Participation, Identity, Integration, Remebrance: European Puzzle II.
Participation, Identity, Integration, Rememberance ‐ European Puzzle II Teaching Material for Adult Educators
Materiál je finančne podporený z projektu Európskej únie Grundtvig číslo 94100334 Participation, Identity, Integration, Remebrance: European Puzzle II. Za obsah zodpovedajú výlučne autori a Európska komisia ani národná agentúra nenesú zodpovednosť za použitie týchto informácií. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
© Anna Kuliberda, Tatiana Matulayová, Michaela Tureckiová, Rhonda Wynne, 2011 © Prešovská univerzita v Prešove 2011 Všetky práva vyhradené. Toto dielo ani žiadnu jeho časť nemožno reprodukovať bez súhlasu majiteľa práv. ISBN 978‐80‐555‐0408‐7
Participation, Identity, Integration, Rememberance ‐ European Puzzle II Teaching Material for Adult Educators
CONTENTS Section A: Introduction Project Team Background to the Project/ Context for the Guidelines Project Participants Section B: Theory Identity Rememberance Integration Participation Section C: Practice Part I Methodologies Mind Mapping Open Space Thechnologie Part II Activities Ice‐breakers Group Tasks Ativities created during workshops Section D: Testimonials Useful Websites
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Participation, Identity, Integration, Rememberance ‐ European Puzzle II Teaching Material for Adult Educators
SECTION A: INTRODUCTION
Anna Kuliberda: Association of Leaders of Local Civic Groups (Warsaw) (Project Co‐ordinator) firstname.lastname@example.org Rhonda Wynne: University College Dublin, Adult Education Centre (Dublin) email@example.com Tatiana Matulayová: Filozofická fakulta Prešovská univerzita v Prešove (Prešov) firstname.lastname@example.org Michaela Tureckiová: The Czech Andragogy Society, Prague email@example.com Filozofická fakulta Prešovská univerzita v Prešove (Slovakia) The University of Prešov is located in the region of Eastern Slovakia, which is a less developed region with relatively high unemployment. From the demographic point of view there is a high rate of Romani population belonging to socially excluded groups. A Life‐long Learning University with more than 200 graduates in senior age is an integral part of the University of Prešov. The University of Prešov creates adequate conditions for all graduates even for those with special needs who mainly study at the Faculty of Arts.
The Association of Leaders of Local Civic Group (SLLGO) (Poland) SLLGO is a watchdog organization that acts at the local level through the Local Civic Groups. The idea of Local Civic Groups was developed to name the local initiatives of citizens who pose questions to the local authorities on their decision making processes, monitor the efficiency of public spending and enforce execution of the freedom of information. In other words they are a civic watch over the authorities’ performance. The core values for the Local Civic Groups are transparency, integrity and public benefit. We express our judgments on the basis of the thorough monitoring of a chosen problem and we aim at improving the situation and correcting failures identified. The Czech Andragogy Society (Czech Republic) The Czech Andragogy Society is an association of professionals and volunteers in the area of adult education. The activities of this 5
organisation concentrate on the further development of professionals. It also supports the development of the theory and practice of adult education, namely development of forms and methods effectively used in non‐formal and informal activities, and helps prevent the social exclusion of specific target group, such as mothers with small or handicapped children, learners with disabilities, minorities, etc. The University College Dublin (UCD) Adult Education Centre (Ireland) UCD Adult Education Centre provides a range of accredited, interest and access programmes aimed at encouraging adult learners to return to education. Mature students (23+) have been designated a specific target group for access initiatives in Irish higher education as a result of their low participation rates. The work of the centre focuses on recruiting and supporting adult learners who wish to study on certificate and diploma programmes, or on access courses designed to prepare the student for participation at degree level. The centre also runs a substantial range of ‘interest’ courses which promote the wider benefits of learning and fulfil part of the university’s civic role in engaging with the community and sharing the knowledge of the university with adult learners. The centre also works in partnership with a number of community organisations and outreach centres to attract those who have been excluded from formal education in designated disadvantaged areas. The centre has a large number of part‐time teaching staff, approx 120‐ 140 annually, and runs professional development courses for tutors and develops teaching resources.
Background to the Project/ Context for the Guidelines The project is a continuation of the partnership that worked together during the previous Grundtvig Learning Partnership, European Puzzle: From local and national towards European Citizenship. During this Project the themes participation, identity, integration and remembrance emerged as central concerns. This project aims to work with adult educators to build their capacity to facilitate learning around these potentially emotive themes.
Project Aims: To explore the themes of identity, participation, integration and remembrance which emerged as key topics Bring adult educators together to two workshops to discuss these topics and explore the relevance to their work Build capacity of adult educators in relation to active teaching/learning methodologies Work with adult educators to build confidence in raising and dealing with controversial matters and to build capacity to facilitate learning around potentially emotive themes Develop collaboratively a set of teaching materials on each theme ‐ all of these materials will then be collated to form a companion set to the Introductory Guidelines on European Active Citizenship for Adult Educators developed during the first project.1 Project Methodology: The core of the work took place over four Project Team (representatives from each of the Partnership organisations) meetings in Warsaw, Prague (twice) and Kosice; and two Workshops, in Dublin and Krakow. The purpose of the Project Team meetings was workshop planning, sharing of information related to additional activities carried out by partners and allocation of tasks. Outside of these meetings, preparatory work for workshops and additional activities related to four topics of the partnership were carried out. Workshop participants included the Project Team and an additional four adult educators from each organisation or sister organisation. These were professionals involved in adult education in their organisations. Learning methodologies used during the project included presentations of best practice in member organisations; case studies; group discussion; expert inputs on citizenship related topics and theory as well as relevant guided walking tours in Dublin and Kraków. All sessions were participatory in nature, involving group work, discussion and plenary and individual feedback. Each partner organisation has been involved at local and regional level in dissemination of information on this project through their own networks. 1 http://www.ucd.ie/adulted/european_projects/guidelines.pdf 7
Project Activities This was a two‐year project divided according to the rythm of the two workshops, followed by the production of guidelines for adult educators working in the field four highlighted topics. The Project took place between September 2009 and July 2011. Partnership Workshop in Dublin (October 2010) – Identity and Rememberance The purpose of the workshop was: to explore of themes of Identity and Rememberance by presenting interesting approches from each partnership country and to work in groups in order to develop teaching activities. Partnership Workshop in Kraków (April 2011) – Participation and Integration Similar to the previous workshop, event in Kraków concerned the Participation and Integration issues in adult education. The group worked using active method on developing teaching materials on these two topics. All of the material used and developed during the workshops was compiled into this publication. The project worked using the professional expertise of participants in a participatory way as such was mainly concerned with process, not product. This publication is rather a starting point for an educator who wishes to introduce one of this four topics into his/her work.
Participants in “European Puzzle II ‐ PARTICIPATION, IDENTITY, INTEGRATION, REMEMBERANCE” Project Country Name IRELAND Rhonda Wynne – coordinator of Irish team
works in the Adult Education Centre at University College Dublin, liaising with tutors and compiling the programme of courses. I work with a wonderful team who are very committed to adult learners and to the wider benefits of learning, not just the benefits to the economy. My interests include the civic role of universities, the professional development of adult educators, and student support. My role is to provide support and guidance to mature students, on the access programme in the UCD Adult Education Centre. As co‐ ordinator, I have wonderful opportunities to share in the challenges and the excitement of those adult learners who make incredible personal journeys of self‐fulfilment and discovery. is County Co‐ordinator of Research, Development and Literacy Services with County Dublin Vocational Education Committee (VEC). The VEC is one of the biggest providers of second level and adult education in Ireland. Its services include 2 new model primary schools, a large number of second level schools and Further Education Colleges, Youthreach Centres, Youth Services, Senior Traveller Training Centres, Psychological Support Services, Adult Guidance Services, Adult and Community Education and the VEC also hosts national programmes such as the Adult Refugee Programme and work‐based learning.
