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GREEN  INFRASTRUCTRE  GROWTH  PLAN Upper  Tamaki  River  -­  Grange,  Papatoetoe

LAND7226  Studio  6 Heather  Docherty 1345281

Given   the   close   proximity   to   central  Auckland,   the   Tamaki   River   edge   provides   opportunities   to   test   future   urban   development   scenarios  for  the  region.  In  order  to  explore  and  propose  strategic  landscape  and  urban  design  interventions,  it  is  necessary  to   understand   environmental,   socio-­cultural   and   economic   implications.   Contemporary   landscape   theory   concerning   urban   growth   also  enhances  understanding,  providing  a  theoretical  framework  and  precedent  in  which  to  ground  design  proposals.  Stemming   from  speculative  outcomes  of  group  research  themes  (heritage  and  transport),  design  and  development  turns  the  focus  towards   the  Tamaki   River   as   an   entity.   Given   the   strategic   importance   and   long-­standing   human   use   of   the   area,   the   River   serves   as   a   cultural,  social,  transportation  and  environmental  heritage  feature.  There  are  many  issues  arising  from  the  past  and  potential  future   population  growth  of  Auckland  that  this  project  seeks  to  address  in  this  design  proposal.   Piecemeal  expansion  of  the  city  in  the  past  has  lead  to  community  severance,  both  social  and  ecological,  in  the  process  disconnecting   people  from  the  environment.  Vital  infrastructure  networks  that  have  appeared  over  time  have  sliced  up  the  city,  creating  pockets   of  urban  isolation.  What  was  once  industrial  land  has  now  been  engulfed  by  suburbia,  leading  to  areas  of  fragmented  urban  fabric,   created  by  outdated  planning  zone  rules.  As  the  urban  environment  has  grown,  so  too  has  the  volume  of  storm  water  run-­off.  Vast   quantities  of  untreated  stormwater  and  litter  enter  the  Tamaki  River,  particularly  from  stormwater  drains,  giving  the  River  one  of  the   poorest  ecological  ratings  in  the  Auckland  area.  If  the  amount  of  impervious  surface  areas  increase  with  anticipated  development   in  the  catchment  (e.g.  AMETI,  housing),  the  volume  of  run-­off  directly  entering  the  River  will  be  set  increase.  In  conjunction  with   XSJUDGLQJWKHYHKLFOHÀHHWDQGUHWUR¿WWLQJURRIVWUXFWXUHVWRDGGUHVVWKHVRXUFHVRIKHDY\PHWDOFRQWDPLQDQWVLWLVYLWDOWKDWSHRSOH are  engaged,  educated  and  made  more  aware  of  the  River  and  the  unique  social  and  ecological  values  that  it  has  to  offer.  Mangrove   ecosystems  are  taken  for  granted  and  at  times  much  maligned.  However,  they  play  a  key  role  in  stabilising  coastline  sediment  run-­ RIIDVZHOODVIXO¿OOLQJDYHU\VSHFLDOLVHGHFRORJLFDOIXQFWLRQ7KH7DPDNL5LYHUSURYLGHVDQRSSRUWXQLW\WRWHVWGHVLJQLQWHUYHQWLRQV that  compliment  this  role,  while  improving  water  quality  and  taking  into  account  the  social  needs  of  the  current  and  future  population.

Tamaki  River  edge:  the  green  infrastructure  spine  of   sustainable  development  in  south-­east  Auckland

Scale  1:50,000@A3


the  problem

Regional  Context:  Auckland  Spatial  Plan

How  do  we  accomodate  future  growth  of  Auckland  sustainably?  

Sustainable   urban   development   is   not   only   about   using   environmental   resources   responsibility,   it   also   involves   enhancing   social   conditions   for   people,   now   and   for   future   generations.   As   the   population   of   Auckland   increases,   further   pressure   is   placed   on   already   overburdened   natural   systems.   The   vision   of  Auckland   Council   is   to   create   the   world’s   most   liveable   city.   In   a   planning   seminar   in  August   2011,   Mayor  Len  Brown  and  storm  water  experts  discussed  ways  to  ensure  that  planning   is  intelligent,  and  takes  into  account  the  need  to  manage  storm  water,  working  with   nature,  and  not  against  it. Water  is  integral  to  Auckland’s  identity,  and  will  become  more  so  as  the  work  of  the   city’s  storm  water  engineers  improve  its  quality  and  enables  Aucklanders  to  enjoy  it   even  more.  

