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2017

DAJMO PROSTOR NOVEMU ZNANJU Monografija DOBA Fakultete

Monografija DOBA Fakultete

PreĹĄernova ulica 1, 2000 Maribor telefon: 02 228 38 90 fakulteta.doba.si fakulteta@doba.si


Naslov zbirke: Spoznanja iz ekonomskih ter uporabnih poslovnih in družbenih študij Naslov: Dajmo prostor novemu znanju Izdala: DOBA Fakulteta za uporabne poslovne in družbene študije Maribor Avtorji: $QLWD0DþHN Andrej Raspor 7LQD9XNDVRYLü Pedja Ašanin Gole 'DUNR/DFPDQRYLü Rasto Ovin Miro Puhek ,UHQD$PLþ5DYQLN Marko Divjak Amadea Dobovišek Jasna Dominko Baloh ,ULV)LQN*UXEDþHYLü Christian Friedl Urša Golob Podnar

Anita Hrast Mitja Jeraj 7DQMD.RFMDQ6WMHSDQRYLþ Marina Letonja 0LKD0DULþ Franci Pivec 9HVQD3RWRþQLN.ROHQF Nataša Ritonija Tomislav Rozman Vida Sruk Urška Starc Peceny Igor Šegota Urša Šinkovec 'DUNRâWHYDQþHF

Uredil: prof. dr. Rasto Ovin Recenzenta:

prof. dr. Vito Bobek izr. prof. dr. Peter Stanovnik

Angleška lektura: Andrew Berlet Oblikovanje in prelom: GRAFITI studio, d.o.o., Maribor Tisk: GRAFITI studio, d.o.o., Maribor Naklada: 100 izvodov Maribor, december 2017


Monografija DOBA Fakultete

DAJMO PROSTOR NOVEMU ZNANJU Spoznanja iz ekonomskih ter uporabnih poslovnih in družbenih študij

Uredil prof. dr. Rasto Ovin

Maribor, 2017


CIP - KataloŞni zapis o publikaciji Narodna in univerzitetna knjiŞnica, Ljubljana 330.1 005 303 DAJMO prostor novemu znanju : monografija Doba fakultete / [aYWRUML$QLWD0DÞHNHWDO@ uredil Rasto Ovin. – Maribor : Doba, Fakulteta za uporabne poslovne in druŞbene ťtudije, 2017. – (Spoznanja iz ekonomskih ter uporabnih poslovnih in druŞbenih ťtudij) ISBN 978-961-6818-54-4  0DÞHN$QLWD2YLQ5DVto 293058816


VSEBINA Predgovor

7

1. MenedĹžment v izobraĹževanju in didaktika visokoĹĄolskega online ĹĄtudija

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

0,5238+(.,5(1$$0,ý5$91,.Pomen celostne podpore ťtudentom pri v celoti spletno podprtem ťtudiju na daljavo 11 MARKO DIVJAK, VESNA KOLENC 3272ý1,. Usability of MOOCs for development of transversal skill 21 $1,7$0$ý(.&+5,67,$1)5,('/ Potentials and Barriers of MOOCs for Higher Education Institutions – The case of Austrian HEIs 37 $1,7$0$ý(.1$7AŠA RITONIJA Virtual mobility in higher education – the case of DOBA Business school 47 FRANCI PIVEC Stanje raziskav visokega ťolstva v Svetu in Sloveniji 57 '$5.2â7(9$1ý(&,5,6),1.*58%$ý(9,Ý Podjetniťtvo v viťjem ťolstvu 73

2. MenedĹžment pametnih mest, upravljanje v turizmu, inovativni menedĹžment in poslovanje

7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12.

13. 14.

URŠKA STARC 3(&(1<5$67229,1$1,7$0$ý(. Smart places marketing and co-operation 89 MIRO PUHEK, JASNA DOMINKO BALOH Trajnostni turizem in pametna mesta v Sloveniji 97 ANDREJ RASPOR IN '$5.2/$&0$129,Ý Vpliv kitajskega izhodnega turizma na drŞave nekdanje Jugoslavije 107 $1'5(-5$6325'$5.2/$&0$129,ÝUporaba druŞbenih medijev in online potovalnih agencij v fazi iskanja destinacije za potovanje: ťtudija primera kitajskih turistov v Sloveniji in ýUQL*RUL 121 0$5,1$/(721-$0,7-$-(5$-0,+$0$5,ý Relationship between Entrepreneurial Competences and Innovativeness of Successors in Family SMEs 131 TOMISLAV ROZMAN, TANJA KOCJAN-67-(3$129,ý ANDREJ RASPOR An analysis of web-based document management and communication tools usage among project managers 151 RASTO OVIN Kdo je vazal EU? Primer sodelovanja z PRÞQLPWXMLPSDUWQHUMHP 177 PEDJA AŠANIN GOLE Vladovanje podjetjem v drŞavni lasti: neoinstitucionalni pristop 189

5


3. Marketing in prodaja, družbeni mediji in odnosi z javnostmi

15. AMADEA DOBOVIŠEK Vpliv vrhnjega managementa na vedenje zaposlenih v prodaji

211

16. ANITA HRAST, URŠA GOLOB PODNAR Kako slovenska podjetja razvijajo družbeno odgovornost?

223

17. 7,1$98.$629,û The attitudes of students in consumption of poultry meat 237 18. 7,1$98.$629,ûin URŠA ŠINKOVEC Ustvarjanje prepoznavnosti blagovne znamke na družabnih omrežjih s SRPRþMRWUåQHJDNRPXQLFLUDQMD 245 19. 7,1$98.$629,ûin IGOR ŠEGOTA Rebrendiranje proizvoda 255 putem nagradne igre na društvenoj mreži Facebook 20. VIDA SRUK in PEDJA AŠANIN GOLE Potvorjene novice, post-UHVQLþQRLQSRVWPRGHUQDGUXåED 267 VITO BOBEK Recenzija monografije DOBA Fakultete »Dajmo prostor novemu znanju«

285

PETER STANOVNIK Recenzija monografije DOBA Fakultete »Dajmo prostor novemu znanju«

293

6


Predgovor Pred nami je letoĹĄnja monografija DOBA Fakultete 'Dajmo prostor novemu znanju â&#x20AC;&#x201C; spoznanja iz ekonomskih ter uporabnih poslovnih in druĹžbenih ĹĄtudij'. Njen namen je seznaniti zainteresirano strokovno in ĹĄirĹĄo javnost, ĹĄe posebej pa deleĹžnike in prijatelje fakultete o znanstveno-UD]LVNRYDOQL GHMDYQRVWL XĂžLWHOMHY LQ sodelavcev fakultete ter njihovih kolegov zunaj naĹĄe institucije, s katerimi raziskujejo skupaj. Tako kot lanska monografija naj tudi letoĹĄnja knjiga izpostavi ]QDĂžLOQRVWL]QDQVWYHQR-raziskovalnega dela DOBA Fakultete. To so: - 6SUHPOMDQMH LQ VRXVWYDUMDQMH QRYHJD ]QDQMD QD SRGURĂžMLK ĹĄtudijskih programov fakultete; - Nagovarjanje sodobnih in relevantnih druĹžbenih izzivov, kot so na primer pozitivna samopodoba pri sodelovanju s tujino, Ĺživljenje v okolju ponarejenih novic in dejstev ali pa zavedanje, na kaj PRUDPR ELWL SULSUDYOMHQL RE UDVWRĂžHP ]DQLPDQMX WXULVWRY L] QDMYHĂžMHJDQDURGDQDVYHWX- Kitajske; - Zavedanje, da morajo v ospredju naĹĄih raziskovalnih problemov biti realna druĹžbena in gospodarska praksa â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ] YNOMXĂžHYDQMHP ĹĄtudij primerov; - Prizadevanje, da raziskovalno raven doseĹžemo tudi s SUHXĂžHYDQMHPSRGURĂžMDQDĂŁHJDGHODâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; pedagogike, izobraĹževanja LQ SUL WHP ĂŁH SRVHEHQ RQOLQH L]REUDĂĽHYDQMD ĂžHSUDY QLVPR pedagoĹĄka fakulteta; - 9NOMXĂžHYDQMH Y ]QDQVWYHQR UD]LVNRYDOQR GHOR QD IDNXOWHWL QH OH XĂžLWHOMHY NL ] QDPL GHOXMHMR SR SRJRGEL WHPYHĂž WXGL NROHJRY L] drugih priznanih visokoĹĄolskih institucij. - 9NOMXĂžHYDQMH Y SULSUDYR ]QDQVWYHQR-raziskovalnih prispevkov vodstva fakulteWHLQĂžODQRYVWURNRYQLKVOXĂĽEIDNXOWHWH - 9NOMXĂžHYDQMH Y UD]LVNRYDOQR GHOR QDĂŁLK ĂŁWXGHQWRY R]LURPD diplomantov. 8SDPR GD ER EUDOFX Y SRPRĂž LQ VPLVHOQD GHOLWHY YVHELQH monografije na tri samostojne sklope. Prav tako upam, da bodo GREURVSUHMHOLVSUHPLQMDMRĂžLVHULWHPSULVSHYNRYNLL]UD]OLĂžQLK]RUQLK NRWRYLĂŁĂžHMRQRYDVSR]QDQMDQDSRGURĂžMLKHNRQRPLMHSRVORYQLKYHG in druĹžboslovja. =DKYDOD ]D XVSHĂŁQR GRNRQĂžDQMH WHJD SURMHNWD JUH YRGVWYX LQ posredno vsem zaposlenim fakultete. Najprej pa gre priznanje urednika avtorjem prispevkov, ki so se drĹžali dogovorjenega vsebinskega profila monografije, sprejeli merila za znanstvene prispevke, se drĹžali rokov, predvsem pa so naĹĄi publikaciji namenili svoja najnovejĹĄa spoznanja. Nekatere sodelavce in kolege pa je 7


vseeno treba omeniti poimensko. Direktorica fakultete Jasna Dominko Baloh je poleg moralne podpore zagotovila tudi materialno podporo tej monografiji. Poslovna asistentka Karmen Jurenec je VRGHORYDOD SUL WHKQLþQL REGHODYL LQ RUJDQL]DFLML WLVND WHJD GHOD Zahvaljujem se Andrewu Berletu za opravljeno lektoriranje besedil v angleškem jeziku. Še posebej koristen pa je bil prispevek kolega Pedje Ašanin Goleta, s katerim sem lahko sproti izmenjeval vsebinske poglede na našo publikacijo. Zahvaljujem se prof. dr. Vitu Bobku (Univerza uporabnih znanosti, Gradec, Avstrija in Ekonomskoposlovna fakulteta Univerze v Mariboru) ter prof. dr. Petru Stanovniku (Institut za ekonomska raziskovanja, Ljubljana), ki sta v svojih recenzijah s pogledom od zunaj dejansko naše delo še bolj približala zunanjim bralcem. Maribor, december, 2017 Prof. dr. Rasto Ovin, Urednik

8


1. Menedžment v izobraževanju in didaktika visokošolskega online študija


Dr. Miro Puhek Docent, DOBA Fakulteta Maribor, Slovenija miro.puhek@doba.si ,UHQD$PLĂž5DYQLN DOBA Fakulteta Maribor, Slovenija irena.amic@doba.si

Celostna podpora ĹĄtudentom pri online ĹĄtudiju Povzetek 2QOLQH ĂŁWXGLM RE SURVWRUVNL ORĂžHQRVWL ĂŁWXGHQWRY RG XĂžLWHOMD QDMEROMH definira ĹĄe dodana komponenta kompleksnega e-izobraĹževanja. NaprednejĹĄa raba tehnologije pa ob mnogih prednostih s seboj prinese tudi izzive, ki potencialno lahko predstavljajo odmik od QDĂžUWRYDQHĂŁWXGLMVNHSRWL9SULVSHYNXMHSUHGVtavljen model celostne podpore na DOBA Fakulteti, ki zdruĹžuje ĹĄtiri ravni: pedagoĹĄko, RUJDQL]DFLMVNR WHKQLĂžQR LQ DGPLQLVWUDWLYQR SRGSRUR 1D SRGODJL YSUDĂŁDOQLNRY ĂŁWXGHQWRY RE ]DNOMXĂžNX ĂŁWXGLMD LQ SUHGPHWRY VPR ovrednotili pomen celostne podpore in skuĹĄali model umestiti tudi v evropski prostor. Izkazalo se je, da nas v slovenskem visokoĹĄolskem SURVWRUX ĂžDND ĂŁH YHOLNR GHOD GD ERPR XVSHĂŁQR VOHGLOL GREULP praksam v Evropi. .OMXĂžQHEHVHGH: celostna podpora, online ĹĄtudij, ĹĄtudij na daljavo. Koda JEL klasifikacije: I23

Student Support in Fully Online Distance Education Abstract Online learning is, apart from the spatial separation of students and teachers, defined by the added component of complex e-learning. The advanced usage of technology brings numerous advantages, but, on the other hand, it also brings challenges with the potential of retreat from the planned study path. In this paper the model of 11


overall student support at DOBA Faculty is presented that includes support on four levels: pedagogical, organizational, technical and administrative. With the questionnaires distributed after completion of the study and the subjects, the attempt was made to evaluate and place the model of full support in the European frame. The conclusion was made that there is a lot of work to be done in Slovenian higher education if we would like to successfully follow European good practices. Keywords: full support, online learning, e â&#x20AC;&#x201C;learning JEL clasification code: I23

1 Uvod Med najbolj dovrĹĄene uporabe informacijsko komunikacijske tehnologije (IKT) v izobraĹževanju spada v celoti spletno podprti ĹĄtudij na daljavo (Bregar, Zagmajster in Radovan 2010). Ker za to obliko L]REUDĂĽHYDQMDREORĂžHQRVWLĂŁWXGHQWDRGSUHGDYDWHOMDYHOMDWXGLYLVRND stopnja uporabe kompleksnih tehnologij, ki so praviloma osnovani na XSRUDEL LQWHUQHWD JD SUHQHVHQR L] WXMH JRYRUHĂžLK RNROLM SRJRVWR poimenujemo kar online ĹĄtudij. Ĺ tudentje tako uporabljajo tehnologije za iskanje, upravljanje in deljenje vsebin na eni ter komunikacijo s ĹĄtudijskimi kolegi WHUSUHGDYDWHOMLLQLVNDQMHPSRPRĂžL na drugi strani (Conole in dr. 2008; Bregar, Zagmajster in Radovan 2010). .RW ]PRWHQ VH MH L]ND]DO QDMHQRVWDYQHMĂŁL SULVWRS ] YNOMXĂžHYDQMHP QRYLKWHKQRORJLMYREVWRMHĂžHSHGDJRĂŁNH SUDNVH *RGZLQ7KRUSHLQ Richardson 2008; Teixera 2015), ki se je ĹĄe posebej izrazil v celoti izvedenem online ĹĄtudiju. Zaradi narave takĹĄnega ĹĄtudija, kjer ĂŁWXGHQWMHSUDYLORPQLVRYIL]LĂžQHPVWLNXVSUHGDYDWHOMLĂŁWXGLMSRJRVWR opravljajo s sebi prilagojenim tempom in samostojno, posedujejo ra]OLĂžQR REYODGRYDQMH ,.7 VH MH NRW NOMXĂžQD L]ND]DOD GRGDWQD podpora (Campbell in Levin 2009; Webb, Gibson in Forkosh-Baruch 2013; Hernandez, Gonzalez in Munoz 2014). Ĺ e posebej pomembna pa se je izkazala potreba po celostni podpori, ki je prilagojena posameznikom in zajema tako organizacijski, pedagoĹĄki in tehnoloĹĄki nivo (Thorpe in Gordon 2012). V Sloveniji smo z zaloĹženostjo IKT na zavidljivi ravni, prav tako pa SUDYLORPD GREUH XVSHKH QD SRGURĂžMX UDĂžXQDOQLĂŁWYD GRVHJDMR QDĂŁL najmlajĹĄi (Prevodnik in Vehovar 2011; PISA 2015). Kljub ustrezni tehnoloĹĄki podprtosti se vedno znova pokaĹžejo razlike v primerjavi z dobrimi praksami iz tujine (npr. Finska) ali celo do evropskega SRYSUHĂžMD 2(&'  (XURVWDW   $YWRUML ]D VWDQMH 12


najpogosteje krivijo pasivnost v uporabi opreme in neodzivne šolske SROLWLNH %UHJDU  )ORULMDQþLþ   NL VR SRVOHGLFD GD Y slovenskem prostoru praviloma ni pravega koraka v uporabi IKT za naprej. 2EVWRMHþL SULVSHYHN ] DQDOL]R SRPHQD FHORVWQH SRGSRUH ãWXGHQWRP pri online študiju 3XKHN LQ $PLþ 5DYQLN   VPR QDGJUDGLOL ] umestitvijo primera prakse iz DOBA Fakultete v mednarodni prostor. 0RGHOFHORVWQHSRGSRUHMHQDPUHþJOHGHQDQHUD]YLWRVWRQOLQHãWXGLMD v Sloveniji, bolj primerljiv s primerom dobrih praks iz tujine. Odstotki z ]DJRWDYOMDQMHPUD]OLþQLKUDYQLFHORVWQHSRGSRUHVHQDPUHþYREHK SULPHULKPRþQRRGPLNDMRRGVORYHQVNHJDSRYSUHþMD

2 Celostna podpora študentom 2QOLQH ãWXGLM ]DUDGL VSHFLILþQRVWL Y SULPHUMDYL V NODVLþQLP ãWXGLMHP QSU SURVWRUVND ORþHQRVW XSRUDED QDSUHGQe IKT, posredni stik s SUHGDYDWHOMHPVDPRVWRMQDRUJDQL]DFLMDþDVD ODKNRXGHOHåHQFHPRE premagovanju študijskih vsebin predstavlja tudi dodatne izzive, ki se QDMSRJRVWHMH NDåHMR Y SRYHþDQHP RVLSX REþXWNX L]ROLUDQRVWL študentov, nesprotnemu delu in spremenjeni socialni interakciji. 6LVWHP SRGSRUH PRUD ]DWR SUDYLORPD WUDMDWL YHV þDV ãWXGLMVNHJD SURFHVDLQVHPRUDSUDYLORPD]DþHWLåHSUHGYSLVRP0RGHOFHORVWQH SRGSRUHQD'2%$)DNXOWHWLY0DULERUXMH]DWRUD]GHOMHQQDYHþUDYQL in sicer administrativno, tehQLþQR RUJDQL]DFLMVNR LQ SHGDJRãNR podporo. Administrativna podpora je sicer ena izmed najpogostejših na YLVRNRãROVNLK ]DYRGLK YHQGDU ]DUDGL WHJD QLþ PDQM SRPHPEQLK 9 RVQRYL MR VHVWDYOMD UHIHUDW ]D ãWXGHQWVNH ]DGHYH NL LPD PRþQR WHKQLþQR SRGSRUR Y REOiki študentskega osebnega portala (t. i. moja.DOBA), ki bistveno olajša informiranje študentov o študijskih YVHELQDK LQ VWRULWYDK IDNXOWHWH 7XGL WHKQLþQR SRGSRUR MH PRJRþH uvrstiti med pogostejše na zavodih, ki pa v primeru v celoti spletno podprtega študLMD GREL GRGDWQH UD]VHåQRVWL ýH MH SUL NODVLþQHP ãWXGLMXWHKQLþQHSRGSRUDSRYHþLQLQDPHQMHQDSHGDJRãNHPXNDGUX MH]QDSUHGQLPLXþQLPLVLVWHPL QSUYLUWXDOQRXþQRRNROMH%ODFNERDUG Learn, komunikacijsko orodje Blackboard Collaborate in pisarniško orodje Microsoft Office 365) nujna tudi za študente. Še posebej SRPHPEQL ]D ]PDQMãHYDQMH WHKQLþQLK RYLU LQ ]D XVSHãHQ VSURWHQ študij študentov so hitrost podpore (24/7) in stalna dosegljivost WHKQLþQLK DGPLQLVWUDWRUMHY QSU V SRPRþMR ªKHOS GHVN-a«). Dobre prakse zavodov iz tujine (McPherson in Baptista Nunes 2004; Bregar, Zagmajster in Radovan 2010) med naprednejšimi ravnmi podpore navajajo organizacijsko in pedagoško podporo. Organizacijska podpora študentom je namenjena predvsem spremljanju aktivnosti 13


in svetovanju na nivoju programov. Izvajajo jo t. i. vodje programov, ki študente usmerjajo na študijski poti, organizirajo njihov študijski SURFHV QSUL]ELUQLSURJUDPLSUDNWLþQRL]REUDåHYDQMH LQVNUELMR]D (sinhrono in asinhrono) komunikacijo z visokošolskim zavodom. 3HGDJRãNR SRGSRUR ãWXGHQWRP SUHGVWDYOMDMR YLVRNRãROVNL XþLWHOML LQ online mentorji (anglWXWRU 8þLWHOMLLPDMRYSULPHUMDYLVNODVLþQLP ãWXGLMHPGUXJDþQRYORJRVDM]DUDGLVDPRVWRMQRQDUDYQDQHL]YHGEH študija, niso zgolj posredovalci znanja, temYHþ MH MDVQHMH L]UDåHQR moderiranje znanja, kreiranje in spodbujanje interakcij, spremljanje dela in podajanje sprotne usmerjevalne povratne informacije. Pri delu jim pomagajo tudi online mentorji, ki so zaradi hitrejše odzivnosti (24/7) zadolženi za manjše skupine pri predmetu. 3UHGVWDYOMDMR YPHVQL þOHQ PHG ãWXGHQWL LQ XþLWHOMHP QMLKRYD primarna naloga pa so usmerjanje in svetovanje pri vsebinah, motiviranje za sprotno delo ter mediatorstvo pri morebitnih izzivih znotraj aktivnosti (npr. pri timskem delu). Zaradi narave dela, so tudi VWURNRYQMDNLL]SRGURþMDNLSR]QDMRYVHELQHSRVDPH]QLKSUHGPHWRY tudi v praksi.

3 Metode 9SUYHPGHOXDQDOL]HVRELOHYNOMXþHQHSRYUDWQHLQIRUPDFLMHL]DQNHW RE]DNOMXþNXSUHGPHWRY 1 RG]LYQRVW LQDQNHW ob ]DNOMXþNX ãWXGLMD 1    NL VR MLK ãWXGHQWMH L]SROQMHYDOL Y študijskem letu 2014/2015. Anonimen vprašalnik je bil zastavljen v obliki sedem-stopenjskih Likertovih lestvic, kjer je 1 pomenila popolno nestrinjanje, 7 pa popolno strinjanje s trditvijo oz. vprašanjem. Rezultati so predstavljeni kot frekvence odgovorov (n), srednje vrednosti (M), standardni odkloni (SD) in odstotki (%), pri þHPHUMHELODXSRUDEOMHQDGHVNULSWLYQDVWDWLVWLND V drugem delu smo izbor podatkov iz DOBA Fakultete primerjali z mednarodnima raziskavama Zveze evropskih univerz EUA (European University Association) za leti 2013 in 2014. Raziskava za leto 2013 je zajela 249 ustanov iz 38 držav (31 % odzivnost) in je služila za popis razvoja spletno podprtega študija na daljavo (Gaebel in dr.   9 UD]LVNDYL ]D OHWR  SD MH VRGHORYDOR  þODQLF L]  držav (59 % odzivnost), namenjena pa je bila širši analizi trendov XþHQMDLQSRXþHYDQMDYLVRNRãROVNLKXVWDQRYY(YURSL 6XUVRFN  Za potrebe prispevka smo obravnavali zgolj vprašanja, ki se QDQDãDMR QD SRGSRUR XþQHPX SURFHVX LQ ,.7 VLVWHPRY NL VR QDPHQMHQLãWXGHQWRP]DXþLQNRYLWHMãLãWXGLM3RXGDULWLMHSRWUHEQR GD VR ELOH Y DQDOL]L (8$ YNOMXþHQH RFHQH YLVRNRãROVNLK ]DYRGRY podatke za Dobo pa smo prekodirali glede na oceno študentov, zato ODKNRSUHGVWDYOMDMRL]NOMXþQREHåHQYSRJOHGQDSULPHUMDYRVWDQMD9 primerjavi dosegljivosti IKT gradnikov v izobraževalnih procesih so 14


vrednosti pomenile: 1 za dosegljivo vsem študentom, 2 za dosegljivo YHþLQLãWXGHQWRYLQ ãH QLQDYROMROcene za DOBA Fakulteto bile GRORþHQHSRHQDNLKPHULOLK

4 Rezultati in diskusija V okviru sistema za zagotavljanje kakovosti izvedbe študijskih SURJUDPRYVHVSRPRþMRDQNHWQLKYSUDãDOQLNRYEHOHåLMRWXGLSRGDWNL ki se navezujejo na elemente podpore. V vprDãDOQLNX SR ]DNOMXþNX študija se je 46 % povsem strinjalo in 32 % strinjalo, da je šola v þDVX ãWXGLMD ]DJRWDYOMDOD XVWUH]QR SRGSRUR (3XKHN LQ $PLþ 5DYQLN 2016). Študentje praviloma zelo pomembno vlogo izkazujejo vsem HOHPHQWRP SRGSRUH 7DEHOD   SUL þHPHr sta še posebej L]SRVWDYOMHQLSHGDJRãNDLQWHKQLþQDSRGSRUDL]YSUDãDOQLNDMLK QDPUHþ VPDWUD ]D NOMXþQR YORJR SUL XVSHKX SRPRþ YLVRNRãROVNLK XþLWHOMHYLQRQOLQHPHQWRUMHYYLVRNRL]UDåHQRSDMHWXGL]DGRYROMVWYR V SRPRþMR WHKQLþQLK DGPLQLVWUDWRUMHY (96 %). Podobno so tudi v SUDNVL UD]OLþQL DYWRUML NRW NOMXþQR L]EUDOL SHGDJRãNR SRGSRUR R] SRPRþPHQWRUMHYSULSUHPDJRYDQMXãWXGLMVNLKL]]LYRY 0F3KHUVRQLQ Baptista Nunes 2004; Webb, Gibson in Forkosh-Baruch 2013). Le-ti QDPUHþ ] PRWLYLUDQMHP XVPHUMDQMHm in informiranjem študentov poskrbijo za boljši pretok znanja in praviloma tudi za dvig VDPR]DYHVWL SUL ãWXGHQWLK NDU SRVOHGLþQR VSURåL YHþMR XþLQNRYLWRVW SUL GHOX L]EROMãDQR GRY]HWQRVW ]D XþQH YVHELQH LQ EROMãL L]NRULVWHN svojega potenciala (Castillo-Merino in Serradell-Lopez 2014). 3RWUHED SR WHKQLþQL SRGSRUL VH L]ND]XMH SUHGYVHP ]DUDGL YLVRNH YSHWRVWL,.7YãWXGLMVNLSURFHVNLVHQDGUXJLVWUDQLVUHþD]UD]OLþQR WHKQLþQRXVSRVREOMHQLPLSRVDPH]QLNL 7HL[HUD +NUDWLMHODKNR L]NXSLþHN RE QHXVWUH]ni uporabi IKT celo kontraproduktiven (Edmunds, Thorpe in Conole 2012). Uspešnost celostne podpore na drugi strani potrjujejo tudi podatki iz anketnih vprašalnikov o visoki uspešnosti na 1. izpitnem roku (84 %), visoki prehodnosti v višji letnik (79 %) in razvitimi kompetencami, ki jih potrjujejo tudi kasnejši delodajalci (v t. i. follow-up anketiranjih). Poleg kvantitativnih merilnikov pa avtorji uspešnost celostne podpore pripisujejo tudi razvoju kognitivnih in družbenih vidikov študentov (Webb, Gibson in Forkosh-Baruch 2013; Hernandez, Gonzalez in Munoz 2014) ter doseganju zastavljenih kompetenc (Campbell in /HYLQ   3ULPHUL ]DSLVRY WXMLK DYWRUMHY LQ ]DNOMXþNL DQDOL] QD NRQFXL]SRVWDYOMDMRãHSRPHQVLQHUJLMHLQSUHSOHWDUD]OLþQLKQLYRMHY podpore ter rD]OLþQL LQWHQ]LWHWL RE SRVDPH]QLK NRUDNLK ãWXGLMD (Thorpe in Gordon 2012).

