Cross-Cultural Communication Language Functions Expressing anxiety & opinions Grammar Focus
The present tense
Vocabulary in Use
Anxiety & cultural differences in everyday life & business negotiations
Getting Started What makes you feel nervous? Check your partner.
the things that make you feel nervous and discuss with
Making a speech in public
Visiting a new place
Taking a test
Moving to a new city/country
Meeting new people
Conversation udrey Thanks for inviting me for lunch, Kenji. A 1 Kenji You’re welcome. It’s an honor to have 2
you here. Um, it’s customary to take off your shoes before entering someone's home. Audrey Oops, sorry! Now I understand why my 3 4 host family got a little upset on my first 5 day. We wear our shoes indoors in the U.S., so I didn’t know what was going on. 2 Kenji That’s OK. Some of our customs are 6 quite strict . By the way, can you use chopsticks? Audrey Well, I have only eaten with chopsticks 7 once, but I think I can manage . 8 Kenji Good! Did you know it’s considered 9 impolite to point or wave your chopsticks at people? Audrey Really? Is there anything else I should know? Kenji Well, you’re still learning new customs, 10 so just go with the flow .
Did you know that...?
bowing when greeting or saying goodbye is a ve ry important custom in Japan. wearing slippers indoo rs is customary. Howeve r, there is usually a separate pair of slippers for the restroom.
A Words & Phrases 1 honor [ '3n0 ] n. 榮譽
6 strict [ str6kt ] adj. 嚴格的
2 customary [ 'k9st4m+5r6 ] adj. 習慣上的
7 manage [ 'm1n6d. ] v. 應對；處理 management [ 'm1n6d.m4nt ] n. 管理（部門）
3 host family 寄宿家庭
8 consider [ k4n's6d0 ] v. 考慮
4 upset [ 9p's5t ] adj. 苦惱的
9 impolite [ +6mp4'la6t ] adj. 不禮貌的
5 indoors [ '6n'dorz ] adv. 在室內
10 go with the flow 順其自然
B Listening Practice Listen to the conversation again. Then, listen to the questions and answers. 1 a. She needs to take off her shoes.
2 a. Because Audrey went outdoors wearing
b. She needs to welcome Kenji.
c. She needs to understand some customs.
b. Because Audrey came indoors wearing shoes.
c. Because Audrey wore the wrong shoes.
Review the question patterns in the conversation. Then, listen to the questions and the best responses. 1 a. Really? I didn’t know that.
2 a. It’s good to know everything.
b. Really? Can I do that?
b. I think you should check your health.
c. Is there anything else I can do?
c. It can get cold there, so bring a coat.
C Extended Listening Practice Look at the pictures. Then, listen and choose the statement that best describes each picture.
Listen to the dialogues. Then
T (True) or F (False) for each statement.
1 The girl's family seems strict.
T / F
2 The man was trying to be polite.
T / F
3 Stan cannot handle doing both things.
T / F
PART ONE English for Life
custom [ 'k9st4m ] n. 習俗
D Conversation Practice Expressing anxiety:
I don’t understand (anything).
I don’t know what’s going on.
I’m at a loss.
I’m freaking out.
What can/should I do?
I feel helpless.
Practice the conversation on page 2 with your partner. Use the expressions in the box that fit to replace the underlined sentence.
Complete the dialogue using the expressions above to help. Then role-play with your partner. Student A: This class is much tougher than I thought. at all. Student B: That’s awful. Student A: I’m the teacher’s Spanish.
. I should be able to understand some of
Student B: Oh, I think I know what the problem is. Student A: Really? What is it? I
Student B: You’re in Italian class. Spanish class is across the hall.
Read the following situation. Then, complete the dialogue and role-play with your partner. Nate was excited to go to Taipei for a year to study Chinese, but when he got there, he started feeling some anxiety. When he started studying Chinese, things got better. He made some local friends in class and they helped him adapt to their culture. Now he enjoys studying and living in Taipei.
Nate: The beef noodle soup tastes delicious. I’m so glad I decided to stay for another semester.
Friend: I’m glad, too. I know it was pretty hard for you at first, but look at you now! Nate: Tell me about it. At first I Friend: Yeah, you were really Nate: Thanks for your help. I Friend: Yeah, you seem to know what’s going on now.
. . anymore.
Reading speed: __________ mins Record it on page 218.