Colum McCaffrey Mella Cusack
POLAND Anna Kuliberda – coordinator of the Polish team Monika Koszyńska
(PhD) is the Director of the UCD Adult Education Centre. A former teacher, she completed her doctoral research on mature students access to higher education in Ireland. lecturer UCD School of Politics Adult Education Centre at University College Dublin I deal mostly with education of active citizens who wants to have greater impact on the local level, member of the SLLGO Trainerʹs Team.
graduated from The Warsaw University with a master’s degree in pedagogy, 12 years of experiences as a primary and civic education teacher and guidance counselor, 10 years of experiences as a teacher trainer. Since 2002 till 2006 teacher trainer in Center for Citizenship Education with experiences in quality assurance in schools, working in programs:, Learning Schools, Traces of the past, Righteous Among the Nations Righteous Among Us, Learning Schools Academy. Since 2006 in The Institute for National Remembrance, Office of Public Education – specialist in the department of historical education. Specialist in intercultural and multicultural education, founder and former chairman of the Encounters – Association for education and culture. Coordinator of the educational project for students, teachers and public servants: „Multicultural Europe – Challenges, threads and Opportunities for Europe in XXI Century, realized together with the British Council, Poland.
master of sociology, specialization ‐ Marianna animation of local activities, studies in Hajdukiewicz Institute of Applied Social Science Warsaw University, teacher educator. Contemporary project manager in Center for Civic Education – responsible for preparing strategy, planning and organizing activities, preparing training programs, providing trainings. Author of education programs, handouts for teachers in topic connected with cultural and multicultural education, civic actions. Experienced in NGO work (SOS Social Assistance Foundation, United Way Foundation Poland). Szklarska Poręba, Poland, Education: Marzena Philosophy, University of Wroclaw, Member Czarnecka of Association of Leaders of Local Civic Groups (SLLGO) in Warszawa, Partnership and Association of „Zdolna Dolna” („Talented Dolna”) in Szklarska Poręba Dolna and Local Partnership „Wspólnie dla Szklarskiej Poręby” (Together for Szklarska Poreba). Profesional experience: Trainer (I am member of trainers team of SLLGO), journalist (Internet newspaper „Voice of Szklarska Poreba”), advisor (tu nie wiem jak będzie po angielsku: doradztwo prawne i obywatelskie) I cooperate with the local community, associations and local government institutions: The house of Garhart and Carl Hauptmanns, branch of Karkonoskie Museum, Municipal Center of Social Support, Office of Touristic Information in Szklarska Poreba. Main place of my local activity is Szklarska Poreba Dolna, the oldest part of Szklarska Poreba. We work for people integration and promotion of this magic place.
since 2007 Iʹve been working in the Association of Leaders of Local Civic Groups, watchdog organization that works with transparency and integrity of public life in Poland. Main projects that Iʹm engaged in are: Non‐governmental Center on Access to Public Information (activities connected to Freedom of Information) and Civic Money. Participation in Budgeting on the Local Level (concentrated on mechanism that give inhabitants ways to participate in decision making process, especially in budgeting). Personally Iʹm interested in the identity and remembrance subject in the context of two world wars and post‐partition inheritance, that seems to be still very vital in Poland. My favorite part of the the theme is post‐Austro‐ Hungarian cultural in CEE countries. lawyer who has been working in the The Non‐Governmental Centre on Access to Public Information since its establishment in 2006. He is a graduate of the Law Faculty at Warsaw University. He is writing his PhD at the same school. He consults cases coming to the Centre and drafts opinions of the Association of Leaders of Local Civic Groups on the law connected to the right to information. Member and employee of Semper Avanti Association who works in the field of increasing the participation of youth on the local level, coordinator of the Youth City Council in the Lower Silesia region where she worked with youth, teachers, public officials and local communities. Trainer and facilitator, experienced in organizing and leading Open Space type conferences.
CZECH REPUBLIC Michaela Tureckiová ‐ coordinator of Czech team
(assistant professor, Department of Adult Education and Personnel Management, Charles University in Prague, tutor / lecturer in continuing adult education) – areas of professional interest: adult and continuing education in European context (curriculum reform, approaches to), optimisation of human potential in working organisations (esp. competency‐based approach), other possibilities of facilitation of learning of adults (participation and motivation, action learning, organisation learning), intercultural communication and understanding. Tutor and lecturer; school teacher and tutor of language schools and educational institutions for adults, graduated from Jan Amos Komensky University Prague in adult education / andragogy) – areas of professional interest: roles of adult education in a changing society, esp. in processes of national emancipation and development of national identity. Coordinator of international projects for Czech Andragogy Society. Assistant professor, Department of Adult Education, Jan Amos Komensky University Prague and Department of Education, University of Pardubice; trainer and lecturer in continuing adult education – areas of professional interest: adult and continuing education, human resource development, key competencies and curriculum change, social and cultural andragogy (in the context of civil society and historical remembrance of the Czech‐Slovak nation). President of Czech Andragogy Society.
Professor, Department of Education, University of Pardubice, tutor / lecturer in continuing adult education – areas of professional interest: alternative approaches to tutors training, educational methods, training in communicative skills (development of intercultural communications skills and in ethnic groups), problems of authority and manipulation in education, social competences as the precondition of a successful professional life. Board member of Czech Andragogy Society. (general manager, Verlag Dashöfer, publishing and media company in Prague; book‐keeping, tax, law and technical topics are subject of services – seminars, workshops, newsletters, books and online products. Education and professional lifelong learning is an important part of the activity of the company; coach and lecturer) – areas of professional interest (in terms of adult education): optimisation of human development (esp. human resource development) in multicultural environment, socio‐cultural diversity. Tutor and trainer, graduated from Jan Amos Komensky University Prague in adult education / adragogy – areas of professional interest: adult and continuing education, personnel management and human resource development in European context, social and cultural dimension in the context of adult education. Coordinates the publishing of Czech and Slovak Andragogy edition, published by Rozlet and Czech Andragogy Society.
SLOVAKIA Tatiana Matulayová ‐ coordinator of Slovak team
Her current position is University Teacher at University of Presov in Presov (Slovakia) where she is teaching, leading scientific research teams, tutoring and mentoring PhD./Master/Bachelor students from Slovakia and abroad. She is teaching also at other Slovak universities, at University in Liberec (Czech Republic) and Rzeszow (Poland). Since 2002 she is also active as a Project Author / Project Coordinator / Lecturer / Expert / Advisor / Project Manager in numerous local, regional, national and international projects. She is an author of many expert articles and co‐author of 5 textbooks. She is a co‐founder of Civil Association Spectrum‐East, a Member of Executive Committee of European Centre for Community Education (www.ecce‐net.eu) since 2005, a Member of Board of Directors in Association of Social Work Educators in Slovak Republic since 2008, a founder and a Chairperson of Presov Voluntary Centre since 2009. Her current position is internal doctoral student at the Department of Social Work in Presov university of Presov. The main research interest is reflected in her dissertation theme “The bullying in school environment from the aspect of social work” that is conducted under the supervision of doc. PaedDr. Tatiana Matulayová, PhD. She provides seminars of courses: Bachelors thesis seminar, Introduction to Social Policy, Ethics in Social Work. Between her main responsibilities at the Department of Social Work belong medialization activities. She is webmaster of both the Department of Social Work and Presov voluntary centre web sites. Since 2011 she is a member of the Council of Presov voluntary centre. 15
Beata Balogova Zdenka Medoňová
She graduated bachelor degree social work at University of Matej Bel in Banska Bystrica and masterʹs degree social work degree at the University of Presov. She is very interested in the topic of battered, abused and neglected children. Currently she studies externally for doctoral studies at the University of Prešov, Department of Social Work. Her theme is volunteering. She is also a member of the Volunteer Center of Presov in Presov. Main area of experience: Project Management incl. Project Monitoring and Evaluation, Social Services, Social Work with special focus on Roma population issues in Slovakia, Regional/Rural Development, Community Planning, Cross‐Border Cooperation She is a founder of Civil Association Spectrum‐East, acting as the Statutory Representative since 2008. Her current position is Project Manager/Project Author in Civil Association Spectrum‐East. She is responsible for management of numerous regional, national and international projects, having worked for UNDP, regional NGOs, public organizations and universities. She is associated professor at University of Presov. Areas of professional interest: social work with elderly peoples and family. She is a project coordinator at International Relations office, University of Presov, coordinator for Erasmus mobilities and placements of students and teachers, coordinator for Leonardo da Vinci projects and NIL projects. Responsible for administrative agenda and budget of above mentioned projects. She is an account manager at University of Presov. She is responsible for a budget of: Erasmus project, NIL‐project, scientific projects and European projects.
She is a director of Department of Academy of Education in Spisska Nova Ves from 2001. She has been active in project designing and implementation since 1998 with main focus on issues of Roma communities, education, social affairs, women empowerment etc. She holds Master degree of Economy and Bachelor degree from Adult Education. Currently, she is a member of municipality parliament in Spisska Nova Ves.
