work away laboriouslyat

weaker

some

accents

dark

patch without

varying contour, use

is

or

indeed

of their darks.

expressing structure

exploring its borders, its without consideringthe structural

ever

Shading is only useful where it: It should and revealing form.


68

be

DRAWING

FOR

busy, that is giving

ART

STUDENTS.

due

emphasis to the line of which emphasizes the meeting of the planes. Form is expressed by light against dark, and form

should

Shading

be drawn

without

bricks

into

and

drawing

then

be backed

may

be

field without

a

this

by shading.

up

with

compared

attempting

shade

ing bring-

build

to

with

them. As

pointed

into

two

and

forms

In the shade

subdued.

the crannies

affords

drawing shows be

may

the line of

have

what

is

abundance

has

that the eye

applied

to

been

happens

of

the

not

of

focusing into

pore

forbids

it,while for

opportunity

finished

fullyexplored forms

meeting of angles, such

it meets

the

quiet

are

to

of

lighting

the would-be

edge.

its shade

brought together

at

normal

need

no

planes

are

conditions

for Nature

area,

armpit, where

lines may

usual under

Often, however,

searching study.

the former

the eye, the forms

There

unity.

divided

seen

equal distribution

an

of the dark

light area

the test

from

Hence of

which

area

removed

is destructive

but

object is

any

In lightand dark. under sharply defined

is the further

the

elsewhere,

areas,

lighting. and

out

junction?

in

as

The

fashion,

some

What

;

is the

actual

shape of the dark these unless be and

full

of

shade

reveal the

he

ask self himpatch? The student must questionsas he approaches such passages, for exercises a vigilantscrutiny his drawing will observed insufficiently shapes. Lastly,light

the

closest

Velasquez, marked

is not

does merely utilitarian,

forms, but has attention. we

are

If

beauty of its

a we

conscious

series of beautiful

not

look of

passages

say a

own

at

subtle of

serve

an

well

only

worth

interior

yet

light and

to

by

clearly shade,


i

Fig.

20

"

An

unfinished

drawingshowing the varyingtextures.

use

oi eharcoal

in

expressing


";' ;?m;^.--r':-^:--^^^

Fig.

2 1

"

Dr.ivNing with charco;ilon 70

Michallet

paper.


THE

of

FIGURE"

THE

SEARCH

FORM.

FOR

71

rich

velvety darks against liquid lights, or of light He edges melting mysteriouslyinto background tones.

showed and be

how

us

look

to

the

seeing eye discerns finer,for example, to be

of trees, than

the

before

a

the flesh

tone

it

such

the

enhance

to

of the

subtle

The

these and

clump

or

dark

a

can

ting cut-

spray

constantlyvarying

tiful Equally beaunude figure posed semi-translucencyof

scene.

in the

quiet background. seems

in

passage

passages

What

wood

in any

lightwith

examines

in nature,

tone

everywhere.

seen

in full

some

the eye

as

are

trunk

it,or

across

sequence

a

beauty of

the

at

contrasts,

varied

and

effects

presents

that

light in strong tone reveals. An arm against a gleaming knee chest, or the darks of a hand or against a thigh fullyilluminated are things to wonder at, and not merely because they are strikingexamples of the relief of one form call the stereoscopic against another, of what one may but because beautiful they are appearance, of lightand shade. students' To judge from passages They say drawings they sternlyignore beauty of tone. some

in

most

effect that

they

are

not

to

be turned

aside

from

their

^

purpose,

which

and

proportions, to

the

express

is to draw

the details.

the model,

they omitted

fail to

see

being, to fix the

indicate

the

of tone.

But

shade

them,

an

and

structure,

he

to

to

be

part of their

finds

ignored

are or

essential

Shading, to them, consists stripingor stipplingtheir study with beauty.

pose

selecting from they really were would be delighted,even though

he considered

training,the study effects of light and students

human

If

the teacher what

a

tha;t these because

attracted in tone,

the

by their

industriously monotonous


full

yet (dark

of

the

the

too

of

variety "invisible" away,

dark

a

in the

in it;

they give

the

perceive

the

not

outline

the

sharply against

comes

do

the

melts

edge where

light, or with

figure in light contrasts

their

follow

trenchant, brilliant

the

hand,

fail to

they

nor

where

places

"

do

they

^while

light

the

in

lights

many

patch,

for

the

of the

contour

shade

other

the

on

darks

edge,

spots,

nor,

where

the

its

too

drawing

no

of

boundary

STUDENTS.

