GREEN Â INFRASTRUCTRE Â GROWTH Â PLAN Upper Â Tamaki Â River Â -Â Â Grange, Â Papatoetoe
LAND7226 Â Studio Â 6 Heather Â Docherty 1345281
Given Â the Â close Â proximity Â to Â central Â Auckland, Â the Â Tamaki Â River Â edge Â provides Â opportunities Â to Â test Â future Â urban Â development Â scenarios Â for Â the Â region. Â In Â order Â to Â explore Â and Â propose Â strategic Â landscape Â and Â urban Â design Â interventions, Â it Â is Â necessary Â to Â understand Â environmental, Â socio-Âcultural Â and Â economic Â implications. Â Contemporary Â landscape Â theory Â concerning Â urban Â growth Â also Â enhances Â understanding, Â providing Â a Â theoretical Â framework Â and Â precedent Â in Â which Â to Â ground Â design Â proposals. Â Stemming Â from Â speculative Â outcomes Â of Â group Â research Â themes Â (heritage Â and Â transport), Â design Â and Â development Â turns Â the Â focus Â towards Â the Â Tamaki Â River Â as Â an Â entity. Â Given Â the Â strategic Â importance Â and Â long-Âstanding Â human Â use Â of Â the Â area, Â the Â River Â serves Â as Â a Â cultural, Â social, Â transportation Â and Â environmental Â heritage Â feature. Â There Â are Â many Â issues Â arising Â from Â the Â past Â and Â potential Â future Â population Â growth Â of Â Auckland Â that Â this Â project Â seeks Â to Â address Â in Â this Â design Â proposal. Â Piecemeal Â expansion Â of Â the Â city Â in Â the Â past Â has Â lead Â to Â community Â severance, Â both Â social Â and Â ecological, Â in Â the Â process Â disconnecting Â people Â from Â the Â environment. Â Vital Â infrastructure Â networks Â that Â have Â appeared Â over Â time Â have Â sliced Â up Â the Â city, Â creating Â pockets Â of Â urban Â isolation. Â What Â was Â once Â industrial Â land Â has Â now Â been Â engulfed Â by Â suburbia, Â leading Â to Â areas Â of Â fragmented Â urban Â fabric, Â created Â by Â outdated Â planning Â zone Â rules. Â As Â the Â urban Â environment Â has Â grown, Â so Â too Â has Â the Â volume Â of Â storm Â water Â run-Âoff. Â Vast Â quantities Â of Â untreated Â stormwater Â and Â litter Â enter Â the Â Tamaki Â River, Â particularly Â from Â stormwater Â drains, Â giving Â the Â River Â one Â of Â the Â poorest Â ecological Â ratings Â in Â the Â Auckland Â area. Â If Â the Â amount Â of Â impervious Â surface Â areas Â increase Â with Â anticipated Â development Â in Â the Â catchment Â (e.g. Â AMETI, Â housing), Â the Â volume Â of Â run-Âoff Â directly Â entering Â the Â River Â will Â be Â set Â increase. Â In Â conjunction Â with Â XSJUDGLQJWKHYHKLFOHĂ€HHWDQGUHWURÂżWWLQJURRIVWUXFWXUHVWRDGGUHVVWKHVRXUFHVRIKHDY\PHWDOFRQWDPLQDQWVLWLVYLWDOWKDWSHRSOH are Â engaged, Â educated Â and Â made Â more Â aware Â of Â the Â River Â and Â the Â unique Â social Â and Â ecological Â values Â that Â it Â has Â to Â offer. Â Mangrove Â ecosystems Â are Â taken Â for Â granted Â and Â at Â times Â much Â maligned. Â However, Â they Â play Â a Â key Â role Â in Â stabilising Â coastline Â sediment Â run-Â RIIDVZHOODVIXOÂżOOLQJDYHU\VSHFLDOLVHGHFRORJLFDOIXQFWLRQ7KH7DPDNL5LYHUSURYLGHVDQRSSRUWXQLW\WRWHVWGHVLJQLQWHUYHQWLRQV that Â compliment Â this Â role, Â while Â improving Â water Â quality Â and Â taking Â into Â account Â the Â social Â needs Â of Â the Â current Â and Â future Â population.
Tamaki Â River Â edge: Â the Â green Â infrastructure Â spine Â of Â sustainable Â development Â in Â south-Âeast Â Auckland
Scale Â 1:50,000@A3
the Â problem
Regional Â Context: Â Auckland Â Spatial Â Plan
How Â do Â we Â accomodate Â future Â growth Â of Â Auckland Â sustainably? Â
Sustainable Â urban Â development Â is Â not Â only Â about Â using Â environmental Â resources Â responsibility, Â it Â also Â involves Â enhancing Â social Â conditions Â for Â people, Â now Â and Â for Â future Â generations. Â As Â the Â population Â of Â Auckland Â increases, Â further Â pressure Â is Â placed Â on Â already Â overburdened Â natural Â systems. Â The Â vision Â of Â Auckland Â Council Â is Â to Â create Â the Â worldâ€™s Â most Â liveable Â city. Â In Â a Â planning Â seminar Â in Â August Â 2011, Â Mayor Â Len Â Brown Â and Â storm Â water Â experts Â discussed Â ways Â to Â ensure Â that Â planning Â is Â intelligent, Â and Â takes Â into Â account Â the Â need Â to Â manage Â storm Â water, Â working Â with Â nature, Â and Â not Â against Â it. Water Â is Â integral Â to Â Aucklandâ€™s Â identity, Â and Â will Â become Â more Â so Â as Â the Â work Â of Â the Â cityâ€™s Â storm Â water Â engineers Â improve Â its Â quality Â and Â enables Â Aucklanders Â to Â enjoy Â it Â even Â more. Â
Storm Â water Â management Â is Â high Â on Â the Â priority Â list Â in Â the Â Auckland Â Spatial Â Plan, Â with Â $1.62 Â billion Â allocated Â to Â improving Â wastewater Â services. Â Auckland Â Council Â will Â be Â taking Â a Â more Â strategic Â approach Â to Â storm Â water Â management, Â and Â key Â to Â this Â is Â the Â priority Â given Â to Â water Â sensitive Â planning Â in Â development Â and Â redevelopment. Â This Â project Â speculates Â that Â the Â reaches Â of Â the Â Upper Â Tamaki Â River Â could Â provide Â the Â backbone Â of Â a Â green Â infrastructure Â network Â for Â the Â southeast Â of Â Auckland. Â By Â doing Â so, Â issues Â around Â historically Â poor Â water Â quality Â and Â generally Â low Â biodiversity Â of Â the Â catchment Â could Â potentially Â improve, Â as Â well Â as Â Â social Â conditions Â of Â some Â of Â the Â lowest Â socioeconomic Â areas Â in Â the Â city.