Storm  water  management  is  high  on  the  priority  list  in  the  Auckland  Spatial  Plan,  with   $1.62   billion   allocated   to   improving   wastewater   services.   Auckland   Council   will   be   taking  a  more  strategic  approach  to  storm  water  management,  and  key  to  this  is  the   priority  given  to  water  sensitive  planning  in  development  and  redevelopment.   This  project  speculates  that  the  reaches  of  the  Upper  Tamaki  River  could  provide  the   backbone   of   a   green   infrastructure   network   for   the   southeast   of  Auckland.   By   doing   so,  issues  around  historically  poor  water  quality  and  generally  low  biodiversity  of  the   catchment  could  potentially  improve,  as  well  as    social  conditions  of  some  of  the  lowest   socioeconomic  areas  in  the  city.

At  a  higher  government  level,  water  management  is  a  key  issue.  The  issue  is  important   for  landscape  architecture,  as  pollution  of  waterways  is  a  national  problem  that  could   be   addressed   by   landscape-­based   strategies   and   interventions.   The   importance   of   water  to  New  Zealand’s  economy  and  way  of  life  is  in  early  stages  of  being  recognised   through  the  government’s  Fresh  Start  for  Fresh  Water  2011  reforms  that  include  the   National  Policy  Statement  on  Fresh  Water,  amongst  other  initiatives.   Research  into  breaking  the  urban  contaminant  transport  chain  is  being  undertaken  in   a  pilot  study  by  NIWA. “Urban   stormwater   carries   elevated   loads   of   total   suspended   solids   (TSS,   i.e.,   sediments)   and   contaminants   such   as   metals   (mainly   zinc   and   copper)   and   hydrocarbons.  A  substantial  part  of  stormwater  is  conveyed  via  roadside  gutters  and  

catchpits  (i.e.,  drain  inlets)  to  the  reticulated  pipe  network  and  on  to  streams,  estuaries   and  harbours.  Roadside  gutters  and  catchpits  therefore  represent  an  obvious  point  at   which  to  intercept  and  remove  contaminants.   The   way   urban   water   is   managed   can   have   an   impact   on   urban   receiving   waters   at   least  as  great  as  climate  change.    Urban  change  can  both  exacerbate  and  mitigate  the   potential  impacts  of  climate  change.    The  following  are  a  few  of  the  possible  impacts   of  both  urbanisation  and  increased  winter  storminess  (projected  for  Auckland  in  NIWA   climate  change  scenarios)  and  therefore  stormwater  reaching  streams  and  receiving   environments:

sustainable  urban  development  to  create  the  world’s  most  liveable  city draft  Auckland  spatial  plan

Strategic  Direction  8  of  the  Auckland  Spatial  Plan    is  to  “create  a  stunning  city  centre,   with  well  connected  quality  towns,  villages  and  neighbourhoods.  “ It  is    noted  that  : 3DVW KRXVLQJ LQÂżOO ZLWKLQ VXEXUEDQ DUHDV FRPELQHG ZLWK GLVFRQQHFWHG URDGLQJ DQG subdivision  patterns,  has  degraded  some  parts  of  the  urban  environment  and prevented  opportunities  for  better  development  at  higher  densities.  Poor  quality  design   has  also  blighted  parts of  the  city  and,  with  the  legacy  of  low-­density  development,  these  have  shaped  much   of  Auckland’s  outer  suburbs.  Some  areas  of  Auckland  suffer  from  problems  such  as: ‡SRRUSXEOLFVDIHW\ ‡DODFNRISDVVHQJHUWUDQVSRUWFRQQHFWLRQV ‡DQDEVHQFHRIVHUYLFHVZLWKLQZDONLQJGLVWDQFH ‡DODFNRIFRQQHFWHGDQGXVDEOHSXEOLFRSHQVSDFH ‡DODFNRIEHDXW\DQGFLYLFDPHQLW\´ FODXVH'UDIW$XFNODQG6SDWLDO3ODQ

increased  stream  bank  erosion  and  sediment  transport increased  deposition  of  sediments  in  estuaries  and  harbours LQFUHDVHGORFDOÀRRGULVNIRUXUEDQÀRRGSODLQV LQFUHDVHGRYHUÀRZIUHTXHQF\DQGYROXPHV IDLOXUHRIVWRUPZDWHUGHYLFHVHJÀXVKLQJRIVHWWOHGVHGLPHQWVIURPSRQGV Taken  together,  climate  change  can  exacerbate  the  impacts  of  urbanisation  and  vice   versa.    However  the  trend  towards  low  impact  urban  design  and  development  could   OLPLWLPSDFWVRIERWKLQGHSHQGHQWO\DQGWRJHWKHU´ 1,:$

A  permanent  water  education  and  resource  centre  could  build  on  the  water  exhibition   currently  on  at  Auckland  Museum,  highlighting  the  importance  of  natural  water  resources   that  Aucklanders  often  neglect.     We   only   need   to   look   at   the   recent   drinking   water   crisis   in   Tokelau   and   Tuvalu   to   realise   how   precious   water   is   to   us,   yet   it   is   something   so   utterly   taken   for   granted.   With   pressures   of   global   issues   such   as   climate   change,   population   expansion   and   increasing  urbanisation,  water  will  become  a  resource  of  even  greater  demand.  The   question  is    -­  how  do  we  balance  this?