"

many

often

has

ART

variety

wrong

and

areas,

shading

the

FOR

DRAWING

72

darker

the

background. On

other

the

hand

subtlety generally form

figure. the

against

to

except

keen

a

of the

tones

though

line,

some

in

Students thick not

black

perceive

perhaps

on

the

faint,

the

a

drawing

paper,

do

of

delicate

the

realize

not

implement a

hardly

thigh

by

of

6

draw

B a

is

the

line

as

clear

thigh.

edge

a

as

they but

do

also

different

sities inten-

of.

They

capable

pencil, if

a

is

delicate

a

passage, the

visible in the

near

of

a

seen

is there

of the

plane

of

knee

track, partly because

cart

A

knees

expressed

this

well-lit

a

of the

sharp edge

upper

that will

be

the

refinement

they

and

border

a

edge

must

by

the

like

understand

right

the

represent

because

their should

line

top

utmost

illuminated.

little difference

so

cases

often

and

the

where

areas

thighs

thigh presents

suggesting

tone

the

thigh

thighs, yet

two

of

passages

similarly

of

near

eye,

there, and or

another

The

further

are

lighter

is that

example

common

the

in

against

comes

seated

there

used

lightly as

delicately a

6 H.


CHAPTER

THE

The

doubt whole

sketch,

of

course

The

for

study

be,

may

of

the

directly,

in

without

erasure.

point

a

itself

of

has

limited

time,

his

weakness,

also.

It

stands

in

careful

is

and

judgment

drawings,

produce, searchings

are

for

form

test

which

more

his to

student's

be

not

less

or

73

personality

the

his

tentative,

and

drawing,

there

are

drawing,

much

ledge know-

governing

teaching

days so

The

judge.

any

previous

taken

under

practically

artistic

a

ledge know-

impressions

his

in

make

to

exercise

principles

profit by

"

the

they spond corre-

of

observation,

the

have to

seen

now

the

and

as

They

therefore

embodied to

the

down

his

of

failure

on

set

plain

are

simple

a

in

result

trained

structure,

prolonged

but

and

paper

plastic representation, his

to

the

has

of

antique

accumulation

slow

student

he

and

the

experimental.

the

the

of

means

laboratory,

on

which

to

by

and

In

is without

called, exercise

testing

vigorous

with

science

discussion

exhibits

form,

tone,

somewhat a

and

be

to

come

study.

deliberate

are

in

vital

drawing

search

life, the

it has

as

really

the

SKETCHING.

TIME

FIGURE"

time

X.

but

study.

and

weeks

drawings though

it His to

as

with-


FOR

DRAWING

74

disciplinehe would

their

out

As

portions which to

the

seem

the

occupy

wanted here

for

"Science students

having

dead

same

of

much

serious

fever

and

on

where

all parts of That

any

continuous

a

is

but

it is

point in his he deprecates drawing to the this

condemned

also true

also

other, is bound

that

a

include

to

It cannot

study.

made

be

may

of ecstatic but

study is perhaps best looked

art

all be

at

as

a

pleasure,with interludes

nevertheless

accept

the

above

favourite

play the to

"

temper

upon

long, vigorous pastime, affordinga few

a

game,

own

drew

heat.

Art

"

Alfred

true

Reference

pages,

study, like

art

that

comments

of finish.

in these

which

often

Making,"

work

to

level

emphatically course

Holme's

Picture

of

those

fragments, but accumulating facts they

others

particularjob.

C. H.

Mr.

to

a

about

interesting, or It is

studying, but

not

were

most

paper.

Stevens, Leighton and they

be drawn

figure always, not merely

whole

and the sight-size,

figureshould

the

suggested above,

chance

the

ill-prepared to

come

exercise.

direct

more

STUDENTS.

ART

game

hold

under

sport

a as

a

"

and

have

observe

the

on,

to

as

will

descriptionof

their

such

it is necessary

to

the

sporting temperament rules,and to keep one's,

all circumstances.