15


Tabela 1: Zadovoljstvo študentov s podporo tekom dodiplomskega študija za šolsko leto 2014/2015 (3XKHNLQ$PLþ5DYQLN) Trditev Z izvedbo študijskega programa sem zelo zadovoljen/a. =QDQMD LQ YHãþLQH SULGREOMHQD Y þDVX ãWXGLMD PL bodo zelo koristila pri mojem delu. 9 þDVX ãWXGLMD MH ELOR ãWXGHQWRP XVWUH]QR zagotovljeno svetovanje. âROD QDV MH DåXUQR REYHãþDOD R XUQLNLK L]Sitnih rokih, o novostih, o naših opravljenih obveznostih. 8þLWHOML PHQWRUML SUL ãWXGLMX QD GDOMDYR VR QDV spodbujali k sprotnemu opravljanju obveznosti, prijavljanju na prve izpitne roke in rednemu opravljanju izpitov. Šola je zagotavljala ustrezno IT podporo študiju (e-indeks, e-referat, Blackboard). âROD MH ]DJRWDYOMDOD XVWUH]QR YLUWXDOQR XþQR okolje za študij na daljavo (Blackboard).

n

M

SD

341 6,20 0,58 338 6,10 0,53 340 6,10 0,54 340 6,50 0,74

336 6,40 0,67 337 6,40 0,69 337 6,50 0,72

3ULPHUMDYD YNOMXþHQRVWL SRGSRUH PHG 'RER LQ SRGDWNL ]D 6ORYenijo (Bregar in Puhek 2017) ter mednarodno raziskavo EUA za 2013 *DHEHO LQ GU   MH SRND]DOD PRþDQ RGPLN Y ]DJRWDYOMDQMX SRGSRUHãWXGHQWRPYãWXGLMVNLKSURFHVLKY6ORYHQLMLLQ(8SULþHPHU so podatki za DOBA Fakulteto primerljivejši z evropskimi. Administrativna podpora na Dobi je z 90 % primerljiva vrednosti EUA (86 %), medtem ko so zastopanosti te ravni na slovenskih zavodih R]QDþHQH V   3RGREQD MH WXGL UD]OLND PHG ]DJRWDYOMDQMHP pedagoške podpore (90 % za Dobo in 87 % za EUA 2013), kjer je povSUHþMHVORYHQVNLK]DYRGRYSUL1DMEROMSULPHUOMLYLVRSRGDWNL ]DWHKQLþQRSRGSRURNMHUVR]DYRGLL]6ORYHQLMH]DVWRSDQLV za EUA s 85 % in za Dobo z 90 %. *OHGHQDRGVWRSDQMHVLVWHPRYQD'RELRGVORYHQVNHJDSRYSUHþMDMH bila opravljena še dodatna primerjava med zastopanostjo posameznih gradnikov IKT v primerjavi z raziskavo EUA, ki so QDPHQMHQLXþLQNRYLWHMãHPXãWXGLMVNHPXSURFHVXLQVRYYHOLNLPHUL povezani s podporo (Graf 1). Kljub razlikam v teži podatkov (npr. pri (8$ JUH ]D SRYSUHþMH NMHU VR VRGHORYDOL WXGL ]DYRGL V NODVLþQLPL programi) se je jasno pokazalo zastopanje naprednejših gradnikov QSUVLVWHPL]DXSUDYOMDQMHL]REUDåHYDQMDUHSR]LWRULMLXþQLKJUDGLY personalizirani študijski portali, online preverjanje znanja), ki so na voljo vsem študentom. Kot je bilo ugotovljeno že v uvodu, pa je 16


potrebno poudariti, da za uspešen prenos znanja sama izvedba z IKT RERJDWHQLPL]REUDåHYDOQLPSURFHVRPQLGRYROM )ORULMDQþLþ 

Graf 1: Primerjava dosegljivosti IKT gradnikov v izobraževalnih SURFHVLK PHG SRGDWNL ]D '2%$ )DNXOWHWR LQ SRYSUHþMHP HYURSVNLK visokošolskih institucij za leti 2013 in 2014 (Gaebel in dr. 2014; Sursock 2015)

5 =DNOMXþHN Celostna podpora študentom se je pri online študiju izkazala kot NOMXþQDVDM]DUDGLQDUDYHãWXGLMD RESURVWRUVNLORþHQRVWLãWXGHQWDRG predavateljev in soodvisnosti s širokim naborom uporabljene WHKQRORJLMHSUHSUHþXMHL]]LYHNLELYGUXJLK WUDGLFLRQDOQLK REOLNDK ãWXGLMDELOLEUH]SUHGPHWQLâHSRVHEHMXþLQNRYLWDMHRESUHSOHWXYHþ ravni (administratiYQD SHGDJRãND WHKQLþQD LQ RUJDQL]DFLMVND  LQ UD]OLþQLLQWHQ]LWHWLPHGFHORWQLPWUDMDQMHPãWXGLMD RG]DQLPDQMD]D YSLV GR ]DNOMXþND  6NUEL QDPUHþ ]D ]DJRWDYOMDQMH ãWXGHQWRYH YNOMXþHQRVWL ãH SRVHEHM L]UD]LWH SUL QHNDWHULK SVLKRORãNLK WLSLK osebnosti), zDþUWDQRUD]YLMDQMHVWURNRYQLKLQSUHQRVOMLYLKNRPSHWHQF prilagajanje procesa posameznikovim potrebam, vpliva na ugodno prehodnost študentov in nenazadnje za zagotavljanje nemotene uporabe tehnologije (še posebej za manj digitalno usposobljene). Kot je v YHþLQL SULPHURY ]QDþLOQR ]D VSORãQR UDER QDSUHGQLK izobraževalnih tehnologij v Sloveniji, je tudi celostna podpora in RQOLQH ãWXGLM ãH ]PHUDM SRGURþMH ] QHUD]YLWLP SRWHQFLDORP 'RELQ 17


model podpore je zato primerljivejĹĄi primerom dobrih praks iz tujine. OdVWRWNL]DJRWDYOMDQMDUD]OLĂžQLKUDYQLFHORVWQHSRGSRUHVHQDPUHĂžY REHK SULPHULK PRĂžQR RGPLNDMR RG VORYHQVNHJD SRYSUHĂžMD 7R predstavlja izziv (tako za slovenski visokoĹĄolski prostor kot za SROLWLNR NLJDERPRPRUDOLVSUHMHWLLQQDSRGURĂžMXFHORVWQHSRGSRre vloĹžiti ĹĄe veliko truda, da bi se lahko pribliĹžali dobrim praksam v Evropi.

6 Literatura in viri 1. Bregar L. (2011). Trendi v e-izobraĹževanju ter dejavniki uspeĹĄnega in

XĂžLQNRYLWHJDYSHOMHYDQMDYL]REUDĂĽHYDQMHRGUDVOLKY6ORYHQLMLAndragoĹĄka spoznanja, 4, p. 44-59. 2. Bregar L., Zagmajster M. in Radovan M. (2010). Osnove e-izobraĹževanja. 3ULURĂžQLN/MXEOMDQD$QGUDJRĂŁNLFHQWHU6ORYHQLMH 3. Bregar, L. in Puhek, M. (2017). $QDOL]DVWDQMDQDSRGURĂžMXGLJLWDOL]DFLMHLQ e-izobraĹževanja v visokem ĹĄolstvu v Sloveniji. Maribor: DOBA Fakulteta. In press. 4. Campbell C. in Levin B. (2009). Using data to support educational improvement. Educational Assessment. Evaluation and Accauntability, 21, p. 47-65. 5. Castillo-Merino D. in Serradell-Lopez E. (2014). An analysis of the determinants of studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performance in e-learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, p. 476-484. 6. Conole G., De Laat M., Dillon T. in Darby J. (2008). Disruptive technologies, pedagogical innovation: Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new? Findings from an in-depth study of studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; use and perception of technology. Computers & Education, 50, p. 511-524. 7. Edmunds R., Thorpe M. in Conole G. (2012). Student attitudes towards and use of ICT in course study, work and social activity: A technology acceptance model approach. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(1), p. 71-84. 8. Eurostat (2016). Survey on Usage of ICT by Individuals. Dosegljivo na: http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=isoc_ci_ac_i&lan g=en [dostop 20. 9. 2017]. 9. )ORULMDQĂžLĂž9  (-ĹĄtudij v slovenskem visokoĹĄolskem prostoru. Didactica Slovenica â&#x20AC;&#x201C; PedagoĹĄka obzorja, 3-4, p. 139-155. 10.Gaebel, M., Kupriyanova, Morais, R. in Colucci, E. (2014). E-learning in European Higher Education Institutions. Results of a mapping survey conducted in October-December 2013. Brussels: European University Association asbl. 11.Godwin S. J., Thorpe M. S. in Richardson J. T. E. (2008). The impact of computer-mediated interaction on distance learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(1), p. 52-70. 12.Hernandez N., Gonzalez M. in Munoz P. (2014). Planning Collaborative Learning in Virtual Environments. Media Education Research Journal, 21(42), p. 25-32. 13.McPherson in Baptista Nunes (2004). The Role of Tutors as an Integral Part of Online Learning Support. European Journal of Open and Distance Learning, [online].

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14.OECD (2016). Raziskava spretnosti odraslih PIAAC v Sloveniji 2016.

Dosegljivo na: http://www.oecd.org/skills/piaac/Skills-Matter-SloveniaSlovenian-Version.pdf [dostop 20. 9. 2017]. 15.PISA (2015). The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015 Results in focus. Dosegljivo na: https://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisa-2015results-in-focus.pdf [dostop 20. 9. 2017]. 16.Prevodnik, K. in Vehovar, V. (2011). E-kompetentni drĹžavljan Slovenije danes. Dosegljivo na: http://www.ris.org/db/13/12082/RIS%20poro%C4%8Dila/Ekompetentni_dr zavljan_Slovenije_danes/?&cat=711&p1=276&p2=285&p3=1318&p4=1351 &p5=0&id=1351 [dostop 20. 9. 2017]. 17.3XKHN0LQ$PLĂž5DYQLN,  . Pomen celostne podpore ĹĄtudentom pri v celoti spletno podprtem ĹĄtudiju na daljavo. V: K. AĹĄkerc Veniger, ur., ,]EROMĂŁHYDQMHSURFHVRYXĂžHQMDLQSRXĂžHYDQMDYYLVRNRĂŁROVNHP izobraĹževanju: zbornik konference. Ljubljana: Center RS za mobilnost in evropske programe izobraĹževanja in usposabljanja, p. 134-139. 18.Sursock, A. (2015). Trends 2015: Learning and Teaching in European Universities. Brussels: European University Association asbl. 19.Teixera A. M. (2015). How expert use of technology in classrooms is boosting education results: refocusing the open classroom initiative. Budapest: EDEN. 20.Thorpe M. in Gordon J. (2012). Online learning in the workplace: a hybrid model of participation in networked, professional learning. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(8), p. 1267-1282. 21.Webb M., Gibson D., & Forkosh-Baruch A. (2013). Challenges for information technology supporting educational assessment. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 29, p. 451-462.

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Dr. Marko Divjak Assistant Professor, DOBA Business School Maribor, Slovenia marko.divjak@doba.si 0DJ9HVQD.ROHQF3RWRþQLN Program Manager, DOBA Business School Maribor, Slovenia vesna.kolenc-potocnik@doba.si

Ali interaktivnost v MOOC prispeva k razvoju prenosljivih kompetenc in k viÅ¡jim VWRSQMDP]DNOMXþHYDQMD" Å tudija primera MOOC o timskem delu Povzetek 9 SULVSHYNX UD]SUDYOMDPR R WHP DOL YNOMXþHYDQMH WDNR LPHQRYDQLK Å¡tudijskih klubov (virtualna interaktiYQD VUHþDQMD  LQ GUXJLK LQWHUDNWLYQLK HOHPHQWRY SRYHþXMH XVSHãQRVW PDVRYQLK RGSUWLK VSOHWQLK WHþDMHY 022&  LQ SULVSHYD N UD]YRMX SUHQRVOMLYLK kompetenc. Raziskava je del Erasmus+ projekta DESTINY (Developing Employability Skills Through Innovative education using MOOCs for Youth). DOBA Fakulteta je razvila in izvedla MOOC na temo timskega dela â&#x20AC;&#x201C; najprej testno, nato pa Å¡e izpopolnjeno verzijo. Na podlagi evalvacije izpeljane Å¡tudije primera prispevek na koncu REUDYQDYD WXGL SULSRURþLOD R QDGDOMQMHP UD]YRMX in izvedbi MOOC, predvsem z vidika manjÅ¡ih visokoÅ¡olskih inÅ¡titucij. .OMXþQH EHVHGH PDVRYQL RGSUWL VSOHWQL WHþDML 022&  022& ãWXGLMVNL NOXEL VWRSQMD ]DNOMXþHYDQMD WHþDMD SUHQRVOMLYH kompetence, timsko delo. Koda JEL klasifikacije: I23 Higher Education - Research Institutions

21


Does interactivity in MOOCs contribute to development of transversal skills and to higher completion rates? Case study of MOOC on teamwork Abstract The aim of this paper is to discuss whether inclusion of the so-called MOOC Study Clubs (e.g. virtual interactive sessions) and other interactive elements actually increases the effectiveness of Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) and contributes to the development of transversal skills. Our research is part of the Erasmus+ project DESTINY (Developing Employability Skills Through Innovative education using MOOCs for Youth). The case study approach, adopted by DOBA Business School, consisted of the pilot and the follow-up implementation of the MOOC on teamwork. Based on the evaluation results, the paper then discusses recommendations for future development and implementation of MOOCs, especially appropriate for smaller higher education institutions. Keywords: Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs), MOOC Study Clubs (MSCs), Completion rates, Transversal skills, Teamwork. JEL classification code: I23 Higher Education - Research Institutions

1 Theoretical background The availability of MOOCs has grown rapidly in the last decade, which is accompanied with an immense amount of literature on the phenomenon of MOOCs and their position in the field of open education. As MOOCs are most often evaluated in terms of their terminal completion rates, we here provide a brief overview of the key determinants of completion. Several studies have shown that MOOCsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; completion rates are generally low. On average, less than 10 % of participants enrolled in MOOCs fulfil the criteria to earn a certificate (e.g. Jordan, 2014; Wang & Baker, 2015; Hone and El Said, 2016). Low retention and completion rates can be attributed both to the characteristics of 22


participants and to the characteristics of the course (content, course design and implementation). The motivation of participants to learn and to complete the course, extrinsic motivation in particular predicts course engagement, while engagement predicts course retention – not dropping out of the course (Xiong et al., 2015). Motivation clearly stands as a subjective, individual variable over which course providers have little influence, however, course engagement might be stimulated and strengthened by elements of the course design, thus contributing to higher retention and completion. Motivation to engage may also be related to perceptions of the course and course content, which have been identified as one of the factors influencing dropout (Eriksson, Adawi and Stöhr, 2017), as well as to one’s cost-benefit analysis. Namely, high dropout in MOOCs may be explained by relatively low perceived value of accomplishment (receiving a certificate) relative to the cost in work energy required to fulfil the requirements (Divera & Martinez, 2015). Other factors contributing to dropout are: (1) signing up at no cost stimulating trial and error behavior (Hoxby, 2014); (2) learner’s inability to find and manage time effectively (Eriksson, Adawi and Stöhr, 2017); (3) lack of digital and learning skills as there are no pre-requirements to fulfil (Onah, Sinclair, Boyatt, 2014); (4) barriers of foreign language in case of non-native participants (Sanchez-Gordon & Luján-Mora, 2014). In addition, several relevant factors related to course design and the implementation of the course have been identified as crucial for participants persisting in a course. One of them is content of the course itself. The content proved to be a significant predictor of course retention, mediated by perceived effectiveness of the course referring to subjective conceptualization of the course content (Hone and El Said, 2016). Another important aspect of course design is the use of interactive-collaborative tools. De Freitas, Morgan and Gibson (2015) suggest integrating a suite of additional tools, including automatic translation tools, data capture learning analytics, and games and gamification elements to enliven course materials and assignments, as this would enhance engagement and would likely have a significant positive impact upon retention. Similarly, Alemán de la Garza, Sancho-Vinuesa and Gómez Zermeño (2015) suggest the MOOCs to include attractive technological resources (animated readings and interactive exercises) and the use of practical tools to stimulate engagement and retention. Another important aspect of the course design characteristics is the social interactivity component. More than just providing opportunities to consume information and connect with resources 23


(what is typical for xMOOCs), it is important for the courses to provide opportunities to create and contribute to collective knowledge and to learn through experience, discussion, self-study and by teaching others (Littlejohn et al., 2011), especially if the courses aim at developing skills. Given the limited assistance from instructors or teaching assistants in case of mass attendance, it would be useful to encourage participant collaboration by building a learning community to increase studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; engagement in the learning process (what is typical for cMOOCs) (Xiong et al., 2015). Other studies confirm the importance of the social component in the learning process. Onah et al. (2014) claim the lack of (social) support as one of the key factors influencing dropout. Pursel et al. (2016) argue that learning is often more powerful when it includes interactions among peers. In spite of limitations due to mass attendance, research evidence suggests the MOOC providers should strive to strengthen the participant-teacher interaction as much as possible. Hone and El Said (2016) report the interaction with the instructor of the MOOC to be significant predictor of MOOC retention. Next, AlemĂĄn de la Garza et al. (2015) suggest that the teaching staff implement different communication strategies throughout the duration of the course, in order to motivate participants to persist in the course. In addition, Hew and Cheung (2014) identified the lack of guidance (as having no one to turn to for help) as one of the key reasons for dropout. Another factor contributing to high dropout rate in MOOCs may be inability of the course to satisfy the needs and requirements of all diverse participants. Many MOOCs provide a very fixed and inflexible format in terms of timing, structure and learning materials. What might be intended as useful structure and a schedule, which allows learners to collaborate, may also be seen as inflexible and unhelpful for learners who cannot, for whatever reason, work to the same timetable. In that respect, supporting different patterns of engagement as well as integration of various modes of presenting the material and various learning pathways could be beneficial in giving participants more control in reaching their learning objectives (Onah et al., 2014).

2 Aim and objectives Our research is part of the Erasmus+ project DESTINY (Delivering Employability Skills through Innovative Education using MOOCs for Youth), which seeks to re-align education to the labor market, raise the skills of work seekers, reduce youth unemployment and build institutional capacity using innovative education pedagogy such as 24


MOOCs. The main objective of each of DESTINYâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s partner institutions was to design and implement its own MOOC that would address development of relevant skills in order to help (unemployed) work seekers enhance their competitiveness in the labor market. DOBA Business School focused on teamwork, which Slovene managers had identified as a key missing transversal skill that has been inadequately and insufficiently developed among both employees DQGZRUNVHHNHUV .ROHQF3RWRĂžQLN*HGHUDQG3XKHN  In this paper, we interpret transversal skills as general or soft skills, which have been learned in one context, enable the mastery of a special situation/solving of a particular problem and can be transferred to another context. These skills may also have been acquired through non-work or leisure activities or through participation in education or training (Cedefop, 2008, UNESCO, 2013). Having experiences with online learning, we have understood a challenge of developing transversal skills with MOOCs. Relying solely upon learning theory and transmission of information, which are typical for xMOOCs, would not be enough to reach our objectives. The MOOC on teamwork that has been designed by DOBA Business School therefore follows the principles of a cMOOC (knowledge construction through interaction and collaboration, building learning community), combined with an innovative approach â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the so-called MOOC Study Clubs (MSCs). MSCs were conceptualized as interactive virtual sessions (workshops) where participants were able to practice teamwork skills by means of experiential learning, having in mind the specifics of the MOOC as a massive course with a minimal pedagogical support. The aim of this paper is to present and discuss the key findings of the case study approach adopted by DOBA Business School and to evaluate our basic hypothesis that inclusion of interactive MSCs enhances development of transversal skills and contributes to higher completion rates in MOOCs. In subsequent sections, we first describe the process of MOOC design and the adopted evaluation methodology, which is then followed by interpretation of results and conclusions.

25


3 Methodology For the purpose of this research, case study research design was adopted.

3.1 MOOC design and development The process of MOOC design and development consisted of several phases. The pilot concept was first designed and implemented, which was then evaluated and adjusted for the follow-up implementation. The pilot implementation of the MOOC on teamwork was targeted at 61 participants to test what works and what does not work in the MOOC context in terms of increased interactivity. Participants were DOBA Business School master students from Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia, which was the main reason why pilot implementation was provided in English language. The concept of the MOOC consisted of three week modules. Short video lectures were recorded with two professors. Contents, videos and assignments were prepared in the Moodle platform and they were subdivided in three sections covering the following topics: differences between group work and teamwork, teamwork efficiency, team composition and team roles, managing team conflicts. Dimensions of virtual and multicultural teams were integrated in the topics of all three weeks to meet the contemporary needs of many global companies and organizations demanding multicultural virtual teams nowadays. Several assignments were designed on different complexity levels: simple experience sharing in paddlets (e.g. whiteboards where everyone could post his/her comment), more demanding forum discussions linking selfreflections with literature review, self-evaluation online tests and a complex final assignment as a case study. There was only one virtual MSC included in duration of 3 hours and it was designed as a concluding part of the MOOC with an overview of key theoretical principles and a few practical assignments. However, MSC was not an integral part of the MOOC (participation was not required to obtain the MOOC Certificate), but a separate workshop for which participants gained another certificate. Pilot implementation was thoroughly evaluated by all included stakeholders. A few recommendations and adjustments for the follow-up implementation have been identified in order to make the MOOC more attractive for mass attendance and to stimulate higher completion rates. These adjustments are described in more details below.

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Translation into Slovene language â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Providing pilot implementation in English (non-native language for all targeted participants) might have been an obstacle preventing more people enrolling the MOOC as previous research has already confirmed (Geder and Puhek, 2015; .ROHQF3RWRĂžQLNHWDO6DQFKH]-Gordon & LujĂĄn-Mora, 2014). Intensity levels of cooperation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Criteria for passive, active and interactive participation were clearly defined. Active participation was required to obtain the Certificate of attendance, while interactive participation was required to obtain the Certificate of completion. In the case of interactive participation, participants should have complied with all the requirements for active participation and in addition to that, they were also required to attend interactive virtual MSCs and to submit the complex final assignment. Certificates automation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Automation of particular activities in the Moodle platform enabled participants to have an overview on completed activities and their progress towards obtaining a Certificate. Participants were also able to print out their own certificate once they fulfilled all the requirements. Assignments complexity and workload balance â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The overall number of assignments was somewhat reduced. In each week of the followup implementation, there were the following assignments: paddlet/whiteboard assignment (experience sharing), forum assignment (reflective, applicative assignment; â&#x20AC;&#x153;weekly challengeâ&#x20AC;?), self-evaluation test (theory comprehension) and one interactive virtual MSC (gaining experience, discussion, and networking). These four types of assignments were also different in terms of their complexity (different taxonomy levels (Kennedy, 2015)), ranging from easy to most demanding. Integration of MSCs â&#x20AC;&#x201C; One of the crucial adjustments was to further elaborate the concept of MSCs and to link them directly with the theoretical background of each week. Thus, each of the three MSCs provided the practical application of theoretically acquired knowledge of that particular week which enabled MSC participants to selfexperience how theory applies to practice and real-world examples. The concept of interactive virtual MSCs consisted of several parts:  teacherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s summary of the past week contents â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 5 minutes,  presentation of the team assignment and division of participants into virtual teams of 5-6 people (private virtual rooms) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 5-10 minutes,  working on the team assignment (solving the team challenge, reflecting and discussing on teamwork) of teamwork and discussion on key findings within virtual teams â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 45 minutes, 27


 overall discussion on teams’ solutions and key findings regarding teamwork experience – 10-20 minutes. Promotion of MOOC and communication plan – A much more intense and systematic approach was adopted to communicate the followup implementation of the MOOC (targeting different groups, using diverse communication channels, earlier start of promotion). About 240 candidates expressed their interest in learning about teamwork and developing teamwork skills in the MOOC. Out of those, 145 participants eventually enrolled in the Moodle platform.