exisiting  conditions census  data  analysis

Social   indicators   were   extrapolated   from   the   2006   census   data   for   census   area   units   that   have   the  Tamaki   River   as   a   boundary.   Whilst   these   are   braod,   sweeping  assumptions  made  on  data  that  is  5  years  old,  the  method  was  used  as   DQLQGLFDWLYHSURFHVVIRUIXUWKHUUHVHDUFK.H\¿QGLQJVIURPWKLVVHULHVRIPDSV were  that  there  were  distinct  areas  with  multiple  signs  of  social  problems,  such   as  unemployment,  multiple  families  living  in  one  household  and  low  household   income,  and  that  these  areas  are  predominantly  to  the  west  and  south  of  the  river.   Data   was   cross-­referenced   to   extract   the   10   areas   with   the   ‘highest’   record   of   poor  social  indicators  for  each  statistic.  Whilst  the  set  of  conditions  was  broad,  it   indicated  isolated  pockets  of  low-­socio  economic  areas  that  provided  opportunity   for  further  analysis. Indicative  GIS  maps  displayed  from  top  left  to  bottom  right: language  spoken ethnic  group number  of  people  per  household number  of  bedrooms  per  household population  age  range employment  status household  structure home  ownership  status transport  method  to  work OHYHORITXDOL¿FDWLRQ

social  conditions How  can  we  responsibly  intensify  housing  density   when  there  are  existing  social  issues? Scale  1:200,000@A3


social  conditions

sites  with  potential  for  social  support  interventions

Areas  shaded  green  indicate  low  income  areas,  whilst  shades  of  orange  represent   higher  income  areas.  The  map  on  the  far  left  shows  the  location  of  the  lowest  10   DUHDVLQWHUPVRIVRFLDOLQGLFDWRUVWKDWZHUHLGHQWL¿HGIRUIXUWKHULQYHVWLJDWLRQ

social  improvement  =  potential  growth

Scale  1:50,000@A3 Scale  1:200,000@A3


exisiting  conditions spatial  distrbution  +  pattern

How  can  local  people  be  reconnected  to  the  Tamaki  River  by   landscape  architecture,  whilst  providing  a  range  of  socially,   FXOWXUDOO\DQGHFRORJLFDOO\EHQH¿FLDORXWFRPHV"

natural  +  cultural  land  patterns Scale  1:200,000@A3


exisiting  conditions drainage  patterns

%\ YLVXDOLVLQJ RYHUODQG ÀRZ SDWKV DQG VWRUPZDWHU LQIUDVWUXFWXUH GDWD LV ZDV possible   to   see   the   locations   where   storm   water   was   entering   directly   from   impervious  surfaces  and  entering  water  bodies  untreated.  Each  sub-­catchment   RIWKH7DPDNLZDVDQDO\VHGDQGUDWHGLQWHUPVRIQXPEHURIRXWÀRZGHYLFHVWKDW directly   entered   the   estuarine   system,   and   how   large   the   catchments   for   each   of  those  devices  is,  in  order  to  select  sub-­catchments  with  the  greatest  need  for   storm   water   treatment.   In   the   process,   it   was   discovered   the   great   number   of   outfall  devices  discharge  directly  into  riparian  situations  from  surrounding  roads,   contributing  to  and  compounding  the  poor  water  quality  and  ecological  value  of �� the  River.  Sub-­catchments  with  the  10  poorest  ratings,  according  to  this  process,   where  highlighted  as  potential  areas    for  further  investigation.

storm  water  management How  effective  is  the  existing  infrastructure  network   in  treating  stormwater  run-­off? Scale  1:200,000@A3


rationale

Areas  of  Intrest Social  Issues  +  Stormwater  Treatment  Issues

pilot  study  site  selection

Selected  Area  of  Intrest  -­  Grange Social  Issues  +  Stormwater  Treatment  Issues

By  overlaying  the  top  10  sub-­catchment  results  with  the  top  10  social  indicator   results,   it   was   three   overlaps   were   recorded.   Each   of   these   overlaps   were   DVVHVVHGLQWHUPVRISRWHQWLDOZLWKWKH¿QDOVHOHFWLRQRI*UDQJHPDGHLQRUGHUWR cover  an  area  not  investigated  by  the  rest  of  the  class.  Grange  is  representative   of  many  suburbs  around  the  Tamaki  edge,  such  as  Point    England  and  Otara,   ZKHUHROGHQWUHQFKHGDUHDVRIVWDWHKRXVLQJKDYHEHHQLQWHQVL¿HGDURXQGRU isolated  by  the  shift  of  industry  elsewhere.  This  raw  methodology  could  also  be   relevant  to  areas  of  the  Upper  Waitemata  harbour,  in  order  to  locate  subsequent   pilot  study  areas.