PART ONE English for Life
International Student Center (ISC) Notice
you feel like a fish out of wate Are you feeling the culture shock blues ? Do 3 Friday at noon. You’re not alone. Join us for a free4 seminar next and teach you how to We’ll talk about how to deal with culture shock 5 interact better in a different culture. 1
some ways to deal with it: Below are a few symptoms of culture shock and and cultural differences. This You have problems with communication 9 8 ession . You may experience could lead to feelings of stress, anxiety , or depr 10 headaches or exhaustion . 11 you may not feel like You have a strong feeling of homesickness and 12 to study in this country. socializing . You begin questioning your decision 7
13 on of a few, you should try If you have one of the symptoms or a combinati the following: h with friends at the ISC; Relax, eat right, and exercise regularly. Enjoy lunc
we have lunchtime activities every day. 16 15 14 Reduce any uncertainty by organizing 17 your week. Take action on things. And please ask for any information from our 18 friendly volunteer staff here at the ISC. Join some of the great activities offered by the ISC. They’re free and it’s a fun way to make new friends.
Tips for reducing anxiety when studying abroad Blog, chat, e-mail or just write a letter by hand to keep in touch with loved ones. Always talk to someone if you’re feeling lonely. Take advantage of services offered by international student centers. They’re usually free. Most centers have volunteer opportunities, orientations, contests, exchange programs, and more.
A Words & Phrases 1 blues [ bluz ] n. (pl.) 憂鬱
10 exhaustion [ 6g'z7st]4n ] n. 疲憊
2 a fish out of water 格格不入
11 homesickness [ 'hom+s6kn6s ] n. 想家；思鄉
3 seminar [ 's5m4+n3r ] n. 研討會
12 socialize [ 'soS4+la6z ] v. 參加社交活動
4 deal with 應付；處理
13 combination [ +k3mb4'ne]4n ] n. 結合
5 interact [ +6nt0'1kt ] v. 互動
14 reduce [ r6'djus ] v. 減低
6 summary [ 's9m4rI ] n. 摘要
15 uncertainty [ 9n's-txt6 ] n. 不確定
7 symptom [ 's6mpt4m ] n. 症狀
16 organize [ '7rg4+na6z ] v. 組織；籌劃
8 anxiety [ 1;'za64t6 ] n. 焦慮
9 depression [ d6'pr5]4n ] n. 沮喪
17 take action 採取行動
organization [ '7rg4n4+ze]4n ] n. 組織；團體
18 volunteer [ +v3l4n'tIr ] n. 志工；義工
B Reading Comprehension Read the notice again. Then
the correct answers.
1 Where would you likely see this notice?
2 Who is the free seminar for?
a. In a garage.
a. All Westerners.
b. At a high school.
b. International students.
c. In the doctor’s office.
c. Anyone who is anti-social.
d. In a university.
d. All ISC volunteer staff members.
ccording to the notice, what is a 3 A symptom of culture shock?
ccording to the notice, what would be 4 A one way to deal with culture shock?
a. Reading a book.
b. Eating more.
c. Not organizing yourself.
d. Gaining weight.
d. Joining a social activity.
C Vocabulary Practice Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the words in the box. take action
a fish out of water
Coming from the U.S., Janet Hsieh has become one of the most popular television hosts in Taiwan. During the last few years, Janet has made many friends across the island, so she never suffered from . However, she felt like when she first came to Taiwan. In the beginning, she could only speak a little Taiwanese, but she to learn more. Now, with a of research and hard work, she knows a lot about Taiwanese culture and the language.
Grammar Focus The Present Tense PART ONE English for Life
Simple Present It is used to express thoughts and feelings. I like classical music. It is used to describe an event or a situation that exists for a long time, or to describe a repeated action. Corbett’s family goes to church every Sunday morning. It is used to express the future when the event is on a definite schedule. Fall semester starts on September 22.
Present Continuous It is used to show that an action is in progress now. Mom is cooking in the kitchen. It is used to give an idea that someone is in the middle of doing something, whether or not they’re doing it at the moment they’re talking about it. We are working on a new project. It can be used to express the future when the event is planned. Sam and his wife are moving to Sydney next month.
Present Perfect It is used to express an activity that happened before now. I have already finished my homework. It is used to express a repetitive activity that took place before now. Lena has been to Chicago a couple of times. It is used to express a situation that began in the past and continues to the present, when used with for or since. He has known me since I was a child. He has known me for many years.