At Â a Â higher Â government Â level, Â water Â management Â is Â a Â key Â issue. Â The Â issue Â is Â important Â for Â landscape Â architecture, Â as Â pollution Â of Â waterways Â is Â a Â national Â problem Â that Â could Â be Â addressed Â by Â landscape-Âbased Â strategies Â and Â interventions. Â The Â importance Â of Â water Â to Â New Â Zealandâ€™s Â economy Â and Â way Â of Â life Â is Â in Â early Â stages Â of Â being Â recognised Â through Â the Â governmentâ€™s Â Fresh Â Start Â for Â Fresh Â Water Â 2011 Â reforms Â that Â include Â the Â National Â Policy Â Statement Â on Â Fresh Â Water, Â amongst Â other Â initiatives. Â Research Â into Â breaking Â the Â urban Â contaminant Â transport Â chain Â is Â being Â undertaken Â in Â a Â pilot Â study Â by Â NIWA. â€œUrban Â stormwater Â carries Â elevated Â loads Â of Â total Â suspended Â solids Â (TSS, Â i.e., Â sediments) Â and Â contaminants Â such Â as Â metals Â (mainly Â zinc Â and Â copper) Â and Â hydrocarbons. Â A Â substantial Â part Â of Â stormwater Â is Â conveyed Â via Â roadside Â gutters Â and Â
catchpits Â (i.e., Â drain Â inlets) Â to Â the Â reticulated Â pipe Â network Â and Â on Â to Â streams, Â estuaries Â and Â harbours. Â Roadside Â gutters Â and Â catchpits Â therefore Â represent Â an Â obvious Â point Â at Â which Â to Â intercept Â and Â remove Â contaminants. Â The Â way Â urban Â water Â is Â managed Â can Â have Â an Â impact Â on Â urban Â receiving Â waters Â at Â least Â as Â great Â as Â climate Â change. Â Â Urban Â change Â can Â both Â exacerbate Â and Â mitigate Â the Â potential Â impacts Â of Â climate Â change. Â Â The Â following Â are Â a Â few Â of Â the Â possible Â impacts Â of Â both Â urbanisation Â and Â increased Â winter Â storminess Â (projected Â for Â Auckland Â in Â NIWA Â climate Â change Â scenarios) Â and Â therefore Â stormwater Â reaching Â streams Â and Â receiving Â environments:
sustainable Â urban Â development Â to Â create Â the Â worldâ€™s Â most Â liveable Â city draft Â Auckland Â spatial Â plan
Strategic Â Direction Â 8 Â of Â the Â Auckland Â Spatial Â Plan Â Â is Â to Â â€œcreate Â a Â stunning Â city Â centre, Â with Â well Â connected Â quality Â towns, Â villages Â and Â neighbourhoods. Â â€œ It Â is Â Â noted Â that Â : 3DVW KRXVLQJ LQÂżOO ZLWKLQ VXEXUEDQ DUHDV FRPELQHG ZLWK GLVFRQQHFWHG URDGLQJ DQG subdivision Â patterns, Â has Â degraded Â some Â parts Â of Â the Â urban Â environment Â and prevented Â opportunities Â for Â better Â development Â at Â higher Â densities. Â Poor Â quality Â design Â has Â also Â blighted Â parts of Â the Â city Â and, Â with Â the Â legacy Â of Â low-Âdensity Â development, Â these Â have Â shaped Â much Â of Â Aucklandâ€™s Â outer Â suburbs. Â Some Â areas Â of Â Auckland Â suffer Â from Â problems Â such Â as: Â‡SRRUSXEOLFVDIHW\ Â‡DODFNRISDVVHQJHUWUDQVSRUWFRQQHFWLRQV Â‡DQDEVHQFHRIVHUYLFHVZLWKLQZDONLQJGLVWDQFH Â‡DODFNRIFRQQHFWHGDQGXVDEOHSXEOLFRSHQVSDFH Â‡DODFNRIEHDXW\DQGFLYLFDPHQLW\Â´FODXVH'UDIW$XFNODQG6SDWLDO3ODQ
increased Â stream Â bank Â erosion Â and Â sediment Â transport increased Â deposition Â of Â sediments Â in Â estuaries Â and Â harbours LQFUHDVHGORFDOĂ€RRGULVNIRUXUEDQĂ€RRGSODLQV LQFUHDVHGRYHUĂ€RZIUHTXHQF\DQGYROXPHV IDLOXUHRIVWRUPZDWHUGHYLFHVHJĂ€XVKLQJRIVHWWOHGVHGLPHQWVIURPSRQGV Taken Â together, Â climate Â change Â can Â exacerbate Â the Â impacts Â of Â urbanisation Â and Â vice Â versa. Â Â However Â the Â trend Â towards Â low Â impact Â urban Â design Â and Â development Â could Â OLPLWLPSDFWVRIERWKLQGHSHQGHQWO\DQGWRJHWKHUÂ´1,:$
A Â permanent Â water Â education Â and Â resource Â centre Â could Â build Â on Â the Â water Â exhibition Â currently Â on Â at Â Auckland Â Museum, Â highlighting Â the Â importance Â of Â natural Â water Â resources Â that Â Aucklanders Â often Â neglect. Â Â We Â only Â need Â to Â look Â at Â the Â recent Â drinking Â water Â crisis Â in Â Tokelau Â and Â Tuvalu Â to Â realise Â how Â precious Â water Â is Â to Â us, Â yet Â it Â is Â something Â so Â utterly Â taken Â for Â granted. Â With Â pressures Â of Â global Â issues Â such Â as Â climate Â change, Â population Â expansion Â and Â increasing Â urbanisation, Â water Â will Â become Â a Â resource Â of Â even Â greater Â demand. Â The Â question Â is Â Â -Â Â how Â do Â we Â balance Â this?