How  do  these  layers  of  map  relate  to  site  selection?

Grange,    Papatoetoe Legend

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Suburb  (Census  AU)

Scale  1:50,000@A3


pilot  study context

In   terms   of   infrastructure,   the   area   around   Grange   was   highly   used   by   both   Maori  and  European  settlers.  One  of  the  earliest  European  stores,  Baird’s  Wharf,   was  located  within  the  site,  serviced  by  a  wharf  that  sizeable  ships  could  reach.   Mangrove   growth   has   increased   rapidly   over   the   past   50   years,   preventing   access  to  the  water.  The  main  barrier  to  accessing  the  river  is  the  development   of  major  grey  infrastructure,  including  State  HIghway  1,  the  main  potable  water   main  pipeline  from  the  Hunua  Ranges  to  supply  Auckland  and  the  national  power   grid,  serviced  by  the  nearlby  HIghbrook  Power  Station.


the  problem

community  disconnection  -­  social  and  ecological

,GHQWLW\RI7DPDNLHGJHVXEXUE*UDQJHGH¿QHGE\LQIUDVWUXFWXUHKLVWRULFDFFHVVWRWKH River  lost,  along  with  cultural,  social  and  environmental  heritage  ties  to  the  water

piecemeal  grey  infrastructure  =  community  severance


exisiting  conditions issues

environmental  +  social  issues poor  ecological  health,  low  water  quality,  invasive  weed   species,  poor  socio-­economic    conditions,  no  access  to   open  space,  no  direct  connection  to  public  transport


exisiting  conditions existing  cultural  land  use

7\SLFDO RI PDQ\ œV VWDWH KRXVH VXEXUEV *UDQJH LV FRPSULVHG RI FXUYLQJ roads  and  cul-­de-­sacs,  bound  by  the  Tamaki  River  along  the  north-­west  edge.   From  the  south,  only  one  road  leads  into  the  suburb  from  Otahuhu  via  Great  South   Road   (GSR),   while   SH1   creates   the   eastern   perimeter,   adjacent   to   Highbrook   Power  Station.  At  roughly  500  metres  at  the  widest  point  to  850  at  the  longest,  the   VXEXUEFRPSULVHVKHFWDUHVRIORZGHQVLW\KRXVLQJVHUYLFHGE\:\PRQGOH\ Primary  School,  a  dairy  and  a  liquor  store.  At  present,  it  is  a  2km  (25mins)  walk  to   Otara,  the  nearest  town  centre  and  a  2.5km  walk  (30mins)  to  Papatoetoe. This  suburb  is  proposed  as  the  testing  ground  to  apply  the  theory  that  by  providing   opportunity  for  local  communities  to  (re)engage  with  the  Tamaki  River,  a  range  of   VRFLDOFXOWXUDODQGHFRORJLFDOEHQH¿WVFRXOGEHSURGXFHG

Grange

100m

Scale  1:5,000@A3


current  plans

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positive  development

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funding This   proposal   ties   in   with   existing   local   board   budget   allocation   and   project   funding,   such   as   the   riparian   revegetation   project   currently   underway.   The   project  could  be  used  as  a  living  resource  centre  to  educate  people  about  how   the   catchment   works   e.g.   the   storm   water   system,   which   could   then   lead   to   local   action   by   community   groups/   individual   property   owners,   such   as   stream   restoration  on  private  land.   Connecting   with   local   business   landowners   provides   an   opportunity   to   form   private-­public  partnerships  to  fund  creation  of  green  infrastructure  network,  such   as  rain  gardens  and  wetlands,  while  creating  interface  with  public  space.  Added   EHQH¿WVWREXVLQHVVIURPWKLVFRXOGEHFRUSRUDWHUHVSRQVLELOLW\WRVXVWDLQDELOLW\ charters,  and  potential  for  brand  enhancement.  It  could  also  be  used  as  a  gesture   RI FRUSRUDWH JRRGZLOO WR UDLVH WKH FRPSDQ\ SUR¿OH RU SXEOLF SHUFHSWLRQ ZKLOH creating  areas  for  workers  to  also  enjoy  whilst  on  breaks.  Proactive  sustainability   measures,    environmental  policy  and  sustainability  charters  are  becoming  more   commonplace  in  business,  and  in  some  cases  even  mandatory