SECTION B: THEORY This section provides information about four topics topics which were discussed and which were developed during meetings and workshops
IDENTITY The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology explains that identity …is the sense of self, of personhood, of what kind of person one is. Identities always involve both sameness and difference….There is a tendency to see identities as being fixed or given. Sociologists, however, argue that identities are fluid and changeable and that we can acquire new ones.2 Other definitions include: i∙den∙ti∙ty: a
d n t ti,
d n‐[ahy‐den‐ti‐tee, ih‐den‐]
–noun, plural ‐ties. 1. the state or fact of remaining the same one or ones, as under varying aspects or conditions: The identity of the fingerprints on the gun with those on file provided evidence that he was the killer. 2. the condition of being oneself or itself, and not another: He doubted his own identity. 3. condition or character as to who a person or what a thing is: a case of mistaken identity. 4. the state or fact of being the same one as described. 5. the sense of self, providing sameness and continuity in personality over timeand sometimes disturbed in mental illnesses, as schizophrenia. 6. exact likeness in nature or qualities: an identity of interests. 7. an instance or point of sameness or likeness: to mistake resemblances for identities. 8. Logic . an assertion that two terms refer to the same thing. 9. Mathematics . a. an equation that is valid for all values of its variables. 2 ABERCROMBIE, N., HILL, S. & TURNER, B. S. (2006) The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology. 5th ed. London, Penguin Books. (p. 190)
b. Also called identity element, unit element, unity an element in a set such that the element operating on any other element of the set leaves the second element unchanged. c. the property of a function or map such that each element is mapped into itself. d. the function or map itself. 10. Australian Informal . an interesting, famous, or eccentric resident, usually of long standing in a community.3 Debates in Identity These definitions reflect some of the contemporary debates on identity: Individual identity: Some of the issues considered at an individual/personal level include: Ó Identity formation: How is identity shaped? What makes you who you are? Who shapes our identity? What influence to family, heritage, physical characteristics have on identity? Does place have an impact on our identity? Acquisition of identity/identity formation are key considerations of developmental psychology. Ó Self‐concept or self‐identity is a personʹs knowledge and understanding of his or her self. From this, questions emerge about how people express their identity, how they represent the self? How do we define ourselves? How do we present ourselves in public? How do we influence the perception of others? Is it possible to manage our identity or manage others impressions of our identity? Ó Gender identity is a personal conception of oneself as male or female, as distinguished from biological sex. While for most people, gender and biological characteristics are the same, in some instances such as transsexualism they are not. Ó Lifestyle identity relates to how an individual’s attitudes, values and worldview are reflected in the way that person lives. Social relations, patterns of consumption, culture, tastes, possessions, and 3 Taken from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/identity 19
ways of behaving all determine how particular lifestyles are distinguished. Ó Identity challenges vary from loss of sense of self due to stress or poor work‐life balance, to a pressure to conform, to fit in with social norms. When a sense of identity is challenged, this may cause difficulties at individual level, such as feeling a lack of control over one’s life, but it can also cause problems at societal level if a group feel their identity is not respected (e.g. gay people) or is challenged by issues such as migration or religion. Ó Identity fluidity is the ability to change one’s identity over time. This is sometimes referred to as ‘reflexive identity’ where people reinvent or transfigure themselves in response to the changing world and society in which they live. Globalisation, medical and technological advances, changing patterns of families, migration, etc., all play a part in identity fluidity. Ó Fragmented identities: modern societies produce complex patterns of identity and belonging. Globalisation, mobility, social diversity, changing nature of families, and breakdown of traditional loyalties mean people may have multiple and or divided loyalties, or a sense of cultural hybridity. Ó Identity as belonging: An individual identity is associated with an attachment or belonging to a group. Group affinity may involve cultural, social, ethnic, group memberships that define the individual. Belonging is about having a secure relationship with or a connection with a particular group of people. Some of the terms or issues which emerge with considering identity as belonging include: Ó Social identity relates to how our identity is shaped by membership of particular social groups. Ó National identity is sense of belonging to a nation or country. Generally, citizenship is granted on the basis of being a member of a particular nation. National identity can unite people around shared 20
culture, values, language and understandings of history. This can be a force for good, but also has a potential dark side if it gives rise to a sense of superiority, and oppressive treatment of some groups. Ó Collective identity comes from a group having shared common interests, experiences, views or goals. These interests, which may have a cognitive, moral or emotional basis, may be used to mobilise for action, or to make a collective claim for rights, e.g., for gay marriage, for legal inclusion Ó The other: Identification with a group is a way of distinguishing ourselves from those that we perhaps do not identify with or feel different from. This can give rise to ‘us and them’ mentalities sometimes referred to as ‘othering’. This process can be used to delineate who is included and who excluded in a community/society.
REMEMBERANCE remembrance (r
1. the act of remembering or state of being remembered 2. something that is remembered; reminiscence 3. a memento or keepsake 4. the extent in time of oneʹs power of recollection 5. a. the act of honouring some past event, person, etc
b. ( as modifier ): a remembrance service4
Remembrance is the act of remembering, the ability to remember or a memorial. It may refer to events, film, literature. Remembrance as a term is similar to a term social memory. 4 Taken from Collins English Dictionary ‐ Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition, 2009 21
The term remembrance is used in sociology, anthropology and historiography. Essential to the concept of remembrance are works of French social scientists Maurice Halbwachs and Pierre Nora. In social sciences, remembrance is defined as a phenomena related to the individuals. Remembrance of an individual is determined by their social environment (family, nationality, ethnic, religion ...). Thus individuals, living in particular social groups, identify themselves with events or personalities, which are considered to be important within these social groups. Remembrance integrate social group members. Social groups use their remembrance for different purposes. Social groups hold their common concepts of history, however, while historiography is reflecting historical events and facts as truly as possible, remembrance is strictly focused only on narrow selection of historical facts, even deformed according to aims of particular social groups. Social forgetting relates to remembrance, this some historical events are not discussed in society or they are misinterpreted. Rememberance Debates Under the European Citizenship Programme 2007‐2013, Active European Remembrance is one of the key actions. This action notes that: The European Union is built on fundamental values such as freedom, democracy and respect for human rights. In order to fully appreciate their meaning, it is necessary to remember the breaches of those principles caused by Nazism and Stalinism in Europe. By commemorating the victims, by preserving the sites and archives associated with deportations, Europeans will preserve the memory of the past, including its dark sides. It is particularly important to do so now, as witnesses are progressively disappearing. An awareness of the full dimensions and tragic consequences of the Second World War will thereby be maintained, in particular through the involvement of the younger generations of Europeans. Furthermore, citizens will engage in a 22
reflection on the origins of the European Union, fifty years ago, on the history of European integration, which preserved peace among its members, and finally on today’s Europe, thereby moving beyond the past and building the future. This action therefore will play an important role in nourishing the broad reflection on the future of Europe and in promoting active European citizenship. The aims of this action, in line with the objectives of the Programme, are twofold: ‘fostering action, debate and reflection related to European citizenship and democracy, shared values, common history and culture’ and ‘bringing Europe closer to its citizens by promoting Europe’s values and achievements, while preserving the memory of its past’.5 Events of the past shape our world today. Our societies and cultures all reflect what has gone before and celebrate or commemorate aspects of our history. Issues of citizenship, tied as it is to matters of nationality and identity, are also bound to matters of remembrance. Remembrance Events and Commemoration What events warrant a commemoration event? Why? Why are some events commemorated and others not? How are particular events commemorated? What does this say? In remembering the dead of one side of a conflict, are we ignoring or forgetting the dead of the other side? What are the symbols of remembrance? E.g., the poppy Can memorials be used as a way of defining a people? What role do ceremonies and services play? What is the value in communal remembering? Memory Ó Stories: Whose story is told? Whose story is forgotten? Why? Ó Personal memory; witnessing Ó Public memory; Cultural memory Ó The politics of memory: official/institutional history; folk history Ó Memory as an instrument of power and oppression 5 http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/citizenship/programme/action4_en.php 23
Ó The possibility of collective memory as a tool to fight oppression or resist power Ó Memory as a means of identity construction Ó The pitfalls of memory; reliability of memory; fragility of memory Ó Time and memory: different versions of events; memories passed through generations; revision of accounts Ó The value of forgetting: ‘Digital memory denies us the capacity to forgive’ (http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2011/jun/30/remember‐ delete‐forget‐digital‐age) Ó Collective memory/collective amnesia/selective memory Ó Memory texts Reconciliation Ó How do we reconcile the past to the present and the future? Ó What is the legacy of past conflict and war? Ó How does such conflict manifest itself today? Ó What role do guilt, embarrassment, anger, and shame play? Ó What conditions are necessary for healing? Ó Is forgiveness a question of religion or something broader? Ó How is it possible to establish a basis for future relationships that are not framed by past relations and actions? Controversies • Can remembrance perpetuate conflict? Does a focus on remembrance prevent healing and reconciliation? Do remembrance events/memorials create a dominant discourse that goes unchallenged? • Glorification of war or conflict through acts of remembrance • Symbols of remembrance as political statement • Memorials in divided societies: how is it possible to avoid making judgments or being triumphant? • How long do we remember for? Visiting the sins of the fathers onto the sons 24
• Escaping history or rewriting history for political purposes; historical manipulation • ‘Misery porn’ – people taking pleasure in some way from other people’s misery • Misery/ghoulish tourism • How might aspects of memory be manipulated to serve political agendas or ideological purposes? • Revisionist historians; holocaust deniers Rememberance in Adult Education Core themes related to Remembrance in Adult Education: Colonialism Holocaust during World War II. Communism. Colonialism is the establishment, maintenance, acquisition and expansion of colonies, in one territory by people from another territory. Colonialism is a process whereby sovereignty over the colony is claimed by the metropole and the social structure, government, and economics of the colony are changed by colonists ‐ people from the metropole. Colonialism is a set of unequal relationships: between the metropole and the colony, and between the colonists and the indigenous population. The colonial period normally refers to a period of history from the late 15th to the 20th century when European nation states established colonies on other continents. In this period, the justifications for colonialism included various factors such as the profits to be made, the expansion of the power of the metropole and various religious and political beliefs. The Holocaust (from the Greek λόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, ʺwholeʺ and kaustós, ʺburntʺ), also known as The Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, ʺcalamityʺ; jidish: חורבן, Churben or Hurban, from the Hebrew for ʺdestructionʺ), was the genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II, a programme of systematic state‐ 25