Check Your Understanding
hat does the following sentence from the reading passage mean? W correct answer.
Students who have been away from family and friends for a long time may not feel like socializing. a. When students were away from family and friends, they did not feel like socializing. They still don’t feel like socializing now. b. Students who are away from family and friends often develop social problems. c. Students who were studying and living in a new country didn’t feel like socializing.
Practice 1 Use the correct forms of the verbs in the box to complete the sentences.
hard today.” “Yes. I have to finish this report by the end of the day.” 1 “You to Singapore?” “Yes. I went there last summer.” 2 “Have you ever at 10:00 a.m. every day. 3 The bus to the airport French for 15 years. 4 Julia has to the cinema with us?” “No. She has already the film.” 5 “Is Winnie
Practice 2 Complete the conversation using the correct forms of the verbs in the brackets.
Kate Hey Brian. I haven’t What are you
[see] you for a long time. [do] these days?
Brian Nice to see you, Kate! I’m
[train] to be a
restaurant manager. Kate Really? What’s it like? Do you
Brian It’s OK. How about you? Kate Well, actually I haven’t
[find] a job since I left
Blackwell Publishing two months ago. But I'm very busy. I’m [take] yoga and cooking classes now. Brian That sounds great.
Have Fun with Grammar L ook at the two pictures and brainstorm with your partner what you think has happened in the second picture.
Eg: Someone has made the bed. The girl has left the room. Someone has turned on the lights.
Business Communication Between Cultures
Getting Started Imagine that you are going on a business trip abroad. What do you think you should do to prepare for the trip properly? Number the items below in order of importance (1 = most important, 5 = least important) and discuss in groups. Get maps of the city/area where you’re going. Write down the contact details of the people you’re meeting. Find out about any differences in the way people do business there. Get information about the best places to eat and go shopping. Make sure that you bring nice gifts to give to the clients there.
Ivy So, are you looking forward to your business trip to Shanghai next week, Brian? 1
Brian Yes, but I’m also feeling quite anxious about the negotiations . 3
Ivy Hey, relax. I’m pretty sure that everything will go smoothly . 4
Brian To be honest, I don’t think that it will be so straightforward . I've been reading a book 5
about Chinese business practices . You know, their attitude towards negotiation is quite different from ours. Ivy Really? In what way?
Brian For a start, while Americans normally like to be direct and agree to a deal quickly, the Chinese prefer to take more time to build personal relationships. Ivy I see. So you need to be patient. 8
Brian Exactly. Also, apparently I should be 9
extra careful not to lose my temper . 10
That’s a big turn-off for Chinese people. Ivy Well, I’ve never seen you get angry, so I 11
don’t expect that will be an issue .
ation style American negogotitia tors tend to…
American business ne n. arguing their positio be energetic and enjoy time. on one problem at a prefer to concentrate rather than focus on areas of disagreement agreement.
A Words & Phrases 1 anxious [ '1;k]4s ] adj. 焦慮的
7 direct [ d4'r5kt ] adj. 直接的
2 negotiation [ n6+go]6'e]4n ] n. 協商，談判
8 apparently [ 4'p1r4ntl6 ] adv. 明顯地
3 smoothly [ smu\l6 ] adv. 順利地
9 lose (one’s) temper 發脾氣
4 straightforward [ +stret'f7rw0d ] adj. 簡單的；率直的
10 turn-off [ 't-n+7f ] n. 讓人討厭的事物
5 practice [ 'pr1kt6s ] n. 慣常做法
11 expect [ 6k'sp5kt ] v. 預期
6 attitude [ '1t4tjud ] n. 態度
12 issue [ '6]ju ] n. 問題
B Listening Practice Listen to the conversation again. Then, listen to the questions and answers. 1 a. The results of some business negotiations.
2 a. He is feeling nervous.
b. The man’s preparations for his business trip.
b. He is feeling angry.
c. Differences in American and Chinese business practices.
c. He is feeling relaxed.
3 a. They are not very patient.
4 a. He likes Chinese people very much.
b. They read books a lot.
b. He doesn’t get angry easily.
c. They like to develop relationships.
c. He is a very careful businessman.
Review the question patterns in the conversation. Then, listen to the questions and the best responses. th
1 a. I think it starts on the 16 .
2 a. He’s very understanding and friendly.
b. Yeah, it should be interesting.
b. Yes, he is an excellent boss.
c. Right. I’m going there, too.
c. He is usually quite disorganized.