exisiting conditions census data analysis
Social indicators were extrapolated from the 2006 census data for census area units that have the Tamaki River as a boundary. Whilst these are braod, sweeping assumptions made on data that is 5 years old, the method was used as DQLQGLFDWLYHSURFHVVIRUIXUWKHUUHVHDUFK.H\¿QGLQJVIURPWKLVVHULHVRIPDSV were that there were distinct areas with multiple signs of social problems, such as unemployment, multiple families living in one household and low household income, and that these areas are predominantly to the west and south of the river. Data was cross-referenced to extract the 10 areas with the ‘highest’ record of poor social indicators for each statistic. Whilst the set of conditions was broad, it indicated isolated pockets of low-socio economic areas that provided opportunity for further analysis. Indicative GIS maps displayed from top left to bottom right: language spoken ethnic group number of people per household number of bedrooms per household population age range employment status household structure home ownership status transport method to work OHYHORITXDOL¿FDWLRQ
social conditions How can we responsibly intensify housing density when there are existing social issues? Scale 1:200,000@A3
sites with potential for social support interventions
Areas shaded green indicate low income areas, whilst shades of orange represent higher income areas. The map on the far left shows the location of the lowest 10 DUHDVLQWHUPVRIVRFLDOLQGLFDWRUVWKDWZHUHLGHQWL¿HGIRUIXUWKHULQYHVWLJDWLRQ
social improvement = potential growth
Scale 1:50,000@A3 Scale 1:200,000@A3
exisiting conditions spatial distrbution + pattern
How can local people be reconnected to the Tamaki River by landscape architecture, whilst providing a range of socially, FXOWXUDOO\DQGHFRORJLFDOO\EHQH¿FLDORXWFRPHV"
natural + cultural land patterns Scale 1:200,000@A3
exisiting Â conditions drainage Â patterns
%\ YLVXDOLVLQJ RYHUODQG Ă€RZ SDWKV DQG VWRUPZDWHU LQIUDVWUXFWXUH GDWD LV ZDV possible Â to Â see Â the Â locations Â where Â storm Â water Â was Â entering Â directly Â from Â impervious Â surfaces Â and Â entering Â water Â bodies Â untreated. Â Each Â sub-Âcatchment Â RIWKH7DPDNLZDVDQDO\VHGDQGUDWHGLQWHUPVRIQXPEHURIRXWĂ€RZGHYLFHVWKDW directly Â entered Â the Â estuarine Â system, Â and Â how Â large Â the Â catchments Â for Â each Â of Â those Â devices Â is, Â in Â order Â to Â select Â sub-Âcatchments Â with Â the Â greatest Â need Â for Â storm Â water Â treatment. Â In Â the Â process, Â it Â was Â discovered Â the Â great Â number Â of Â outfall Â devices Â discharge Â directly Â into Â riparian Â situations Â from Â surrounding Â roads, Â contributing Â to Â and Â compounding Â the Â poor Â water Â quality Â and Â ecological Â value Â of Â the Â River. Â Sub-Âcatchments Â with Â the Â 10 Â poorest Â ratings, Â according Â to Â this Â process, Â where Â highlighted Â as Â potential Â areas Â Â for Â further Â investigation.
storm Â water Â management How Â effective Â is Â the Â existing Â infrastructure Â network Â in Â treating Â stormwater Â run-Âoff? Scale Â 1:200,000@A3
Areas Â of Â Intrest Social Â Issues Â + Â Stormwater Â Treatment Â Issues
pilot Â study Â site Â selection
Selected Â Area Â of Â Intrest Â -Â Â Grange Social Â Issues Â + Â Stormwater Â Treatment Â Issues
By Â overlaying Â the Â top Â 10 Â sub-Âcatchment Â results Â with Â the Â top Â 10 Â social Â indicator Â results, Â it Â was Â three Â overlaps Â were Â recorded. Â Each Â of Â these Â overlaps Â were Â DVVHVVHGLQWHUPVRISRWHQWLDOZLWKWKHÂżQDOVHOHFWLRQRI*UDQJHPDGHLQRUGHUWR cover Â an Â area Â not Â investigated Â by Â the Â rest Â of Â the Â class. Â Grange Â is Â representative Â of Â many Â suburbs Â around Â the Â Tamaki Â edge, Â such Â as Â Point Â Â England Â and Â Otara, Â ZKHUHROGHQWUHQFKHGDUHDVRIVWDWHKRXVLQJKDYHEHHQLQWHQVLÂżHGDURXQGRU isolated Â by Â the Â shift Â of Â industry Â elsewhere. Â This Â raw Â methodology Â could Â also Â be Â relevant Â to Â areas Â of Â the Â Upper Â Waitemata Â harbour, Â in Â order Â to Â locate Â subsequent Â pilot Â study Â areas.