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$GGLWLRQDOEHQH¿WVFRXOGDOVRLQFOXGH ‡ 8SVNLOOLQJ ORFDOV FRPPXQLW\ PHPEHUV XQHPSOR\HG  XQHGXFDWHG environmental  groups)  with  riparian  and  estuarine  management  techniques  e.g.   stream  restoration ‡ 3URYLGH FHQWUDO EDVH IRU ZDWHU TXDOLW\ PRQLWRULQJ DQG HGXFDWLRQ SURJUDPV e.g.  NIWA,  Waicare ‡ 1DWLYH¿VKEUHHGLQJDTXDULXPQDWLYHHVWXDULQHYHJHWDWLRQUHVWRUDWLRQHJ sea  grass ‡ %ULQJLQJ WRJHWKHU H[LVWLQJ DQG QHZ PLJUDQW FRPPXQLWLHV WKURXJK WKH common  human  resource  of  water,  using  multilingual  interpretation  tailored  for   the  local  communities ‡ IRUPLQJ D SHGHVWULDQ OLQN ZLWK RWKHU SXEOLF DPHQLWLHV HJ 26 FRPPXQLW\ centres ‡ 3URYLGLQJSHGHVWULDQFRQQHFWLYLW\IRUFRPPXQLWLHVWKDWDUHRWKHUZLVHLVRODWHG (esp.  Fairburn)



Existing  positive  elements  in  Grange  that  could  be  enhanced  and  tied  in  with  this   proposal  include: ‡ 1HZ PHGLXPGHQVLW\ VWDWH KRXVLQJ LQ *UDQJH EXLOW LQ FROODERUDWLRQ ZLWK Habitat  for  Humanity ‡ ([LVWLQJ(VSODQDGH5HVHUYHDURXQGHQWLUHFRDVWDOHGJHRIVXEXUE DOWKRXJK inaccessible  in  places) ‡ /RFDO%RDUGUHYHJHWDWLRQSURJUDPPHLQDVVRFLDWLRQZLWK:DLFDUH ‡ 1HWZRUNRISRWDEOHDQGZDVWHZDWHUSLSHVWRKLQJHSHGHVWULDQDFFHVVDFURVV water  to  connect  to  surroundings  without  having   to  experience   high   volume   of   WUDI¿FRQ%DLUGVDQG*W6RXWK5RDGV

Otara/  Paptoetoe  Local  Board  Draft  Plan


case  studies

urban  green  infrastructure  plans  

At  present,  green  infrastructure-­based  urban  renewal  plans  are  being  developed   in  major  cities  around  the  world.  If  the  aspirations  of  Auckland  to  contend  with   these  major  urban  players  as  the  ‘most  liveable’  city  in  the  world  are  to  be  realised,   it  is  vital  that  a  formal  green  infrastructure  plan  becomes  the  driving  document  in   the  city’s  growth. Major   global   cities   are   realising   major   green   infrastructure   projects,   capturing   ecosystems  services,  achieving  a  range  of  environmental  and  social  goals  in  the   process.  Common  threads  that  ties  these  exemplar  projects  together  are:   Multifunctionality  $UDQJHRIVRFLDOFXOWXUDOHQYLURQPHQWDODQGHFRQRPLFEHQHÂżWVDFKLHYHG  5HXVHRIFRPPHUFLDOODQG EURZQÂżHOG DQGÂľOHIWRYHUÂśVSDFHV   Low-­impact  design  used  to  integrate  storm  water  management  with  urban         development   Overlays  of  green  and  grey  infrastructure

urban  green  infrastructure  strategies:  livable  cities  As  part  of  the  development  of  East  London  on  preparation  for  the  2012  Olympic   Games,  a  sub-­regional  green  infrastructure  structure  plan  has  been  developed   to   connect   the   River   Thames   to   its   tributaries,   creating   a   green   and   blue   infrastructure   network.   The   Lea   Valley   Regional   Park   is   one   such   project   that   sits  within  the  plan,  with  the  main  object  to  provide  pedestrian  connectivity  while   also  managing  storm  water  and  enhancing  biodiversity.  As  the  Lea  Valley  was   once  the  supply  source  for  London’s  power  and  water,  and  sewage  treatment,   the   remnants   of   these   infrastructures   will   be   integrated   into   new   areas   of   the   park   to   celebrate   the   local   industrial   heritage.   The   aim   is   to   “   overcome   the   KLVWRULFDOSROLWLFDODQGVSDWLDOGLYLVLRQWRÂżQDOO\VHUYHDVDQDUPDWXUHIRUIXWXUH GHYHORSPHQWDQGFKDQJH´ 7RSRV6HSWHPEHUSJ 7KLVLVVRPHWKLQJ particularly  relevant  to  Grange,  given  the  string  sense  of  infrastructural  presence   LQWKHVXEXUEWKDWZRXOGEHGLIÂżFXOWWRUHPRYH%\UHYHDOLQJWKHVHDVSHFWVDQG acknowledging  them  as  part  of  the  urban  realm,  we  could  connect  to  processes   that  largely  go  ignored.  