Therefore, given the essential condition that

application

sportsmen

many

pretty close

pursuit. And properly,to

of close

moments

of the

cise, exer-

figureis to be doing something, standing firmly erect, sittingpassively,or lying prone, it will be that there is no hardship in indicatingthe whole of seen the

the

figure. The

sense

of

proportion

is the

more

fully^


THE

exercised, student the

FIGURE"

and

also

should

extremely important that the the pose nearly always demands

representation of the whole

clearlyin

the

should

brought

be

erect

75

it is

that

see

SKETCHING.

TIME

It is necessary

pose.

down

the feet

to

is shown

figure. This

that the

that these

"

lines

shall be

clearlyindicated, so that the figurestands firmlyand with How

weight.

often

does

one

students, standing figureswhich blown

with

over

In many

the whole

of the extremities.

the

on

drawing

often

paper shows

is the absence Another

to

line is shattered

Further,

of

proportion by the proportionsof the paper the

occupies the long;

if it

often

proportionsof long way of the

allowed the

drawing.

paper

occupies the short

to

way

of

the

the

opposite direction.

rules the better,but

one

at

first be

settled.

come

by

division

The

figurethe

first lines not

lines of direction.

the refinement Next

of the

sense

dictate

and

If the

figure

drawn

too

it is

paper

The

fewer

that in

mencing com-

limits shall

extreme

the only suggest and the placing.

they also fix the limits the main facts,the essential structure,

movement, Then

drawing

least is necessary,

of outline

should

No

is

the inanimate

"

it is often

disproportioned in a

there

biassing of the student's

of

dominate

drawing

by

extremity for which

an

is the

is

by

is

room.

which

be

float ?

no

sheet

could

obliged to -place it,to see nicely. The effect of piecemeal itself very plainly. A glaring

figure,the student

it goes

instance

almost

seem

of

drawings

which

sway,

composition of

the

cases

the omission

that

breath, or

a

in the

see

attempt

be made

at

at

pressed ex-

detail

or

this stage.

establishingof the chief planes,the

comes

the

of the

figureinto

dark

and

light,or rather

the


76

DRAV/ING

FOR

STUDENTS.

ART

determining of the edge dividing these edge again should the actual

as

that of the

"

difficult for the novice, obsessed of the be well

"shading"

Fig.

as

its

by

use

student

the

line

grasped

as

a

must

first be

this and Fig.

22

it

seen

as

the subtleties shows

to

the form

so a

contour

plex com-

from

light. The stage is sion divihe is by his own shading. It would dropped altogether,

to

cause

confusion, the

shading of details. follows a parallelcourse

mean

the

"direction," which line created

a

quite as

This

22.

tone, however,

bony contours,

were

is apt

expression. As

into the subtle and

teacher

understanding

Expression by with

as

study into drawing and

if the term

it is

being indeed

contour,

point of view

another

for simplified,

be

planes.

contour

first

must

later will

be

be

resolved

by the overlapping of muscular shading or expression by tone

plane without variation, of edge being left to a later stage. divided into two planes under the mass

or


THE

influence

of

trenchant

way.

because

sunlight,which Study

take

darks

lose

out

maps

of the nude

the

of

77

All

this

figurein

the

sunlight is valuable

in

tones half-

the

Also

planes.

dull, sooty qualitythey

in the studio.

on

SKETCHING.

TIME

of this clear division and

to

FIGURE"

apt

are

lucid

is definite and

out with-

blackness. Students

often

spend

shading while oblivious as

variety of

great

directions The

and

being

set

This

thoughts, for alterations,the

on

the

student

general build of

work

in

backed

by

up

later.

worked

over

the

for second

of the

each

from

subtleties

to

Next

line is drawn

the

referred

contour

influence

and

of the

set

lines

comes

in

shade

detail

background

stages the figurehas

on

worked

been

foot, and the resultingfinish is not that

and piecemeal tinkering,but of rightmethod treatment by logicalsteps. Further, the method that the interest is sustained the

then

edges

artistic

of

often

out

giving general

and

to

late.

figure.

of these

head

the

of

too

his steps and

figure. The

of direction

stage will be

next

adjoining tone. the edge study

at, and

the contour In

the

comes

The

a

alongsidethe

is the stage

retrace

now

expressing form.

Lastly

are

should

be held

simple indications, the structural

these

of

in the contours

in its essentials

out

plane, the drawing should

The

just

tone,

accompanied by neglect of

be

for self-criticism.

model

of

proportion.

figurenow

and

hollow

and

drawing of the figuremay

minutiae

on

generalplane of

the

to

curve

time

much

ensures

during the exercise.

student, after completing the

head

or

Too. other


DRAWING

78

ART

FOR

STUDENTS.

remainder

turns to the interestingpassages, akin to disgust or weariness.