sponsored extermination by Nazi Germany throughout Nazi‐occupied territory. Some scholars maintain that the definition of the Holocaust should also include the Nazisʹ genocide of millions of people in other groups, including Romani (more commonly known in English by the exonym ʺGypsiesʺ), Sinti, Soviet prisoners, Polish and Soviet civilians, homosexuals, people with disabilities, political and religious opponents, which occurred regardless of whether they were of German or non‐ German ethnic origin. Communism is a sociopolitical movement that aims for a classless and stateless society structured upon common ownership of the means of production, free access to articles of consumption, and the end of wage labour and private property in the means of production and real estate. In Marxist theory, communism is a specific stage of historical development that inevitably emerges from the development of the productive forces that leads to a superabundance of material wealth, allowing for distribution based on need and social relations based on freely‐associated individuals. The exact definition of communism varies, and it is often mistakenly, in general political discourse, used interchangeably with socialism; however, Marxist theory contends that socialism is just a transitional stage on the road to communism. Leninists revised this theory by introducing the notion of a vanguard party to lead the proletarian revolution and to hold all political power after the revolution, ʹin the name of the workersʹ and supposedly with worker participation, in a transitional stage between capitalism and socialism. Aims of Education: Ó Get knowledge related to Remembrance in different European countries Ó Better understand the History Ó Get information on national and international projects concerning Teaching Remembrance Ó Get familiar with various aspects of Remembrance in education 26
Institutions and organizations dealing with issue of Remembrance Ó Associations of political prisoners Ó Civil associations, dealing with issues of human rights Ó National institutions focused on remembrance Ó …
INTEGRATION The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology notes that …one of the abiding problems of classical sociological theory was how the various elements of society hold together, how they integrate with each other.6 The dictionary defines integration as: integration (in‐ti‐grey‐shuh n) — n 1. the act of combining or adding parts to make a unified whole 2. the act of amalgamating a racial or religious group with an existing community 3. the combination of previously racially segregated social facilities into a nonsegregated system 4. psychol organization into a unified pattern, esp of different aspects of the personality into a hierarchical system of functions 5. the assimilation of nutritive material by the body during the process of anabolism 6. maths an operation used in calculus in which the integral of a function or variable is determined; the inverse of differentiation7
What is social integration? It means searching for and finding one’s place and position within a certain social group. Such a process presupposes certain interactions 6 ABERCROMBIE, N., HILL, S. & TURNER, B. S. (2006) The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology. 5th ed. London, Penguin Books. (p. 202)
7 Taken from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/integration 27
leading to mutual communication of attitudes and values, knowledge and skills. Social competences are the key factor here. They show the extent to which an individual is able and willing to participate in such interactions and be open to their outputs. What is system integration? This does not primarily concern social relationships at the social‐ psychological level, as is the case in social integration. Here, the mutual relations of the parts of a system are considered at a general level. An integrating individual is to enter various institutional engagements, apart from social relations. Why do people identify with individuals or groups? Beside physical and social survival it also helps people “make sense” of their environment and social world. According to S. Freud successful identification involves the gratification of both physical and social needs, resulting in a sense of security and positive social identity. How can integration be perceived? Basically, it is possible to distinguish between three reactions: 1) integration may be viewed positively, mainly thanks to opportunities to participate in social security and benefits as well as equity and rights that are open to an individual who gets engaged effectively in the socio‐ economic whole of a given society. 2) integration can be viewed negatively as an “external” effort to bring about uniformization, indoctrination, imposition of unwanted attitudes and values, curbing freedom and individuality; 3) integration can be viewed neutrally as a phenomenon to be objectively explored, assessed and worked with. Important Terms Regarding The Integration Social identification – according to Turner (1982) a process of locating oneself and another person within a system of social categorization. It is considered to be fundamental to social integration being both sufficient and necessary for members of a group to act as a group. 28
Cultural appropriation ‐ adoption of some specific elements of one culture by a different cultural group that can include e.g.: forms of personal adornment, language features or religion features. Such elements taken from their original socio‐cultural contexts may thus take on different meanings. Cultural assimilation – assimilation of an ethnical minority into a dominant culture; also assimilation of and individual into a social group. New knowledge, skills as well as attitudes and values are learned by an integrating individual by means of contact and communication. It is a process of cultural transformation through contacts between different cultures. Indistinguishable integration is the ideal goal. Assimilation implies that the “subordinate” group accepts the values and culture of the “dominant” group. Belonging uncertainty – doubts as to whether a new‐comer will be accepted or rejected by dominant individuals of a group into which he/she is going to integrate. Collective threat – a threat to the image of a group, especially based on negatively perceived performance of an individual. A mere idea that a member of a group may create a bad image to the whole group may lead to lower self‐esteem. Prejudice – an individual attitude of antipathy or active hostility toward another social group. Prejudiced individuals may or may not engage in discriminatory activities. Attitude – evaluative viewpoint consisting of beliefs concerning someone or something. Expressed attitudes may not relate to deeper feelings. (…) Similarly, expressed attitudes have often been shown to be inconsistent with subsequent behaviour.8 8 ABERCROMBIE, N., HILL, S. & TURNER, B. S. (2006) The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology. 5th ed. London, Penguin Books. (p. 21)
Debates on Integration Definitions presented above reflect some of the contemporary debates on integration. The impact of globalisation on the nation state and the consequence of migration movements, both forced and voluntary, have led to more pluralised diverse populations. As a result it is no longer possible to assume shared values or identities. Therefore, how can all groups within a society have access to opportunities, rights and services available to the dominant social group/ethnic majority? Questions emerge about the nature of policy responses to assist with integration processes and avert the challenges of marginalisation and social exclusion. Any discussion of active citizenship must take into account who is included within a society and who is excluded. Deficit Discourse Debates and discussion around social integration often result in a deficit discourse where certain groups are problematised and marked out in some way as deficient or deviant. Rather than looking at aspects of societal structures and culture which may make integration challenging, groups are labelled as a problem in need of fixing. This risks further marginalising such groups as within public discourse they then tend to be talked about in negative terms. When such notions become embedded in the public consciousness it becomes ever more difficult to amend this perception. Looking at groups in terms of deficits shifts the emphasis away from larger questions about social structures and conditions and limits attention to what are seen as the failings of a particular group. This matter of language and terminology and the labelling of groups needs to be considered and analysed when discussing matters of integration. Migration Legal debates centre on naturalisation procedures and on how citizenship status is granted to migrants e.g., through residency, marriage, etc. The ethnic model of citizenship occurs when citizenship is defined as a community of descent, based on Jus Sanguinis where a 30
child’s nationality is determined by parent’s nationality, irrespective of place of birth. Alternatively, with Jus Soli, a child’s nationality is determined by place of birth. European citizenship is tied to citizenship of a nation state, rather than with residency thus leaving many third‐ state nationals (people who are not nationals of a member state of the European Union) outside the political process. A number of writers on this subject propose that European citizenship should be linked to residency rather than to a nation state. These are just some of the considerations when looking at the legal and formal dimension of citizenship. Civic Stratification occurs when there are different sets of rights for different groups, so that some people can make more claims on the state than others. For example, children of migrants may have fewer rights than native born children in terms of accessing education. What can be done to avoid such stratification? Are there cases where state policy actually exasperates such stratification? Social Exclusion/Inclusion are terms widely used in a variety of policy arenas, particularly within Europe. Combating social exclusion was a key objective of the Lisbon Strategy. There are multiple definitions depending on the context and political perspective. The European Union uses the following definitions: Social exclusion is a process whereby certain individuals are pushed to the edge of society and prevented from participating fully by virtue of their poverty, or lack of basic competencies and lifelong learning opportunities, or as a result of discrimination. This distances them from job, income and education and training opportunities, as well as social and community networks and activities. They have little access to power and decision‐making bodies and thus often feel powerless and unable to take control over the decisions that affect their day to day lives. Social inclusion is a process which ensures that those at risk of poverty and social exclusion gain the opportunities and resources 31
necessary to participate fully in economic, social and cultural life and to enjoy a standard of living and well‐being that is considered normal in the society in which they live. It ensures that they have a greater participation in decision making which affects their lives and access to their fundamental rights.9 Hence, social exclusion occurs when people do not have access to rights, opportunities and resources that are normally available to members of society. This may include access to housing, employment, healthcare, education and to the democratic process. An individual may be excluded in multiple ways, leading to alienation from the society in which he/she is resident. Lack of access to rights and resources may be multidimensional or multifaceted. Social inclusion involves a set of policy responses to combat the risk of social exclusion. This can include legislative and policy frameworks, and/ or funding and activities. Social Cohesion refers to the bonds/social relations that bring people together in society. Issues of social cohesion operate at a number of levels Ó Social interactions Ó Social networks: social capital – bonding and bridging Ó Sense of belonging: identification with a place or a community; sense of solidarity Ó Levels of trust in individuals and institutions Ó Community and neighbourhood relations: what makes a strong community? How do matters of population turnover and intergenerational issues impact on community ties? Ó Community conflict and tensions: what are the causes and effects? What initiatives might be taken?