3.2 Research method for implementation of the MOOC

the

evaluation

of

follow-up

The success and effectiveness of the follow-up implementation of the MOOC were measured with the following variables:  completion rate as one of the key success factors,  participants’ satisfaction and feedback on the MOOC (end of course survey). In order to measure participants’ attitudes and opinions and to grasp their feedback on the follow-up implementation of the MOOC, an online “end of course” survey was constructed, which was distributed via email to all the participants. Eventually, 46 of 145 participants enrolled in the course (31.7 %) responded to the survey.

4 Results 4.1 MOOC Success rate In the case of the pilot implementation, the completion rate was 5 %, while in the case of the follow-up implementation, 14 out of 145 enrolled participants (9.7 %) acquired the Certificate of attendance (active enrolment) and 23 (15.9 %) acquired the Certificate of completion (interactive enrolment). The overall percentage of participants who fulfilled the pre-set requirements and received a formal certificate in follow-up implementation thus accounts for 25.5 %, which is significantly higher in comparison with pilot implementation and MOOC success rates in general (Jordan, 2014; Wang and Baker, 2015; Hone and El Said, 2016).

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4.2 Participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; evaluation of the follow-up implementation of the MOOC and MSCs 4.2.1

General satisfaction with the MOOC

Participants who responded to the survey were on general highly satisfied with the MOOC, its contents and activities. The overall implementation of the course was rated with an average score 6.23 (SD = 1.10) on a 7-point scale and so was the practicality of the course contents (M = 6.23, SD = 1.02). Also, the complexity of the MOOC (M = 6.10, SD = 1.38) as well as the complexity of provided activities in the course (M = 6.14, SD = 1.34) were assessed as proper on a 7-point scale. High overall satisfaction with the course also reflects in the participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; willingness to recommend the course to their friends and colleagues. Namely, nearly all of them (97.7 %) reported they would recommend it. To evaluate which aspect of the MOOC contributed most to the overall satisfaction with the course, we conducted linear regression analysis with 10 predictors (elements/aspects of the course) and overall satisfaction as a dependent variable. The linear model is empirically well supported as the multiple correlation coefficient accounts for R = 0.925, which means that the predictors explain 80 % of the variance in overall satisfaction. The regression model is statistically significant (F(10, 26) = 15.381; p = 0.000). Standardized beta coefficients reveal two predictors with the strongest positive correlations with overall satisfaction. These are the Interactivity of assignments and Types of activity assessment. Both correlations are on the verge of statistical significance, which is probably due to small sample size.

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Table 1: Predictors of overall satisfaction with the course

Practicality of course contents Appropriate resources Types of activity assessment Work of course instructor Technical support (before and during the course, webinars) The complexity of course activities The complexity of the MOOC The rigor of activities/assignments Interactivity of assignments Practicality of assignments

Standardized t p beta -.249 -.821 .419 .201 .438

1.061 .298 1.974 .059

.097

.616

-.122

-.478 .636

.014

.049

.961

.141

.332

.743

-.182

-.704 .488

.439

1.759 .090

.218

.763

.543

.452

We were particularly interested into how participants evaluate the development of knowledge and competences during the course. It is evident from Table 2 that all the aspects were rated very high (average grades around 6), which indicates that according to participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; opinions the course has managed to contribute significantly both to the acquisition of knowledge about teamwork and to the development of competences for effective teamwork, particularly in a virtual environment. Table 2: Contribution of the MOOC to the development of knowledge and competences

Theoretical knowledge about teamwork Competences of teamwork (as an aggregate of knowledge and skills focused on usability) Teamwork competences for virtual teams 30

N 42

M SD 6.10 1.01

41

5.95 1.07

40

6.12 1.09


Competences of learning in a virtual 41 6.05 1.22 environment Competences of communicating in a 40 6.10 1.06 virtual environment Note: 7-point scale was used (1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; very bad, 7 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; excellent). When directly asked what contributed most to the development of teamwork competences, the large majority of respondents (73.9 %) replied it was a combination of MOOC with MSCs, which confirms the hypothesis of the benefits of interactive MSCs for the development of transversal skills.

4.2.2

Evaluation of MSCs

The benefits of interactive virtual MSCs were rated with an average grade of 6.45 (SD = 0.95) on a 7-point scale. In fact, in comparison with other tools (e.g. paddlets/whiteboards, self-evaluation online tests, and lecture videos) interactive virtual MSCs were assessed as the most useful tool. Forum discussions, on the other hand, were considered the least useful tool (average grade of 5.71, SD = 1.35). We further analyzed which of the tools contributed most to the development of knowledge and competences. We first calculated a total score of knowledge and competence development based on the categories shown in table 2. Then, we set up the linear regression model with the evaluations of usefulness of five different course tools as predictors and the total score of knowledge and competence development as a dependent variable. Multiple correlation coefficient accounts for R = 0.904, which means that predictors explain nearly 80 % of the variance of the dependent variable. The regression model is statistically significant (F(5, 28) = 25.042; p = 0.000). According to standardized beta coefficients, it is evident that knowledge and competence development correlates strongest with the usefulness of paddlets/whiteboards and the usefulness of interactive virtual sessions. Both correlations are positive and statistically significant.

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Table 3: Linear regression model with evaluations of usefulness

Paddlets/whiteboards Forums Self-evaluation online tests Video lectures recordings Interactive virtual sessions (webinars)

Standardized beta .519 -.012 .306 -.237 .413

t

p

3.148 .004 -.074 .942 1.948 .061 .102 1.689 3.723 .001

The objective of interactive virtual MSCs was to provide participants with a personal experience with teamwork on practical cases and thus to enhance the development of competences required for effective teamwork. According to the respondents, the objective of interactive virtual MSCs was almost fully achieved (average grade of 6.17 on a 7-point scale, SD = 0.92).

5 Conclusions To summarize, MOOC participants who responded to the end of course survey in general reported high overall satisfaction with the MOOC on teamwork as well as significant contribution of the MOOC to development of teamwork skills. According to the opinion of the majority of respondents, it was the combination of MOOC and MSCs, which contributed the most to the development of teamwork skills. These findings seem to be in line with the pre-set hypothesis about the benefits of MSCs for developing transversal skills, such as teamwork. In addition, the benefits of MSCs (virtual interactive sessions) were further supported by the results of linear regression analysis (table 3). However, it is necessary to discuss the results within the sample limitations of the end of course survey. Namely, those who decided for high-intensity interactive enrolment (accomplishing weekly assignments and participating in interactive virtual MSCs) were highly overrepresented in the survey sample. Due to an uneven structure of participants, the survey sample is highly unlikely to be representative of the total population of MOOC participants, which indicates that the survey findings should be interpreted with caution.

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Our case study shows that interactive virtual MSCs might help accelerate development of transversal skills, as such development is mostly based on experiential learning, trials and errors and learning from others, however, additional research is required for a more accurate evaluation of the contributions of particular components: MSCs and MOOC on its own. Another limitation of our study is the use of self-reported measures of competence development, which may be incorrect and biased. Hence, the challenge remains how to approach the assessment of competence development in a more comprehensive and objective way (e.g. expert assessments by means of observation) and thus to enhance the validity of the research findings. In spite of certain limitations regarding the evaluation of the MOOC and MSCs, our case study revealed some interesting insights about MOOCs and their implementation, which are in line with previous findings described in chapter 1. First, providing MOOCs in a native language seems highly beneficial, especially for the small markets such as Slovenia. It seems that even those who do speak foreign languages well would much rather enroll in a MOOC in their native language if there is one available. Second, providing a clear structure of tasks and offering the participants to self-select the desired intensity level of enrolment also seems to encourage them to take part in the MOOC. Third, as in small markets such as Slovenia, it is quite unlikely that a MOOC would attract large masses; it is thus more viable to add more interactive components in its framework. Interactive virtual MSCs that are â&#x20AC;&#x153;going liveâ&#x20AC;? and are moderated with topic experts seem to be highly beneficial, especially when developing transversal skills where interactive components are of vital importance for successful skill development. In our opinion, it is both the provision of the MOOC in the Slovene language and the addition of interactive virtual MSCs being systematically integrated within the structure of the MOOC, that have contributed to a much higher completion rate in comparison to both the pilot implementation and the previous research findings regarding MOOCsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; effectiveness (Jordan, 2014; Wang and Baker, 2015; Hone and El Said, 2016). Adjusting to local, regional and labor needs in our case showed a good practice for the further development of MOOCs within smaller higher education institutions.

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6 Bibliography 1. AlemĂĄn de la Garza, L. Y., Sancho-Vinuesa, T., GĂłmez ZermeĂąo, M. G. (2015). Atypical: Analysis of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) with a Relatively High Rate of Program Completers. Global Education Review, 2(3), 68-81. 2. Cedefop (2008). European Training Thesaurus, Luxembourg: Publications Office. Available at: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/Files/3049_en.pdf [Accessed 20 May 2016]. 3. De Freitas, S. I., Morgan, J. and Gibson, D. (2015). Will MOOCs transform learning and teaching in higher education? Engagement and course retention in online learning provision. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(3), 455â&#x20AC;&#x201C;471. 4. Divera, P. & Martinez, I. (2015). MOOCs as a massive research laboratory: opportunities and challenges. Distance Education, 36(1), 5-25, DOI: 10.1080/01587919.2015.1019968 5. Eriksson, T., Adawi, T. and StĂśhr, C. (2017). Time Is the Bottleneck: A Qualitative Study Exploring Why Learners Drop out of MOOCs. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 29(1), 133-146. 6. Geder, M. and Puhek, M. (2015). 5 As of MOOCs in the Business and Finance Sector: Availability, Access, Awareness, Acceptance and Accomplishment of Goals, Internal publication under the DESTINY Project. Maribor: DOBA Business School. 7. Hew, K. F., Cheung, W. S. (2014). Students' and instructors' use of massive open online courses (MOOCs): Motivations and challenges. Educational Research Review, 12, 45-58. 8. Hone, K. S. and El Said, G. R. (2016). Exploring the factors affecting MOOC retention: a survey study. Computers & Education, [online] vol. 98, pp. 157-168. Available at: http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0360131516300793/1-s2.0S0360131516300793-main.pdf?_tid=8f7 0a5d4-12e4-11e7-b6d100000aab0f01&acdnat=1490616032_f46152d5b7c453ede90afe678f a1ea00 [Accessed 20 May 2017] 9. Hoxby, C. M. (2014). The economics of online postsecondary education: MOOCs, nonselective education, and highly selective education (technical report). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 10. Jordan, K. (2014). Initial trends in enrolment and completion of massive open online courses. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, [online] 15, 133â&#x20AC;&#x201C;159. Available at http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1651 [Accessed 26 September 2017]. 11. Kennedy, D. (2015). Writing and using learning outcomes: a practical guide LQWUDQVODWLRQ'RURWHMD*UĂžDU3LVDQMHLQXSRUDEDXĂžQLKL]LGRY, Ljubljana: CMEPIUS, Maribor: Univerza. 12. .ROHQF3RWRĂžQLN9*HGHU03XKHN0  Labour Market Needs in the Business and Finance Sector. Focus country: Slovenia. Internal publication under the DESTINY Project. Maribor: DOBA Business School. 13. .ROHQF3RWRĂžQLN9*HGHU03XKHN0  Regional HEI Engagement with MOOCs in the Business and Finance Sector. Focus country: Slovenia. Internal publication under the DESTINY Project. Maribor: DOBA Business School.

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14. Littlejohn, A., Milligan, C., & Margaryan, A. (2011). Collective learning in the workplace: important knowledge sharing behaviours. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning, 4(4), 26-31. 15. Onah, D. F. O. Sinclair, J., Boyatt, R. (2014). Dropout rates of massive open online courses: behavioural patterns. EDULEARN14 Proceedings: 6th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies, Barcelona, Spain. 16. Pursel, B. K., Zhang, L., Jablokow, K.W. Choi, G.W. & Velegol, D. (2016). Understanding MOOC students: motivations and behaviours indicative of MOOC completion. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 32, 202–217. 17. Sanchez-Gordon, S. & Luján-Mora, S. (2014). MOOCs gone wild. INTED2014 proceedings: 8th International Technology, Education and Development Conference, Valencia, Spain. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264047273_MOOCs_Gone_Wild [Accessed 27 September 2017]. 18. UNESCO. (2013). International Bureau of Education (UNESCO-IBE), “Glossary of Curriculum Terminology”, UNESCO-IBE, 2013. Available at: http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_ upload/Publications/IBE_GlossaryCurriculumTerminology2013_eng.pdf [Accessed 20 March 2017]. 19. Xiong, Y., Li, H., Kornhaber, M.L., Suen, H.K., Pursel, B. & Goins, D.D. (2015). Examining the relations among student motivation, engagement, and retention in a MOOC: A structural equation modeling approach. Global Education Review, 2 (3). 23-33 20. Wang, Y. and Baker, R. (2015). Content or platform: why do students complete MOOCs? MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, [online] vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 17-35. 2015. Available at: http://jolt.merlot.org/vol11no1/Wang_0315.pdf [Accessed 20 May 2017]

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'U$QLWD0DĂžHN Associate Professor, FH Joanneum, University of Applied Sciences, Graz, Austria Doba Business School Maribor, Slovenia anita.macek@fh-janneum.at, anita.macek@net.doba.si Mag. Christian Friedl, Researcher, FH Joanneum, University of Applied Sciences, Graz, Austria christian.friedl@fh-joanneum.at

Potenciali in ovire MOOC za visokoťolske institucije Primer visokoťolskih institucij v Avstriji Povzetek Masivni odprti internetni predmeti (MOOCs) imajo velik vpliv na visoko ťolstvo po vsem svetu. Evropske univerze sR ]DÞHOH ] izvajanjem MOOC leta 2012, vendar je njihov razvoj ťe vedno "nacionalno izoliran". Nekatere drŞave, kot sta ZdruŞeno kraljestvo, âSDQLMD 1HPÞLMD LQ )UDQFLMD VR SUL WHP UD]YRMX YRGLOQH GUüDYH vzhodne Evrope pa morajo ťe veliko nadoknaditi. Avstrija ta razvoj SRÞDVL GRKLWHYD 9 WHP SRJODYMX DYWRUMD UD]SUDYOMDWD R NRULVWLK LQ ovirah uvedbe MOOC v visokoťolskih zavodih. Na podlagi podatkov, zbranih z intervjuji v okviru EU projekta BizMOOC, so v tem poglavju predstavljeni rezultati avstrijskih visokoťolskih zavodov. Študija dokazuje, da avstrijske visokoťolske ustanove vidijo MOOC kot orodje za trŞenje ter predavanja ali raziskovanje, ki se uporablja na kateri koli ravni izobraŞevanja. Po mnenju intervjuvancev so MOOCi odprti, prosti in prilagodljivi naÞin izobraŞevanja / izobraŞevanja brez vstopnih pogojev. Na drugi strani pa so z vidika avstrijskih visokoťolskih zavodov kot omejitev MOOC izpostavljene zelo nizke ravni interakcije pri ponudniku MOOC, neprilagojeni predmeti, akreditacija in visok osip. .OMXÞQHEHVHGH: MOOCs, BizMOOC, Avstria, e-izobraŞevanje Koda JEL klasifikacije: I23 37


Potentials and Barriers of MOOCs for Higher Education Institutions The case of Austrian HEIs Abstract Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have caused a major impact on higher education worldwide. European universities started to build MOOCs in 2012, but their evolution seems â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;nationally isolatedâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Some countries such as the UK, Spain, Germany and France are leading the movement, whilst Eastern Europe still needs to catch up. Austria is slowly catching up. In this chapter, authors discuss benefits and barriers of introducing MOOCs in HEIs. Based on data gathered through interviews within the EU BizMOOC project, results for Austrian HEIs are presented in this chapter. The study proves that Austrian HEIs see MOOCs as a marketing, lecturing or research tool that is applicable on any educational level. For them MOOC is an open, free, scalable and flexible way of training/education without entry requirements. But on the other hand, very low interaction levels with the provider of the MOOC, not personalised courses, accreditation, and high dropout rates are limitations to MOOCs from the perspective of Austrian HEIs. Keywords: MOOCs, BizMOOC, HEIs, Austria, eLearning JEL classification code: I23

1 Introduction MOOCs can be defined as online courses designed for a large numbers of participants. They are open to everyone without entry qualifications and offer a complete course experience online for free (Brouns et al. 2014, 161; Mulder & Jansen, 2015). MOOCs are seen as a new and flexible way to educate at large scale whilst not significantly increasing costs (Patru and Balaji, 2016). This new type of course has become mainstream in the global Higher Education (HE) landscape. Emerging from North America in 2008, MOOCs attained numbers of 35 million students worldwide in 2015 (Shah, 2015). Europe responded to this emerging trend with some 38


delay. Nowadays, different MOOC initiatives in the EU exist, but remain isolated, both geographically, and by their sectors. The majority of offers derive from Spain, the UK, France, Germany and Switzerland (Open Education Europa, 2015), whilst certain countries (especially in Eastern Europe) are not part of the movement yet. By 2015, Austria was slowly catching up with 10 MOOCs introduced (Open Education Europa, 2015). This chapter analyses the potential and barriers of MOOCs for HEIs with the help of data obtained by representatives of HEIs in Austria. Section 2 provides a summary of different types of MOOCs. After presenting the methodology and sample in Section 3.1, Section 3.2 discusses the results of an empirical analysis of potentials and barriers of MOOCs in Austrian HEIs. Section 4 draws conclusions.

2 Types of MOOCs MOOCs themselves are not a revolution in higher education. Nevertheless, they are having multiple knock-on effects in the way that they are offered. They have sparked a steady increase in the offering of all types of academic programmes online and have stimulated trends towards shorter courses. It seems that the major role of MOOCs is evolving away from higher education. In the literature, two distinct pedagogical forms of MOOC: cMOOCs and xMOOCs have been discussed (Smith and Eng, 2013). cMOOCs focus on creating mass communication and interaction (Siemens, 2012), while xMOOCs tend to employ a knowledge transmission model through video recordings of classroom lectures or custom produced mini-lectures (Jona and Naidu, 2014). Clark (2013) has gone considerably further to produce a taxonomy of eight types of MOOCs, which is presented in the Table below. Table 1: Taxonomy of eight types of MOOCs by Clark (2013) Transfer MOOCs

Made MOOCs

Present existing cources placed on a MOOC platform that rely on the name of the institution or academic to attract learners. The pedagogic assumption is that they are teacher-led. Within this type, short quizzes, set texts and assessments that mimic the traditional academic course with lectures are included. Are more innovative in their use of video, avoiding talking heads. A more formal, quality driven approach is taken to the creation of material, 39


assignments, problem solving and sophisticated software-driven interactive experiences. Peer work and peer-assessment, are used to cope with the high teacher-student ratios. Synch Have a fixed start date; tend to have fixed MOOCs deadlines for assignments and assessments and a clear end date. Many argue that this helps motivation and aligns teacher availability and student cohort work. Asynch Have no or frequent start dates, tend to have no or MOOCs looser deadlines for assignments and assessments and no final end date. The pedagogic advantages of this type of MOOCs is that they can literally be taken anytime, anywhere and clearly work better over different time zones. Some authors point towards this as being a tactic to reduce dropout rates due to missed assignment deadlines. Adaptive Use adaptive algorithms to present personalised MOOCs learning experiences, based on dynamic assessment and data gathering on the course and courses. They rely on networks of pre-requisites and take learners on different, personalised paths through the content. groupMO They start with small, collaborative groups of OCs students. The aim is to increase student retention. The groups are software selected by geography, ability and type. They have mentors and rate each otherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s commitment and progress. Groups are also dissolved and reformed during the course. connectiv Rely on the connections across a network rather istMOOC than pre-defined content. The whole point is to harvest and share knowledge that is contributed by S the participants and not to see the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;courseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; as a diet of fairly, fixed knowledge. These courses tend to create their own trajectory, rather than follow a linear path. miniMOO Are short and based on specific content with an aim CSs of gaining specific skills and experiences. They are more suitable for precise domains and tasks with clear learning objectives. (Clark, 2013). Currently, several different scenarios are available for MOOC production and delivery (Patru and Balaji, 2016):

40


 the national or centralised scenario (e.g., France Université Numérique, FUN);  the industrial scenario, facilitated by private companies (e.g., Coursera, FutureLearn);  the collaborative-decentralised scenario, promoting diversity by embracing the strength of local-regional implementation (e.g., OpenupEd). In the first two scenarios, a central MOOC platform is available for the development and delivery of MOOCs. In the collaborative– decentralised scenario, institutions of regional hub partners have their own MOOC platform, and those partners share different scalable services in the development of MOOCs and in their uptake by society. Since 2012 when the interest in MOOCs began to rise, the number of researches on this topic have also increased. Many authors argue that MOOCs are especially beneficial for HEIs (Knox, 2014; Palmer, 2015; Jansen, Schuwer, Teixeira, & Aydin, 2015; Hayes, 2015). On the other hand there are also others that believe that the MOOC movement is a fad, and/ or a good means of industrialising HE, and/or another manifestation of Western colonisation (e.g., Majhanovich, 2015), whilst others see it as a threat to traditional HEIs (e.g., Finkle & Masters, 2014). In the following chapter authors present the main characteristics of MOOCs from the perspective of some Austrian HEIs.

3 Research 3.1 Method and sample Based on the literature research about the application of MOOCs in the world of HEIs, an interview guideline has been elaborated with five open lead and 23 follow-up questions, divided into three sections. The interviews have been conducted in the course of the EU-funded project BizMOOC (2016) which currently carries out 55 qualitative interviews with European HEIs. For this paper, three HEI interviews from Austria have been extracted and analysed in more detail. These structured and in-depth interviews were made by telephone, Skype or in person in April, 2016. The small Austrian sample was verified by cross-checking results from the Europeanwide sample and evaluated, embedded in this broader context, using the qualitative data analysis method based on Alan Bryman's four stages of analysis.

41


3.2 Results MOOCs can potentially offer multiple benefits for universities, but on the other hand, MOOCs can also lead to some barriers and challenges for HEIs. Apart from a general definition 1 of MOOCs, HEIs from Austria presented our sample stated that MOOCs:  Are interesting because they offer the possibility to gain knowledge for free and to offer access to knowledge.  Provide the possibility that learners can work on a topic with which they are unfamiliar or on a new topic without entry hurdles. They can review written material, get a few videos, maybe also expert opinions, and in a short timeframe receive an insight to whether a topic is interesting for them or not and if they would like to further pursue it.  Could especially be applied towards extra occupational studies in the form of blended learning scenarios or in a form of inverted classroom models.  Could be used as an additional tutoring, as a kind of lection if something is unclear or just in general by providing additional information if the learner would like to deepen some content. In the opinion of the representatives of Austrian HEIs, MOOCS often present a marketing tool, especially if the institution would like to reach out to new target groups. Furthermore, MOOCs could also be used in order to balance unequal levels of knowledge of master’s degree students. There is often a problem that students have a different pre-knowledge and either with self-produced or with external MOOCs, those students could increase their knowledge to reach a certain level. According to Hayes (2015) frequently mentioned motives for developing MOOCs in HEIs, are: boosting student recruitment; creating flexible learning opportunities (for new students); increasing institutional visibility and reputation; using MOOCs as areas of innovation (e.g., to improve the quality of oncampus offerings, contribute to the transition to more flexible and online education, improve teaching); responding to the demands of learners and societies (Jansen, Schuwer, Teixeira, & Aydin, 2015). We were also interested in benefits HEIs see in MOOCs. The results are presented below. “MOOCs are courses designed for large numbers of participants that can be accessed by anyone anywhere as long as they have an internet connection; they are open to everyone without entry qualifications, and offer a full/complete course experience online for free”. This definition was developed by different European MOOC projects (OpenupEd, 2014) and validated using a survey by Jansen & Schuwer (2015).

1

42


Benefits of MOOCs In regard to the added value of MOOCs, the answers we received from the Austrian HEIs interviewed did not differ from the ones being stated in existing researches of MOOCs (Knox, 2014; Jansen, Schuwer, Teixeira, & Aydin, 2015; Hayes, 2015). Here are the most notable benefits of MOOCs as stated by Austrian HEIs:  They are free - The biggest draw of MOOCs is that they are free. Unlike traditional online units and degrees, you do not have to pay a fee to take the course, although many of the MOOC providers do charge a fee if you want your achievements officially recognised with a certificate of completion.  They are no entry requirements - There are no barriers to entry, no complicated registration is needed; the learners only need to quickly register once and all the content is available to them for free and they are not bound by time or their location.  The link to video and other learning materials - A big added value of MOOCs is the link to videos and other learning materials. All the learning material is available on one platform; everything is structured well with concise and clear instruction/information.  Learn from the best - MOOCs are taught by various experts providing a high quality learning. You donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t need to be involved as a student at a prestigious university to take advantage of their teaching staffâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s knowledge.  Worldwide network possibility - MOOCs offer possibilities to get in contact not only with experts but also with learners in order to create an active exchange and get to know new people. There is the potential for thousands of students to be taking the same MOOC as you and, at any time of the day or night, there is someone available across the globe to chat to about the details of your course. Although there are many benefits of MOOCs, many HEIs still do not offer them. HEIs presenting our sample of the study do not offer MOOCs yet, therefore we were interested in possible reasons why this is the case in their institution and asked them what are limitations of MOOCs. Results are presented below.