How Â do Â these Â layers Â of Â map Â relate Â to Â site Â selection?
Grange, Â Â Papatoetoe Legend
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O ta hu hu Â W O es ta t hu hu Â E O ta as hu t hu Â N or th Fa i rb ur n O ta ra Â E as t
Suburb Â (Census Â AU)
Scale Â 1:50,000@A3
pilot study context
In terms of infrastructure, the area around Grange was highly used by both Maori and European settlers. One of the earliest European stores, Baird’s Wharf, was located within the site, serviced by a wharf that sizeable ships could reach. Mangrove growth has increased rapidly over the past 50 years, preventing access to the water. The main barrier to accessing the river is the development of major grey infrastructure, including State HIghway 1, the main potable water main pipeline from the Hunua Ranges to supply Auckland and the national power grid, serviced by the nearlby HIghbrook Power Station.
community disconnection - social and ecological
,GHQWLW\RI7DPDNLHGJHVXEXUE*UDQJHGH¿QHGE\LQIUDVWUXFWXUHKLVWRULFDFFHVVWRWKH River lost, along with cultural, social and environmental heritage ties to the water
piecemeal grey infrastructure = community severance
exisiting conditions issues
environmental + social issues poor ecological health, low water quality, invasive weed species, poor socio-economic conditions, no access to open space, no direct connection to public transport
exisiting Â conditions existing Â cultural Â land Â use
7\SLFDO RI PDQ\ ÂśV VWDWH KRXVH VXEXUEV *UDQJH LV FRPSULVHG RI FXUYLQJ roads Â and Â cul-Âde-Âsacs, Â bound Â by Â the Â Tamaki Â River Â along Â the Â north-Âwest Â edge. Â From Â the Â south, Â only Â one Â road Â leads Â into Â the Â suburb Â from Â Otahuhu Â via Â Great Â South Â Road Â (GSR), Â while Â SH1 Â creates Â the Â eastern Â perimeter, Â adjacent Â to Â Highbrook Â Power Â Station. Â At Â roughly Â 500 Â metres Â at Â the Â widest Â point Â to Â 850 Â at Â the Â longest, Â the Â VXEXUEFRPSULVHVKHFWDUHVRIORZGHQVLW\KRXVLQJVHUYLFHGE\:\PRQGOH\ Primary Â School, Â a Â dairy Â and Â a Â liquor Â store. Â At Â present, Â it Â is Â a Â 2km Â (25mins) Â walk Â to Â Otara, Â the Â nearest Â town Â centre Â and Â a Â 2.5km Â walk Â (30mins) Â to Â Papatoetoe. This Â suburb Â is Â proposed Â as Â the Â testing Â ground Â to Â apply Â the Â theory Â that Â by Â providing Â opportunity Â for Â local Â communities Â to Â (re)engage Â with Â the Â Tamaki Â River, Â a Â range Â of Â VRFLDOFXOWXUDODQGHFRORJLFDOEHQHÂżWVFRXOGEHSURGXFHG
Scale Â 1:5,000@A3
current Â plans
0.,0+!0+!+( +. .%+.%0%!/
positive Â development
TAMAKI ESTUARY WE WANT TO WORK WITH PARTNERS AND OTHER LOCAL BOARDS TO ACHIEVE IMPROVEMENTS TO THE FORESHORE AND WATERWAYS WE SHARE. !/,%0!)+.!0$* 4!./+"0.!!,(*0%*# * .!/0+.0%+*!""+.0/0$%/30!.34%/ /0%(($%#$(4,+((10! 0%/ !/%#*0! 40$! !,.0)!*0+"+*/!.20%+*/*.!+"
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funding This Â proposal Â ties Â in Â with Â existing Â local Â board Â budget Â allocation Â and Â project Â funding, Â such Â as Â the Â riparian Â revegetation Â project Â currently Â underway. Â The Â project Â could Â be Â used Â as Â a Â living Â resource Â centre Â to Â educate Â people Â about Â how Â the Â catchment Â works Â e.g. Â the Â storm Â water Â system, Â which Â could Â then Â lead Â to Â local Â action Â by Â community Â groups/ Â individual Â property Â owners, Â such Â as Â stream Â restoration Â on Â private Â land. Â Connecting Â with Â local Â business Â landowners Â provides Â an Â opportunity Â to Â form Â private-Âpublic Â partnerships Â to Â fund Â creation Â of Â green Â infrastructure Â network, Â such Â as Â rain Â gardens Â and Â wetlands, Â while Â creating Â interface Â with Â public Â space. Â Added Â EHQHÂ¿WVWREXVLQHVVIURPWKLVFRXOGEHFRUSRUDWHUHVSRQVLELOLW\WRVXVWDLQDELOLW\ charters, Â and Â potential Â for Â brand Â enhancement. Â It Â could Â also Â be Â used Â as Â a Â gesture Â RI FRUSRUDWH JRRGZLOO WR UDLVH WKH FRPSDQ\ SURÂ¿OH RU SXEOLF SHUFHSWLRQ ZKLOH creating Â areas Â for Â workers Â to Â also Â enjoy Â whilst Â on Â breaks. Â Proactive Â sustainability Â measures, Â Â environmental Â policy Â and Â sustainability Â charters Â are Â becoming Â more Â commonplace Â in Â business, Â and Â in Â some Â cases Â even Â mandatory