Of

above

suggested time ten

it is not

course

allotted or

a

pose

may

a

left with

if omitted

force the students when

they

his

impressions in

for

a

hours'

be

The has

at

be

to

kept to

20

order.

session

In these

have

must

to

30

attempt the

is called

time

fragment.

a

beginner requires from two

supposed that the method adopted continuously. The Quite short poses of vary.

suggested above

stages

even

be

thing some-

be

whole, otherwise

a

themselves the

should

five minutes

even

figureas

to

to

with

they find

brief attempts but

compressed,

in mind.

minutes

As to

a

rule down

set

following arrangement any

rate

the

with

met

approval of students after several years' experiment. First a sittingof forty-five minutes, followed by ten or fifteen or

minutes'

the

time

same

of

remainder minute

poses,

engender

a

the

given

to

being

excitement

of twenty

pose

exercise.

memory

a

minutes

with

taken

last

which

makes

ten

or

because a

The five

they

longer pose

slow.

Referring again

First

made

to

question of movement,

the

tion men-

theory of Dynamic Symmetry It is not proposed set forth by Mr. as Jay Hambidge. discussion of the theory here; it will proto enter on a bably provoke much discussion and controversy, but tw" points of interest in drawing from the life arise out of it. may

be

a

sittingis occupied

these

certain

dull and

seem

Next

rest.

it would

than

a

appear

that

a

maximum

amount

of

ment move-

within figure is contained If the rectangleenclosingthe figureis narrower the action subsides, the figureshuts up square, obtains

square.

of the

when

the

a

as


THE

it

a

If

were.

FIGURE"

the

the

square,

which

to

is

within

important

that

points

rectangle. points

the

by

other

the

diagonals

If action

hand of

a

other

maximum

is

and

than acter char-

lines

oblique

pass

weakens.

widened.

rectangle

of

directions

flags

wider

creeping

enclosing

and

the the

is

rectangle

the of

give

79

partake

as

division

be,

the

to

emphasized

may

SKETCHING.

on

begins

the

it

important

rectangle

action

Secondly, whatever

TIME

movement

to

less


CHAPTER

XI.

RELATED

the

When some

of Too

often

out.

For

do

not

in

real

and

been

is

rhythmical, so

and

meet,

shoulder. or

the

lines

of

gestures in

heads

The pass

varying

laying

a

speakers

are

to

one

80

a

all

the

more

the Two the

conversation,

hand

creates

consciously

degrees.

the

on

establish

which

from

in

dancing,

unstudied,

are

incline

movements

union

and

a

another.

now

other's

sympathetic

unified

not

a

gestures

In is

they

people

their

line

from

if

even

watch

them.

and

because

not

we

intercourse,

why

so

constantly

the

emotion

their

wonder

When

in

year

figure

will

pression ex-

exercises.

a

remain

between

and

These

form. and

ordinary

speaker

bond

then

and

movement,

also

earnest

more

link

movements

expresses

people

line

in

but

because

line

of

art

a

take

They

cinema,

form

the

and

happily.

the

appropriate other

they

with

figure

a

single figure

together.

in

or

the

isolated,

crowded

and

devise

to

at

draw

to

line

others,

seen

movements

which

add

together

life

of

compositions

book,

are

learned

time

plod

their

come

number

it is

students

have

they

has

proportion

detail,

sketch

their

pupil

of

sense

FIGURES.

and two

In

but a

trolling con-

one, more


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", -J

"

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.

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X

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-fe'tJ *^-""sr^7^,-j""

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F"ic.. 23.

'-"7


#

V.)

Fig.

24

"

A

chalk

conlinucel together,

drawing hv One

the

li\ Wattcau. lines

alniojt

'flic

lines

of

the

arms

flow

drapery on the lady'sshoulders. expects the lady to rise. of

the

82


RELATED

obvious

case,

FIGURES.

figurebowed

one

83

in

grief, and

the

other

bending sympatheticallytowards her, the lines flow in together so obviously that the idea of consolation is complete without the necessityfor appropriate sorrow facial expression. The lines of the figuresexpress the emotion. In

such

exercises

for at

sought

an

first

then

seeing the be looked

must

In such

for.