Limitation of MOOCs Representatives of HEIs stated that a limitation of MOOCs compared to regular courses might be the quality as it is not possible to measure and examine the quality of the content and also the didactic 43


quality before the course. Another limitation is the large user numbers â&#x20AC;&#x201C; due to this, MOOCs are not very interactive. Although there are maybe some forums, there always need to be some teachers or tutors who are contributing on the platform. Therefore, the MOOC operator needs great personal resources. In addition, the interviewees stressed that another challenge of MOOCs might be the high dropout numbers and the question how to keep the motivation up in a MOOC. Furthermore, another limitation might also be that nobody can examine who is really participating in a MOOC, and the last but very important challenge, interviewers stated the challenge of certifying or accrediting MOOCs. In comparison to the outcomes of our empirical research, the literature research identified the following main challenges of MOOCs (Bates, 2014, Daniel, 2015):  Quality assurance of MOOCs (as also mentioned by the interviewees);  MOOCs do not lead to formal credentials, which is why they are unattractive to regular undergraduate students;  There are high costs involved for basic equipment when offering MOOCs. Another challenge in the literature is also the fact that several skills and features need to be in place for a learner to be successful in a MOOC. The most important one are: digital literacy, English language proficiency, a learning structure, an effective delivery environment, a perception of the value of learning, and critical literacy to evaluate large quantities of information (Liyanagunawardena, Williams, & Adams, 2013).

4 Conclusion MOOCs for HEIs represent an important marketing, research and lecturing tool that is applicable in any educational level. As they are open, free, and without entry requirements, HEIs offering MOOCs can attract many new students. On the other hand, very low interaction level with the provider, accreditation, non-personalised courses, and high dropout rates were limitations that are slowing down the process of introducing MOOCs in HEIs. Considering all the above mentioned benefits and challenges of MOOCs in the perspective of Austrian HEIs, it can be concluded that MOOCs could be one answer of higher education when considering the digital era and the interviewed Austrian HEIs are aware of its potential and drawbacks.

44


5 Literatura in viri 1. BizMOOC (2016). BizMOOC - Knowledge Alliance to enable a European-wide

exploitation of the potential of MOOCs for the world of business, EU-Project in the Erasmus+ programme, Key Action 2, Knowledge Alliances, Reference Number 562286-EPP-1-2015-1-AT-EPPKA2-KA. 2. Brouns, F., Mota J., Morgado L., Jansen D., Fano S., Silva A. & Teixeira A. (2014). A networked learning framework for effective MOOC design: The ECO Project approach. In António Moreira Teixeira & András Szücs, 8th EDEN Research Workshop. Challenges for Research into Open & Distance Learning: Doing Things Better: Doing Better Things (161-171). Budapest: EDEN. 3. Clark, T. (2013). "The advance of the MOOCs (massive open online courses): The impending globalisation of business education?" Education + Training, Volume 55(4/5), pp 403 – 413. 4. Finkle, T.A. & Masters, E. (2014). Do MOOCs Pose a threat to higher education. Research in Higher Education Journal, Volume 26(1-10). 5. Hayes, S. (2015). MOOCs and Quality: A Review of the Recent Literature. QAA MOOCs Network. Available at http://www.qaa.ac.uk/en/Publications/Documents/ MOOCs-and-Quality-Literature-Review-15.pdf. [Accessed: 25 October 2016]. 6. Jansen, D. Schuwer, R., Teixeira, A., & Aydin, C.H. (2015). “Comparing MOOC adoption strategies in Europe: Results from the HOME project survey”. The international review of research in open and distributed learning, Volume 16 (5). 7. Jansen, D., & Schuwer, R. (2015). Institutional MOOC strategies in Europe. Status report based on a mapping survey conducted in October - December 2014. EADTU. Available at: http://www.eadtu.eu/documents/Publications/OEenM/Institutional_MOOC_s trategies_in_Europe.pdf [Accessed: 25 October 2016]. 8. Jona, K., & Naidu, S. (2014). MOOCs: Emerging research. Distance Education, Volume 35(2), pp 141–144. 9. Knox, J. (2014). Digital culture clash: 'massive' education in the E-learning and Digital Cultures MOOC. Distance Education, Volume 35(2), pp 164-177. 10.Majhanovich, S. (2015). Neo-liberalism takes hold: Educational reform in the brave new faculty of education. Educational Practice and Theory, Volume 37(2), pp 5–23. 11.Mulder, F. & Jansen. D. (2015). MOOCs for Opening Up Education and the OpenupEd initiative. In: C. J. Bonk, M. M. Lee, T. C. Reeves, T. H. Reynolds (Eds.).The MOOCs and Open Education Around the World. New York: Routledge Tayler & Francis Group. 12.Open Education Europa (2015). The European MOOCs Scoreboard. Available at: http://openeducationeuropa.eu/sites/default/files/images/scoreboard/Score board_December_2015.png. [Accessed: 28 October 2016]. 13.OpenupEd (2014). Definition Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Available at http://www.openuped.eu/images/docs/Definition_Massive_Open_Online_Co urses.pdf [Accessed: 25 January 2017]. 14.Patru, M, and V. Balaji, 2016. Making sense of MOOCS: a guide for policy makers in developing countries. 45


15.Shah, Dhawal (2015). By the numbers: MOOCs in 2015. Available at:

https://www.class-central.com/report/moocs-2015-stats/. [Accessed: 25 January 2017]. 16.Siemens, G. (2012). MOOCs are really a platform. Elearnspace, 25 July 2012. 17.Smith, B, and Eng, M. (2013). MOOCs: A learning journey, Hybrid learning and continuing education. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp 244-255. 18.Liyanagunawardena, T. R., Adams, A., and S. A. Williams. (2013). “MOOCs: A Systematic Study of the Published Literature 2008-2012.” The international review of research in open and distributed learning. Volume 14(3). 19.Clark, T. (2013). "The advance of the MOOCs (massive open online courses): The impending globalisation of business education?" Education + Training, Volume 55(4/5), pp 403 – 413.

46


'U$QLWD0DþHN Associate Professor, University of Applied Sciences, Graz, Austria DOBA Business School Maribor, Slovenia anita.macek@fh-joanneum.at; anita.macek@net.DOBA.si Nataša Ritonija, mag. DOBA Business School Maribor, Slovenia natasa.ritonija@DOBA.si Pedja Ašanin Gole DOBA Business School Maribor, Slovenia pedja.asanin-gole@net.DOBA.si Jasna Dominko Baloh Director, DOBA Business School Maribor, Slovenia jasna.dominko-baloh@DOBA.si ,UHQD$PLþ5DYQLN DOBA Business School Maribor, Slovenia irena.amic-ravnik@DOBA.si

Prednosti virtualne mobilnosti v visokošolskem izobraževanju – primer DOBA Fakultete Povzetek Virtualna mobilnost v visokem šolstvu je danes izjemnega pomena, VDM RPRJRþD mobilnost tudi tistim študentom, ki se ne morejo YNOMXþLWLYSURJUDPHWUDGLFLRQDOQHPRELOQRVWL9SULþXMRþHPSRJODYMX avtorici prikazujeta komnikacijski in interakcijski model virtualne mobilnosti DOBA fakultete. Dodatno prikažeta tudi prednosti, ki so jih izpostavili študentje, ki so bili v preteklosti na DOBA fakulteti YNOMXþHQL Y SURJUDPH YLUWXDOQH PRELOQRVWL 1D WHPHOMX UH]XOWDWRY vprašalnika avtorici kot glavne prednosti virtualne mobilnosti izpostavljata napredek medulturnih kompetenc, napredek znanja DQJOHãNHJDMH]LNDLQSR]LWLYQHXþLQNHYNOMXþLWYHYPHGQDURGQHWLPH .OMXþQH EHVHGH virtualna mobilnost, prednosti, komunikacijski in interakcijski model Koda JEL klasifikacije:I23 47


Advantages of virtual mobility in higher education â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the case of DOBA Business School Abstract Nowadays virtual mobility is of big importance in higher education because it enables mobility to students who are unable to engage in traditional mobility programmes. In the proposed chapter authors present a communication and interaction model in virtual mobility at DOBA Business School and discuss advantages of virtual mobility that have been noted by DOBA Business School students who were engaged in virtual mobility programmes. Based on questionnaire results authors expose the main advantages of virtual mobility for students in the form of an improvement of intercultural competencies, an improvement of English knowledge and positive effects of participation in the international teams. Keywords: virtual interaction model

mobility,

advantages,

communication

and

JEL classification code:I23

1 Introduction As the interest in virtual mobility has been increasing in the recent years, the number of studies on this topic have also been increasing rapidly. Most of them are focusing on the definition, while others are focused on the effects of virtual mobility. According to Vilhelmson and Thulin (2005, p. 1) virtual mobility replaces face-to-face contacts with virtual ones. For Pursuea et al. (2005) virtual mobility is a tool that fosters the use of e-learning. According to Elearningeurope.info (2009) virtual mobility is the use of information and communication technologies with an aim of obtaining the same benefits as with physical mobility but without having the need to travel. For Vriens et al. (2010, p. 1) virtual mobility is often used as an alternative for physical mobility. They defined virtual mobility as the set of ICTsupported activities that realize cross-border, collaborative experiences in a context of teaching and/or learning. The recent years have been very rich in publications referring to the effects of virtual mobility. In their study, Bijnens et al. (2005) emphasised that virtual mobility can reduce obstacles and help 48


persons with disabilities to gain equivalent international experience as they would with physical mobility. Van Petegem (2010) exposed that the advantages of information technologies make remote regions and individuals more easily accessible. This enables equal opportunities and possibilities for all. In his study of international learning and diversity, Otten (2000) emphasised that international experiences, which individuals acquire through mobility during their study years, benefit an individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s personal development and employability. PoulovĂĄ et al. (2009) states that virtual mobility is the opportunity for collaboration between people from different backgrounds and cultures, who are working and studying together and are not located in the same country. Schreurs et al. (2006, p. 4) exposed that the main benefit of virtual mobility is allowed collaborations between foreign students and teachers that are no longer location dependent. According to Bijnens and de Beeck (2006) virtual mobility is also important for institutions as it encourages them to adapt and further develop their pedagogical models. Furthermore, virtual mobility can also enhance the quality of courses and curricula (EADTU network, 2007) and can contribute to the overall quality of academic education (C. Brey and e-move project partners, 2007). Virtual mobility can also be important in preparing students for physical mobility. In this case the elements of physical and virtual mobility are combined in order to enhance the advantages of both approaches to the mobility of students and teachers (de Beeck et al. 2007). This chapter analyses the advantages of virtual mobility with the help of the data obtained from the students who were involved in virtual mobility at DOBA Business School during the last 11 years. Section 2 provides a communication and interaction model in virtual mobility at DOBA Business School. After presenting the methodology and sample, Section 3 discusses the advantages of virtual mobility as seen by the students that were engaged in virtual mobility courses at DOBA Business School. Section 4 draws conclusions.

2

Communication and interaction model in virtual mobility at DOBA BUSINESS SCHOOL

DOBA Business School started to implement virtual mobility courses eleven years ago. Students from different countries work together in multicultural and multinational groups and gain international experiences and competencies from the professional field with the help of global communication technologies. DOBA Business School offers three forms of virtual mobility: international virtual summer school, joint implementation of courses with international higher education institutions and international week. Students can choose between short courses, parts of courses and regular courses offered 49


by DOBA Business School. Since students receive ECTS points for successfully completing the courses they can have their institution recognise the completed study obligations. Virtual mobility courses allow several types of interaction and communication: interaction with the VLE (virtual learning environment), interaction with the study material, and interactions between the teacher, the tutor and the students which are facilitated via communication tools (synchronous and asynchronous communication). DOBA Business School has thus designed an interaction and communication model in virtual mobility courses, which is defined through the prism of people, tools and content/activities (Ritonija et al, 2016). It is shown in Picture 1 below.

Picture 1: Communication and interaction model (own source)

50


The prism of people: Teacher, tutor and student interaction in virtual mobility courses There are three important types of interactions for successful implementation of a virtual mobility course: cooperation between teachers and tutors, tutor-student interaction and student-student interaction. Good cooperation between teachers and tutors is based on different coordination meetings between teachers and tutors. Nowadays teachers are also moderators and facilitators who provide guidance and support for students and give timely content-related and continuous feedback on studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performance. Tutorâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;student interaction is another type of interaction in virtual mobility courses. Tutors are responsible for motivating and guiding students, monitoring their participation and performance, counselling and giving encouraging feedback. Tutors encourage discussion and debate and help students to become self-directed and self-motivated learners. The third type of interaction is student-student interaction which is carefully designed by teachers. Students have a lot of opportunities to interact with each other: virtual team work, peer-reviews, sharing of ideas and practices, etc. The prism of activities: Activities to promote interaction and communication in virtual mobility online courses Virtual mobility courses require careful course design and preparation. The teacher, who is a course designer, has to structure and plan all studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; activities in advance. A lot of effort and time is dedicated to designing the course, to preparing relevant context and interesting tasks for students. The selected course activities have to enable students to gain experience by enacting or simulating the performance of competent professionals in the real world. They require students to be in constant communication and interaction with the tutor, their classmates as well the teacher. The activities that promote interaction and communication best are: debates and presentations, comments, discussions, brainstorming, role playing, project based learning activities, virtual round tables, team projects activities, etc. Teachers encourage students to become actively engaged learners, responsible for their own learning by incorporating interactive and reflective writing activities. Such activities help students raise their awareness of their own learning processes

51


The prism of tools: Communication tools for enhancing interaction and communication in virtual mobility online courses Choosing the appropriate communication tools which support the tasks and thus encourage studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; communication and interaction is of vital importance. The digital tools DOBA Business School uses and VLE offer many possibilities for communication and interaction. Different types of communication are the basis for choosing the most appropriate tool (e.g. team of students to team of students, teacher to students, student to the whole group, etc.) and different types of activities (e.g. simulations, games, project presentations, role-playing, discussion). In the last few years synchronous communication tools are being more frequently used in virtual mobility courses (Skype for Business, Blackboard Collaborate, Yammer) although a forum is still the most commonly used tool. Students also often use other tools, such as Viber, Twitter, Facebook Padlet, wikispace, YouTube, etc. Our experience in virtual mobility courses show that too many tools can create a ''technologies overload'' for students. It is important that students are comfortable using different tools since being overwhelmed by using too many tools may negatively affect the course.

3 Advantages of virtual mobility Throughout the years of implementing the virtual mobility, a survey was conducted among the participating students regarding their satisfaction with the implementation of the courses. The sample comprises of 283 students who took one of the courses offered within the framework of virtual mobility in the last 11 years. Answers were analysed with SPSS statistical software. In the following Figure we are presenting expected key advantages of virtual mobility as seen by the students.

52


45% 39%

40% 35%

31%

30% 25% 20% 15%

14%

12%

10% 4%

5% 0% gain from participation in international teams

improve knowledge in online learning

improve knowledge of information technology

improve intercultural competencies

improve knowledge of English

Figure 1: Virtual mobility â&#x20AC;&#x201C; which competencies do students expect to develop (own source) As evident from the Figure 1, the main advantages that students expect from the virtual mobility are the improvement of intercultural competencies (39% of respondents) and an improved knowledge of English (31% of respondents). This is followed by the opportunities arising from participation in an international team (14% of respondents) and improved knowledge of online learning (12% of respondents). Improved knowledge on information technology (4 % of respondents) is the least expected advantage of the virtual mobility courses by the students. In the 2016/2017 academic year we also implemented virtual mobility of Serbian-speaking undergraduate students of the Marketing, Social Media and Public Relations programme from DOBA Business School with postgraduate students of the Strategic Communication Management of the Institute of Communication Studies (ICS), Skopje (Macedonia). The virtual mobility was called Strategic and Crisis Communication and included 27 students: 12 Serbian-speaking students (DOBA Business School) and 15 Macedonian-speaking students (ICS), of which three students were not active. Students could choose Serbian or English as the language of communication and all chose Serbian. At the end of virtual mobility, an online survey was implemented among the students (83% response rate). Students emphasised the intercultural adaptability and tolerance and the exchange of experience as the greatest advantages of virtual mobility or working in mixed Serbian/Macedonian teams. We can also find similar results in other researches that dealt with the same topic. Hammer and Bennett (2003), Otten (2000), Bijnens 53


and de Beeck (2006) exposed that the improved intercultural competencies, improved English knowledge and improved technological skills are the main expected advantages from virtual mobility. According to EuroPACE (2010) an important advantage of virtual mobility is the international cooperation and establishment of partnerships among individuals and institutions. Bijnens and Op de Beeck (2006) stressed that virtual mobility reduces the socioeconomic barriers and therefore in some way also ensures social inclusion. Virtual mobility also enables lifelong learning for all students (C. Brey and e-move project partners, 2007). Expected competencies are closely connected with factors that motivated students to join virtual mobility. According to the results of our study students became part of virtual mobility due to a new challenge that virtual mobility brings, for the reason of communicating with students from other countries and because they found the topic of the course interesting. The students also pointed out that they joined the virtual mobility course in order to develop the following competencies: personal development, development of linguistic skills, development in the field of culture, academic development and others. If we compare the results within the years, we can expose that academic development, communication with international students and personal development are the most important motivation factors in the last years. On the other hand, gaining additional credit points, curiosity, and gaining experience in online learning are motivational factors that were exposed to a lesser extent.

4 Conclusion Because of numerous advantages brought by virtual mobility, the number of institutions that implement virtual mobility courses is increasing. At DOBA Business School, virtual mobility was first implement in the 2005/2006 academic year. So far, over 2400 students from 36 different countries have participated. Satisfaction with virtual mobility programmes is measured every year with a survey conducted among students and the obtained results allow us to continually increase the quality of implementation and thus increase the schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s competitiveness. The results of the survey presented in this chapter show that the most frequent advantages of virtual mobility for students are the improvement of their intercultural competencies, improvement of English and the positive effects of participation in international teams.

54


5 Literatura in viri 1. Bijnens H., Boussemaere M. Van Petegem W., (2005) European Cooperation

in Education through Virtual Mobility. Being Mobile Handbook, Leuven, March 2006. Retrieved from www.being-mobile.net [18/10/2016]. 2. Bijnens, H.; Op de Beeck, I. (2006, February 7). The Integration of Virtual Mobility in Europe. Retreived from http://www.elearningeuropa.info/directory/index.php?page=doc&doc_id=72 45 &doclng=6 [18. 10. 2016]. 3. C. Brey and e-move project partners. (2007). Guide to Virtual Mobility. Retrieved from http://145.20.178.4/Portals/0/documents/The_Guide_to_Virtual_Mobility.p df [18/10/2016]. 4. EADTU network. (2007). Retrieved October 22, 2009, from An operational conception of virtual mobility: http://www.eadtu.nl/e-move/ 5. Elearningeurope.info. (2009). Glossary:Virtual Mobility. Retrieved from http://www.elearning europa.info/main/index.php?page=glossary&abc=V [18. 10. 2016]. 6. EuroPACE. (2010). Interests â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Virtual mobility. Retrieved from http://www.europace.org/ interest3.php [18. 10. 2016]. 7. Hammer, M.R. and M.J. Bennett. (2003). The Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI). Portland, OR: Intercultural Communication Institute. 8. Op de Beeck, I.; Bijnens, H.; Michielsens, C.; Van Petegem, W. (2007). Extending and supporting physical student mobility through virtual mobility. Nicosia (Cyprus). 9. Otten, M. (2000). Impacts of cultural diversity at home. In: Crowther, P. ed. Internationalisation at Home. A Position paper 10.Otten, M. (2000). Impacts of cultural diversity at home. In: Crowther, P. ed. Internationalisation at Home. A Position paper 11.Poulovi3Ă˝HUQi06YRERGRYi/  University Network â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Efficiency of Virtual Mobility. Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS/IASME International Conference on educational technologies (EDUTEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; 09), p.p.8792. 12.Pursuea, M.; Warsta, M.; Laaksonen, I. (2005). Virtual University-A Vehicle for Development, Cooperation And Internationalisation In Teaching And Learning. European Journal of Engineering Educations, Vol. 30 (No. 4), p.p.439-446. 13.5LWRQLMD1$PLĂž,'RPLQNR-Baloh, J. (2016). ÂťPedagogical model for enhancing communication in internationally mixed groups in virtual mobility.ÂŤ Proceedings. Belgrade: Belgrade Metropolitan University, str. 8288. 14.Schreurs, B., Verjans, S., & Van Petegem, W. (2006). Towards Sustainable Virtual Mobility in Higher Education Institutions. EADTU Annual Conference 2006. 15.Van Petegem, W. (2010). Virtual Mobility and International Networking. Virtual Campus conference, Granada (Spain). 16.Vilhelmson, B.; Thulin, E. (2005). Virtual Mobility of Urban Youth: ICTbased Communication in Sweden. Journal of Economic & Social Geography, 96 (5), p.p. 477-487.

55


17.Vriens, M.; Achten, M.; Op de Beeck, I.; Van Petegem, W. (2010). Virtual

mobility as an alternative or complement to physical mobility. Retrieved from http://i2agora.odl.unimiskolc.hu/i2agora_home/data/P3_D6_ERACON_Virtual%20mobility_paper. pdf [18. 10. 2016].