9 http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTECONEVAL/Resources/SocialExclusion ReviewDraft.pdf
What may be some of the positive outcomes of social and system integration? Among general targets are e.g.: higher level of solidarity, mutual identification (recognition of the identities of others), lower occurrence of aggressive attacks.
PARTICIPATION or CIVIC ENGAGEMENT The American Psychological Association (APA) notes that: One useful definition of civic engagement is the following: individual and collective actions designed to identify and address issues of public concern. Civic engagement can take many forms, from individual voluntarism to organizational involvement to electoral participation. It can include efforts to directly address an issue, work with others in a community to solve a problem or interact with the institutions of representative democracy.10 The dictionary defines participation as: (par∙tic∙i∙pa∙tion) [pahr‐tis‐uh‐pey‐shuh n] –noun 1. an act or instance of participating. 2. the fact of taking part, as in some action or attempt: participation in a celebration. 3. a sharing, as i benefits or profits: participation in a pension plan.11 Debates in Participation CIRCLE, the Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement at Tufts divided civic engagement into 3 categories: civic, electoral, and political voice12: Measures of Civic Engagement 10 http://www.apa.org/education/undergrad/civic‐engagement.aspx 11 Taken from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/participations 12 Ketter, S., Zukin, C., Andolina, M., and Jenkins, K. (2002) ʺThe Civic and Political Health of a Nation: A Generational Portraitʺ CIRCLE and The Pew Charitable Trusts 33
Civic Community problem solving
Electoral Regular voting
Political Voice Contacting officials
Regular volunteering for a Persuading others to vote non‐electoral organization
Contacting the print media
Active membership in a group or association
Displaying buttons, signs, stickers
Contacting the broadcast media
Participation in fund‐ raising run/walk/ride
Other fund‐raising for charity
Volunteering for candidate or Email petitions political organizations
These forms of participation show the division in the participation/ civic engagement discussions. Some prefers to find it only under the terms of political participation on different levels (local, regional, national, EU), some separates civic and political activities from each other. The complete picture of civic participation combine however three measures listed above and it incorporates all the possible forms of personal engagement in the public life. Participation is strongly linked to social inclusion as it is connected to the idea of the concept of everyone’s contribution to the society. It also touches the identity dimension of functioning in public life, since political demands often depend on the identity of a person or a group. Civic participation is important value for contemporary democratic societies and structures as the Council of Europe and European Union. The Council of Europe established the “Code of Good Practice for Civil Participation in the Decision‐Making Process” that analyses success 34
factors for good public civic participation in the framework of non‐ governmental organizations. To ensure that the essential contributions of NGOs are enshrined in the political decision making process without discrimination, an enabling environment is required. Conditions of an enabling environment include the rule of law, adherence to fundamental democratic principles, political will, favourable legislation, clear procedures, long‐term support and resources for a sustainable civil society and shared spaces for dialogue and cooperation. These conditions allow for a constructive relationship between NGOs and public authorities built on reciprocal trust and mutual understanding for participatory democracy.13 The European Union sees the greatest potential in in enhancing volunteerism in the terms of active citizenship; There is a strong link between volunteering and active citizenship as the involvement in voluntary activities is a tangible expression of participatory democracy. The important role of volunteering in strengthening active citizenship has been recognised by EU institutions as well as by other stakeholders and civil society representatives. (…) Volunteering leads to the direct involvement of citizens in local development, and therefore plays an important role in the fostering of civil society and democracy. The importance of youth volunteering for social inclusion and active citizenship has been evidenced in many Member States. For a majority of volunteers in sport, donating their time to a club is an opportunity to actively contribute to their community.14
13 The Code of Good Practice for Civil Participation in the Decision‐Making Process Adopted by the Conference of INGOs at its meeting on 1st October 2009. (p. 6), taken from: http://www.coe.int/t/ngo/Source/Code_English_final.pdf 14 Volunteering in the European Union, Educational, Audiovisual & Culture Executive Agency (EAC‐EA), Directorate General Education and Culture (DG EAC), Final Report submitted by GHK on 17 February 2010. (ps. 12, 28), taken from: http://ec.europa.eu/citizenship/eyv2011/doc/Volunteering%20in%20the%20EU%20F inal%20Report.pdf 35
SECTION C: PRACTICE
This section proposes some ideas for introducing the concepts of Remememberance, Identity, Integration and participation to a group of adult learners. This section consist of two parts: 1. presentation two examples of the methodology helpful in working with adult learners, that was exercised during the two workshops. 2. Proposition of the activities on one (or more) of topics the partnership worked on during the Project.
Part I – Methodologies
1. MIND MAPPING
A mind map is a diagram of ideas. Tony Buzan, who is credited with popularising the use of mind maps, describes a mind map as a ‘photograph of your thoughts’ Tony Buzan: Mind map developer15
15 Taken from http://www.stockpicksexpert.com/tony‐buzan.aspx 36
A mind map is used as a visual representation of ideas, theories, topics and tasks. A central idea/theme is placed in the centre and related ideas, words, images are then linked to and arranged around this central key word. Colours, lines, symbols are used to distinguish words and ideas. Mind mapping is a compact way of organising your thoughts, and improves the way you record information, while enhancing creativity. Mind maps present information in a format that is quick to review. Why mind map? Mind maps are used to: • Generate ideas • Record ideas • Plan and organise ideas • Summarise information • Consolidate information from different sources • Structure and classify ideas and concepts • Develop links and relationships between ideas • Connect facts • Organise information in a visual presentation • Create a summary visual map of complex ideas and concepts Mind Maps can help: • Tap into your creativity • Clarify and organise your thoughts • Identify the structure of a subject • Show how information fits together and how ideas link • Aid recall and memory • Focus a brainstorming task • Associate words and images with relationships between ideas and concepts • Create a hierarchy of ideas • Simplify large amounts of data/concepts • Solve problems • Structure writing tasks 37
How to mind map • Write your main idea in centre or start with an image in the centre • Leave yourself plenty of space on the page to expand ideas • Then write all ideas down, no matter how silly you might think • Don’t worry about being neat or tidy • Use colours and images to distinguish ideas • Link related ideas with lines Depending on how you organise your thoughts, a mind‐map might include lots of branches, colour, and images, or it might be more structured with ideas in circles/boxes. The key is to find a personal style of mind mapping that works for you. There are lots of examples of mind‐maps online with guides how to mind map. The samples below illustrate the variety of formats: 1. Mind map template16
16 Taken from http://www.mymindmap.net/ 38
2. Health mind map17
Using Mind Maps in Education Mind maps help creativity and learning. They provide a framework and structure to organise ideas and assist memory. Mind maps can be used at an individual level to assist with note taking or to summarise ideas for a writing task. Mind maps can also be used for group tasks. Students can work in small groups to brain storm on a topic. They can then present their mind map to the larger class. In this way the task involves collaborative work, negotiation of ideas and concepts, organisation and presentation. Using mind maps allows learners a chance to explore their creativity as often group tasks are biased towards those who have particular verbal and linguistic talents. 17 Taken from: http://learningfundamentals.com.au/resources/ 39
Examples: During this project a workshop based on mind mapping was used to learn the key ideas/challenges on active citizenship and participation. The task was set as follows: TASK: Themes of Participation and Integration 1. Draw your own individual Mind‐map 2. Work in your group – discuss your Mind‐maps 3. Select the most common elements 4. Draw a new mind‐map that represents the work of the group 5. Post your mind‐map on the wall 6. Explain your ideas to the group
RESOULTS ‐ Participation Group 1.
Group 4. Group 5.
RESOULTS ‐ Integration Group 1. Group 2.