(fig.23

associations

be drawn, and Two a

The

a

the variations

given

in which

cup

round

knees

the Or

the face

follow

the

again they form

be

useless

to

is

eye

combination

The

25). figurespullingor holding as

and

arms

hands

one.

entwined

arms

controllingline. of

feet

the

should

be

position. Attention in the figurein grief which is held, or where clasped shape of the latter, (fig.

in their

the hands

to

must

other, for the

standing with

or

relations

be

the

hands

sympathetic

should

23).

the two

of the

and

than

worse

by the united

good instance

noted, form

"

two

as

figuresseated

furnish

It is

figures detached.

hands, the lines formed must

controlling lines

earlystage. figureand then

'draw

one

these

a

bowl

when

they

are

used

to

'drink from. These three

few

exercises more

minutes, Such

to act

emotional

A

need

to

will be

wait

of

for professional

ready, for

a

their parts.

will enable

work

by combinations

be followed

figures. There is no models, for pupils in turn

or

whether

may

the student

gestures and

to

face the

combinations

scious uncon-

of real life,

sympathetic or antagonistic. friend

once

told

the

writer

that

when

making


DRAWING

84

Studies

for'

violent select

figures space

locked

posed of

the

the

to

wrestlers

into

the

shape,

could

sketch, be

examined.

wrestling,

had

a

the

so

time

only

indicating

suggestion with

Afterwards,

legs. fit

in

perhaps

with

together,

between

of he

that

pyramidal

say

STUDENTS.

compositions

movements

contour,

a

of

series the

were

models detail

a

ART

FOR

the

structure

to

the

of

the

of

aid and


CHAPTER

XII.

EDGE

If the

white

a

ball of

contour

The

being Then, into to

the normal

of

or

solidity

by

noticing and

searching It

for

achievement sense

of

of

the

portraits public frames.

to

but

be

discussed

But For reveals

the

be art

the

natural

almost

poster

everything,

which

on

those

The which

has he but

difficult

to

students

to

to

uses

flattens

whether of the

the

the

learn

the

the

broad

it also.

the

losing

is

object

really

out"

"coming

student

lighting,

is

stage

point

artistic. are

of

roundness

on

This

this

the

plane

or

exist

to

contours.

to

the

melts

paintings

are

at

relief

galleries to

for

dark.

ceases

following is lost.

ground back-

contour

take

to

grey.

the

and

or

accustomed

necessary

declares

light

Drawings

outline

of

also,

light

relieve,

that

against

tell

the

by

such

the

in

weapons. which

made

so

background,

grey

disappears,

14).

flatness

is

'depicted,

where

form,

hardly

need

tell

between

(fig.

the

a

will

outline

represent, not

will

side

appearance

where

to

dark

the

be

only

can

side

points,

one,

before

midway

sight,

objects

see

the

two

dark

placed

light

tone

a

at

be

the of

contour

STUDY.

vulgar

admiring of

their of

use

all

outline In

these


DRAWING

86

the student

pages

ART

FOR

considered

is not

strivingto acquire a mastery by know

far he

can

will prove

Experiment the

whole

If the dark

figureis

all in All

results.

lightand

shade

with

the

lightwithout realistic

from

made

of this

use

In other

that whenever flatness

a

lightbehind the

spectator

shadow, and

again

have

painters

melting of words

a

used

a

the ness flat-

strong

and

the contour

continuous

results.

it,it shows

Caravaggio onwards,

,

points. an

student

clearlydefined,

viewed

ment move-

of realistic treatment.

the

to

as

do this he must

to

flat;if the light is behind

and

figureis seen

have

is

contour

and

in the way

go

and

structure

over

but

composing,

as

of the appearance,

means

how

STUDENTS.

all such way the half-

at

outline

implies

incompletelyexpressed figure. This

paradox suppliesthe clue to the study of form by light and shade, in its simplest terms. The

placed

object,whether before

in nature must

one

in

smudging The

background midway

in

the half

to

tone

between

tone

be the

tone

of

object. Now

Yet

livingfigure,should

or

dark, that is, equal in

light and the

a

cast

outline

backgrounds

line takes

its a

tone,

only edges. be always

"

cannot

one

in order

to

reveal

part of the object,nor

degree of background.

line the

a

outlines

no

imaginary line sensed

an

the

by

are

outlines;

use

is not

but

object and

there

contrast

This

tone

contrast

varying in intensityor

even

form.

of the background,

by the in

the

eye,

and

between can

presenting re-

the

be represented

width.