56


Mag. Franci Pivec ViĹĄji predavatelj DOBA Fakulteta Maribor, Slovenija franci.pivec@izum.si

Stanje raziskav visokega ĹĄolstva v svetu in Sloveniji Povzetek Visoko ĹĄolstvo postaja polje globalne tekmovalnosti in to je v zadnjih desetletjih vplivalo na hiter razvoj raziskav visokega ĹĄolstva. Nekdanje priloĹžnostne refleksije o vlogi univerz, so postale redna dejavnost organizacij za raziskovanje visokega ĹĄolstva, ki tvorijo Ĺže razmeroma gosto svetovno mreĹžo institutov s standardiziranimi WHPDWVNLPL SRGURĂžML ]QDQVWYHQLPL ĂžDVRSLVL NRQferencami in strokovnimi zdruĹženji. K temu je treba dodati tudi institucionalne raziskave v univerzitetnih administracijah. V Sloveniji je prva UD]LVNRYDOQDRUJDQL]DFLMDQDWHPSRGURĂžMX- CRU (Center za razvoj univerze) nastala na zahtevo ĹĄtudentskih protestov 1968-72, po nastanku samostojne Slovenije pa je bila ukinjena in danes take LQVWLWXFLMHQLPDPRĂžHSUDYELELOD]HORSRWUHEQD .OMXĂžQH EHVHGH: raziskave visokega raziskave, CRU-Center za razvoj univerze

ĹĄolstva,

institucionalne

Koda JEL klasifikacije: I23

State of the higher education research in World and in Slovenia Abstract Higher education is becoming a field of global competition and in the last decades this has contributed to the rapid development of higher education research. Former reflections about the role of universities, which used to be rather rare, have become a regular activity of organisations specialising in higher education research; these organisations form a fairly dense global network of institutes dealing with standardised thematic areas, scientific journals, conferences 57


and professional bodies. In Slovenia, CRU (Center za razvoj univerze, University Development Centre) was the first research institution in this field, established at the request of student protesters between 1968 and 1972. After the creation of independent Slovenia, CRU was dissolved and today Slovenia has no such institution although we are very much in need of it. Keywords: higher education research, institutional research, CRUCenter for university development JEL classification code : I23 Ko smo pred pol stoletja sestavljali prvi slovenski visokoťolski zakon, JDMHPDWHPDWLN)UDQFH.ULüDQLÞSRVSUHPLOVNRPHQWDUMHPGDMHYVD WHüDYDYWHPNHUQHYHPRNDMMHXQLYHU]DýHELYHGHOLELSUHSURVWR zapisali V Ljubljani je univerza, ker pa tega ne vemo, tudi sto ]DNRQVNLK ÞOHQRY WHJD QH]QDQMD QH PRUH QDGRPHVWLWL .ULüDQLÞ  ýHSUDYMHHQDQDMVWDUHMãLKLQVWLWXFLMNDUMLKGDQHVGHOXMHMH univerza vse prej kot samoumevna in je ťe zmeraj 'univerzum', ki Y]EXMDÞXGHQMHLQL]]LYDNUD]LVNRYDQMX

1 Namesto uvoda - visokoĹĄolska liga Visoko ĹĄolstvo se je neverjetno namnoĹžilo in njegov zemljevid se je popolnoma spremenil. Pet drĹžav â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Kitajska, Indija, ZDA, Brazilija in Indonezija vpisujejo danes polovico od veĂž NRW  PLOLMRQRY ĂŁWXGHQWRYQDVYHWX6OHGLMRMLP1LJHULMD)LOLSLQL%DQJODGHĂŁ7XUĂžLMD Etiopija, Rusija, Iran, JuĹžna Koreja, Malezijaâ&#x20AC;Ś Ĺ ele za njimi se s po tremi milijoni ĹĄtudentov razvrstijo tradicionalne akademske SRNUDMLQH1HPĂžLMD$QJOLMD)UDQFLja, Italija (UNESCO, 2017). Razlike v gmotnem poloĹžaju univerz so ogromne, vendar je vsakrĹĄno podcenjevanje na tej podlagi huda zmota. Tudi glavni pretoki znanja XELUDMRQRYHVPHULLQĂžHQSUNGRY6ORYHQLMLPLVOLGDERSRXĂžHYDO Kitajce, le dokazuje popolno nepoznavanje razmer. 9VDNR OHWR ] QHVWUSQRVWMR SULĂžDNXMHPR REMDYR OHVWYLFH QDMEROMĂŁLK univerz ARWU, ki jo od 2003. sestavlja InĹĄtitut za visoko ĹĄolstvo Univerze Jiao Tong v Ĺ anghaju. Leto kasneje se je pojavila svetovna lestvica Times QS, leta 2007 tajvanska lestvica PRSPRU, takoj za tem ĹĄe ameriĹĄka lestvica USNWR. To ĹĄe niso vse globalne lestvice in tudi EU od leta 2014 objavlja svojo U-Multirank. Vsaj 50 drĹžav redno izdeluje ĹĄe svoje nacionalne lestvice, tako da je visoko ĹĄolstvo dobilo ]QDĂžDM YVHVSloĹĄne dirke, v kateri je udeleĹženih 6.000 evropskih in 30.000 svetovnih visokoĹĄolskih institucij â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ĹĄtevilki sta vzeti iz ĹĄe ene globalne lestvice Ranking Web of Universities madridskega Cybermetrics Lab (2017). 58


8QLYHU]HVHSULMDYOMDMRYWHNPRþHSUDYWYHJDMRUD]RþDUDQMHGRPDþLK

QDYLMDþHY  NHU MLK  QL PHG SUYLPL SHWVWRWLPL 7RGD PDQMNDWL QH smejo, ker jih potem ni nikjer â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ni jih za ambiciozne vlade, za mednarodne fundacije, za najboljÅ¡e raziskovalce in niti za najsposobnejÅ¡e Å¡tudente. 'Rangiranje univerz' ima dalekosežne SRVOHGLFH ]DWR VSURÃ¥D SROHPLNH R WHP NGR JD RSUDYOMD QD þHP temelji in ali res kaže pravo kakovost? V ZDA in na Kitajskem ima 'rangiranje univerz' dolgo tradicijo, v Evropi pa je leta 1989. Spiegel SUYLþRSR]RULOQD]PRWHR QDMEROMãLK nemÅ¡kih univerzah', po združitvi REHK 1HPþLM SD MH L]NRULVWLO NULWLþQR REUDYQDYR Y]KRGQRQHPãNLK visokih Å¡ol in jo obrnil tudi k zahodnonemÅ¡kemu visokemu Å¡olstvu. Daniel in Hornbostel (1993) sta s svojo analizo Spieglove rang liste XQLYHU] SRY]URþLOD ãRN Ln radikalno spremenila tradicionalne predstave o nemÅ¡kem univerzitetnem Olimpu. 9LVRNRãROVNHSROLWLNHVHQDREMDYOMHQHOHVWYLFHRG]LYDMRQDGYDQDþLQD (Hazelkorn, 2009):  z neo-liberalnim modelom vertikalne diferenciacije in NRQFHQWULUDQMD RGOLþQRVWL Y maloÅ¡tevilnih manjÅ¡ih visokoÅ¡olskih institucijah, s katerimi potem 'tekmujejo' v svetovni ligi (npr. .LWDMVND)UDQFLMD1HPþLMD-DSRQVND.RUHMD5XVLMD   s social-demokratskim modelom horizontalne porazdelitve podpore kakovosti po vsej državi, kjer za to obstajajo dobri nastavki (npr. Avstralija, Irska, NorveÅ¡ka, Avstrija). So tudi visokoÅ¡olske politike, ki jih uvrstitev njihovih univerz domala ne zanima, vendar je to slabo znamenje, saj pretežno pomeni, da vlada podcenjuje vlogo znanja. Sicer pa je bistveno spoznanje, da ODKNR PHUMHQMH LQ RFHQMHYDQMH QDSDþQLK VWYDUL SRY]URþL WXGL KXGH zastranitve v razvoju visokega Å¡olstva. Richard Münch (2009) XSUDYLþHQR RSR]DUMD QD Y]SRUHGQLFR PHG PHGLMHP NL SRVWDQH VSRURþLOR  NDQDGVNHJD ILOR]RID 0DUVKDOD 0F/XKDQD Ln 'kazalci pri rangiranju, ki postanejo cilj' delovanja visokega Å¡olstva. Zato mora imeti sleherno 'rangiranje' ter njegovo interpretiranje svojo XWHPHOMLWHY Y VLVWHPDWLþQHP UD]LVNRYDQMX YLVRNHJD ãROVWYD .MHU slednjega ni, objavljenih lestvic niti prebrati ne znajo, saj vemo, da podatki sami od sebe ne govorijo, nepoznavalcu pa sploh ne povedo QLþHVDU

2 Refleksije visokega Å¡olstva Na sploÅ¡no sicer velja krilatica, da univerzitetniki, ki sicer 'vedo vse o vsem' najraje pogledajo stran, ko ostrina njihovHJDNULWLþQHJDXPD WUþLREODVWQRLQVWLWXFLMRâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; XQLYHU]HQDMELELOHL]YHQþDVDLQSURVWRUD WDNRUHNRþSODYDMRYSURVWRUX IUHLVFKZHEHQH

.DUO-DVSHUV   59


je to nezanimanje pojasnil z ljubosumnim varovanjem lastnih akademskih pozicij, razmisleki o univerzi pa dejansko pomenijo tudi vtikanje v domene drugih. Znamenita je njegova primera z opicami v Svetem gaju Benaresa: »Na vsaki kokosovi palmi sedi opica, vse se zdijo zelo miroljubne in se sploh ne zanimajo ena za drugo; ko pa bi rada kaka opica splezala na drugo palmo, pride do divje obrambe in obmetavanja s kokosovimi orehi. Težnja takšne medsebojne RE]LUQRVWLSULSHOMHQD]DGQMHGRWHJDGDMHYVDNGRYVYRMHPREPRþMX ODKNRSRSROQRPDVDPRYROMHQLQQDNOMXþQRXVPHUMHQWDNRGDELVWYR XQLYHU]H QL YHþ Vkupna, ampak samo vsakokrat posameznikova VWYDUPHGWHPNRVHWLVWRNDUQDMELELORVNXSQRVNUþL WDNWQR QD nekaj formalnega« (Jaspers, prav tam, 64). Gotovo bi lahko utemeljili korenine visokega šolstva v Platonovi Akademiji, Ptolomejevi Aleksandrini, Konfucijevih podukih, indijski Nalanda šoli, islamski medresi v Kordobi. Toda 'naša' univerza je otrok evropskega fevdalizma in njegovega ohlapnega nadzora, ko GUåDYD ãH QL UD]YLOD VYRMHJD DSDUDWD LQ MH GRSXãþDOD UD]OLþQH 'avtonomne teritorije'. Najprej je prišel pod udar 'duhovni prostor' univerze, ki so ga zamejile papeške bule, akademiki pa so se bolj ali PDQM SURVWRYROMQR QDY]HOL FHUNYHQHJD REQDãDQMD YNOMXþQR V FHOLEDWRP3RGWHPLSRJRMLMHELODXQLYHU]DXSUDYLþHQDL]GDMDWLREþH veljavne licence o usposobljenosti svojih slušateljev za skrbnike duše WHRORJLMD WHOHVD PHGLFLQD LQSUHPRåHQMD SUDYR 6þDVRPDVRNRW enoten pogoj za dostop do teh fakultet uvedli artes liberales (filozofsko fakulteto), znotraj tega okvira pa se je kot zadnja izoblikovala še scientia (naravoslovna fakulteta). 6ORYHQFL VPR VH ] YLVRNLP ãROVWYRP SUYLþ QHSRVUHGQR VUHþDOL Y razmerah jezuitskega Ratio et institutio studiorum, takoj za tem pa že z napoleonsko ter terezijansko-jožefinsko univerzo, ki sta obe agitirali za ra]VYHWOMHQLDEVROXWL]HPLQVHVNOLFHYDOLQDGUåDYQLSHþDW .RMRSRJOHGDPRGRYROMRGGDOHþMHGDQDãQMDXQLYHU]DãH]PHUDMQD WHMWRþNLNDUSDMHOHYLGH]YNRQNUHWQRVWLKSDMHþLVWRQHNDMGUXJHJD 2SLVDWLLQSRMDVQLWLWRUD]OLþQRVWMHYVHSUHMNRWSUHSURsta stvar. Podobno kot Jaspers, so v preteklosti tudi mnogi drugi najbolj SURQLFOMLYLPLVOHFLRGþDVDGRþDVDQDVWDYLOLRJOHGDORXQLYHU]L.DQWR sporu med fakultetami, Schelling o metodi akademskega študija, kardinal Newman o ideji duhovno spravljive univerze, Ortega y Gasset o poslanstvu univerze, Illich o razšolanju družbe, Riesman o akademski revoluciji, Habermas o demokratizaciji univerze, Kerr o multiverzi, Derrida o postmoderni univerzi, Clark o podjetniški univerzi, Readings o razvalinah univerze, Williams o huxlejevski NUDVQLQRYLXQLYHU]LLWG,QYHGQRVHMHSRXþQRYUQLWLN:LOKHOPXYRQ Humboldtu, ki je bil vsega 16 mesecev pruski šolski minister, pa je z 60


'Einheit von Lehre und Forschung' ustvaril visokošolski sistem za uspešno izvedbo svetovne industrijske revolucije (Altbach, Salmi, 2011).

3 Organizirano raziskovanje visokega šolstva Ulrich Teichler (2015) ugotavlja, da je raziskovanje visokega šolstva v Evropi v resnici novo in po obsegu še zelo skromno raziskovalno SRGURþMHNLVHPXSRVYHþDNDNãQLKUD]LVNRYDOFHY9VYHWRYQHP merilu in upoštevaje tudi institucionalne raziskave visokega šolstva GHOXMH QD WHP SRGURþMX NDNãQLK  UD]LVNRYDOFHY $OWEDFK 2014). Govorimo o raziskovalcih, ki so polno zaposleni z raziskovanjem visokega ãROVWYD RE QMLK SD MH ãH YHþ WLVRþ VWURNRYQMDNRY NL REþDVQR ]DLGHMR QD WR SRGURþMH NHU VH GRWLND QMLKRYHJDRVQRYQHJDSUHGPHWDSURXþHYDQMDDOLSDMLKNWHPXSULVLOL opravljanje kakšne odgovorne vloge v visokem šolstvu in jim osebnostna struktura ne dopušþD GD EL GHORYDOL QD SDPHW  2EVWDMDMR YHOLNH UD]OLNH PHG GUåDYDPL LQ R GROJRURþQL ]DVLGUDQRVWL teh raziskav lahko govorimo le pri ZDA in Kitajski. Vsekakor pa gre za raziskovalno dejavnost, podobno tistim družboslovnim znanostim, ki so »definirane s prHGPHWRP VYRMHJD SURXþHYDQMD LQ QH V samosvojo znanstveno disciplino« (Teichler, 1996, 433). »Raziskave YLVRNHJDãROVWYDVR L HPSLULþQHSRVYRMLQDUDYL LL PHGQDURGQHLQ nad-narodne po svojem komparativnem dizajnu in (iii) eksplicitno podprte s teorijo« (Weiler, 2008). 2GORþLOHQ MH ELO UD]PDK YLVRNHJD ãROVWYD NRQHF SHWGHVHWLK LQ Y ãHVWGHVHWLKOHWLKNRVHMHQMHJRYREVHJSRGHVHWHULOLQQLELORPRJRþH YHþ]DQLNDWLGDVRHOLWLVWLþQLPRGHOLXQLYHU]SUHåLYHOL3RMDYLODVHMH resna grožnja, da bo celoten razvoj visokega šolstva »podivjal«, s slepim prilagajanjem trenutnim potrebam zašel v nerešljiva strukturna neskladja, predvsem pa z zniževanjem kriterijev NDNRYRVWL  QDPHVWR ]QDQMD ]DþHO UD]PQRåHYDWL ªSROL]REUDåHQRVW© (Adorno, 1972). Prvi v Evropi so to dojeli v Združenem Kraljestvu, VOHGLOD MH âYHGVND SD 1L]R]HPVND LQ 1HPþLMD  3UYL LQVWLWXWL ]D raziskovanje visokega šolstva v Evropi so nastali v šestdesetih in VHGHPGHVHWLKOHWLKYHþNRWVWRSDMLKMHQDVWDORãHOHSROHWX /H SRORYLFD MH YHþMLK UD]LVNRYDOQLK RUJDQL]DFLM ] YHþ NRW GHVHWLPL raziskovalci. Leta 1965 je bila v Londonu ustanovljena Družba za raziskovanje visokega šolstva (SRHE). Leta 1979 je nastala Evropska zveza za institucionalne raziskave (EAIR). Prva Evropska zveza za raziskovanje in razvoj visokega šolstva (EARDHE) je bila ustanovljena leta 1985., leta 1993 pa še Mednarodni konzorcij za razvoj izobraževanja (ICED). Veliko vlogo kot pobudnice in povezovalke raziskovanja visokega šolstva igrajo multilateralne 61


organizacije UNESCO, OECD, EU-ERASMUS, EUA (Evropsko združenje univerz) in ESF (Evropska znanstvena fundacija). 9]SRUHGQR VR ]DþHOL L]KDMDWL  þDVRSLVL NRW QSU +LJKHU (GXFDWLRQ (1972), Studies in Higher Education (1976), Higher Education in Europe (1976), European Journal of Higher Education (1978), Higher Education Policy (1988), Tertiary Education Policy and Management   LWG 1D VYHWX MH GDQHV SUHNR  ]QDQVWYHQLK þDVRSLVRY VSHFLDOL]LUDQLK]DWRSRGURþMH Leta 1988. ustanovljen Konzorcij raziskovalcev visokega šolstva (CH(5 MH]DþHODNWLYQRVSRGEXMDWLUD]YRMWHJDUD]LVNRYDQMDSRYVHM Evropi in med dvajsetimi državami, ki so imele kaj pokazati, je bila takrat tudi Slovenija. Do današnjega dne je število takih institutov naraslo na 66 v 22 evropskih državah, žal pa med njLPLåHYHþNRW OHWQLYHþQDãHJD&HQWUD]DUD]YRMXQLYHU]H &58 9='$MH takšnih institutov in na Kitajskem 45. Avstralija je dobila svoje najvažnejše centre za raziskovanje visokega šolstva leta 1968 v Melbournu, kjer izdajajo tudi Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 1975. v Canberi in 1982. v Sidneyu. Avstrija ima glavno bazo na Univerzi Alpe-Jadran v Celovcu, ki jo je že v sedemdesetih zasnoval ekspert OECD Edmund van Trotsenburg, ki nam je prijateljsko svetoval pri mariborski univerzi. Najstarejša v Kanadi sta Biro za mednarodno izobraževanje (ustanovljen 1968) in Skupina za visoko šolstvo na Univerzi Toronto (1977). Najstarejši kitajski center je Nacionalna akademija za upravljanje izobraževanja iz leta 1955., najbolj znan pa je Center za univerze svetovnega ranga šanghajske univerze Jiao Tong. Na Kitajskem izhaja 41 rednih znanstvenih periodik o raziskovanju visokega šolstva, ki so vedno bolj opazne tudi v mednarodnem SURVWRUX1D+UYDãNHPVHYLVRNHPXãROVWYXREþDVQRSRVYHþDQMihov Institut za razvoj izobraževanja v Zagrebu, ustanovljen 1999. Na ýHãNHPRGOHWDGHOXMHPRþDQ&HQWHU]DYLVRNRãROVNHãWXGLMHY Pragi. Najbolj znan finski institut za visokošolske raziskave je 1968. ustanovljen v Jyväskyli, le malo mlajši in enako znan pa je Reserach Unit for Sociology of Education (RUSE) v Turkuju. Prvi francoski center Institute de Recherche sur l'Economie de l'Education (IREDU) MH ELO XVWDQRYOMHQ  Y 'LMRQX 9 1HPþLML MH JODYQR YORJR SUL NRQVWLWXLUDQMX FHORWQHJD SRGURþMD UDziskav visokega šolstva odigral Teichlerjev International Centre for Higher Education Research (INCHER) iz Kassla, ustanovljen leta 1978., najstarejši pa je Bayerisches Staatsinstitut für Hochschulforschung und Hochschulplanung (IHF), ki ga je ustanovila Bavarska vlada. V QHPãþLQL L]KDMD  þDVRSLVRY R YLVRNHP ãROVWYX 1D PDGåDUVNL univerzi Korvinus deluje Center for Higher Education Research 62


&,+(6 NLL]GDMDWXGLþDVRSLVVVYRMHJDSRGURþMD9,QGLMLMHGDQHV najpomembnejÅ¡i Center for Policy Research in Higher Education (CPRHE) na Nacionalni univerzi za planiranje in upravljanje izobraževanja, ki redno izdaja tudi India Higher Education Report. Vplivna Ellen Hazelkorn vodi Higher Education Policy Research Unit (HEPRU) v Dublinu kot najvidnejÅ¡i irski institXWQDWHPSRGURþMXNL opravi veliko dela tudi za UNESCO in OECD. Japonska ima razvejano PUHÃ¥RUD]LVNRYDOQLKFHQWURY]DYLVRNRãROVWYRNDWHUH]DþHWQLNSDMH že davnega leta 1948. ustanovljen oddelek za raziskave visokega Å¡olstva pri Nacionalnem institutu za raziskave izobraževalne politike. Na Japonskem izhaja 18 znanstvenih revij o raziskavah visokega Å¡olstva. Na Univerzi Oslo deluje Higher Education: Institutional dynamics and Knowledge cultures (HEIK) ter od leta 1969. Nordic Institute for studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; skupni nordijski institut za Å¡tudije inovacij in raziskave visokega Å¡olstva. Pri Poljski rektorski konferenci deluje Institut za družbo znanja. Portugalski Centre for Research in Higher Education Policies (CIPES) sodi med evropsko uveljavljene raziskovalne centre za visoko Å¡olstvo. Rusi Å¡ele v zadnjem obdobju dohitevajo razvoj na tem SRGURþMX LQ QDMEROM DNWLYHQ MH &HQWU PHÃ¥GXQDURGQRL konkurentosposobnosti visÅ¡ego obrazovanija na Institutu za izobraževanje Nacionalne raziskovalne univerze v Moskvi. V Srbiji naj ELYLVRNRãROVWYRSURXþHYDOQMLKRY&HQWHU]DL]REUDÃ¥HYDOQRSROLWLNR (CEP). Od svoje ustanovitve leta 1913. opravlja primerjalne Å¡tudije ]DVYRMLKþODQLF=GUXÃ¥HQMHXQLYHU]&RPPRQZHDOWKDLQWDWUDGLFLMD tudi danes pomaga, da so raziskave visokega Å¡olstva v Združenem .UDOMHVWYX ]HOR UD]YLWH R þHPHU SULþD WXGL NDNãQLK  ]QDQVWYHQLK þDVRSLVRY V WHJD SRGURþMD ] YLVRNLP IDNWRUMHP YSOLYD  .RW VPR Ã¥H ]DSLVDOL VR ='$ QD WHP SRGURþMX ]JRGED ]DVH ] PQRJLPL raziskovalnimi instituti, katerih ustanovitev pretežno datira v SHWGHVHWDLQãHVWGHVHWDOHWDLQWXGLYVDNGUXJL]QDQVWYHQLþDVRSLVR raziskovanju visokega Å¡olstva je ameriÅ¡ki. Izredno pomembno vlogo pri tem igrajo poklicne in institucionalne mreže, ki kontinuirano GHOXMHMRSRVWRLQYHþOHW =D VNOHS WHJD VWUQMHQHJD SUHJOHGD MH WUHED SRGþUWDWL RþLWQR povezanost med kakovostjo visokoÅ¡olskih sistemov in gostoto FHQWURYNLVHSRVYHþDMRUD]LVNRYDQMXYLVRNHJDãROVWYDVDMXQLYHU]D NLQLVSRVREQDREMHNWLYQHSURXþLWYe svoje vloge in delovanja, ne more YHGHWL DOL VH UD]YLMD Y SUDYL DOL QDSDþQL VPHUL NDU YHOMD WXGL ]D visokoÅ¡olsko politiko.

4 7HPDWVNDSRGURþMDUD]LVNDYYLVRNHJDãROVWYD /RJLþQRMHGDPRUDMRUD]LVNDYHYLVRNHJDãROVWYD]DMHWLGYDWHPHOMQD segmenta: študijski (in z njim povezan raziskovalni) proces ter 63


pogoje za odvijanje tega procesa. Vendar se takoj ponudijo trije sklopi:  SRXĂžHYDQMHXĂžHQMHNXULNXONRPSHWHQFHWDNRXĂžLWHOMHYNRW ĹĄtudentov;  upravljanje, menedĹžment, organizacija;  visokoĹĄolski sistem. Raziskovalci se sami najpogosteje razdelijo v ĹĄtiri skupine:  kvantitativni-strukturni vidiki (statistika),  znanje in razmerja med predmeti (epistemologija),  RGQRVL SRXĂžHYDQMH LQ XĂžHQMH SHGDJRJLND SVLKRORJLMD sociologija),  institucije, organiziranje in upravljanje (menedĹžment, pravo). Malcolm Tight (2012) vzpostavlja raziskovanja visokega ĹĄolstva:  SRXĂžHYDQMHLQXĂžHQMH  GL]DMQWHĂžDMHY  ĹĄtudentske izkuĹĄnje,  kakovost,  sistemska politika,  institucionalni menedĹžment,  akademsko delovanje,  znanje in raziskovanje.

osem

vsebinskih

sklopov

Ko sem skozi mnogo let delovanja v visokem ĹĄolstvu tudi sam UD]YUĂŁĂžDOYVHELQHNLVRVHPLQDELUDOHVHPXSRUDELOUD]GHONH  nacionalni sistemi in njihove primerjave,  upravljanje institucij,  GL]DMQLUDQMHĂŁWXGLMVNLKQDĂžUWRY  visokoĹĄolska didaktika,  raziskovalna dejavnost,  ĹĄtudentska problematika,  kadrovska problematika,  sorodne ĹĄtudije (kulturologija, zgodovina, ekonomika ipd..),  evalvacija ĹĄtudijskega procesa  prostori in oprema  ILQDQĂžQRSRVORYDQMHLQLQYHVWLFLMH Ko pregledamo tematike, ki so najpogosteje zastopane v raziskovalnih programih prej navedenih raziskovalnih centrov , dobimo naslednjo sliko:  primerjalne in mednarodne ĹĄtudije (v 43 %) 64


   

administriranje, menedžment in vodenje (v 42 %) ekonomika, financiranje, investiranje (v 34 %) globalizacija in internacionalizacija (v 32 %) zagotavljanje kakovosti, evalvacija, akreditacija (v 26 %)

(YURSVNL UD]LVNRYDOFL YLVRNHJD ãROVWYD SULKDMDMR L] ]HOR UD]OLþQLK strok, medtem ko se ameriški in kitajski raziskovalci že formirajo v specialisWLþQLK YLVRNRãROVNLK SURJUDPLK  9 (YURSL MH ]DWR YHþ LQWHUGLVFLSOLQDUQLK SULVWRSRY WRGD NR SURXþHYDQMH YLVRNHJD ãROVWYD SRVWDQHPQRåLþQLSRNOLFNRWMHWRSRQHNRGåHSRVWDOSDVHSRVHEQLP YLVRNRãROVNLPSURJUDPRP]DWRXVSRVRELWHYQLPRJRþHLQQLSDPHWQR YHþ L]RJLEDWL 6RRþLWL VH MH WUHED ] LQVWLWXFLRQDOQLPL UD]LVNDYDPL visokega šolstva.

5 Institucionalne raziskave visokega šolstva Mnoge visokošolske institucije so zrasle v ogromne in kompleksne RUJDQL]PHNLMLKMHPRJRþHXVSHãQRXSUDYOMDWLOHVSRGSRURustrezne 'organizacijske inteligence'. Tako se je v zadnjega pol stoletja razvil sektor institucionalnih raziskav, ki »deluje izza scene, podpira DGPLQLVWUDWRUMHSULVSUHMHPDQMXRGORþLWHYRXQLYHU]LLQSULVWUDWHãNHP SODQLUDQMX 7D SRGSRUD RGORþDQMX LQ VWUDWHãNHPX QDþUWRYDQMX MH namenjena akademskim voditeljem, dostopnosti šolanja, pridobivanju denarja, dizajnu kurikulov, vpisnim proceduram, ]DSRVORYDQMX RVHEMD ãWXGHQWVNHPX åLYOMHQMX ILQDQþQHPX poslovanju, objektom in opremi, univerzitetnemu športu, alumni organizacijam in mnogim drugim programom« (Caruth, 2015, 26). To dejavnost poimenujejo tudi kot 'institucionalne študije',

LQVWLWXFLRQDOQHDQDOL]H DOL LQVWLWXFLRQDOQRQDþUWRYDQMH  *UH ]D NDU PQRÃ¥LþHQ SRNOLF Y NDWHUHP GHODMR YLVRNR XVSRVREOMHQL kadri â&#x20AC;&#x201C;   ] GRNWRUDWRP SUHWHÃ¥QR V SRGURþMD SHGDJRãNLK LQ družbenih ved, humanistike, informatike, ter tudi naravoslovja in SRVORYQLKYHG 9HþLQD RSUDYOMDWXGL RPHMHQRSHGDJRãNRGHMDYQRVW 1MLKRYRãWHYLORVHMHY]DGQMLKGHVHWOHWMLKPRþQRSRYHþDORQDUDþXn Å¡irjenja akreditacijskih in evalvacijskih sistemov po svetu, kakrÅ¡ni pa v ZDA obstajajo že 100 let. Vse pogosteje so to diplomanti posebnih Å¡tudijskih programov, kakrÅ¡nih je na ameriÅ¡kih univerzah preko 200, nekaj deset na kitajskih univerzah, v Evropi tudi že preko dvajset, v celem svetu pa preko 450 na vseh stopnjah (Altbach, 2014a). V SURJUDPLK SUHYODGXMHMR QDVOHGQMH YVHELQH UD]YUãþHQH SR frekventnosti (Rumbley et al, 2014, 29):  upravljaje in vodenje,  komparativne in mednarodne Å¡tudije,  NXULNXOSRXþHYDQMHXþHQMH 65


       

ekonomika in financiranje, globalizacija, akademski poklici, zagotavljanje kakovosti, ocenjevanje, akreditacija, GRVWRSQRVWSUDYLþQRVW študentski odnosi, pravo javne službe, zgodovina visokega šolstva.