MANUKAU HARBOUR FORESHORE THERE WILL BE A COLLABORATIVE EFFORT TO PROTECT, RESTORE AND REHABILITATE OUR COASTAL ENVIRONMENT AND PROVIDE FOR RECREATION BY DEVELOPING WALKWAYS. $!*1'1.+1."+.!/$+.!0/0+,.+0!0 0$!30!.+"0$!$.+1.".+)0$!,+((10%+*+" (* /! 0%2%0%!/ $!1$%*1%!/!.2!%/,.0+"0$!01'101.1 .!/0.%0! +*/!.20%+*.!+*0$!3!/0!.* /$+.!(%*!53%0$(.#!/(0)./$3!0(* * 1*%-1!!*2%.+*)!*0
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$GGLWLRQDOEHQHÂ¿WVFRXOGDOVRLQFOXGH Â‡ 8SVNLOOLQJ ORFDOV FRPPXQLW\ PHPEHUV XQHPSOR\HG XQHGXFDWHG environmental Â groups) Â with Â riparian Â and Â estuarine Â management Â techniques Â e.g. Â stream Â restoration Â‡ 3URYLGH FHQWUDO EDVH IRU ZDWHU TXDOLW\ PRQLWRULQJ DQG HGXFDWLRQ SURJUDPV e.g. Â NIWA, Â Waicare Â‡ 1DWLYHÂ¿VKEUHHGLQJDTXDULXPQDWLYHHVWXDULQHYHJHWDWLRQUHVWRUDWLRQHJ sea Â grass Â‡ %ULQJLQJ WRJHWKHU H[LVWLQJ DQG QHZ PLJUDQW FRPPXQLWLHV WKURXJK WKH common Â human Â resource Â of Â water, Â using Â multilingual Â interpretation Â tailored Â for Â the Â local Â communities Â‡ IRUPLQJ D SHGHVWULDQ OLQN ZLWK RWKHU SXEOLF DPHQLWLHV HJ 26 FRPPXQLW\ centres Â‡ 3URYLGLQJSHGHVWULDQFRQQHFWLYLW\IRUFRPPXQLWLHVWKDWDUHRWKHUZLVHLVRODWHG (esp. Â Fairburn)
Existing Â positive Â elements Â in Â Grange Â that Â could Â be Â enhanced Â and Â tied Â in Â with Â this Â proposal Â include: Â‡ 1HZ PHGLXPGHQVLW\ VWDWH KRXVLQJ LQ *UDQJH EXLOW LQ FROODERUDWLRQ ZLWK Habitat Â for Â Humanity Â‡ ([LVWLQJ(VSODQDGH5HVHUYHDURXQGHQWLUHFRDVWDOHGJHRIVXEXUEDOWKRXJK inaccessible Â in Â places) Â‡ /RFDO%RDUGUHYHJHWDWLRQSURJUDPPHLQDVVRFLDWLRQZLWK:DLFDUH Â‡ 1HWZRUNRISRWDEOHDQGZDVWHZDWHUSLSHVWRKLQJHSHGHVWULDQDFFHVVDFURVV water Â to Â connect Â to Â surroundings Â without Â having Â to Â experience Â high Â volume Â of Â WUDIÂ¿FRQ%DLUGVDQG*W6RXWK5RDGV
Otara/ Â Paptoetoe Â Local Â Board Â Draft Â Plan
case Â studies
urban Â green Â infrastructure Â plans Â
At Â present, Â green Â infrastructure-Âbased Â urban Â renewal Â plans Â are Â being Â developed Â in Â major Â cities Â around Â the Â world. Â If Â the Â aspirations Â of Â Auckland Â to Â contend Â with Â these Â major Â urban Â players Â as Â the Â â€˜most Â liveableâ€™ Â city Â in Â the Â world Â are Â to Â be Â realised, Â it Â is Â vital Â that Â a Â formal Â green Â infrastructure Â plan Â becomes Â the Â driving Â document Â in Â the Â cityâ€™s Â growth. Major Â global Â cities Â are Â realising Â major Â green Â infrastructure Â projects, Â capturing Â ecosystems Â services, Â achieving Â a Â range Â of Â environmental Â and Â social Â goals Â in Â the Â process. Â Common Â threads Â that Â ties Â these Â exemplar Â projects Â together Â are: Â Multifunctionality $UDQJHRIVRFLDOFXOWXUDOHQYLURQPHQWDODQGHFRQRPLFEHQHÂżWVDFKLHYHG 5HXVHRIFRPPHUFLDOODQGEURZQÂżHOG DQGÂľOHIWRYHUÂśVSDFHV Â Low-Âimpact Â design Â used Â to Â integrate Â storm Â water Â management Â with Â urban Â Â Â Â development Â Overlays Â of Â green Â and Â grey Â infrastructure
urban Â green Â infrastructure Â strategies: Â livable Â cities Â As Â part Â of Â the Â development Â of Â East Â London Â on Â preparation Â for Â the Â 2012 Â Olympic Â Games, Â a Â sub-Âregional Â green Â infrastructure Â structure Â plan Â has Â been Â developed Â to Â connect Â the Â River Â Thames Â to Â its Â tributaries, Â creating Â a Â green Â and Â blue Â infrastructure Â network. Â The Â Lea Â Valley Â Regional Â Park Â is Â one Â such Â project Â that Â sits Â within Â the Â plan, Â with Â the Â main Â object Â to Â provide Â pedestrian Â connectivity Â while Â also Â managing Â storm Â water Â and Â enhancing Â biodiversity. Â As Â the Â Lea Â Valley Â was Â once Â the Â supply Â source Â for Â Londonâ€™s Â power Â and Â water, Â and Â sewage Â treatment, Â the Â remnants Â of Â these Â infrastructures Â will Â be Â integrated Â into Â new Â areas Â of Â the Â park Â to Â celebrate Â the Â local Â industrial Â heritage. Â The Â aim Â is Â to Â â€œ Â overcome Â the Â KLVWRULFDOSROLWLFDODQGVSDWLDOGLYLVLRQWRÂżQDOO\VHUYHDVDQDUPDWXUHIRUIXWXUH GHYHORSPHQWDQGFKDQJHÂ´7RSRV6HSWHPEHUSJ 7KLVLVVRPHWKLQJ particularly Â relevant Â to Â Grange, Â given Â the Â string Â sense Â of Â infrastructural Â presence Â LQWKHVXEXUEWKDWZRXOGEHGLIÂżFXOWWRUHPRYH%\UHYHDOLQJWKHVHDVSHFWVDQG acknowledging Â them Â as Â part Â of Â the Â urban Â realm, Â we Â could Â connect Â to Â processes Â that Â largely Â go Â ignored. Â