The

less mechanical ground backor place of a more and gives opportunity for close edge study


EDGE

which

is

insisted

87

STUDY.

practically absent

backgrounds

where

are

upon.

From

the

character

possibleto

determine

can

looking at

see

on

of

the

of the

the tone

be One

background.

that the model

18

fig.

it should

outline

posed

was

ground background, although this backis exhas been omitted pressed intentionally. This by the strength of the line where the lightfalls of that part of the the contour, and by the softness on in shade, which contour approached the background so nearly in tone that a clearlydrawn outline would have before

low

a

toned

falsified the relations. To

backgrounds

put

livingmodel and

is to waste

behind

studies

better spent

time

antique or edge study,

of the on

confuses

consists drawing with painting, which in spreading tone. essentially Drawings by students who overlook this principleof effect. expressive contour, have a vague indeterminate The of the lightside is often drawn contour timidly and faintlywith the mistaken notion that any line on that side is too

dark.

round

the the

draw

Or

In

contour.

figureby

environment,

still,a

worse

this

itself

which

as

case

hard

line

is

students

if it could

is unthinkable.

are

drawn

all

trying to

exist without

Expressive

an

ing draw-

All implies not only the figurebut its background. other drawing is mere diagram making, very necessary at times, but alien to the aim in this connexion, of realising the figure as student-like completely as direct and methods

will allow.

The

place

old way a

white

of screen

simplifyingthe behind

the

student's

object.

task This

to

was was


supposed the

trouble

any

regard

in

forced

furthest

from

behind

forward

him, though

reflected

for, and

the

the spectator

of the

is determined

contour

the

spoilingthe

been

ening the black-

the

lightfalls the

lightside being and

pose,

of

effect

the

allow

taught to

of the pose

important,the emphasis way

was

it not.

saw

destroyed by

was

right). Also

had

though they

by the

on

or

destroyed

students

most

emphasis

this

(becausegenerallythe lightis

contrast

light,which

Lastly,and

that

show

shade, which

in

contour

the left

to

edge by

still did,

will

First, the glare of the background

the exercise.

unduly

thus

from

consideration

moment's

a

ruined

the

student

freeingthe

drawn

of the paper

background.

But

this

STUDENTS.

ART

represent the whiteness

to

thus

upon, to

FOR

DRAWING

88

figure,and

the

on

white

background, ineffective,

rendered

making

unity of

treatment

impossible. Another

feature

is the 'dark

the But

edge of

solidityor

for if eye

is

looks

one

from

should

should

the dark

follow

not, when

?

be

to

to

the

tioned men-

lightand to

as

beginner looks

The a

line

compassed a

at

accordingly. in that way,

flower

the line of shade

that is,the eye in

be

painted so

object,as

round

any

of the

or

puts down

is not

mass

Hence

contours.

student and

object,and

at

drawn

of the form

naturallyattracted

lightarea the

an

should

edge, both

shall it be

the volume

express

edge study which

of the

nature

How

areas.

of

pot, the

dividing the

forgetsto

look

at

representing solidity,the action

drawing

of the

the contours

unbiassed of the

eye,

object,


EDGE

look

directlyat them, will at

contours

Here

one

comes

controversy art

schools

of

and

especiallythe

important and

very

draw

to

a

he

these limitations.

has

agitated

student

he

sees,

to

student

has

he finds it

is

follow

worked

at

quite impossible

to

of his materials,

conventions of

ing interest-

the

what

before

limitations

restrict his efforts,and

;

blur somewhat,

and

already mentioned, which all periods. Not seldom

this advice, for the

argument

of focus

a

upon

implored to be honest; nature faithfully. But a drawing five minutes follow

these

but at the line of shade, when fall out

once

89

STUDY.

pictorial representation,

will be

wise

Honesty

one

it is for greengrocers,

not

to

try

stand under-

to

rule out

can

of the

for artists,at least

in this connexion. The whether

immediate he shall

problem before emphasize the edges

the result that he loses the effect of

appearing as

if cut the

on

of card,

out

volume

of

the

is

of his

object,with roundness, the object

whether

or

student

the

he

shall

centrate con-

object by blurring his

and Netherlandish edges. The primitive Italians their paintersadopted the earlier method, and we see work flat in spite of much to be essentially pains taken to

model

followed

the form.