Tradicionalni koncept organiziranja institucionalnih raziskav visokega šolstva v 'servisno enoto', ki zalaga s podatki in ekspertizami vse RGORþXMRþH GHMDYQLNH Y XQLYHU]LWHWQHP VLVWHPX VH MH åH GRGREUD preoblikoval v model, v katerega so mrežno povezani vsi »specialisti za procesiranje podatkov, poslovno presojanje, zagotavljanje kakovosti in druge na podatkih zasnovane aktivnosti«, ki ne tvorijo YHþWRJLKRUJDQL]DFLMVNLKHQRWDPSDNVLL]PHQMXMHMRSRGDWNHJOHGH na zadane naloge. Na vseh sodobnih univerzah je izpostavljena funkcija CIRO (chief institutional research officer) (Swing, Ross, 2016).

6 1DPHVWR]DNOMXþND- Raziskovanje visokega Å¡olstva v Sloveniji O visokem Å¡olstvu se je na Slovenskem pisalo v zvezi z dolgotrajnimi prizadevanji za ustanovitev ljubljanske univerze (Univerzitetni arhiv UL, 2017), nato ob njeni 10-letnici (Universitas Alexandrina, 1929) ter petdesetletnici (Modic, 1969), podobno pa ob nastajanju PDULERUVNH XQLYHU]H %UDþLþ   =JRGRYLQVNH REOHWQLFH VR ELOH SRWHPWDNHPRVQRYQLUD]ORJ]DQDVWDQHNPRQRJUDILMLQþODQNRv, ki se SUHWHÃ¥QRSRVYHþDMRNURQRORJLMDPLQRSLVRPWHUVODYQRVWQLPL]MDYDP manj pa analizam in Å¡e manj kritiki. Raziskovanje visokega Å¡olstva â&#x20AC;&#x201C; z izjemo zgodovinopisja -- ni bilo razvidno, Å¡e manj pa samostojno SROMHSURXþHYDQMD7XGLNRVPRVHORWHYDOLposebnih problemov, npr. Å¡tudentskega življenja na povojni univerzi (Vodopivec, Pivec, 1969), smo ubrali kronoloÅ¡ki pristop. VÅ¡tevÅ¡i že navedene, pa so raziskovalci zgodovine slovenskega visokega Å¡olstva (Janko Polec, Viktor Steska, Vlado Schmidt, Fran Zwitter, Vasilij Melik, Metod Mikuž, Slavko .UHPHQãHN %UDQNR 5HLVS )UDQFH 'ROLQDU $QD %HQHGHWLþ =YRQND =XSDQLþ 6ODYHF -RÃ¥H &LSHUOH $OHã *DEULþ 7DWMDQD 'HNOHYD LWG  XVWYDULOLRGOLþHQLQQHSRJUHãOMLYWHPHOM]DUD]LVNDYHYLVRNHJDãROVWYD Danes je v slovenskem visokem Å¡olstvu redno zaposlenih blizu 10.000 ljudi, od tega desetina v strokovnih službah visokoÅ¡olskih LQVWLWXFLMRGVOHGQMLKGREUDþHWUWLQDYUHNWRUDWLKXQLYHU]0HGQMLPL 66


VR WXGL VWURNRYQMDNL NL VH SRVYHþDMR ]QDQVWYHQHPX LQ institucionalnemu raziskovanju visokega Å¡olstva. Težko jih LGHQWLILFLUDPRNHUSRGURþMHQLRUJDQL]LUDQRLVNDOQDJHVOD]DSUHJOHG ED]H &2%,66 SD QLVR GRYROM L]þUSQD ýH QSU YQHVHPR JHVOR 'raziskave visokega Å¡olstva', dobimo za vso zgodovino baze le 19 zadetkov in Å¡e od WHK VR ãWLUMH ]JUHãHQL  ýH YQHVHPR YHOLNR EROM sploÅ¡no geslo 'visoko Å¡olstvo', dobimo v bazi, ki obsega preko 5 milijonov zapisov, 225 zadetkov, torej naslovov monografij ali þODQNRY NL LPDMR Y QDVORYX WR EHVHGQR ]YH]R $YWRUMHY QDãWHMHPR okoli 150, med njimi je kakÅ¡na petina novinarjev. Redke so PRQRJUDILMHDOLGDOMãLþODQNLãHEROMUHGNDVRUD]LVNRYDOQDSRURþLOD Specializiranih konferenc skoraj ni, zato tudi ne zbornikov referatov. 9HPRGD&2%,66QHVHÃ¥HSUDYGDOHþY]JRGRYLQRLQGDMHUHVL]þUSHQ zadnjih 15 let, zato lahko dodamo Å¡e nekaj deset zapisov starejÅ¡ih GDWXPRY9HPRWXGLGDPDUVLNDWHULWHNVWVWHJDSRGURþMDVRGLYWL sivo literaturo in med interne objave, zato lahko dobljeno Å¡tevilko SRYHþDPRãH]DQHNDMGHVHWLQ]DSLVRY7RSDMHWXGLYse in to je zelo skromno v primerjavi s Å¡tevilkami, ki jih z enakimi gesli dobimo iz mednarodnih bibliografskih baz in gredo pri geslu 'higher education UHVHDUFK GDOHþSUHNRPLOLMRQD]DGHWNRYSULJHVOX KLJKHUHGXFDWLRQ  SDYYHþVWRPLOLMRQRY COBISS jH SUHYHþ QRY GD EL ]D]QDO Ã¥LYR UD]SUDYOMDQMH R YLVRNHP Å¡olstvu v Å¡estdesetih, sedemdesetih in tudi osemdesetih letih v 6ORYHQLML9ãHVWGHVHWLKMHWRUHM]DþHORYLVRNRãROVWYRQDJORUDVWLLQ uhajati državnim in univerzitetnim upravam iz rok, kar se je kazalo QD QDMEROM ]DRVWUHQ QDþLQ Y ãWXGHQWVNLK SURWHVWLK 7L VR ELOL VLFHU REDUYDQLVVYHWRYQLPLSROLWLþQLPLNRQIOLNWLWRGDL]SRGWHJDSRYUãMDMH tlelo nezadovoljstvo s stanjem na univerzah. Univerzitetni Å¡tudij je SRVWDOWDUþDNULWLþQLKDQDOL]NLVRUD]NULYale njegovo prepletenost s SROLWLþQLP NRQVHUYDWLYL]PRP ãH RþLWQHMãD SD MH ELOD QMHJRYD QHRG]LYQRVWQDSUHORPQHSRMDYHYVYHWRYQHPUD]YRMX1DVWDUQDþLQ QLãORYHþQDSUHM]DWRVRVHGUÃ¥DYHORWLOHXQLYHU]LWHWQLKUHIRUPSUL katerih pa se je takoj izkazalR GD ãH SRYHþXMHMR NUL]R þH QLVR podprte z resnimi analizami in raziskavami. V Jugoslaviji se je â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ne SUYLþLQQH]DGQMLþâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; ]JRGLORSUDYWRNRVRY]DþHWNXãHVWGHVHWLKQD KLWURLQSRþH]UD]GUOLWUDGLFLRQDOQRXQLYHU]RWHUXYHGOLWL VWRSHQMVNL Å¡tudij'. âWXGHQWMHVR]DþHOLVSUHPOMDWLLQSUHVOLNRYDWLNULWLNHYLVRNHJD Å¡olstva iz drugih držav in hitro dojeli, da tudi pri nas potrebujemo »alternativno univerzo« (Mihevc, 1997). V letih 1968 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; VHMHYUD]OLþQLKREOLNDKãWXGHQWVNLKSURWHVWRY QDNRSLþLOR WROLNR SULSRPE LQ NULWLN QD UDþXQ ãWXGLMD GD QH ãROVNH oblasti in ne visoke Å¡ole same nanje niso utegnile, niti znale RGJRYRULWL =DþHOR VH MH V YSUDãDQML WL VRFLDOQR-ekonomskega položaja Å¡tudentov in ob tem s predlogi za priznanje delovnega 67


statusa, na podlagi katerega so si ĹĄtudentje izborili mesto v organih upravljanja visokoĹĄolskih organizacij in celo poloĹžaj samostojne interesne skupine v takratnem parlamentu, kar je bil edinstven doseĹžek v mednarodnem ĹĄtudentskem gibanju. Za aktivnejĹĄo in enakopravnejĹĄo druĹžbeno vlogo so zahtevali dostop do sredstev PQRĂĽLĂžQHJD NRPXQLFLUDQMD LQ VL RE GYHK ĂĽH REVWRMHĂžLK ĂŁWXGHQWVNLK ĂžDVRSLVLK WHGQLNLK 7ULEXQD LQ .DWHGUD  L]ERULOL ĂŁH VYRMR UDGLMVNR postajo â&#x20AC;&#x201C; prvi neodvisen ĹĄtudentski radio v Evropi. Gotovo najzahtevnejĹĄe pa je bilo vpraĹĄanje reformiranja univerze, prilagojene Âťtistim, ki bi radi na univerzi delaliÂŤ. Zavzeli so se za Âťuniverzitetno svetovalno in raziskovalno razvojno sluĹžboÂŤ, XSRĂŁWHYDMRĂž  NRPSOHNVQRVW YLVRNHJD ĂŁROVWYD LQ ĂŁNRGOMLYRVW improvizacij. TakratnD .DYĂžLĂžHYD YODGD VH MH WXGL VDPD ]DYHGDOD zahtevnosti poseganja v univerzo in Ĺže od leta 1965 je v parlamentu â&#x20AC;&#x201C; najprej pod vodstvom Marka Bulca in nato Aleksandre Kornhauser -- delovalo poudarjeno ĹĄtudijsko naravnano delovno telo, ki je pripravljalo prvo, od Beograda neodvisno ureditev visokega ĹĄolstva. Frane Adam, eden od voditeljev zasedbe filozofske fakultete, je RNWREUD  PHG NOMXĂžQLPL  ĂŁWXGHQWVNLPL SURMHNWL QDYHGHO ÂŞUD]LVNDYH ĂŁWXGLMVNLK SURILORY LQ QDĂžUWRYDQMD ĂŁWXGLMDŠ NDU MH narekovalo dotleM QHREVWRMHĂžR LQVWLWXFLRQDOL]DFLMR WHJD SRGURĂžMD â&#x20AC;&#x201C; center za razvoj univerze se je v ĹĄtudentskih razpravah pojavljal Ĺže pred tem (Mihevc, 2008). Svoje je prispevalo tudi dogajanje v Mariboru, kjer si je ZdruĹženje visokoĹĄolskih zavodov z Razvojnim QDĂžUWRP 970-75 zastavilo nedvoumen cilj ustanovitve druge univerze in je za ta namen izvajalo ĹĄtudijski projekt, v katerem je zbralo okoli trideset sodelavcev iz Slovenije in tujine, ki so se poglabljali v razvojna vpraĹĄanja visokega ĹĄolstva. Vse to je bilo dovolj SUHSULĂžOMLYR GD MH ELOD NRQHF OHWD  VSUHMHWD RGORĂžLWHY R ustanovitvi Centra za razvoj univerze (CRU), ki bo raziskoval vpraĹĄanja nadaljnjega razvoja slovenskega visokega ĹĄolstva, QDNRSLĂžHQD Y ĂŁWXGHQWVNLK NULWLĂžQLK PDQLIHVWLK R UD]PHUDK QD visokoĹĄolskih zavodih, v mariborskih razpravah o potrebi po novi univerzi in v namerah takratne vlade za modernizacijo ĹĄolstva. Z gotovostjo lahko trdimo, da brez ĹĄtudentskega pritiska taka institucija v Sloveniji ne bi nastala in to je tudi njena posebnost v primerjavi s sorodnimi organizacijami po svetu, ki so bile praviloma spodbujene z vrha drĹžave ali univerze. 2 NRUHQLQDK &58 Y ĂŁWXGHQWVNHP JLEDQMX SULĂžD QMHJRY ]DĂžHWQL LQ pravzaprav celotni raziskovalni program. Prvi, doma in v tujini zelo odmeven projekt, je bilo longitudinalno spremljanje generacije ĹĄtudentov, vpisane 1973/74 (Lapajne, Ĺ˝iĹžmond, Stergar, Budihna PoĹžar), edinstven raziskovalni podvig, ki je trajal v devetdeseta leta LQVHMHQDQMHJRYHSRGDWNH-DQ0DNDURYLĂžVNOLFHYDOĂŁHYOHWD 68


objavljeni raziskavi o promociji talentov na univerzi. Iz tega projekta so izÅ¡li Å¡e drugi projekti kot npr.: spremljanje Å¡tudijske poti generacije 1976/77 (Stergar, Budihna Požar). Lapajne je konec VHGHPGHVHWLK ]DVWDYLO QDVOHGQML YHþOHWQL QRVLOQL SURMHNW R SURFHVX izbLUH SRNOLFD V VRGHODYFL 0DUHQWLþ-3RÃ¥DUQLN 0LKHYF -XÃ¥QLþ  NL MH zanimal tudi IAU â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mednarodno združenje univerz. Kumpova je raziskovala socialno-ekonomski položaj Å¡tudentov in Zagmajstrova dostopnost visokega Å¡olstva. Ule je raziskoval modele znanstvenih XQLYHU] LQ .URIOLþ WHRUHWVNH SULVWRSH N QDþUWRYDQMX YLVRNRãROVNLK kurikulov. Center je sodeloval s FF pri utrjevanju visokoÅ¡olske GLGDNWLNH 6FKPLGW 0DUHQWLþ-3RÃ¥DUQLN 3HþMDN %RÃ¥Lþ 0LKHYF  Posebej je treba omeniti skrbno vodeno specialno knjižnico CRU, ki jo je de Gruyter upoÅ¡teval v svojem World Guide to Special Libraries. (QDNR SRPHPEQH SD VR ELOH 1RYRVWL &58 NL VR VþDVRPD SRVWDOH XSRãWHYDQþDVRSLV]DUD]LVNDYHYLVRNHJDãROVWYD V drugi polovici osemdesetih je CRU prevzel skrb za izvedbo obsežnega SURMHNWD'ROJRURþQLUD]YRMYLVRNHJDãROVWYDY6ORYHQLMLNL je temeljil na sklepu posvetovanja »Univerza v združenem delu« iz leta 1984. in za katerega sta osnutek pripravila Mrmak in Mihevc (Mrmak, 1986). Å tiriletni projekt je obsegal preko 120.000 ur in so ga sofinancirali Raziskovalna ter Izobraževalna skupnost ter *RVSRGDUVND]ERUQLFD9SURJUDPMHELORYNOMXþHQRSURXþHYDQMHYVHK temeljnih aspektov dela in razvoja visokega Å¡olstva, delo pa je VORQHOR QD YHþ NRW VWRWLK ]XQDQMLK UD]LVNRYDOFLK YHþLQRPD Lz vrst univerzitetnih profesorjev. Kar hitro se je izkazalo, da gre sicer za NYDOLILFLUDQHUD]LVNRYDOFHYVYRMLKVWURNDKWRGDYHþMLGHOWHKOMXGLVH MH ªWDNR UHNRþ SUYLþ VUHþDO V SUREOHPDWLNR VLVWHPDWLþQHJD SURXþHYDQMD XQLYHU]H LQ V SRVHEQR PHWRGRORJLMR ki jo morajo XSRUDELWL SUL SURXþHYDQMX WHK SUREOHPRY© 0UPDN    3R PRML RFHQL MH ELO SUREOHP ãH KXMãL GD VH MH QDPUHþ »brezkonceptnost« visokega Å¡olstva in njegova podrejenost SDUFLDOQLP LQWHUHVRP QD WD QDþLQ QDVHOLOD WXGL Y VDPHP SURMHNWX dolgorRþQHJD UD]YRMD NL QDM EL SUDY WR ELVWYHQR SRPDQMNOMLYRVW slovenskega visokega Å¡olstva presegel. Ob vsem velikanskem REVHJX SURMHNWD QL ELOR QLNROL þDVD ]D UD]þLãþHYDQMH NRQFHSWXDOQLK YSUDãDQMýHMH0UPDNNRWSUYLYRGMDSURMHNWDWDYLGLNMHPDO]DUHVQR grRÃ¥QMR XVSHãQRVWL FHOHJD SURMHNWD QMHJRY QDVOHGQLN .DPXãLþ Y QDSUHM]DYUDþDPRÃ¥QRVWªGDERUD]LVNDYDSUHGORÃ¥LODGRORþHQPRGHO XQLYHU]HLQYLVRNRãROVNHJDVLVWHPD© .DPXãLþ  Sam CRU se je dobesedno utopil v brezmejnem projektu: »Center je s precejÅ¡njimi težavami zagotavljal sodelovanje z zunanjimi VRGHODYFL]HORPDORSDVRELOLGHODYFLFHQWUDQHSRVUHGQRYNOMXþHQLY UD]LVNRYDOQRGHORWHPRÃ¥QRVWLSDVRPDMKQHWXGLYERGRþH© 0UPDN LVWR ýHSUDYELPRUDORELWLUD]LVNRYDQMHYLVRNHJDãROVWYDHQo od 69


prioritetnih vpraÅ¡anj projekta, ga ne zasledimo ne v njegovi zasnovi, niti v rezultatih. Med redkimi, ki je pomislil nanj, je bil Veljko Rus: »Center za razvoj univerze je pod neposredno ingerenco rektorja. Prevzeti mora vse naloge, ki zadevajo razvoj univerze in zagotoviti L]GHODYR VUHGQMHURþQLK LQ  GROJRURþQLK UD]YRMQLK QDþUWRY XQLYHU]H Dobro bi bilo, da bi imeli ljubljanska in mariborska univerza skupni &58© 5XV    .PDOX SR ]DNOMXþNX SURMHNWD VH MH WR WXGL zgodilo, a le deloma, ker je CR8 L]JXELO ]QDþDM RUJDQL]DFLMH ]D raziskovanje visokega Å¡olstva in je izginil v univerzitetni administraciji. Kot marsikje po svetu, se v tudi v naÅ¡ih strokovnih VOXÃ¥EDKYLVRNHJDãROVWYDQDMGHMRRGOLþQLUD]LVNRYDOFLVSRPHPEQLPL znanstvenimi objavami s podrRþMD UD]LVNRYDQMD YLVRNHJD ãROVWYD vendar je to v veliki meri odvisno od njihove osebne ambicije, ker VOXÃ¥EDRGQMLK]DKWHYDGUXJDþQHL]GHONHQDPHQMHQHSRWUMHYDQMXLQ QHSUREOHPDWL]LUDQMXREVWRMHþHJDVWDQMD Od leta 2000. deluje na PedagoÅ¡ki fakulteti ljubljanske univerze CEPS â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Center za Å¡tudij edukacijskih politik »z namenom da pospeÅ¡i UD]LVNRYDOQR LQ UD]YRMQR GHOR QD SRGURþMX HGXNDFLMVNLK SROLWLN ãH ]ODVWL]YNOMXþHYDQMHPYPHGQDURGQHSURMHNWHLQDNWLYQRVWL© &(36   ,]GDMD WXGL ]QDQVWYHQL þDVRSLV &(36 -RXUQDO =DKYDOMXMRþ predvsem mednarodno odmevnim raziskavam in objavam Zgage, je &(36RSD]HQWXGLQDSRGURþMXYLVRNHJDãROVWYDYHQGDUWRQLLQVWLWXW za raziskave visokega Å¡olstva, kakrÅ¡nega po ukinitvi CRU v Sloveniji QLPDPRYHþ=YHVHOMHPSDGRdam, da deluje v tujini nekaj izjemnih raziskovalk in raziskovalcev visokega Å¡olstva, med katerimi posebej L]SRVWDYOMDP-DQMR.RPOMHQRYLþY$QJOLMLLQ0DQMR.OHPHQþLþY='$

7 Literatura in viri 1. Adorno, T. 1972, Theorie der Halbbildung. V: Gesammelte Schriften, zv. 8, str. 93-121 Frankfurt: Suhrkamp 2. Altbach, P., Salmi, J. 2011, The Road to Academic Exellence. Washington: The World Bank 3. Altbach, P. 2014, Knowledge for contemporary university: Higher education as a field of study and training. V: L. Rumbley, P. Altbach, D. Stanfield, Y. Shimmi, A. de Gayardon, R. Chan (ur.) Higher education: A worldwide inventory of research centers, academic programs, and journals and publications. Bonn: Lemmens Media 4. Altbach, P. 2014a, The emergence of a field: Research and training in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 39 (8) 1306-1320 5. %UDþLþ9Prispevki za zgodovino visokega Å¡olstva v Mariboru. Maribor: Univerza v Mariboru 6. Caruth, G. 2015, The status of institutional research. International Women Online Journal of Distance Education, 4 (3) 24-37) 7. Cybermetrics Lab 2017, Ranking Web of Universities â&#x20AC;&#x201C; July New Edition 2017.2.1 http://www.webometrics/en/node/178 [dostop 10. 11. 2017]. 70


8. Daniel, H. D. in Hornbostel, S 1993, Provozierende Fragen. Eine sozialwissenschaftliche Analyse der Spiegel-Rangliste. Spiegel-Spezial 3/1993. Welche Uni ist die beste? 9. Hazelkorn, E. 2009, Impact of Global Rankings on Higher Education Research and the Production of Knowledge. Paris: UNESCO Forum on Higher Education, Research and Knowledge 10. Jaspers, K. 1946, Die Idee der Universität. Berlin: Springer Verlag 11. .DPXĂŁLĂž02UJDQL]DFLMVNLPRGHOLYLVRNHJDĂŁROVWYDYUD]YLWLK drĹžavah in nekatere sugestije za razvoj visokega ĹĄolstva v Sloveniji. V: .DPXĂŁLĂž0 XU 'ROJRURĂžQLUD]YRMYLVRNHJDĂŁROVWYDY656ORYHQLML Organiziranost visokega ĹĄolstva in univerze. Ljubljana: CRU 12. Katsarova, I. 2015, Higher education in the Europe. Brussel: EPRS 13. .ULĂĽDQLĂž)  6SORĂŁQRLQSRVHEQR/Mubljana: Studia Humanitatis 14. Mihevc, B. 1997, Kaj je ĹĄtudente Ĺže od nekdaj motilo pri ĹĄtudiju in vloga ĹĄtudentov v razvoju univerze. Teorija in praksa, 34 (3) 483-509 15. Mihevc, B. 2008, Ĺ tudenti v ĹĄoli zgodovine: Ljubljana. 1968-1971. V: 40letnica ĹĄtudentskih gibanj na Slovenskem â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Zgodovinska priloga. Zgodovina v ĹĄoli, 17 (3-4) 8-21 16. Modic, R. 1969, Petdeset let slovenske univerze v Ljubljani 1919-1969. Ljubljana: Univerza v Ljubljani 17. Mrmak. I. 1986, 3URMHNWGROJRURĂžQHJDUD]YRMD Ljubljana: CRU 18. Mrmak, I. 1987, 3URMHNWGROJRURĂžQHJDUD]YRMDâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; 3UYRSRURĂžLOR. Ljubljana: CRU 19. MĂźnch, R. 2009, Globale Eliten, lokale Autoritäten. Bildung und Wissenschaft unter dem Regime von PISA. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp 20. Rumbley, L., Stanfield, D., de Gayardon, A. 2014, A Global Inventory of Research, Training and Publication in the Field of Higher Education: Growth, Diversity, Disparity. V: L. Rumbley, P. Altbach, D. Stanfield, Y. Shimmi, A. de Gayardon, R. Chan (ur.) Higher education: A worldwide inventory of research centers, academic programs, and journals and publications. Bonn: Lemmens Media 21. Rus, V. 1989, Organiziranost visokega ĹĄolstva in model univerze. V. .DPXĂŁLĂž0 XU 'ROJRURĂžQLUD]YRMYLVRNHJDĂŁROVWYDY656ORYHQLML Organiziranost visokega ĹĄolstva in univerze. Ljubljana: CRU 22. Swing, R., Ross L. 2016, A New Vision for Insitutional Research. Change, March/April 2016, 9-13 23. Teichler, U. 1996, Comparative higher education: potentials and limits. Higher Education, 32 (4) 431-465 24. Teichler, U. 2015, Higher Education Research in Europe. V: A. Curaj, L. Matei, R. Pricopie, J. Salmi, P. Scott (ur.) The European Higher Education Area. Between Critical Reflections and Future Policies. Dordercht: Springer (815-847) 25. Tight, M. (2012) Researching Higher Education. Meidenhead: Open University Press 26. UNESCO 2017. Six ways to ensure higher education leaves no one behind. Policy Paper 30. http://unescdoc.unisco.org/images/0024/002478/24786E.pdf (Dostop 10. 11. 2017) 27. Universitas Alexandrina 1929, Zgodovina slovenske univerze v Ljubljani do leta 1929. Ljubljana: Rektorat Univerze Kralja Aleksandra Prvega 28. Univerzitetni arhiv UL 2017, Zgodovina Univerze v Ljubljani. https://www.uni-lj.si/univerzitetni_arhiv/zgodovina_ul/ [dostop 15. 9. 2017]. 71