As  a  living  network  of  open  spaces,  river  and  other  corridors  connecting  urban   areas  to  the  river  Thames,  the  Green  Belt  and  beyond,  the  Green  Grid  will:        provide  new  and  enhance  existing  public  open  spaces,  reducing  areas  of                  GH¿FLHQF\ SURYLGHSXEOLFDFFHVVDORQJWKHPDMRUULYHUDQGJUHHQDUHDV        provide  a  range  of  formal  and  informal  recreational  uses  and  landscapes,        SURPRWLQJKHDOWK\OLYLQJ SURYLGHQHZDQGHQKDQFHH[LVWLQJZLOGOLIHVLWHV PDQDJHZDWHUFROOHFWLRQFOHDQVLQJDQGÀRRGULVNZLWKPXOWLIXQFWLRQDOVSDFHV        provide  beautiful,  diverse  and  managed  green  infrastructure  to  the  highest         standards  for  people  and  wildlife.

London     East  London  Green  Grid         

  Sources: http://c1038.r38.cf3.rackcdn.com/group1/building4423/media/ELGG01.jpg KWWSZLUHGQHZ\RUNFRPIRUXPVKRZWKUHDGSKS"W  SDJH  http://legacy.london.gov.uk/mayor/auu/green-­grid.jsp


In   the   past   year,   New   York   City   has   released   the   NYC   Green   Infrastructure   Plan,  an  ambitious  US$2.4-­billion  project  to  improve  water  quality  using  green   infrastructure  through  a  multiplicity  of  innovative  means,  such  as  reactivating  the   ZDWHUIURQWDQGUHVWRULQJELRGLYHUVLW\7KHSODQDLPVWRJHWPXOWLSOHEHQHÂżWVIRU tax-­payers  money:  by  using  green  infrastructure  the  aim  is  to  not  only  improve   water   and   air   quality,   but   lower   energy   consumption,   increase   green   space,   decrease  the  urban  heat  island  effect  and  enhance  property  value.  As  noted  in   Topos  September  2011,  “New  York  City  is  at  the  forefront  of  a  green  urban  age‌ [hoping  ]  to  establish  the  methods,  technologies,  and  projects  that  can  serve  as   PRGHOVIRURWKHUFLWLHVLQWHUHVWHGLQSXUVXLQJWKHLURZQVXVWDLQDEOHJRDOV´ S  This  is  relevant  for  Auckland,  given  the  similar  disconnection  to  the  waterfront  as   what  was  once  in  New  York.   This   Green   Infrastructure   Plan   presents   an   alternative   approach   to   improving   ZDWHU TXDOLW\ WKDW LQWHJUDWHV ĘŠJUHHQ LQIUDVWUXFWXUH VXFK DV VZDOHV DQG JUHHQ roofs,   with   investments   to   optimize   the   existing   system   and   to   build   targeted,   VPDOOHUVFDOHĘŠJUH\RUWUDGLWLRQDOLQIUDVWUXFWXUH7KLVLVDPXOWLSURQJHGPRGXODU and  adaptive  approach  to  a  complicated  problem  that  will  provide  widespread,   LPPHGLDWHEHQHÂżWVDWDORZHUFRVW7KHJUHHQLQIUDVWUXFWXUHFRPSRQHQWRIWKLV strategy   builds   upon   and   reinforces   the   strong   public   and   government   support   that   will   be   necessary   to   make   additional   water   quality   investments.  A   critical   goal   of   the   green   infrastructure   component   is   to   manage   runoff   from   10%   of   the  impervious  surfaces  in  combined  sewer  water-­  sheds  through  detention  and   LQÂżOWUDWLRQVRXUFHFRQWUROV

case  studies

urban  green  infrastructure  plans  

Similarly,   Toronto   is   also   undertaking   a   massive   green   infrastructure   program   WRFRQQHFWSHRSOHWRWKHZDWHUIURQW8WLOLVLQJSUHGRPLQDWHO\EURZQ¿HOGVLWHVD number  of  public  spaces  have  been  created  to  enable  local  people  to  appreciate   the  Don  River. Waterfront   Toronto’s   integrated   and   holistic   community   building   and   urban   planning  model  is  creating  smarter,  healthier  and  more  sustainable  communities. A   key   consideration   for   every   Waterfront   Toronto   initiative   is   to   do   everything   possible   to   ensure   we   contribute   to   creating   a   healthy   environment.     We   also   believe   that   proximity   to   nature,   public   green   space,   and   pedestrian-­friendly   public   spaces   are   all   requirements   for   healthy   urban   living.   To   achieve   our   objectives,  our  approach  to  revitalization  incorporates  economic,  social,  cultural,   and  ecological  sustainability  criteria  into  all  decision  making.  It  will  all  add  up  to   a  lasting  environmental  legacy  now  and  a  revitalized  waterfront  that  is  the  envy   of  the  globe. Waterfront   Toronto   is   assigning   a   central   role   to   parks,   open   spaces,   bike   paths,  trails,  trees  and  water.  It’s  dedicating  25  percent  of  the  revitalized  area  to   waterfront  parks  and  public  spaces,  and  planting  about  34,000  trees. In  addition  to  connecting  people  with  the  waterfront,  we  are  striving  to  ensure  that   revitalization  has  a  positive  impact  on  water  quality  and  conservation.