As Â a Â living Â network Â of Â open Â spaces, Â river Â and Â other Â corridors Â connecting Â urban Â areas Â to Â the Â river Â Thames, Â the Â Green Â Belt Â and Â beyond, Â the Â Green Â Grid Â will: Â Â Â Â provide Â new Â and Â enhance Â existing Â public Â open Â spaces, Â reducing Â areas Â of Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â GHÂżFLHQF\ SURYLGHSXEOLFDFFHVVDORQJWKHPDMRUULYHUDQGJUHHQDUHDV Â Â Â Â provide Â a Â range Â of Â formal Â and Â informal Â recreational Â uses Â and Â landscapes, Â Â Â SURPRWLQJKHDOWK\OLYLQJ SURYLGHQHZDQGHQKDQFHH[LVWLQJZLOGOLIHVLWHV PDQDJHZDWHUFROOHFWLRQFOHDQVLQJDQGĂ€RRGULVNZLWKPXOWLIXQFWLRQDOVSDFHV Â Â Â Â provide Â beautiful, Â diverse Â and Â managed Â green Â infrastructure Â to Â the Â highest Â Â Â Â standards Â for Â people Â and Â wildlife.
London Â Â East Â London Â Green Â Grid
Sources: http://c1038.r38.cf3.rackcdn.com/group1/building4423/media/ELGG01.jpg KWWSZLUHGQHZ\RUNFRPIRUXPVKRZWKUHDGSKS"W SDJH http://legacy.london.gov.uk/mayor/auu/green-Âgrid.jsp
In Â the Â past Â year, Â New Â York Â City Â has Â released Â the Â NYC Â Green Â Infrastructure Â Plan, Â an Â ambitious Â US$2.4-Âbillion Â project Â to Â improve Â water Â quality Â using Â green Â infrastructure Â through Â a Â multiplicity Â of Â innovative Â means, Â such Â as Â reactivating Â the Â ZDWHUIURQWDQGUHVWRULQJELRGLYHUVLW\7KHSODQDLPVWRJHWPXOWLSOHEHQHÂżWVIRU tax-Âpayers Â money: Â by Â using Â green Â infrastructure Â the Â aim Â is Â to Â not Â only Â improve Â water Â and Â air Â quality, Â but Â lower Â energy Â consumption, Â increase Â green Â space, Â decrease Â the Â urban Â heat Â island Â effect Â and Â enhance Â property Â value. Â As Â noted Â in Â Topos Â September Â 2011, Â â€œNew Â York Â City Â is Â at Â the Â forefront Â of Â a Â green Â urban Â ageâ€Ś [hoping Â ] Â to Â establish Â the Â methods, Â technologies, Â and Â projects Â that Â can Â serve Â as Â PRGHOVIRURWKHUFLWLHVLQWHUHVWHGLQSXUVXLQJWKHLURZQVXVWDLQDEOHJRDOVÂ´S This Â is Â relevant Â for Â Auckland, Â given Â the Â similar Â disconnection Â to Â the Â waterfront Â as Â what Â was Â once Â in Â New Â York. Â This Â Green Â Infrastructure Â Plan Â presents Â an Â alternative Â approach Â to Â improving Â ZDWHU TXDOLW\ WKDW LQWHJUDWHV ĘŠJUHHQ LQIUDVWUXFWXUH VXFK DV VZDOHV DQG JUHHQ roofs, Â with Â investments Â to Â optimize Â the Â existing Â system Â and Â to Â build Â targeted, Â VPDOOHUVFDOHĘŠJUH\RUWUDGLWLRQDOLQIUDVWUXFWXUH7KLVLVDPXOWLSURQJHGPRGXODU and Â adaptive Â approach Â to Â a Â complicated Â problem Â that Â will Â provide Â widespread, Â LPPHGLDWHEHQHÂżWVDWDORZHUFRVW7KHJUHHQLQIUDVWUXFWXUHFRPSRQHQWRIWKLV strategy Â builds Â upon Â and Â reinforces Â the Â strong Â public Â and Â government Â support Â that Â will Â be Â necessary Â to Â make Â additional Â water Â quality Â investments. Â A Â critical Â goal Â of Â the Â green Â infrastructure Â component Â is Â to Â manage Â runoff Â from Â 10% Â of Â the Â impervious Â surfaces Â in Â combined Â sewer Â water-Â Â sheds Â through Â detention Â and Â LQÂżOWUDWLRQVRXUFHFRQWUROV
case Â studies
urban Â green Â infrastructure Â plans Â
Similarly, Â Toronto Â is Â also Â undertaking Â a Â massive Â green Â infrastructure Â program Â WRFRQQHFWSHRSOHWRWKHZDWHUIURQW8WLOLVLQJSUHGRPLQDWHO\EURZQÂżHOGVLWHVD number Â of Â public Â spaces Â have Â been Â created Â to Â enable Â local Â people Â to Â appreciate Â the Â Don Â River. Waterfront Â Torontoâ€™s Â integrated Â and Â holistic Â community Â building Â and Â urban Â planning Â model Â is Â creating Â smarter, Â healthier Â and Â more Â sustainable Â communities. A Â key Â consideration Â for Â every Â Waterfront Â Toronto Â initiative Â is Â to Â do Â everything Â possible Â to Â ensure Â we Â contribute