29. Vodopivec, P.in Pivec, F. 1969, O ĹĄtudentskem organiziranju po drugi svetovni vojni. V: Modic, R. (ur.) Petdeset let slovenske univerze v Ljubljani. Ljubljana: Univerza v Ljubljani (str. 169-192) 30. Weiler, H. 2008, Keyword: International Research on Higher Education. Scholarship Between Policy and Science. Zeitschrift fĂźr Erziechungwissenschaft, 11(4) 516-541

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'U'DUNRâWHYDQÞHF Predavatelj, DOBA Fakulteta Maribor, Slovenija Da01111@gmail.com 0DJ,ULV)LQN*UXEDÞHYLß Predavateljica, Fakulteta za industrijski inŞeniring Novo mesto, Slovenija Irisfink4@gmail.com

Spol in podjetniĹĄtvo v viĹĄjem ĹĄolstvu Povzetek 0RGHUQD GUXĂĽED SRWUHEXMH YHĂž SRGMHWQLNRY ]DWR MH UD]YLMDQMH SRGMHWQLĂŁNLK NRPSHWHQF YHĂž LQRYDWLYQRVWL LQ KLWUR UDVWRĂžLK SRGMHWLM nujno. Okolje izraĹža potrebo po razvijanju podjetniĹĄkih kompetenc in VSRGEXMDQMD SRGMHWQLĂŁNHJD QDĂžLQD UD]PLĂŁOMDQMD 7XGL YLĂŁMHĂŁROVNH L]REUDĂĽHYDOQH LQVWLWXFLMH LPDMR ]DWR ĂžHGDOMH SRPHPEQHMĂŁR YORJR Y zagotavljanju podjetniĹĄkega izobraĹževanja in usposabljanja ĹĄtudentov za vstop v svet podjetniĹĄtva, predvsem z uvajanjem UD]OLĂžQLKPHWRGGHOD=DQLPDODVRQDVVWDOLĂŁĂžDXĂžLWHOMHYWHUĂŁWXGHQWRY o moĹžnostih ter kvaliteti razvijanja podjetniĹĄkega razmiĹĄljanja ter delovanja. V nadaljevanju bomo predstavili najpomembnejĹĄe izsledke raziskave o implementaciji podjetniĹĄkega delovanja v viĹĄjeĹĄolskih organizacijah R Slovenije. .OMXĂžQH EHVHGH: podjetniĹĄtvo, viĹĄjeĹĄolsko izobraĹževanje, metode SRXĂžHYDQMD Koda JEL klasifikacije: M53 Training

Gender and entrepreneurship in higher education Abstract Modern society needs more entrepreneurs so developing entrepreneurial competences, more innovatively and fast growing businesses is imperative. The current environment reflects the need to develop entrepreneurial competences and promote entrepreneurial mind-sets. Higher educational institutions are having 73


an increasingly important role in providing entrepreneurship education and training students to enter the world of entrepreneurship as well, especially with the introduction of different working methods. We were interested in the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and teachersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; views on opportunities and quality development of entrepreneurial thinking and action. In the article we present the most important findings of the study on the implementation of entrepreneurship in higher education organizations in Slovenia. Keywords: entrepreneurship, higher education, teaching methods JEL classification code: M53 Training

1 Uvod Spremembe, ki so nastale z globalizacijo, zahtevajo od posameznika, SRGMHWLMLQLQVWLWXFLMYHĂžMRIOHNVLELOQRVWLQKLWHURG]LYQDVSUHPHPEH =DĂžHODVRVHXVWDQDYOMDWLPLNURPDODLQVUHGQMHYHOLNDSRGMHWMDGD bi se zagotovila nova delovna mesta oz. delovna mesta, ki si jih PRUDPRXVWYDULWLVDPL(NRQRPVNHUD]PHUHVRSRVWDOHGLQDPLĂžQHLQ SRVOHGLĂžQR XVWYDUMDMR YHOLNR SULORĂĽQRVWL ]D SRWHQFLDOQH SRGMHWQLNH Razvoj podjetniĹĄtva in podjetniĹĄke miselnosti je postal pomemben element tudi v izobraĹževanju na vseh ravneh, tudi v viĹĄjeĹĄolskem izobraĹževanju. Ponudila se je nova priloĹžnost, da se izobraĹževalne LQVWLWXFLMHDNWLYQRYNOMXĂžLMRYHNRQRPVNLUD]YRMGUĂĽDYHLQSRPDJDMR SULVSRSDGDQMX]HNRQRPVNRNUL]R2VUHGRWRĂžDMRVHQDL]REUDĂĽHYDQMH o podjetniĹĄtvu ter izobraĹževanje za podjetniĹĄtvo in za podjetnika. Samozaposlitev je karierna priloĹžnost, ki je tesno povezana s tendencami posameznika po vstopu v svet podjetniĹĄtva in nadalje z namenom ustanovitve podjetja, kreiranju lastne poti ter izkoristiti kreativno zmoĹžnosti, ki jih ponuja podjetniĹĄtvo (Smith, Sardeshmukh, Combs, 2016, str. 264).

2 Definicija podjetniĹĄtva PodjetniĹĄtvo, kot posledico ekonomske krize, pogosto doĹživljamo kot PRĂĽQRVW XUHVQLĂžLWYH WHĂĽQMH SR VDPR]DSRVOLWYL LQ XVSHKX 6KHSKHUG   PHQL GD VH MH ]DĂžHOR UD]YLMDWL NRW GLVFLSOLQD 3ROLWLĂžQH socialne in ekonomske razmere pomembno vplivajo na podjetniĹĄki proces. Posamezniku predstavlja podjetniĹĄtvo izziv, moĹžnost razvoja in spoznavanja lastne osebnosti, svobodo, avtonomijo, spodbuja ustvarjalnost, odgovornost, spodbuja postavljanje prioritet. Pred vstopom v podjetniĹĄki svet si posameznik zastavi vpraĹĄanje, koliko ĂžDVD GHQDUMD LQ HQHUJLMH MH SULSUDYOMHQ ĂĽUWYRYDWL ]D GRVHJR zastavljenih ciljev. Motivi posameznikov za podjetniĹĄko pot se 74


razlikujejo. NekaterLVHRGORĂžLMR]DWRSRW]DUDGLSULGRELWYHEROMĂŁHJD ILQDQĂžQHJDVWDQMDGUXJLL]XĂĽLWNDGDODKNRVYRERGQRLQDYWRQRPQR XVWYDUMDMRWUHWML]DUDGLSRWUHEHSRSUHĂĽLYHWMX9VHNDNRUQDRGORĂžLWHY za podjetniĹĄtvo vplivajo tudi osebnostne lastnosti, spol, izobrazba (Smith, Sardeshmukh, Combs, 2016, str. 265). Poudarimo tudi, da gre pri podjetniku za lastnosti oz. karakteristike, ki so nujne: sposobnost in pripravljenost prepoznavati poslovne priloĹžnosti, dojemanje kulturne podpore za podjetniĹĄtvo, zmoĹžnosti improvizacije (Hmieleski in Corbett, 2006) samozavedanju o SRWUHEQHP]QDQMXLQYHĂŁĂžLQDK]DSRGMHWQLĂŁWYRVDPR]DXSDQMXĂĽHOML SRXVSHKXWHUQMHJRYHPRGQRVXGRUL]LNDLQSRVOHGLĂžQRWXGLQHXVSHKD (Dinis et al., 2013). Podjetnik je oseba, ki organizira, upravlja, predvidi riziko poslovanja, izkoristi ponujene priloĹžnosti in realizira idejo (Kuratko, 2014, str. 23). PodjetniĹĄka kultura predstavlja orientacijo podjetja k raziskovanju novih virov, inovativnosti in razvoju novih produktov (Ireland in dr. 2006; Wei in dr. 2013). Definicija, ki jo poudarja Kos (2007) opredeli SRGMHWQLĂŁWYRNRWSURFHVYNDWHUHPSRGMHWQLNLQDPHQMDMRVYRMĂžDVLQ SUL]DGHYDQMHSUHY]DPHMRILQDQĂžQDSVLKLĂžQDLQGUXĂĽEHQDWYHJDQMD]D XVWYDUMDQMHQHĂžHVDQRYHJDLQ]DWRSUHMPHMRSULSDGDMRĂžHQDJUDGHv REOLNLGHQDUMDRVHEQHJD]DGRYROMVWYDLQQHRGYLVQRVWL9WRYNOMXĂžXMH ĹĄtiri elemente: ustvarjalni proces, kjer se ustvarja nekaj novega, vrednega; ĂžDV LQ SUL]DGHYDQMH Srevzemanje tveganj ter neodvisnost, kot nagrado.

3 Podjetništvo in izobraževalni sistem Izobraževanje za podjetništvo se vzpostavlja kot eden glavnih LQVWUXPHQWRY GUåDYH ]D SRYHþDQMH VSUHMHPDQMD SRGMHWQLãWYD SUL ljudeh (Potter, 2008). Odnos države do podjetništva in razvijanja podjetniške miselnosti, kaže naklonjenost države do podjetniške NDULHUHýHGUåDYDSRVNUEL]DUD]YLMDQMHXJRGQHJDRNROMD]DUD]YRM LQGHORYDQMHSRGMHWLMVHERYHþSRVDPH]QLNRYRGORþLORYVWRSLWLYVYHW podjetništva in ustvarjati zase in za državo. Prepoznavanje podjetniških priložnosti bo delovalo pozitivno v smerL YHþMHJD podjetništva. Odnos države do podjetništva je pomembna ªLQIUDVWUXNWXUQDSRGODJD©]DXVWYDUMDQMHNXOWXUQHSRGSRUHSRPRþL SRGSRUQLK PUHå ]DJRWDYOMDQMD ILQDQþQLK YLURY LQ RVWDOLK HOHPHQWRY ]DGHOXMRþHSRGMHWQLNHLQ]DWLVWHNLRSRGMHWQLãNLNDULeri razmišljajo (Rebernik, Tominc, Pušnik, 2010, str. 25). .DW]  VWU   SUDYL GD VH SRGMHWQLãWYD ODKNR QDXþLPR Izobraževalni sistem je, kot odgovor na ekonomske razmere in potrebe države, ustvaril formalne in neformalne oblike izobraževanja 75


na YVHK UDYQHK &LOM MH SRVODWL QD WUJ GHORYQH VLOH ÞLP YHÞ diplomantov, ki imajo razvito podjetniťko razmiťljanje in podjetniťke YHãÞLQHGDERGRSRVWDOLSRGMHWQLNLLQVWHPSRPDJDOLGUüDYLXVWYDULWL YHÞMRJRVSRGDUVNRUDVW %HOZDO$O%DOXVKL%HOZDOstr. 936). V podjetniťkem izobraŞevanju je poudarek na oblikovanju vedenja, UD]PLãOMDQMD WHU REOLNRYDQMX XÞLQNRYLWLK SRGMHWQLãNLK ODVWQRVWL YHãÞLQ  VSRGEXMDQMX LQ XVWYDUMDQMX SRGMHWQLãNH NXOWXUH 2WKPDQ Norashidah in Hariyaty (2012) menijo, da podjetniťNH YHãÞLQH temeljijo na spodbujanju ustvarjalnosti, inovativnosti in delu na lastni poslovni karieri. V viťjeťolsko izobraŞevanje se uvajajo vsebine z namenom razvijati podjetniťko vedenje, spodbuditi teŞnjo po zaposlitvi kot samostojni podjetniki ter oprHPLWLãWXGHQWH]XVWUH]QLP]QDQMHPLQYHãÞLQDPL Šolstvo lahko pomaga pri kreiranju podjetniťkega razmiťljanja pri ťtudentih in pri ustvarjanju spodbudnega, pristnega okolja za SRGMHWQLãWYRGDGRELMRÞLPEROMUHDOQRVOLNRLQUHDOQHL]NXãQMHYÞDVX ťtudija. Othman in Nasrudin (2016, str. 884) menita, da je potrebno pri ťtudentih zdruŞiti v celoto tri elemente: podjetniťko zavest, ki se gradi na razumevanju pomembnosti podjetniťtva in njegovih vrednot; razvijanje podjetniťtva in krepitev lastnosti, ki pomagajo najti strast in interes za podjetniťko delovanje; utrjevanje podjetniťtva, kjer jih izpostavimo realnim situacijam, da dobijo pozitivne izkuťnje. Tudi McLarty, Highley in Aldersonova (2010) predlagajo ťe druge pomembne vidike v podjetniťkem izobraŞevanju - SURPRFLMR ]DYHGDQMD SRGMHWQLãNLK YHãÞLQ SURPRFLMR ]QDQMD R podjetniťtvu, razumevanje bistva podjetniťtva in ustreznega podjetniťkega vedenja ter ustvarjanje priloŞnosti in ustreznega okolja. Lay in Khoo (2012) menita, da so pomembni faktorji uspeha v podjetniťkem izobraŞevanju kvaliteta in kvantiteta metod SRXÞHYDQMD PRWLYDFLMD ]UHORVW ãWXGHQWRY WHU XÞHQMH L]YHQ predavalnic Pomemben cilj je tudi promoviranje podjetniťtva kot uporabne in spoťtovane poklicne kariere (Iacobucci in Micozzi, 2012, str. 684). Cilje podjetniťkega izobraŞevanja razlagata tudi Othman in Nasrudin (2016, str. 886): know why - generiranje pravega odnosa do podjetniťtva in motivacije za podjetniťtvo, know who spodbujanje mreŞenja, know when - GRVHJDQMH REÞXWND ]D delovanje v pravem trenutku, know what - dobivanje znanja in informacij o poslovanju, know how - GRELYDQMHXVWUH]QLKYHãÞLQ]D odprtje podjetja. Nadalje Gelderen (2010, str. 710 - 712) razlaga, da je osrednji cilj podjetniťkega izobraŞevanja avtonomnost, kar pomeni, da se posameznik zaveda, da vsaka akcija izhaja iz njega VDPHJD L] QMHJRYH RGORÞLWYH GD XUHVQLÞXMH VYRMH FLOMH LQ LQWHUHVH ýHQSUãWXGHQWYORüLYGHORPLQLPDOHQQDSRULQãWXGLUD]DWRGDER 76


zadovoljil zahtevane obveznosti in na koncu dobil diplomo, potem mu manjka pomembna lastnost podjetnikov, avtonomnost. Avtonomija je eden glavnih izvorov zadovoljstva in motivacije podjetnika, ker raje vodi, kot da je voden, raje sam organizira, izvaja akcije, NRPXQLFLUDVVWUDQNDPLLSGýHãWXGHQWRPYþDVXizobraževanja to lastnost okrepimo in ozavestimo njen pomen, jih pripravimo na XVSHãQRVRRþDQMHVNXOWXURSRGMHWQLãWYD Študenti višjih šol imajo velik potencial, da postanejo podjetniki, ker MHQDþLQL]REUDåHYDQMDSULODJRMHQNRPELQDFLMLWHRUHWLþQHJD]QDQja in NRQNUHWQLK SUDNWLþQLK L]NXãHQM 1HQHKQR VR L]SRVWDYOMHQL SULGRELYDQMX]QDQMDL]UD]OLþQLKSRGURþLMSULGRELYDQMXYHãþLQXþHQMX QD SUDNWLþQLK SULPHULK WHU XþHQMX ] ]JOHGRP %HOZDO $O %DOXVKL LQ Belwal (2015, str. 930) ugotavljajo, da izobraževanje za podjetništvo zahteva povezanost med posameznikom, izobraževalnimi institucijami in lokalnim okoljem. Packham in ostali (2010, str. 570) poudarjajo, da bodo študenti, ki so bili udeleženi v podjetniškem izobraževanju, bolj verjetno ustanovili svoje podjetMH LQ ]DþHOL ustvarjati lastno podjetniško kariero. Spol ima, po raziskavah med ãWXGHQWL SR VYHWX WXGL SRPHPEQR YORJR SUL RGORþDQMX ]D podjetništvo (de la Cruz Sanchez-Escobedo et al., 2014). Ženske imajo manj izražene namere, da postanejo podjetnice, kot moški (Zhao et al., 2005). Ciljno podjetniško izobraževanje lahko ženskam SRPDJD ]YLãDWL SRGMHWQLãNR VDPRXþLQNRYLWRVW LQ SRVOHGLþQR ]YLãDWL WXGLQDPHQ]DYNOMXþLWHYYVYHWSRGMHWQLãWYD :LOVRQHWDO 

4 8þHQMHSRGMHWQLãWYD Jasinski, Nehrt, Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Connor in Simione (2003) menijo, da je eden JODYQLK FLOMHY XþHQMD SRGMHWQLãWYD UD]YLWL ãWXGHQWRP YHãþLQH ]D XþLQNRYLWRXSUDYOMDQMHSRGMHWMD 9L]REUDÃ¥HYDQMXVWDJODYQDSURWDJRQLVWDXVSHKDXþHQMDSRGMHWQLãWYD XVWUH]QH YVHELQH LQ XVWUH]QH PHWRGH SRXþHYDQMD âWXdente je SRWUHEQR NRQWLQXLUDQR YSHOMHYDWL Y UD]OLþQH SRGMHWQLãNH DNWLYQRVWL Å¡tudije primera, druženja z uspeÅ¡nimi podjetniki, ki jim lahko služijo NRW PRGHO MLK XþLWL XSRãWHYDQMD URNRY LSG %HOZDO $O %DOXVKL LQ Belwal (2015, str. 937) predlagajo, da so ãWXGHQWL YNOMXþHQL Y organizacijo raznih dogodkov, tekmovanj v Å¡oli ali izven nje, v UD]YLMDQMHSRVORYQHJDQDþUWDVVXSHUYL]LMRSUDYLKSRGMHWQLNRY.DLOHU   QDGDOMXMH GD ODKNR UD]YLMDPR VLQHUJLMR V ãWXGHQWL UD]OLþQLK Å¡tudijskih programov (npr. tehnika in ekonomija), kar lahko pomaga NSRYHþDQMXSRGMHWQLãNLKYHãþLQLQVLFHU]L]PHQMDYRLGHMLQIRUPDFLM in izkuÅ¡enj. Praviloma so podjetniÅ¡ke vsebine zajete v kurikule poslovnih Å¡ol, vendar raziskovalci menijo, da jih je potrebno ponuditi Å¡irÅ¡emu spektru Å¡ol (Colin et al., 2012), predvsem neekonomskim smerem Å¡tudija. 77


Gibb (v Maritz in dr. 2015, str. 1024) je v svoji raziskavi ugotovil 44 VSHFLILþQLK SHGDJRãNLK SULVWRSRY ]D XUHVQLþHYDQMH QDVOHGQMLK SRGURþLM SRGMHWQLãNR YHGHQMH RGQRV LQ UD]YRM YHãþLQ NUHiranje HPSDWLMHNOMXþQHSRGMHWQLãNHYUHGQRWHPRWLYLUDQRVW]DSRGMHWQLãNR kariero; razumevanje podjetniških procesov in nalog; splošne podjetniške kompetence; obvladovanje odnosov. Potreben je premik RG VWDQGDUGQLK QDþLQRY SRXþHYDQMD NMHU MH ãWXGHQW SDVLven in je XVPHUMDQVVWUDQLXþLWHOMDNQRYHMãHPXSULVWRSXNMHUMHSRPHPEQD študentova aktivnost, premik k mentoriranju in coachingu, da GRVHåHPR UD]YRM SRGMHWQLãNLK YHãþLQ LQ VSUHMHPDQMH SRGMHWQLãNHJD QDþLQD åLYOMHQMD 0DQGHO LQ 1R\HV  VWU   PHnita, da gre WUHQG SRXþHYDQMD SRGMHWQLãWYD Y VPHUL XSRUDEH UHDOQLK SULPHURY 7UDGLFLRQDOQL SHGDJRãNL SULVWRS SRGSLUD XþHQMH R SRGMHWQLãWYX GLQDPLþQL SULVWRS SD GRYROL ãWXGHQWRP GD VH SUHL]NXãDMR Y YVHK ID]DKXþHQMD]DSRGMHWQLND.RPELQDFLMDREHKSULVWRSov je idealna: s tradicionalnim pristopom se študenta seznani s koncepti in orodji, ] GUXJLP SD VSRGEXMD N L]NXVWYHQHPX XþHQMX Y UHDOQHP SRGMHWQLãNHP RNROMX 5D]YLMDMR VH QDVOHGQMH SRGMHWQLãNH YHãþLQH podjetniško vedenje, kreativno mišljenje, komunikacija, pogajalske YHãþLQH YRGHQMH UHãHYDQMH NRQIOLNWRY IOHNVLELOQRVW XSUDYOMDQMH V WYHJDQML DYWRQRPLMD QDþUWRYDQMH FLOMQD RULHQWLUDQRVW WLPVNR GHOR itd. (Lourenço in dr. 2013, str. 507-510). 8þLWHOMNLUD]YLMDDYWRQRPLMRSULãWXGHQWLKERQDMSUHMSUHYeril njihove FLOMHVSRVREQRVWL]QDQMHYUHGQRWHLQWHUHVHWHUWHPXSULODJRGLOXþQL proces in vsebino. Izhajamo iz njihove notranje motivacije in s tem GRVHåHPR LQGLYLGXDOHQ SULVWRS N ãWXGHQWX 8þLWHOM SUHY]HPD HPSDWLþQRYORJRGDODKNRãWXGHQWLUD]YLMDMR LQXUHVQLþXMHMRRVHEQH FLOMH3RWUHEQRMHGRVHþLSUDYRUDYQRYHVMHPHGYRGHQMHPLQVYRERGR RSWLPL]LUDWL DYWRQRPLMR SRVDPH]QLND NDGDU MH WR PRJRþH 9þDVLK LQWHJUDFLMD XþQLK YVHELQ Y ãWXGHQWRYH FLOMH DPELFLMH LQ SRWUHEH QL PRJRþDNHUMLKãWXGHQWãHQLUDzvil do prepoznavne mere in je raje YRGHQ V VWUDQL XþLWHOMD 7DNUDW MH SRWUHEHQ GUXJDþHQ PRWLYDFLMVNL SULVWRSDOLSDVHSUHYHULQMHJRYDSULPHUQRVW]DXþHQMHSRGMHWQLãWYD (Gelderen, 2010, str. 714-718) Povezovanje šole z gospodarstvom, podjetji in institucijami pomaga šolam, da vzpostavijo primerno poslovno podjetniško okolje, v NDWHUHP ãWXGHQWL GRELMR åHOHQH SRGMHWQLãNH YHãþLQH LQ SRGMHWQLãNR miselnost. Šolstvo sledi trendom družbenega in ekonomskega razvoja in je v zadnjih nekaj letih oblikovalo zanimive formalne in QHIRUPDOQHQDþLQHL]REUDåHYDQMDLQXVSRVDEOMDQMD]DSRGMHWQLãWYR1L GRYROM GD ãWXGHQWL GRELMR VDPR HNRQRPVNR ]QDQMH NOMXþQH SUL L]REUDåHYDQMXVRDNWLYQHPHWRGHSRXþHYDQMDVNDWHULPLRSUHPLPR ãWXGHQWH ] YHãþLQDPL NL SRPDJDMR SUL SULODJDMDnju na hitro se 78


VSUHPLQMDMRþH SRVORYQR RNROMH GRVHåHPR YåLYOMDQMH ãWXGHQWRY Y LQRYDWLYQRSRGMHWQLãNRNXOWXURWHUVSRGEXGLPRåHOMRGDVHRGORþLMR za kariero podjetnika.