New  York

Toronto     Don  River  Waterfront  

NYC  Green  Infrastructure    Plan

Refernces: http://media.ourhudson.org/task-­force-­themes/land-­use/moma-­designing-­climate-­change-­solutions/   NYCGreenInfrastructurePlan http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/stormwater/nyc_green_infrastructure_plan.shtml

References: Michael  Van  Valkenburgh  Associates  Lower  Don  Lands  Master  Plan KWWSZZZZDWHUIURQWRURQWRFDLPDJHBJDOOHULHVORZHUBGRQBODQGV http://www.waterfrontoronto.ca/our_waterfront_vision/our_future_is_green/healthy_environment  http://imageshack.us/


pilot  project

infrastructure  follows  infrastructure

Laxon  Ave,  Grange

SH1 ym W ad

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d oa

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Upper  Tamaki  River  Park  Structure  Plan

stage  one  location  -­  Laxon  Ave  bridge ou

,Q FRQWUDVW WR /DW] 7KD\HU   KDV D EURDGHU GH¿QLWLRQ RI VXVWDLQDELOLW\ taking  into  account  ecological  principles.  This  text  highlights  concepts  such  as   increasing   urban/suburban   biodiversity   and   reinstating   or   enhancing   bio-­geo-­ physical   processes,   such   as   storm   water   treatment,   in   order   to   bring   human   communities   back   to   life.   The   authors   take   a   strong   stance   that   community   education   of   these   processes,   through   landscape   design,   is   fundamental   to   ensure  true  sustainability,  engraining  a  cultural  appreciation  in  perpetuity.  They   suggest  that  by  exposing  people  to  processes  that  are  hidden  by  infrastructure,  

PXOWLSXUSRVHSXEOLFVSDFHVFDQEHFUHDWHGWKDWKDYHDGGLWLRQDOEHQH¿WVIRUZLOGOLIH or  recreation  opportunities.  This  could  be  particularly  applicable  to  this  area  of   Otahuhu,  as  there  is  very  little  vegetation  and  a  predominance  of  infrastructure.   Very   little   residential   vegetation   exists,   possibly   due   to   the   high   proportion   of   Housing  NZ  rental  properties  in  the  suburb,  which  are  being  replaced  with  new   higher  density  stock.  Waterways  are  much  degraded,  populated  by  predominantly   exotic  species  and  copious  amounts  of  rubbish.  By  increasing  density  of  human   ODQGXVHSDWWHUQVODUJHUDUHDVFRXOGEHFUHDWHGRUSUHVHUYHGIRUWKHEHQH¿WRI LQFUHDVLQJELRGLYHUVLW\LQWXUQEHQH¿WWLQJORFDOSHRSOHZLWKDFFHVVWRDKHDOWKLHU ecosystem  for  a  range  of  purposes,  such  as  recreation  or  transport.  

t  S

use  of  space.  Given  the  constraints  of  the  motorway  and  the  River,  in  conjunction   with  the  dominating  presence  of  the  Otahuhu  power  station  and  the  wastewater   pumping   station   and   the   rich   heritage   of   Otahuhu   to   draw   from,   the   suburb   of   Grange  has  a  lot  of  opportunity  to  integrate  these  assets  into  more  useable  and   richly  layered  public  space.

G

According  to  Peter  Latz  (2007),  successive  transformations  form  the  rich  layering   of   a   site   contributes   to   the   emergence   of   a   unique   community   identity.   Latz   suggests  that  contemporary  suburban  development  typically  ‘erases’  past  natural   and  human  systems,  leaving  communities  with  shallow  identities.  He  proposes   an   alternative  Adaptive   Design   Process   that   enables   communities   to   translate   change  and  transformation  over  time  into  a  coherent  process,  reinforcing  features   and  identity  of  a  site.  Infrastructure  is  a  key  attribute  of  communities  that  is  often   disregarded   in   contributing   to   the   evolving   identity   of   a   place.  As   the   research   group   noted   in   Part   1   of   this   studio,   Latz   points   out   that   city   growth   follows   infrastructure  -­  whether  it  be  road,  rail  or  river.  He  observes  that  “little  attention   LV SDLG WR WKLV ORQJ OLIHF\FOHG IHDWXUH´ S  DQG VXJJHVWV WKDW LQIUDVWUXFWXUH FRXOGÂłSURYLGHDUPDWXUHIRUWUDQVIRUPDWLRQRYHUWLPH´ S 7KHLGHDRIK\SHU development  is  propose  in  keeping  with  this  notion,  whereby  infrastructure,  public   space  and  private  buildings  are  fused  in  innovative  combinations  to  minimise  the  