Group 3. Resources http://www.thinkbuzan.com/de/ BUZAN, Tony, BUZAN, Barry(2010) The Mind Map Book: Unlock Your Creativity, Boost Your Memory, Change Your Life, Edinburgh: Pearson Education Ltd
2. OPEN SPACE TECHNOLOGY Open Space Technology is a method developed in middle 80’s in United States by Harison Owen – a man who after many months of hard and complex preparation to a conference at the evaluation heard that the most fruitful and interesting parts of the event were coffee breaks. Inspired by that he developed and specified a method which is today called Open Space Technology. The biggest advantage of this method is that it’s simple and manages to involve maximum attention, energy and potential of participating people. It’s basis is on self – organization and true passion on the topic. They are the participants who propose the topics to be discussed during such conference, who decide when and where they will be discussed and its them who moderate the groups and them who make a report of the flow and the result of discussion. To present the method in short but in more detailed way it is important to say that it is open but not without certain regulations behind. Its philosophy is based on four principles, the one law and two models of its usage. The 4 principles help to get the group in the mood, they introduce and prepare participants to what will be happening next. They are: 1. Whoever comes is the right people ‐ opening participants to take the best of those who come to join their discussion and be satisifed about it. 2. Whenever it starts is the right time ‐ which basically says, that spirit and creativity need time to occur and we should give ourselves this time. 3. Whatever happens is the only thing that could have ‐ which prepares the participants to be open and satisfied with the results they can get out of discussion. 4. When it’s over, it’s over ‐ which basically says that when the job is done, we can go on with other things. 45
The one law – the law of two feet – gives permition to all the participants – to go and change the group they are in freely if that’s their wish. The results of an Open Space conference are usually complex and have a form of brainstorming. They are gathered in a report consisting of individual reports from all the discussion which took place during the meeting. What will happen then with the conclusions, ideas and recommendations, depend on sponsor and the participants themselves. However, it is recommended that a good Open Space conference shall take from 1 to 2,5 days and shall be organized for 5 to 2000 people – those are the limits which have been tested but nobody says it cannot be more than that. Open Space is a method stimulating creativity and involvement of participants but a sponsor should always consider if it is a proper method towards his/her expectations and regarding goals to be achieved as people, once they know it, they start to use it as a golden tool for every issue. It’s good to remember, that there needs to be a real business issue for participants, about which they care and about which they feel passionate. That this issue should be pretty complex, without a direct answer to it and it shall be used when in this conditions we might have lots of diversity of people and points of view. Example During this project a workshop based on Open Space Technology was used to create groups working on different activities concerning particular issues of participation and integration.
Part II – Acitvities In this section you can find examples of activities for different groups, useful in different moments of the group process. The third part contains of described in detail activitiescreated during the workshops by the participants.
ICE BREAKERS These exercises are intended for working with groups of teachers /tutors /facilitators. 1. THREE THINGS ABOUT ME Participants complete 3 simple sentences about themselves and share these with one other person (particularly suitable for groups of professionals): • My name is… • I work for/come from… • I am here today because… 2. CONNECTIONS Participants pick a word from a pot. The words have a connection with the theme of the session. Each participant has to explain to one other person what that word means to them (useful as a ‘warm‐up’ to the workshop itself). 3. DATELINE Participants stand on an imaginary line down the centre of the room, depending on the month in which their birthday falls: people born in January are at one end of the line and so on (a nice ‘light’ ice‐breaker that involves participants moving and negotiating).
4. TEN QUESTIONS Participants wear a sticky label on their back that contains a fact or name of a famous place or person. The information on the label may be relevant to the theme of the session or may be general. Each participant has to work out what the label says by asking other people in the group up to 10 ‘yes/no’ questions (useful for getting participants to move around and interact with a number of others in the group, can generate a bit of healthy competition as to who can guess their label first). 5. BADGE Each participant is given a badge/sticker and asked to write their name and draw an image of something that represents them. In pairs, participants then discuss why that image is important to that person’s identity. This can be used as an entry point into a group discussion around notions of identity, and also around labelling and how labels/badges are formed and how they might be damaging. Finish task by asking participants to remove the badge/sticker and note how some labels are easier to remove than others. 6. SOLIDARITY WEB GAME The group is seated in a wide circle. The presenter outlines the aims and objectives of session, and gives a brief personal bio, disclosing interest in the area and hopes for the day’s proceedings. The presenter the establishes some simple ground rules re dignity and respect e.g. no one in the group would speak twice, unless everyone had had the opportunity to speak at least once; participants would be asked to commit to the group, and refrain from use of mobile phones, laptops etc. Presenter might ask if the group wished to offer any other ‘ground rule’. Presenter has a ball of wool. The presenter asks everyone to stand in a circle, she holds the wool and announces to the group: I am Anna . I work on a housing project with Roma women. I am here because…. The presenter holds onto the opening thread, but throws the ball across the room to a random participant. The participant is invited to make 3 clear statements I am … I work … …. I am here because … that participant 48
keeps a hold of some thread but throws the ball to another random participant who again makes 3 clear statements I am … I work … …. I am here because … That participant keeps hold of the thread and throws the ball on for another participant to follow suit. By the end of the game there should be a web of wool connecting each of the participants. 7. THE MYSTERY BAG The presenter introduces The Mystery Bag which contains all sorts of small objects; images; toys etc., it is passed from one to the other. When each person has an object, each participant is invited to share what the image or object brings to mind.
GROUP TASKS Once a group has been introduced and is working together, there are a variety of tasks that can be set to get people engaged: 1. COMFORT SPECTRUM • In small groups participants draw up a list of topics that are controversial and sensitive in their workplace • Each group prioritises their list and a summary of the most controversial topics is then presented to the group at large • Clear a space in the centre of the room and lay a number of large flip‐ chart pages on the floor – one end represents Comfortable to Teach and the other Uncomfortable to Teach • Participants are given post‐its (all the same colour) on which they write down 2/3 topics (drawn from all the topics presented by the groups) they would be comfortable teaching, 2/3 topics they would be OK with teaching, and 2/3 topics they would be uncomfortable teaching. 49
• The participants then place their post‐its on the spectrum. • Once all post‐its are placed, the group walk around the spectrum and discuss what they see? Which topics cause tutors most discomfort? Do the same topics feature at either end of the spectrum? • By naming the topics that cause problems and reflecting on why this is, teachers can then start to examine possible strategies to confront their discomfort about or unwillingness to tackle certain topics • Tutors then discuss possible ways to move one step up the spectrum so that they become a little more comfortable or at ease approaching topics that they previously did not feel happy to teach 2. TAKING A STANCE: ROLE OF FACILITATOR This is an exercise to encourage tutors/teachers to think about how they are positioned in class discussions, particularly when dealing with controversial or sensitive topics. Five options are set out: • Neutral Facilitator • Ally • Devil’s Advocate • Official Line (Rules/Law) • Declared Interest Each option is detailed on a piece of flip chart paper with use of graphic or image and the five sheets are spread around the room. In small groups, participants go around to each piece of paper and discuss when they think it is appropriate or necessary to take a particular stance. When might some stances be more appropriate than others? Why might it be necessary at times to declare a personal interest or viewpoint? Is it possible to be a neutral facilitator? How might playing devil’s advocate contribute to building argumentation and critical thinking skills? When might each role be problematic? This can then be followed by a broader group discussion to see when tutors take particular positions and why they do this. 50
3. CAROUSEL This exercise is useful for discussing topics that people may not feel comfortable talking about in a larger group. It gets people up and moving and talking in twos. 1. Form two circles – one inner and one outer 2. Present a topic for discussion 3. Ask each person to discuss the topic with the person opposite 4. After a couple of minutes, ask the outer group to move to the right while the inner group stays standing 5. Continue with this exercise until everyone has had a chance to talk to three or four people 6. Draw the group back together 7. Ask them what they thought of the exercise and to summarise some of the ideas presented This activity could also be set up as a debate with one circle asked to argue for one point of view and the other circle arguing for an alternative understanding. 4. ADVOCATES AND OBSERVERS Participants are divided into small groups. Each group discusses their view of the issue and arrives at some kind of consensus. They appoint an advocate to represent their view to the larger group. The participants form a circle with the advocates in the centre. A small number of participants are appointed as observers of the advocates and given a set of criteria for evaluating the advocates’ speaking, listening and negotiating skills. Each advocate presents their case to the other advocates and a discussion follows. After a set amount of time, the observers report their observations to the whole group. This approach needs to be carefully managed by the facilitator but can provide a structure for discussions and a way of encouraging participants to develop awareness of their behaviour in groups.
5. CUBING Participants are asked to consider an issue from 6 angles: • Describe (e.g., What is it?) • Compare (e.g., What is it similar to?) • Associate (e.g., What does it make you think of?) • Analyse (e.g., How does it happen?) • Apply (e.g., How is it used/what effect does it have?) • Argue (e.g., What can you say ‘for’ and ‘against’ it?). This approach can help to de‐personalise an issue and encourage participants to consider various points of view. 6. SIX THINKING HATS (EDWARD DE BONO) Similar to cubing but a little more complex, participants are asked to think about an issue using different approaches. The sample below shows how each hat might be applied to making meetings more effective.
7. SOLIDARITY SCRABBLE The presenter checks with the group to see how everyone feels at the end of the ice‐breaker exercise, before moving on to explore how the group experiences solidarity in everyday life in their community. Then the group may be divided into smaller groups to play Solidarity Scrabble. The smaller groups use the word SOLIDARITY (this could be any other word) to create words linked to the theme of solidarity in their community. Each group has post‐its on which they write the words. The presenter places 3 large posters on the wall. Examples of Solidarity which are viewed as positive are placed on one, problematic terms on another and contentious terms, if there are any, on the third. The object is to define problems and move on to discuss them, first in small groups and then in the larger one. The small groups should be asked to define some ways forward and bring them to the larger group. Following this discussion, the group moves to build a Solidarity House. The presenter prepares a poster size house, and each participant sticks a brick image or post‐it, with a way forward written on it, onto the house.