Â to Â creating Â a Â healthy Â environment. Â Â We Â also Â believe Â that Â proximity Â to Â nature, Â public Â green Â space, Â and Â pedestrian-Âfriendly Â public Â spaces Â are Â all Â requirements Â for Â healthy Â urban Â living. Â To Â achieve Â our Â objectives, Â our Â approach Â to Â revitalization Â incorporates Â economic, Â social, Â cultural, Â and Â ecological Â sustainability Â criteria Â into Â all Â decision Â making. Â It Â will Â all Â add Â up Â to Â a Â lasting Â environmental Â legacy Â now Â and Â a Â revitalized Â waterfront Â that Â is Â the Â envy Â of Â the Â globe. Waterfront Â Toronto Â is Â assigning Â a Â central Â role Â to Â parks, Â open Â spaces, Â bike Â paths, Â trails, Â trees Â and Â water. Â Itâ€™s Â dedicating Â 25 Â percent Â of Â the Â revitalized Â area Â to Â waterfront Â parks Â and Â public Â spaces, Â and Â planting Â about Â 34,000 Â trees. In Â addition Â to Â connecting Â people Â with Â the Â waterfront, Â we Â are Â striving Â to Â ensure Â that Â revitalization Â has Â a Â positive Â impact Â on Â water Â quality Â and Â conservation.
New Â York
Toronto Â Â Don Â River Â Waterfront Â
NYC Â Green Â Infrastructure Â Â Plan
Refernces: http://media.ourhudson.org/task-Âforce-Âthemes/land-Âuse/moma-Âdesigning-Âclimate-Âchange-Âsolutions/ Â NYCGreenInfrastructurePlan http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/stormwater/nyc_green_infrastructure_plan.shtml
References: Michael Â Van Â Valkenburgh Â Associates Â Lower Â Don Â Lands Â Master Â Plan KWWSZZZZDWHUIURQWRURQWRFDLPDJHBJDOOHULHVORZHUBGRQBODQGV http://www.waterfrontoronto.ca/our_waterfront_vision/our_future_is_green/healthy_environment Â http://imageshack.us/
pilot Â project
infrastructure Â follows Â infrastructure
Laxon Â Ave, Â Grange
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Upper Â Tamaki Â River Â Park Â Structure Â Plan
stage Â one Â location Â -Â Â Laxon Â Ave Â bridge ou
,Q FRQWUDVW WR /DW] 7KD\HU KDV D EURDGHU GHÂżQLWLRQ RI VXVWDLQDELOLW\ taking Â into Â account Â ecological Â principles. Â This Â text Â highlights Â concepts Â such Â as Â increasing Â urban/suburban Â biodiversity Â and Â reinstating Â or Â enhancing Â bio-Âgeo-Â physical Â processes, Â such Â as Â storm Â water Â treatment, Â in Â order Â to Â bring Â human Â communities Â back Â to Â life. Â The Â authors Â take Â a Â strong Â stance Â that Â community Â education Â of Â these Â processes, Â through Â landscape Â design, Â is Â fundamental Â to Â ensure Â true Â sustainability, Â engraining Â a Â cultural Â appreciation Â in Â perpetuity. Â They Â suggest Â that Â by Â exposing Â people Â to Â processes Â that Â are Â hidden Â by Â infrastructure, Â
PXOWLSXUSRVHSXEOLFVSDFHVFDQEHFUHDWHGWKDWKDYHDGGLWLRQDOEHQHÂżWVIRUZLOGOLIH or Â recreation Â opportunities. Â This Â could Â be Â particularly Â applicable Â to Â this Â area Â of Â Otahuhu, Â as Â there Â is Â very Â little Â vegetation Â and Â a Â predominance Â of Â infrastructure. Â Very Â little Â residential Â vegetation Â exists, Â possibly Â due Â to Â the Â high Â proportion Â of Â Housing Â NZ Â rental Â properties Â in Â the Â suburb, Â which Â are Â being Â replaced Â with Â new Â higher Â density Â stock. Â Waterways Â are Â much Â degraded, Â populated Â by Â predominantly Â exotic Â species Â and Â copious Â amounts Â of Â rubbish. Â By Â increasing Â density Â of Â human Â ODQGXVHSDWWHUQVODUJHUDUHDVFRXOGEHFUHDWHGRUSUHVHUYHGIRUWKHEHQHÂżWRI LQFUHDVLQJELRGLYHUVLW\LQWXUQEHQHÂżWWLQJORFDOSHRSOHZLWKDFFHVVWRDKHDOWKLHU ecosystem Â for Â a Â range Â of Â purposes, Â such Â as Â recreation Â or Â transport. Â
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use Â of Â space. Â Given Â the Â constraints Â of Â the Â motorway Â and Â the Â River, Â in Â conjunction Â with Â the Â dominating Â presence Â of Â the Â Otahuhu Â power Â station Â and Â the Â wastewater Â pumping Â station Â and Â the Â rich Â heritage Â of Â Otahuhu Â to Â draw Â from, Â the Â suburb Â of Â Grange Â has Â a Â lot Â of Â opportunity Â to Â integrate Â these Â assets Â into Â more Â useable Â and Â richly Â layered Â public Â space.