C Extended Listening Practice Look at the picture and guess what the talk will be about. Then, listen and the correct answers.
ow many copies has Understanding Chinese 2 H Business sold? a. 2000. b. 20,000. c. 200,000.
What is the advertisement for? a. A business course. b. A book. c. A Chinese company.
hat kind of business is not mentioned in the 3 W advertisement? a. Finance. b. Marketing. c. Publishing.
D Conversation Practice Agree with an opinion:
Disagree with an opinion:
I think that…
I agree (with you).
I (totally) disagree.
I’m pretty sure that…
I’m with you.
I’m afraid I don’t agree.
I (strongly) believe that…
I think so, too.
I don’t think so.
I suspect that…
I don’t think that...
In my opinion,… If you ask me,… Practice the conversation on page 9 with your partner. Use the correct expressions in the box that fit to replace the underlined sentence.
What kind of business practices would you expect to see most in the following parts of the world? Put the letters of the business practices under the appropriate pictures. (There are no correct answers. It’s just your opinion.)
a. like to be direct b. like to build personal relationships Europe
c. like to give expensive gifts to clients
The Middle East
Complete the dialogue below using the information above. Then role-play with your partner, agreeing and disagreeing appropriately with them.
B: I agree. (I disagree. I think that…)
A: And I
, business people from
like to be direct.
that business people from
like to build
B: I’m with you. (I’m afraid I don’t agree. I think that…)
A: Also, I’m
that people in
like to give expensive gifts to
B: I think so, too. (I don’t think so. If you ask me, …)
PART TWO English for Work
Express an opinion:
Reading speed: __________ mins Record it on page 218.
Negotiation Across Cultures The modern world is a kind of “global village,” where we can easily 1
communicate with others regardless of nationality or location . However, this 5
certainly doesn’t mean that everyone behaves in the same way, especially when it 6
comes to business negotiations. Here are a few things to keep in mind when doing business with people from a different culture.
Meeting and Greeting: Most international business people greet each other with a handshake. While Westerners think a weak handshake is a sign of weakness, some other cultures view a firm
handshake as aggressive . 10
Eye Contact: In Western countries, making steady and direct eye contact usually 12
shows that you are confident and sincere . On the other hand, many Asians think it’s rude to make too much eye contact. 13
Time: Westerners often say “Time is money,” and for them, being punctual for a 14
meeting is essential . In South America and the Middle East, however, being on time 15
is not necessarily so important.
Gift-giving: In some countries, like Japan and 16
China, gift-giving is a central part of conducting business, whereas in the U.S. and the U.K., it is generally avoided.
Business Relations: In much of Asia, business is personal, and you only make a deal with someone after 17
you have developed a friendship. In contrast , in the West, close personal relationships in business are often considered unhealthy.
Tips for gift-giving
Japan: It’s common to politely refuse a gift once or twice before accepting it. Also, you shouldn’t open the gift in the presence of the giver.
Middle East: Gifts of alcohol or personal clothing items are not appropriate. Never present the gift using just your left hand, as it’s considered unclean.
General: Sharp objects, like knives or scissors, are bad gift choices, as they symbolize the cutting of a friendship.
A Words & Phrases 1 communicate [ k4'mjun4+ket ] v. 溝通
10 steady [ 'st5d6 ] adj. 穩定的；不動搖的 11 contact [ 'k3nt1kt ] n./v. 接觸；聯繫
3 nationality [ +n1]4'n1l4t6 ] n. 國籍
12 sincere [ s6n's6r ] adj. 誠懇的
4 location [ lo'ke]4n ] n. 地點
13 punctual [ 'p9;kt]84l ] adj. 準時的
5 behave [ b6'hev ] v. 表現；舉止
14 essential [ 4's5nS4l ] adj. 極為重要的
6 when it comes to... 一提到…
15 not necessarily [ 'n5s4s5r4l6 ] 未必
7 keep in mind 記住
16 conduct [ k4n'd9kt ] v. 執行；做
8 firm [ f-m ] adj. 堅定的
17 in contrast [ 'k3n+tr1st ] 相反地
PART TWO English for Work
2 regardless [ r6'g3rdl6s ] of 不論；不顧
9 aggressive [ 4'gr5s6v ] adj. 具攻擊性的
B Reading Comprehension Read the passage again and mark T (True) or F (False). 1 A handshake is the most common form of business greeting. 2 In the Middle East, business people are always on time. 3 In America, it’s usual for business people to give expensive gifts.