Bairds  Road

Infrastructure  follows  infrastructure By   utililsing   green   infrastructure   as   the   basis   for   an   urban   growth   plan,   it   is   VSHFXODWHGWKDWDUDQJHRIEHQH¿WVFRXOGEHDFKLHYHGHJLQFUHDVHGELRGLYHUVLW\ treat  very  poor  water  quality  in  upper  reaches  of  harbour  and  increase  access  to   open  space.    This  concept  is  applicable  not  just  to  Tamaki,  but  could  also  apply  to   other  inner  harbour  areas  e.g.  Waitemata,  Kaipara,  and  to  the  region  as  a  whole.

1:5000@A3


design  development Laxon  Ave  pedestrian  pipe  bridge

experimenting  with  design  of  bridge  line  to  avoid  foundation  interfering   with  water  mains  pipeline,  sensitive  ecological  areas,  whilst  maintaining   direct  pedestrian  connectivity  to  Great  South  Road  from  Laxon  Ave

concept  sketches  devloping  pipe  lines

model  exploration  of  potential  with  pipe  lines

infrastructure  follows  infrastructure


stage  one  concept  plan Laxon  Ave  pedestrian  pipe  bridge

salt  swamp  -­  mangrove  management salt  marsh    -­  revegetation sustainable  hardwood  steps  to  jetty  down  to  salt  marsh water  mains  pipe bridge  viewing  platform 3m  wide  sustainable  hardwood  bridge  with  stainless  steel  detailing  over  pipes permable  paving  3-­6m  wide  footpath gathering  plaza 3m  wide  sustainable  hardwood  boardwalks  over  vegetation storm  water  treatment  wetlands coastal  clay  bank  revegetation amenity  plantings   open  space

100m Scale  1:5,000@A3

Laxon  Ave


perspectives

storm  water  treatment  wetlands  +  riparian  revegetation

P1 P2

ecological  restoration  +  enhancement P1 view  of  storm  water  treatment  wetlands  from  north  looking  south

stormwater  management  +  treatment improved   pedestrain   connectivity   to   open   space,   community  services,  transport  centres  and  key  economic   growth  areas  of  Otahuhu  and  Papatoetoe

P2

view  of  bridge  looking  west  from  east  bank  towards  Tip  Top  bread  factory


sections

water  pipe  bridge  +  storm  water  treatment  wetlands

re-­engagement  with  the  Tamaki:  stormwater  management  +  education  by  design

west  bank

east  bank


P3

perspectives water  pipe  bridge

P3 P4

 integration  of  green  +  grey  infrastructure utilising  existing  infrastructure  to  integrate

view  of  bridge  looking  south  from  parallel  north  bank

community  integration  +  connectivity view  of  bridge  looking  east  from  west  bank  towards  viewing  platform

P4


planting  plan

Upper  Tamaki  Estuary  -­  revegetation  planting    ecotone  sequence

 esturine  riparian  revegetation  +  storm  water  treatment  wetlands

median  high  tide   spring  high  tide median  low  tide amenity  plantings

coastal  clay  bank

salt  marsh

salt  swamp

salt  marsh

coastal  clay  bank

amenity  plantings

storm  water  treatment   wetland

exisiting  vegetation

scale  1:200  @A1

proposed  vegetation

native  revegetation


General  references 'XQKDP-XRQHV(DQG:LOOLDPVRQ-  ,QWURGXFWLRQ5HWUR¿WWLQJ6XEXUELD¹8UEDQ'HVLJQ6ROXWLRQVIRU5HGHVLJQLQJ6XEXUEV1HZ<RUN-RKQ:LOH\DQG6RQV,QF Latz,  P.    (2007)  In  Search  of  Identity  Over  Time.  Suburban  Transformations.  New  York:  Princeton  Architectural  Press. 7KD\HU5  1HZ6\PEROVRI3RVVLELOLWLHV*UH\:RUOG*UHHQ+HDUW1HZ<RUN-RKQ:LOH\DQG6RQV,QF Auckland  Council www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/EN/environment/Land_water/Pages/2011stormwaterseminar.aspx Ministry  for  the  Environment (http://www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/water/freshwater/fresh-­start-­for-­fresh-­water/index.html) NIWA  http://www.niwa.co.nz/our-­science/freshwater/our-­services/urban_aquatics/current_projects One  Drop  Exhibition www.onedrop.org/en/projects/projects-­overview/AquaNorthProject/Aqua/Experience.aspx Tamaki  -­  Papatoetoe  Catchment  Management  Plan  www.manukau.govt.nz/tec/catchment/tamaki_papatoetoe/tamaki_papatoetoe_index.htm



Tamaki Green Infrastructure PLan