Leonardo

him, have

chosen

da to

Vinci, and the

accentuate

If the Venus by blurringthe contours. the National Gallery be examined, it will of the

contour

and

fro

cheek

that

the

and

shoulder

has

those

of be

been

who

roundness

Velasquez seen

in

that the

brushed

to

edge is almost lost. Sir Joshua Reynolds often made edges wonderfullyenveloped. Early portraits(three-quarter view),however, show the hard edge of the further cheek; consequently the so


DRAWING

90

weakened

nose,

face.

by

If the

hand, the

at

nose

lines

from

contours

be

which

translated

form.

The

moral

of

form

modelling Extreme

the

to

by teachers, the

Fig.

1

consist

in

of

the

marked

always

that

eyesight.

disadvantage

a

he

Jupiter with

be

Students

interest to their outline

the

of

contour

unvarying line such

contours.

Holman

often

by

produced

that the the way

wishing

to

accentuate

tinguish dis-

eye.

figure need

is

as

noted

naked a

We

Hunt's

like that, for he could

saw

It should

in

to

consideration

into

taken

in

success

keen

on

sight is often

of the line is conditioned on

be

depend

that the

8 shows

piece of wire.

drawing

was

the contours

to

powerful sight of

moons

an

show

seems

not

not

pictures. Doubtless the

he

because

sight is losing its first sharpness.

whose

result

forward.

comes

canvas.

of

and

by the

providing himself with exact drawn were to paint. His portraits exact painted ones, and he wanted

does

students,

covered

be

of

all this

keenness

young

or

Holbeins

Windsor

by tracingon The

into

cheek

the

hard

are

pressed against the

appears

relieves

once

the definite purpose

with

see

of

STUDENTS.

ART

contrast,

contour

Holbein's

to

FOR

not

by

a

ness expressive-

the

light falls

give variety and it in

an

arbitrary

ence especiallywhere bony forms crop up, without refernatural lightingwill give this to the lighting. But and artificial emphasis more trulythan any invented

way,

method. careful and well constructed Judged by this standard many the drawings are yet mere diagrams, because varietyof the edge is disregarded. This is seen, too, in cases

as

mentioned

above

where

the

contours

of

two


91


Fig.

2

5a

"

A An

drawing made with charcoal on Michallct. example ot variet\' of edge treatment. 9^


EDGE

forms

both

delicate

in

and

light,

of

Appreciation of

consideration of

object

an

consists of

in

the

shape strength

;

the of

the

at

many

ankle,

the

the

line

three

arms

of

various

in

will

pose,

creasings

Y

the

ignore

down

to

armpit, and

limb

that

one

Y's,

of

arm,

meeting of

neck

overlappings.

course,

and

they-

that

so

never

the

lines,

with

show

are

will

irregular as

generally-

together

come

pinned

These

a

by"

contours,

fault of

say

emphasis be

any

opposite

The

of

stimulated

be

"the

Observation

contours

lines.

points

that

handling..

refined

may

contours

two

would

eye

three

and

the

strength.

occurs,

edge

delicate,,

These

most

emphasis."

in

if

of

dogma

drawing

Further,

the

variety

the

vary

same

vary.

demand

being

contour

nearer

visible.

scarcely

contours

93.

the

overlap,

perhaps

sharp-edged

STUDY.

a

Y

equalwise other-

point occur

shoulder,,


CHAPTER

XIII.

ARTISTIC

Artistic

from

the

if of

books

the

students

armpit, of

key

for Lessons

careful

of

sake..

"Intellectual

work

of

out

now

of

study

in

the

is the

rather

his

print,

hardest

be

used

played dis-

than

"Lectures but

student,

art

that

mean

it should

figure,

Moody,

book

a

the

not

that

but

the

definitely

more

does

ical anatom-

tighten

to

mark

This

studied,

be

own

Art,"

the

worth

may

construction

its

on

they

regions.

not

the

to

that

so

for

figure

model

their

from

Fresh

the

the

ing look-

diagrams,

flayed.

ask

ings draw-

Many

astray.

search

even

those

should

been

when

perspective,

anatomical

mere

had

the

forms

student

a

are

model

They

or

a