OTHER – activities created during workshops on the topics of participation and integration
1. LETʹ S WORK TOGETHER 1.
Name of the activity
LETS WORK TOGETHER
Purpose of the activity
To enhance inter‐generation cooperation between elderly and youngsters.
For whom (what kind of a group: e.g. youngsters, adults, immigrants etc.)
1. elderly�� – who can offer their life experience 2. youngsters – who can offer their IT skills
For how many people
Activity is originally planned for 20 people who are supposed to work in pairs – 1 elderly+1 youngsters.
How much time do we need
Activity is planned for 6 hours where work will be split into 3 phases. Phase 1: 2 hours Phase 2: 2 hours Phase 3: 2 hours
markers, flipchart, post it, papers, pens, dictaphone, camera, PC with wi‐fi
Description of the activity
During this activity, participants shall propose interesting activity for citizens in their town, focused on local participation – to get people involved into their community life. Phase 1: FACE‐TO‐FACE Participants are working in pairs – their main task is generate proposal of an interesting activity for citizens in their town, focused on local participation incl. planning motivation tools – how to get people involved. Participants will use PC with wifi, youngsters will show to elderly how to use IT effectively, how to search for the sources, elderly will offer their life experience, together they will discuss about the task. Phase 2: FOCUS GROUP The main method of this phase is interactive facilitated discussion where all pairs present their ideas (10 proposals) at the beginning. Everybody has an opportunity to make comments, participants then discuss about needs, barriers, sources etc. Finally, participants are voting for the best idea. Phase 3: FINAL PRODUCT During this phase, participants will be asked to offer their skills, contacts, sources in order to develop chosen best idea into some final product – small scheme project, proposal for municipality council, community activity etc. Aim is to create small sub‐teams which will be identified with the idea and thus motivated to continue to develop it. At the end of phase, small working plan shall be drafted. 55
Where to find more information
www.ngo.pl, www.ww.org.pl, www.pofw.pl, websites on grant schemes available at the time in each country
List of appendixes (e.g. hand‐outs)
manual, brochure of best practices, internet forum
2. BE ACTIVE – HAVE A FUN 1. Name of the activity 2. Purpose of the activity
BE ACTIVE – HAVE A FUN ‐ To eliminate barriers, stereotypes and prejudices in society. ‐ To engage local people with disabilities into community life. ‐ To improve social skills of the participants ‐ To support social cohesion
3. For whom (what kind of ‐ people with disabilities a group: e.g. youngsters, ‐ citizens adults, immigrants etc.) 4. For how many people
40 people with disabilities We count on active participation of other 60 people within the planned activities.
5. How much time do we need
Preparation phase: 1 month The activity: 5 hours
pencils, cards, clay, flowers, colours, painting tools, sport equipment, music instruments etc.
7. Description of the activity
8. Where to find more information 9. List of appendixes (e.g. hand‐outs)
Activity is offering an opportunity to citizens to experience cooperation with people with disabilities by doing particular art activity. At the beginning, an organizer of whole activity will try to involve various stakeholders engaged in work/activities with people with disabilities – e.g. centres of social services, municipality, media, informal supportive groups, NGOs etc. Their potential and interest will be identified, cooperation will be established and working plan will be drafted and agreed mutually. During preparation phase, small groups of max 4 persons will be established, particular art activities will be chosen, leaders of sub‐teams will be chosen, material will be purchased, place for activity will pre‐negotiated with owner, promotion will be organized and all other steps will be done in order to manage smooth running of the final activity. Products, produced in this activity will be later sold and received money will be shared by all stakeholders involved – money will be used to support further activities for people with disabilities. website of Council for Social Work Consulting (SVK) contact list promotional leaflets posters etc.
3. RETURNING TO LEARNING – PLAYING THE GAME 1. Name of the activity
2. Purpose of the activity
RETURNING TO LEARNING – PLAYING THE GAME Generating a safe learning space for adult learners, particularly hard to reach groups
3. For whom (what kind of Returners – reengaging with education a group: e.g. youngsters, following a significant gap adults, immigrants etc.)
For how many people
20 ‐ 24
5. How much time do we need
30 minutes to set up the room 90 minutes for session
Neutral image of a safe space/place Clock Calendar Aromatherapy kit Flip‐chart and paper; markers; Post‐its Pack of playing cards or matching picture cards with Happy to meet you questions affixed 18 Statement cards
18 You can find out more on this ice‐breaker in the European Active Citizenship: Introductory Guidelines for Adult Educators, p. 26 58
7. Description of the activity
1. Preparing the space The aim is to anticipate anxiety and to alleviate it as much as possible. A neutral object or image, which symbolises ‘safe space’, should be in a prominent position. An atmosphere of calm may be induced with the use of appropriate aromatherapy. The preferred arrangement is for uncluttered flexible seating, arranged in a circle. An identifiable resource space is situated offside. A comfort station ought to be readily accessible, and a clock and calendar should be clearly visible. The Statement cards are fixed on the back wall. Preparing the props 1) Happy to meet you cards: facilitator attaches19 a variety of non‐threatening questions to the back of playing cards/matching picture cards ‐ e.g. what is your name? What is your favourite food? Do you have a pet? Do you have a favourite sport? Have you ever been on an island? Statement cards: these cards are prepared with likely rules of the game in mind. Phrases such as ‘ It is important that my voice is heard’; ‘My privacy is important to me’; ‘I would like to explore my learning style’; ‘ I cannot concentrate if phones are ringing’; ‘I need to leave on time’.
19 This is easily done by printing the questions on address labels 59
2. Introductions Facilitator welcomes the group and invites participants to be seated, as they wish. S/he would then introduce herself, and make reference to the picture/object stating why it is of personal significance and how it symbolises safe space. The facilitator would acknowledge that it can be difficult to meet new people, especially in new and challenging situations. Therefore s/he or he explains to the group that they are moving into an Icebreaker exercise where they will meet and greet one another. Each individual is dealt one card from a matching number of cards. 20 The object is to find the person who has the matching card e.g. Ace of Hearts, to say ‘My name is …., I am happy to meet you’, and to ask one another the questions on the cards. When the exchange appears to be complete, the facilitor invites the group back to the circle and each person introduces the person with whom they had the converstaion, recounting the answers to some of the questions posed. 20 The number of matching pairs must correspond to the number of pairs in the group 60
3. Learning context The facilitator would then acknowlegde that people now know a little more about the other people in the room and verify that people may now feel less anxious. The presenter then outlines the learning context of the group situation, refer to course materials etc., and explains how people tend to participate comfortably and productively when they know what to expect, and know what is expected from them in return. 4. Statement poll The facilitor introduces another game where partipants name expectations, define and later agree the rules of the game for the group. At this point the Statement cards are introduced and Post‐its and pens are made available. Participants are invited to consider the statements and to vote for the statements which hold the greatest meaning for them by sticking Post‐it below the statements. They are encouraged to write down any further statements which they feel should be included and to stick them to the wall, where they too may be included in the poll.21 21 Examples of Statements for the Statement Poll include: It is important that my voice is heard I would like to explore my learning style My privacy is important to me Attendance and Punctuality are important 61
5. Rules of the game are established The group reconvenes and the outcome and themes from the poll are transferred to the flip chart. There is discussion and further exploration of what emerged as important to the group. It is then possible to further investigate what has emerged, agree a contract and suggest consequences for breaking rules. The rules are not permanently fixed and the group may review and revisit at a later date. 6. Recap and planning The facilitator engages the group in reviewing the session. The group is invited to nominate, or a volunteer offers to bring along an image or object with which to kick‐start the next session. 8. Where to find more information
Bourdieu, P. and Passeron, J. 1997. Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture. London: Sage Publications.22
9. List of appendixes (e.g. hand‐outs)
We all learn differently 22 This activity is based on the academic concept of ‘field’ popularised by Bourdieu and characterises education as a game, and one that some groups play with more ease and familiarity than others. 62
4. RULES OF ENGAGEMENT 1. Name of the activity
2. Purpose of the activity
RULES OF ENGAGEMENT
To establish: Ó ground rules and rules of engagement/participation for a group Ó
a contract for how the group will proceed
conditions and understandings about what is required to create a safe environment for people to learn
3. For whom (what kind of This task can be used with a group that a group: e.g. youngsters, is meeting for a short amount of time, adults, immigrants etc.) e.g., for a one‐day event
4. For how many people
20‐30, but could work with smaller numbers
5. How much time do we need
15 minute introductory activity
Flip chart, paper, pens
7. Description of the activity
The trainer/tutor presents a list of ground rules, for example: Use of mobiles or other electronic devices Suggestions for participation – no one speaks twice before everyone has spoken once Respecting others opinions – rational argument What happens in the room stays in the room, etc The tutor then discusses the rules with the group, seeking explanations as to why the rules might be necessary. Together the group determine which rules they want to keep, and why, or the group decides which rules should be prioritised. Through this the students should come to an understanding of how the group will proceed.