Complete the sentences by using Asian, Western, Asia or the West. business people usually prefer to give each other a firm handshake. 1 , people think steady eye contact isn’t polite. 2 In many parts of don’t like to be late for meetings. 3 People in countries, developing friendships is a central part of business. 4 In many
C Vocabulary Practice Match the words with their definitions. 1 keep in mind
c on time
d very important
Fill in the blanks using the correct forms of the words in the box. (There is one extra word.)
1 The company employs people of various Indian people. 2 Don’t you think that Wayne has been 3 I’ve never 4 My brother has a
, including Japanese people and strangely at work lately?
business with Mr. Hall before, so I don’t know what he’s like. belief in God.
Grammar Focus Present Perfect Continuous It is used to talk about an action or a situation that started in the past and is still going on. The time words for, since, all day (/morning/...) recently, and lately are often used for clarification. Annie has been saving for years to buy a car. Justin has been exercising more since he quit smoking. It has been raining all day. James has been thinking of starting his own business recently. I haven’t been sleeping well lately. It is used to talk about an action or a situation that has just come to an end or is about to end. The children have been sleeping all afternoon. They just woke up. Martin has been playing tennis twice a month, but he’s thinking of playing every week now.
The difference between present perfect & present perfect continuous Present Perfect Continuous 1 Used to emphasize a recent past activity. She has been working hard recently. 2 Used to emphasize a recently finished activity with a present result. I have been working in the garden; that’s why my hands are dirty.
Present Perfect 1 Used to emphasize a completed action at an indefinite time in the past. Susan has cleaned her room. 2 Used to emphasize quantity. I have eaten two hamburgers.
3 When present perfect has since and for, it has the same meaning as the present perfect continuous. Mr. Reed has worked in the factory for 15 years. (= Mr. Reedhas been working in the factory for 15 years.)
Check Your Understanding What does the following sentence from the conversation mean? correct answer.
Brian: …I've been reading a book about Chinese business practices. a. Brian has finished reading the book about Chinese business practices. b. Brian reads a book about Chinese business practices every day. c. Brian started reading a book about Chinese business practices and he’s still reading it.
Practice 1 ead the situations and write two sentences using the present perfect or present perfect R continuous. 1 Tanya is from Taiwan. Sheâ€™s traveling around Asia at the moment. She began
[travel / for two months]
[visit / four countries] 2 John is a famous musician. He began making music for films when he was 28.
This year, he won an Academy Award again for the third time.
[win / Academy Award three times]
[make music for films / sinces]
3 When Ben and Sue graduated from college, they started designing hats for women. They opened their second shop in London last year.
[design hats for women / since]
[already / own / two shops ]
Practice 2 Read and write the questions using the words in brackets. 1 You have a friend who is learning how to make paper umbrellas. You ask: [how long / learn / how to make paper umbrellas] 2 You see your friend fishing by the lake. You ask: [how many fish / catch] 3 A friend of yours is having a birthday party on Friday. You ask: [how many people / invite]
Have Fun with Grammar rite some facts about yourself using the present perfect continuous to show W how long these facts have been so: Eg: I have been swimming twice a week since I was twelve years old.
PART TWO English for Work
her trip two months ago.
Writing Activity Sharon is on a business trip in China and has written a letter to her friend Bill back in the U.S. Read the letter and fill in the blanks with the correct sentences provided below. I am enjoying my stay here, anyway. I’m doing fine, although I’ve been pretty busy for the past few weeks. Although it’s a great place, I am getting a little homesick. How have you been doing? So far, the negotiations are not going too smoothly.
I hope you and Helen are bot
Ac tua lly, I’v e be en to negotiate an important sent here by my company n bee e I’v . nth mo t las ce staying in Beijing sin business deal. ing a long time The Chinese clients are tak ht. I’ve even ing me out to dinner every nig tak in d ste ere int re mo be to m to agree to the deal. They see and met their families! been to a few of their houses e The food is amazing and som impressive. rd’s Nest” stadium, are very “Bi the e lik s, ing ild bu the of Also, some For example, a little difficult to get used to. of the cultural habits here are to use chopsticks! I’m finding it quite difficult Take care for now. Yours, Sharon
Now, imagine that you are on a business trip to a city in the West. Write a similar letter to your friend back in Taiwan, using the same sentences to start each paragraph.