According Â to Â Peter Â Latz Â (2007), Â successive Â transformations Â form Â the Â rich Â layering Â of Â a Â site Â contributes Â to Â the Â emergence Â of Â a Â unique Â community Â identity. Â Latz Â suggests Â that Â contemporary Â suburban Â development Â typically Â â€˜erasesâ€™ Â past Â natural Â and Â human Â systems, Â leaving Â communities Â with Â shallow Â identities. Â He Â proposes Â an Â alternative Â Adaptive Â Design Â Process Â that Â enables Â communities Â to Â translate Â change Â and Â transformation Â over Â time Â into Â a Â coherent Â process, Â reinforcing Â features Â and Â identity Â of Â a Â site. Â Infrastructure Â is Â a Â key Â attribute Â of Â communities Â that Â is Â often Â disregarded Â in Â contributing Â to Â the Â evolving Â identity Â of Â a Â place. Â As Â the Â research Â group Â noted Â in Â Part Â 1 Â of Â this Â studio, Â Latz Â points Â out Â that Â city Â growth Â follows Â infrastructure Â -Â Â whether Â it Â be Â road, Â rail Â or Â river. Â He Â observes Â that Â â€œlittle Â attention Â LV SDLG WR WKLV ORQJ OLIHF\FOHG IHDWXUHÂ´ S DQG VXJJHVWV WKDW LQIUDVWUXFWXUH FRXOGÂłSURYLGHDUPDWXUHIRUWUDQVIRUPDWLRQRYHUWLPHÂ´S 7KHLGHDRIK\SHU development Â is Â propose Â in Â keeping Â with Â this Â notion, Â whereby Â infrastructure, Â public Â space Â and Â private Â buildings Â are Â fused Â in Â innovative Â combinations Â to Â minimise Â the Â
Bairds Â Road
Infrastructure Â follows Â infrastructure By Â utililsing Â green Â infrastructure Â as Â the Â basis Â for Â an Â urban Â growth Â plan, Â it Â is Â VSHFXODWHGWKDWDUDQJHRIEHQHÂżWVFRXOGEHDFKLHYHGHJLQFUHDVHGELRGLYHUVLW\ treat Â very Â poor Â water Â quality Â in Â upper Â reaches Â of Â harbour Â and Â increase Â access Â to Â open Â space. Â Â This Â concept Â is Â applicable Â not Â just Â to Â Tamaki, Â but Â could Â also Â apply Â to Â other Â inner Â harbour Â areas Â e.g. Â Waitemata, Â Kaipara, Â and Â to Â the Â region Â as Â a Â whole.
design development Laxon Ave pedestrian pipe bridge
experimenting with design of bridge line to avoid foundation interfering with water mains pipeline, sensitive ecological areas, whilst maintaining direct pedestrian connectivity to Great South Road from Laxon Ave
concept sketches devloping pipe lines
model exploration of potential with pipe lines
infrastructure follows infrastructure
stage one concept plan Laxon Ave pedestrian pipe bridge
salt swamp - mangrove management salt marsh - revegetation sustainable hardwood steps to jetty down to salt marsh water mains pipe bridge viewing platform 3m wide sustainable hardwood bridge with stainless steel detailing over pipes permable paving 3-6m wide footpath gathering plaza 3m wide sustainable hardwood boardwalks over vegetation storm water treatment wetlands coastal clay bank revegetation amenity plantings open space
100m Scale 1:5,000@A3
storm water treatment wetlands + riparian revegetation
ecological restoration + enhancement P1 view of storm water treatment wetlands from north looking south
stormwater management + treatment improved pedestrain connectivity to open space, community services, transport centres and key economic growth areas of Otahuhu and Papatoetoe
view of bridge looking west from east bank towards Tip Top bread factory
water pipe bridge + storm water treatment wetlands
re-engagement with the Tamaki: stormwater management + education by design
perspectives water pipe bridge
integration of green + grey infrastructure utilising existing infrastructure to integrate
view of bridge looking south from parallel north bank
community integration + connectivity view of bridge looking east from west bank towards viewing platform
Upper Tamaki Estuary - revegetation planting ecotone sequence
esturine riparian revegetation + storm water treatment wetlands
median high tide spring high tide median low tide amenity plantings
coastal clay bank
coastal clay bank
storm water treatment wetland
scale 1:200 @A1
General Â references 'XQKDP-XRQHV(DQG:LOOLDPVRQ- ,QWURGXFWLRQ5HWURÂżWWLQJ6XEXUELDÂą8UEDQ'HVLJQ6ROXWLRQVIRU5HGHVLJQLQJ6XEXUEV1HZ<RUN-RKQ:LOH\DQG6RQV,QF Latz, Â P. Â Â (2007) Â In Â Search Â of Â Identity Â Over Â Time. Â Suburban Â Transformations. Â New Â York: Â Princeton Â Architectural Â Press. 7KD\HU5 1HZ6\PEROVRI3RVVLELOLWLHV*UH\:RUOG*UHHQ+HDUW1HZ<RUN-RKQ:LOH\DQG6RQV,QF Auckland Â Council www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/EN/environment/Land_water/Pages/2011stormwaterseminar.aspx Ministry Â for Â the Â Environment (http://www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/water/freshwater/fresh-Âstart-Âfor-Âfresh-Âwater/index.html) NIWA Â http://www.niwa.co.nz/our-Âscience/freshwater/our-Âservices/urban_aquatics/current_projects One Â Drop Â Exhibition www.onedrop.org/en/projects/projects-Âoverview/AquaNorthProject/Aqua/Experience.aspx Tamaki Â -Â Â Papatoetoe Â Catchment Â Management Â Plan Â www.manukau.govt.nz/tec/catchment/tamaki_papatoetoe/tamaki_papatoetoe_index.htm