5. HAT AND PAIRS 1. Name of the activity
2. Purpose of the activity
HAT AND PAIRS
To establish: ground rules and rules of engagement/participation for a group a contract for how the group will proceed conditions and understandings about what is required to create a safe environment for people to learn
3. For whom (what kind of a group: e.g. youngsters, adults, immigrants etc.)
This task can be used with any group that is meeting over a sustained amount of time
4. For how many people
20‐30, but could work with smaller numbers
5. How much time do we need
Half hour introductory activity
Hat, card, paper, makers, line, pegs
7. Description of the activity
The tutor writes a number of themes which relate to group work/group dynamics on a card (respect, conflict, time‐keeping, listening, discussion, interaction, phones computers, etc). The cards are placed in a hat. The group is divided into pairs. Each pair takes a theme out of the hat. Working together each pair proposes a ground rule based on the theme they have selected. Each pair writes their rule on a piece of paper and pins it on a line that is spread across the room. The group then walks around the line, looking at all the rules. Each pair explains the thinking behind their rule and states why they believe it is important. Together the group prioritise the rules and arrange them in order from most important to least important. The group sits down and reflects on this task and the outcome. The final set of rules are agreed and accepted as the framework for how the group will work.
SECTION D: TESTIMONIALS In this section you will find opinions and testimonials of several people involved in the project ‐ adult educators who participated in the workshops. Project Team hopes that tit will be useful for people who are planning a similar project in the future, as these testimonials are an important part of the evaluation workshops, and the entire project. Rosemarie McGill Through my participation in the project I have gained: Ó .A deeper understanding of the 4 key themes of identity, remembrance, participation and integration in relation to adult education in general and in relation to my own country and culture Ó An insight into the culture of each project partner and the historical influences at work in each partner country on the 4 project themes Ó Greater appreciation of the heritage of two of the host partners including the experience of the Jewish community over the centuries and in particular during the Second World War Ó Experiential learning from working with adult education colleagues from other European countries Ó Specific skills and information from the workshops which I will apply to my own professional practice including approaches to exploring controversial issues, the Open Space Technology method and ideas for successful ice‐breakers when working with adults Thomond Coogan Ó My involvement with the European project gave me the opportunity to reflect and become better informed on what it means for me to be an EU citizen. Ó The project was an opportunity for to meet peers in other areas of adult education and gain insights into how inequality and challenges are addressed elsewhere. 68
Ó The exchange of ideas and practice, with diverse groups from across Europe, enthused and motivated me to take a more energetic approach to promoting active citizenship, both personally and professionally. Ó Without the benefit of such a project the prospect of considering the topics Identity, Participation, Integration and Remembrance would have been remote. Ó The participative nature of the workshops, and the mix of methodologies employed opened new possibilities for teaching and learning, and gave me new skills and the confidence to use them. Ó The materials and resources produced during the project are invaluable and transferable resources.
Bairbre Fleming I found the element of the project I participated in to be challenging and interesting in equal measure. The themes of the project, and the particular emphasis on participation were of interest to me. The various cultural and institutional assumptions we make on matters such as participation were challenged and developed in the last workshop. We were given an opportunity to rethink how we work with adults, and given some new resources and frameworks for rethinking our practice – it was a worthwhile and fruitful experience. Many thanks. Marianna Hajdukiewicz Participation in the project enabled me to meet with representatives of institutions dealing with the broader issue of identity. I had a chance to see what problems are important from the perspective of different European countries and see the detailed issues associated with this topic as well as questions and problems to solve and what kind of actions have been taken so far. It was important that the meeting was attended by academics, non‐governmental activists and teachers. This ability to compare different perspectives is by far the most important asset of the meeting. Very importatnt are also international contacts, we managed to establish. I hope that one day they will result in new projects, ideas in the area related to the subject program or other issues
USEFUL WEBSITES You can find out more interesting links and literature in the European Active Citizenship: Introductory Guidelines for Adult Educators23 Education for Reconciliation: Securing the future through active citizenship http://www.reconciliation.ie/ Guide to Citizenship Terms http://www.reconciliation.ie/downloads/PlainEnglishGuidetoCitizenshi pTerms.pdf Taskforce on Active Citizenship Ireland http://www.activecitizenship.ie/ Education for Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/education/edc/ Institute of National Remembrance http://www.ipn.gov.pl/portal/en/ European Youth Portal http://europa.eu/youth/active_citizenship/index_eu_en.html European Commission: The European Citizen’s Initiative http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/secretariat_general/citizens_initiative/index_en. htm Involve.org http://www.involve.org.uk/ Social Actions http://www.socialactions.com/ ParticipateDB, a collaborative catalogue for online tools for participation http://participatedb.com/ 23 http://www.ucd.ie/adulted/european_projects/guidelines.pdf 71
Portal about Polish NGO sector http://www.ngo.pl http://www.kpvs.sk http://www.november89.eu/obcianske‐zdruzenie‐nenapadni‐ hrdinovia/obcianske‐zdruzenie‐nenapadni‐hrdinovia‐stanovy/ http://www.upn.gov.sk http://www.ustrcr.cz/cs/en http://www.heritageireland.ie/en/Dublin/GardenofRemembrance/ http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/citizenship/programme/action4_en.php
Filozofická fakulta Prešovskej univerzity je druhá najstaršia filozofická fakulta na Slovensku. Spolu s košickou lekárskou fakultou vytvorila v roku 1959 základ Univerzity Pavla Jozefa Šafárika v Košiciach. Filozofická fakulta bola súčasťou Univerzity Pavla Jozefa Šafárika až do 1. januára 1997, keď prešovské fakulty Univerzity Pavla Jozefa Šafárika v Košiciach založili v Prešove Prešovskú univerzitu. Fakulta sa stala i napriek regionálnemu zakotveniu úspešne sa rozvíjajúcou pedagogickou a výskumnou inštitúciou a významnou súčasťou celoslovenského a nadnárodného spoločenstva ustanovizní humanitného vzdelávania. Za päťdesiat rokov existencie pripravila do praxe viacero generácií špecialistov, pedagógov, často uznávaných vedcov, pracovníkov v spoločenskej praxi. Mnohí z nich dnes pôsobia ako špičkoví odborníci na významných postoch doma, ale aj v zahraničí. Filozofická fakulta zabezpečuje vysokoškolské vzdelávanie v odbore učiteľstvo akademických a výchovných predmetov v rôznych kombináciách, ako aj v študijných programoch neučiteľského štúdia zameraných na humanitné disciplíny, v dennej a často aj v externej forme štúdia. Každoročne prichádza s ponukou širokej palety akreditovaných študijných programov a študijných odborov, z ktorých niektoré sú unikátne, a to nielen v regióne. Fakulta poskytuje vysokoškolské vzdelávanie v troch stupňoch, bakalárskom, magisterskom, doktorandskom, má právo udeľovať na základe vykonania rigoróznych skúšok titul PhDr. a vo viacerých odboroch uskutočňovať habilitačné konania a konania na vymenovanie profesorov. Fakulta vytvára podmienky aj na medziodborové štúdium. Verejnosti ponúka aj iné formy vzdelávania, napríklad rozširujúce štúdium pre absolventov vysokých škôl, doplnkové pedagogické vzdelávanie, rôzne špecializované kurzy.
Prešovské dobrovoľnícke centrum je otvoreným združením občanov, skupín a organizácií (fyzických a právnických osôb), založené v záujme vytvárania podmienok aktívnej účasti mladých ľudí, ale aj širokej verejnosti, na zlepšení života obyvateľstva v regióne Prešovského kraja. Ako občianske združenie bolo registrované na Ministerstva vnútra SR až v máji 2008, jeho činnosť začala oveľa skôr, minimálne od roku 2005, kedy sme zorganizovali s podporou Filozofickej fakulty Prešovskej univerzity„Trh dobrovoľníckych príležitostí.“ Cieľom trhu bola spoločná propagácia mimovládnych organizácií (MVO) z Prešovského kraja, ale aj snaha realizovať nábor nových dobrovoľníkov z radov študentov Prešovskej univerzity v Prešove. V nasledujúcich rokoch sa spolupráca prehlbovala a rozvíjala a to aj predovšetkým vďaka personálnemu prepojeniu OZ PDC s Katedrou sociálnej práce Filozofickej fakulty Prešovskej univerzity. Medzi hlavné aktivity patrí organizovanie najstaršieho regionálneho oceňovania dobrovoľníkov v Prešovskom kraji „Krajské srdce na dlani“ a vzdelávacia, osvetová, konzultačná a poradenská činnosť v oblasti manažmentu dobrovoľníctva.