5 Raziskava o podjetništvu v višjem šolstvu (2017) Zanimalo nas je, v kolikšni meri naše višje šolstvo skrbi za SRGMHWQLãNR XVPHUMHQRVW SRVDPH]QLND Y RNYLUX VYRMLK XþQLK SURJUDPRY 6WDOLãþD GR SRGMHWQLãWYD LQ SRGMHWQLãNH NXOWXUH VPR SUHYHUMDOL V SRPRþMR DQNHWQHJD YSUDãDOQLND  WDNR SUL SUHGDYDWHOMLK kot študentih višjih šol. V raziskovalni Y]RUHF VPR YNOMXþLOL ãHVW višješolskih organizacij iz vse Slovenije. Za raziskavo smo uporabili QHYHUMHWQRVWQLQDPHUQLY]RUHF9NOMXþHQLKMHELORRVHERGWHJD 29 višješolskih predavateljev in 93 študentov. Starost anketirancev je razporejena v asiPHWULþQR GLVWULEXFLMR  VDM VR ãWXGHQWL   Y]RUFD VWDULRGGROHWYHþLQDSUHGDYDWHOMHY Y]RUFD  SD RG  GR  OHW 3RGDWNH ]D UD]LVNDYR VPR ]EUDOL V SRPRþMR spletne ankete (1ka) meseca januarja 2017. Kot merski instrument smo uporabili anketni vprašalnik s sedem stopenjskimi modificiranimi /LNHUWRYLPLOHVWYLFDPLNMHUMHSRPHQLODRFHQD þLVWRQLþLQRFHQD 7=povsem. Sklop šestih vprašanj je preverjal odnos do podjetništva (podjetništvo kot vrednota, podjetniška delovanja in filozofijo ter lastno podjetnost). Naslednji sklop šestih ocenjevalnih lestvic je XJRWDYOMDOVWDOLãþD SUHGVRGNHLQVWHUHRWLSH RSRGMHWQLãWYX3RGDWNH VPRREGHODOLVVWDWLVWLþQLPSURJUDPRP,%063666WDWLVWLFV 5.1 Rezultati raziskave Rezultati kažejo pozitivnejše vrednotenje podjetništva v okolju višjega šolstva kot na nivoju celotne države. Respondenti ocenjujejo, da je podjetništvo v Sloveniji zelo šibka vrednota (M=4,61), medtem ko podjetništvo predstavlja relativno trdno vrednoto šole (M=5,38). Podjetniško delovanje posameznika v državi niti je niti ni cenjeno, VDM ]QDãD SRYSUHþQD RFHQD  ]D UD]OLNR RG YLãMH ãROH NMHU MH podjetniško delovanje relativno cenjeno (M=5,07). V okviru šolskega XþQHJDSURFHVDVHGRNDMY]SRGEXMDSRGMHWQLãNDILOR]RILMD 0 ). .OMXEWHPXVHUHVSRQGHQWLVDPLSRþXWLMR]JROMQHNROLNREROMMDNRWQH podjetne (M=4,69). 5D]OLNH Y SRYSUHþQLK RFHQDK RGJRYRURY PHG VNXSLQDPD predavateljev in študentov smo ugotavljali s t-testom, ob predhodnem testiranju homogenosti varianc z Levenovim testom. V YVHK SULPHULK VPR XJRWRYLOL SULþDNRYDQR HQDNRVW YDULDQF PHG VNXSLQDPD9WDEHOLSUHGVWDYOMDPRSRYSUHþQHRFHQHRGJRYRURYQD vprašanja obeh skupin in rezultate t-testa. 79


Tabela 1: T- WHVWXJRWDYOMDQMDUD]OLNYVWDOLĂŁĂžLKRSRGMHWQLĂŁWYXPHG obema skupinama VpraĹĄanja

Status

N M

SD

t

df

Sig. (2tailed)

29 4,24 1,455 V kolikĹĄni meri je podjetniĹĄtvo vrednota v Predavatelj Sloveniji? Ĺ tudent 93 4,73 1,303 120 0,088 1,718 Ocenite, koliko je Predavatelj 29 3,93 1,223 podjetniĹĄko delovanje Ĺ tudent 93 3,90 1,198 posameznika v Sloveniji 0,109 120 0,914 cenjeno. V kolikĹĄni meri je podjetniĹĄtvo vrednota vaĹĄe viĹĄje strokovne ĹĄole?

Predavatelj 29 5,24 1,327 Ĺ tudent 93 5,44 1,347

Ocenite, koliko je podjetniĹĄko delovanje posameznika na vaĹĄi viĹĄji strokovni ĹĄoli cenjeno.

Predavatelj 29 5,17 1,490 Ĺ tudent 93 5,04 1,496

V kolikĹĄni meri viĹĄja strokovna ĹĄola vzpodbuja podjetniĹĄko filozofijo v okviru XĂžQHJDSURJUDPD"

Predavatelj 29 5,79 1,320 Ĺ tudent 93 5,52 1,299

Ocenite, v kolikĹĄni PHULVHVDPLSRĂžXWLWH podjetnega.

Predavatelj 29 5,14 1,274 1,846 120 0,067 Ĺ tudent 93 4,55 1,564

120 0,486 0,699

0,407 120 0,685

0,999 120 0,320

S  S  âWHYDQþHF)LQN*UXEDþHYLþVWU

S t-testom med REHPDVNXSLQDPDQLVPRXJRWRYLOLQREHQHVWDWLVWLĂžQR SRPHPEQH UD]OLNH 3RGMHWQLĂŁWYR ĂŁWXGHQWRP SUHGVWDYOMD YHĂžMR vrednoto kot predavateljem, tako v okviru ĹĄolskega okolja (M=4,73) kot tudi drĹžave (M=5,44). Obratno pa predavatelji smatrajo podjetniĹĄko delovanja posameznika kot bolj cenjeno, tako v drĹžavi in QD ĂŁROL WHU  VH SRĂžXWLMR EROM SRGMHWQH 0   RG ĂŁWXGHQWRY 0   =DQLPLYD MH WXGL VWDWLVWLĂžQR QHSRPHPEQD UD]OLND NMHU SUHGDYDWHOML 0   QHNROLNR EROMH RFHQMXMHMR XĂžQH SURJUDPH  Y smislu podjetniĹĄke iniciative kot ĹĄtudenti (M=5,52). V nadaljevanju 80


predstavljamo razlike v ocenah trditev o podjetniĹĄtvu med obema skupinama (Tabela 2).

6 'RGDWQDUD]LVNDYDGLVNXVLMDLQ]DNOMXÞHN V poglavju je predstavljen najpomembnejťi rezultat testiranja razlik PHG VNXSLQDPD PRãNLK LQ üHQVN Y VWDOLãÞLK GR SRGMHWQLãWYD QD REVWRMHÞLK SRGDWNLK 5D]OLNH VPR  ugotavljali s t-testom, ob predhodnem testiranju homogenosti varianc z Levenovim testom. V YVHK SULPHULK VPR XJRWRYLOL SULÞDNRYDQR HQDNRVW YDULDQF PHG skupinama. 8JRWRYLOLVPR]JROMHQRLQHGLQRVWDWLVWLÞQRSRPHPEQR UD]OLNR PHG VSRORPD WDEHOD   LQ VLFHU VH PRãNL SRÞXWLMR QHNROLNR manj podjetne od Şensk. Tabela 2: T- WHVWXJRWDYOMDQMDUD]OLNYVWDOLãÞLKRSRGMHWQLãWYXPHG obema skupinama Frekve Odstote Spol nca k Moťki 55 45,1 Ženski 67 54,9 Skupaj

122

100,0

Sig. (2tailed)

VpraĹĄanja

N M SD t df Spol Ocenite, v kolikšni meri Moški 55 4.65 1.713 VHVDPLSRþXWLWH Ženski 67 4.72 1.346 120 *.030 podjetnega. .223 *(p<0,05) **(p<0,01) ODVWQLL]UDþXQ

Razlika na prvi pogled ni presenetljiva, vendar pa se je v nadaljnjem SURXĂžHYDQMX SUREOHPDWLNH SUDY WD L]ND]DOD NRW NOMXĂžQD VDM VH QH sklada z rezultati medkulturne ĹĄtudije na vzorcu 55 drĹžav, med katerimi je tudi Slovenija in ki jo predstavljamo spodaj. Avtorja Alicia Rubio-BanĂłn in Nuria Esteban-Lloret, na podlagi teorije Hofstedta pojasnjujeta, zakaj bodo moĹĄki bolj verjetno kot Ĺženske opravljali naloge, povezane s poslovnim svetom, z argumenti hegemonske moĹĄkosti. Delati v poslovnem okolju je ocenjeno kot EROMUDFLRQDOHQLQPDQMĂžXVWYHQSURFHV]DWRUHMEROM PRĂŁNL 9QMXQL raziskavi je bil upoĹĄtevan indeks moĹĄkosti (MAS Index), ki ga je razvil Hofstede za vsako od drĹžav v vzorcu. DrĹžave, ki imajo nizek indeks 81


moĹĄkosti, se ĹĄtejejo za 'Ĺžensko' usmerjene drĹžave, kar pomeni manjĹĄo razliko v vlogi spolov. Nasprotno, tiste drĹžave, ki imajo visok UH]XOWDW VR PRĂŁNH  XVPHUMHQRVWL LQ ]DWR RGUDĂĽDMR Y NXOWXUL YHĂžMR razliko med vlogami, povezanimi s spolom. Razliko med spoloma sta ugotavljala tudi s stopnjo deleĹža podjetniĹĄkega delovanja moĹĄkih in Ĺžensk ter stopnjo razvitosti drĹžave iz klasifikacije GEM 2013. Po njunih izsledkih (tabela 3) je Slovenija izrazito 'Ĺženska' drĹžava, v druĹžbi skandinavskih drĹžav in zatorej naj ne bi prihajalo do razlik med spoloma. (Rubio-BanĂłn in Esteban-Lloret, 2016, str. 7-19) Tabela 3: DrĹžave z nizko in zelo nizko moĹĄkostjo na Hofstedtovi lestvici (indeks 0-25) Indeks DrĹžava PodjetniĹĄko Odstotek Odstotek moĹĄkosti razmerje moĹĄkih Ĺženskih podjetnikov podjetnikov 5

Ĺ vedska

0,39

10,24

6,20

8

NorveĹĄka

0,59

8,88

3,61

9

Latvija

0,39

16.57

10,08

14

Nizozemska 0,42

11,71

6,82

19

Litva

0,55

17,45

7,78

19

Slovenija

0,54

8,76

4,02

25

Finska

0,39

6,54

4,01

(Rubio-BanĂłn, in Esteban-Lloret, 2016) Razvijanje podjetniĹĄke zavesti v viĹĄjem ĹĄolstvu, ki se gradi na razumevanju pomembnosti podjetniĹĄtva ter njegovih vrednot je zelo dobro koncipirano. V predhodni in dodatni raziskavi smo ugotovili, da je podjetniĹĄko delovanje posameznika v viĹĄji ĹĄoli relativno cenjeno in hkrati podjetniĹĄtvo predstavlja vrednoto tako predavateljem kot ĹĄtudentom. Percepcija podjetniĹĄtva v viĹĄjeĹĄolskem okolju je viĹĄja kot na ravni celotne drĹžave, saj respondenti podjetniĹĄko delovanje v Sloveniji ocenjujejo kot niti ja niti ne cenjeno, hkrati pa podjetniĹĄtvo predstavlja ĹĄibko vrednoto v drĹžavi. Ĺ e en pokazatelj ustreznosti izobraĹževanja in razvijanja podjetniĹĄkih kompetenc v viĹĄjem ĹĄolstvu VR VWDOLĂŁĂžD R SRGMHWQLĂŁWYX 8JRWDYOMDPR GD SUHGVRGNRY Y ]YH]L V podjetniĹĄtvom ni. Razlik med skupinama moĹĄkih in Ĺženskih respondentov nismo ugotovili, razen pri oceni lastne podjetnosti, kjer VHPRĂŁNLSRĂžXWLMRPDQMSRGMHWQHNRWĂĽHQVNH

82


Iz rezultatov lahko razberemo, da je koncept višjega šolstva dovolj XVWUH]HQ LQ GD VR SRWUHEQH VSUHPHPEH QD  SRGURþMX SRGMHWQLãNH miselnosti in iniciative drugje. Predvsem je zanimiva ugotovitev, da se ženske ocenjujejo kot bolj podjetne od moških, kljub temu da je 6ORYHQLMDWLSLþQR åHQVND GUåDYD]HQDNRSUDYQRVWMRREHKVSRORYWHU zelo majhnimi razlikam v okviru podjetniškega delovanja moških in žensk.

7 Literatura in viri 1. Belwal, R., Al Balushi, H. in Belwal, S. (2015). Students’ perception of entrepreneurship and enterprise education in Oman. Education + Training, 57(8/9), str. 924 – 947. 2. Colin, J., Harry, M. in Alex, M. (2012). Enterprise education: for all, or just some?. Education +Training, 54(8/9), str. 813-824. 3. de la Cruz Sanchez-Escobedo, M., Diaz-Casero, J.C., Diaz-Aunion, A.M. in Hernandez-Mogollon, R. (2014). Gender analysis of entrepreneurial intentions as a function of economic development across three groups of countries. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 10(4), str. 747-765. 4. Dinis, A., do Paço, A., Ferreira, J., Raposo, M. in Gouveia Rodrigues, R. (2013). Psychological characteristics and entrepreneurial intentions among secondary students. Education + Training, 55(8/9), str. 763-780. 5. Gelderen, M. (2010). Autonomy as the guiding aim of entrepreneurship education. Education + Training, 52(8/9), str.710-721. 6. Gibb, A. (2002). In pursuit of a new ‘enterprise’ and ‘entrepreneurship’ paradigm for learning: creative destruction, new values, new ways of doing things and new combinations of knowledge. International Journal of Management Reviews, 4(3), str. 233-69. 7. Gibb, A. (2011). Concepts into practice: meeting the challenge of development of entrepreneurship educators around an innovative paradigm. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Behavior & Research, 17(2), str. 146-165. 8. Hmieleski, K.M. in Corbett, A.C. (2006). Proclivity for improvisation as a predictor of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Small Business Management, 44(1), str. 45-63. 9. Iacobucci, A. in Micozzi, A. (2012). Entrepreneurship education in Italian universities: trend, situation and opportunities. Education + Training, 54(8/9), str. 673-696. 10. Ireland, R. D., Kuratko, D. F., & Morris, M. H. (2006). A health audit for corporate entrepreneurship: innovation at all levels: part I. Journal of Business Strategy, 27(1), str. 10–17. 11. Jasinski, D. W., Nehrt, C., O’Connor, M. in Simione, K. (2003). A new approach to integrated entrepreneurship education. Paper at the ICSB 48th World Conference, Belfast, June 2003. 12. Kailer, N. (2009). Entrepreneurship education: empirical findings and proposals for the design of entrepreneurship education concepts at universities in German-speaking countries. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 17(2), str. 201-231 13. Katz, J.A. (2007). Education and training in entrepreneurship, v Baum, J.R., Frese, M. in Baron, R.A. (Eds). The Psychology of Entrepreneurship, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, Mahwah, NJ, str. 209-235. 83


14. Kos, B. (2007). Podjetnik ali manager. http://www.blazkos.com/podjetnikali-manager-kdo-je-bolj-kul.php [dostop 8.1. 2017]. 15. Kuratko, D. F. (2014). Entrepreneurship: Theory, process, and practice. Mason, OH, USA: South Western Cengage Learning. 16. Lay, Y.F. in Khoo, C.H. (2012). Relationships between actual and preferred science learning environment at tertiary level and attitudes towards science among pre-service science Teachers. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 20(4), str. 1117-1142. 17. Lourenço, F., Taylor, T. in Taylor, D. (2013). Integrating â&#x20AC;&#x153;education for entrepreneurshipâ&#x20AC;? in multiple faculties in â&#x20AC;&#x153;half-the-timeâ&#x20AC;? to enhance graduate entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 20(3), str. 503 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 525. 18. Mandel, R. in Noyes, E. (2016). Survey of experiential entrepreneurship education offerings among top undergraduate entrepreneurship programs. Education + Training, 58(20), str. 164 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 178. 19. Maritz, A., Jones, C. in Shwetzer, C. (2015). The status of entrepreneurship education in Australian universities. Education + Training, 57(8/9), str.1020 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1035. 20. McLarty, L., Highley, H. in Alderson, S. (2010). Evaluation of enterprise education in England. Research Report No. DFE-RR015. UK government, Department of Education. 21. Othman, N., Norashidah, H. in Hariyaty, A.W. (2012). Readiness towards entrepreneurship education. Education+Training, 54(8/9), str. 697-708. 22. Othman, N. in Nasrudin, N. (2016). Entrepreneurship education programs in Malysian polytechnics. Education + Training, 58(7/8), str. 882-898. 23. Packham, G, Jones, G., Miller, P., Pickernell, D. in Thomas, B. (2010). Attitudes towards entrepreneurship education: a comparative analysis. Education + Training, 52(8/9), str. 568-586. 24. Potter, J. (2008), Entrepreneurship and Higher Education, OECD, Paris. 25. Rebernik, M., Tominc, P. in PuĹĄnik, K. (2010). Slovensko podjetniĹĄtvo v ĂžDVXNUL]HGEM Slovenija 2009. Maribor: Univerza v Mariboru, Ekonomskoposlovna fakulteta. 26. Rubio-BanĂłn, A. in Esteban-Lloret, N. (2016). Cultural factors and gender role in female entrepreneurship. ELSEVIER, [online] Volume 7, Issue 15, Januaryâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;June 2016, Pages 9-17. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2215910X15000518 [dostop 4.10.2017]. 27. Shepherd, D. (2015). Party on! A call for entrepreneurship research that is more interactive, activity based, cognitively hot, compassionate, and prosocial. Journal of Business Venturing, 30(4), str. 489-507. 28. âWHYDQĂžHF')LQN-*UXEDĂžHYLĂź,  3RGMHWQLĂŁWYRYYLĂŁMHPĂŁROVWYX Zbornik 36. mednarodne konference o razvoju organizacijskih znanosti. Odgovorna organizacija. PortoroĹž: fakulteta za organizacijske vede, str. 1097-1109. 29. Wei, Y. S., Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Neill, H., Lee, R. P., & Zhou, N. (2013). The impact of innovative culture on individual employees: the moderating role of market information sharing. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 30(5), str. 1027â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1041. 30. Wilson, F., Kickul, J. in Marlino, D. (2007). Gender, entrepreneurial selfefficacy, and entrepreneurial career intentions: implications for entrepreneurship Education. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3), pp. 387-406. 84


31. Zhao, H., Seibert, S. in Hills, G. (2005). The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), str. 1265-1272.

85


2. MenedĹžment pametnih mest, upravljanje v turizmu, inovativni menedĹžment in poslovanje


Dr. UrÅ¡ka Starc â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Peceny FLAPAX - European Smart Community Accelerator, Slovenia NASA Space Apps Challenge, Vienna and CEE, Austria urska@peceny.net Dr. Rasto Ovin Full Professor, Dean, DOBA Business School Maribor, Slovenia Rasto.ovin@doba.si 'U$QLWD0DþHN3K' Associate Professor, University of Applied Sciences, Graz, Austria and DOBA DOBA Business School Maribor, Slovenia anita.macek@fh-joanneum.at; anita.macek@net.doba.si

Marketing v pametnih mestih â&#x20AC;&#x201C; kako pomembno je sodelovanje med akterji? Povzetek VVH YHþ PHVW LQ NUDMHY LãþH VWUDWHJLMR NDNR SRVWDWL SDPHWQD mesta/kraji. To poglavje obravnava izziv marketinga v takÅ¡nih aglomeracijah, ki bodo ob sodobni tehnologiji in razvoju družbe XþLQNRYLWD OH SRE GREUHP VRGHORYDQMX SUHELYDOVWYD 5D]YRM pametnih mesWVHSUHGYVHPRVUHGRWRþDQDWHKQRORãNHUHãLWYHRE VWUDQL SD RVWDMD þORYHãND GLPHQ]LMD 6SUHPHPED RGQRVD GR þORYHãNH GLPHQ]LMH ER ]DKWHYDOD VSUHPHPEH Y SULVWRSX HNRQRPVNH SROLWLNH NMHU MH XYHOMDYOMHQ VWLO NL MH WLSLþHQ ]D predstavniÅ¡ko demokracijo in je kot tak postal popolnoma QHXVWUH]HQ ýODQHN REUDYQDYD SRPHQ þORYHNRYHJD VRGHORYDQMD za zagotovitev uspeÅ¡nosti marketinga kot podporo razvoju naselja v pametno mesto/naselje. .OMXþQH EHVHGH: pametna marketing pametnih mest

mesta,

Koda JEL klasifikacije: Z00

89

ekonomska

politika,


Marketing in Smart Cities â&#x20AC;&#x201C; How Important is Human CoOperation? Abstract Currently we are seeing more and more cities/places striving to grow into smart cities/places. The chapter discusses the challenge of smart city/place marketing, which in the course of modern technology and society development will be efficient only in an environment of cooperation. As a rule, with technology driven smart city development, an essential aspect has been lost on the way - the human dimension. The change in the treatment of the human dimension will require changes in the economic policy approach, where the current approaches within a representative democracy will become obsolete. The article discusses the importance of human cooperation for efficient smart city/place marketing. Keywords: smart cities, economic policy, marketing of smart cities JEL classification code: Z00

1 Introduction Firstly, we want to stress that the quite popular term â&#x20AC;&#x153;smart citiesâ&#x20AC;? needs to be looked at in

a broader sense as smart places. With our 2017 study 2, we based our research on the smart cities literature, however, keeping in mind that the awaited changes would also appear in other forms of agglomerations, which are not called cities. In chapters 1.1 and 1.2 we will briefly recapitulate the main findings of our 2017 study. Chapter 2 presents the findings of our further research.

The presented study is basing on the 2017 study by Starc Peceny U., Ovin, 5DQG0DĂžHN$  

2

90


1.1 Understanding the development toward wider cooperation in cities “Smart cities are anticipated to create huge business opportunities with a market value of $ 1.565 trillion by 2020 on global level.” (Frost & Sullivan, 2014). In reality, however, a vast amount of new technologies and “smart projects” never start “to get life”, or better said, entire “smart districts” are built and nobody really wants to live in them. Through technology driven smart city development an essential thing has been lost on the way - the human dimension. To better present the human dimension – e.g. our standings with the essentials of the evolution toward a smart community - we tend to use systemization of smart places as presented in Picture 1 below.

Picture 1: From smart place to smart community (Starc-Peceny, forthcoming) We are using the term smart place on purpose: it is extremely difficult to make a distinction between cities and places (representing other agglomerations) due to different criteria in individual countries. This will later bring us to the discussion on the phenomena we are dealing with now – the shift in general mindset – the shift from a technology-centered to a humancentered approach in which technological solutions follow and serve human needs. We are starting to talk about the smart community, which stands for new partnerships and with it the rise of the concept of PPPPs (4Ps), public-private-people partnerships, which goes deeper into the idea of citizen-centered approaches. 3

3

For more see Starc-Peceny, forthcoming. 91


As discussed in the next chapter, this new mindset will no doubt influence the nature of economic policy. 1.2 What is to change with the economic policy? The abstention of the population from political issues derives from their disaffection with (representative) democracy and has become one of central concerns in the EU (ECPR 2017). Citing literature, Ercan and Gagnon (2014, 1) recognize factors that harm a representative democracy as: disaffection with politics, lack of political literacy, dissatisfaction and mistrust towards government and politicians, the decline in membership of political parties, increasing power of actors without electoral accountability, failure and ineffectiveness of representation of common or special interests and complex governance arrangements evading transparency and accountability. The fall of voter turnout, deteriorating numbers in party membership, loss of trust in politicians, and general loss of interest in politics (Tormey 2016) are just the outside signs of a crisis in a modern democracy. Despite the growing unpopularity of a representative democracy, at least the different external effects, when private and public goods are concerned, will require a public authority for promotion and organization of participation (Smith 2006, 18). It is in the authority’s best interest to attract collaboration that will further enhance democracy (Crouzel 2014) as it “will only thrive if people engage with it” (Lawson and Jenke 2015). The task is much more demanding than it appears. Besides being in charge of defending economic standards despite their unpopularity, efficiently following the economic policy will first have to tackle the fact that the practices of the private sector is eroding democratic principles (CIVICUS 2017).

2 Evolution of marketing in smart cities – places Let us come back to the marketing of smart places. Following the above findings the marketing related to smart places requires the improvement of the culture of collaboration. As De Castro (2016) describes, people become active stakeholders in the process of planning, developing, testing, implementing and evaluating urban policies (p. 25). Another part of this process is the re-discovery of soft skills. Here we must start with an emotional connection, which in the course of human development has been expressed by words and symbolic logic (Godin, 2017). This is a very demanding task for designers as Mulder (2011) estimates that 92


just about 5% of them possess the necessary skills to deal with new and different complexities. Due to the needs described above - i.e. the need for collaboration culture and space(s) for its growth, science must try to identify the crucial factors which influence collaboration. Collaboration relies so much on the human behavior that it is essential to understand more about it when trying to tackle its challenges. Through new technology and the beginning of the rise of interdisciplinary cooperation, we are discovering many interesting aspects about human nature. The latest findings in this interdisciplinary interplay of neuroscience, biology, psychology and other disciplines help us understand a little better the complex system of the human brain, the correlation between chemical processes and their effect on human behavior 4. In attempting to change human behavior, it is important not to focus on the change of behavior itself, but rather to understand the trigger(s), which effect/ co-create a specific action that automaticity leads to a specific pattern of behavior. To understand this, emotion and cognition must both be considered. Coming back to the 4Ps and the fact that human resources are their enablers, we need to understand what kind of situation and triggers are required to create the right spirit of change. Let us have a glimpse into the public sector where we quickly can recognize that the lack of the right skills is slowing down, if not almost impeding development. Supported by the Nesta innovation foundation5, leading innovation practitioners from around the world are trying to define in a study the key skills, attitudes and behaviors that public sector innovators combine in order to successfully solve public problems. Beyond the broader and more established employee characteristics and behaviors for innovative working - such as motivation, openness to ideas, and change management - less is known about the unique attitudes, skills and competencies needed to support public sector innovation. In Christiansen et al. 2017 study, a new competency framework has been created to help go beyond individual pilots and projects and boost innovation and collaboration. The 4 main attitudes are: working together,

4 For a deep insight into human behavior with cooperation, see Sapolsky, R.M. (2017). 5 http://www.nesta.org.uk/

93


experimenting & public accelerating learning.

problem

solving,

leading

change,

Moreover, in a business environment the need to find the right ingredients and build collaboration champions is very popular, too. A study put together at Google revealed that the highestperforming teams have one thing in common: psychological safety, the belief that one will not be punished when they make a mistake (Delizonna, 2017). Other than studies, interesting twists in thinking from leading experts being presented showing that we all are just learning to understand the true dynamics behind the development of communities. Richard Florida (2017), one of the most influential thinkers about cities in postwar America, argued fifteen years ago that an influx of what he called the “creative classes” (artists, hipsters, tech workers, etc.) were sparking economic growth in places like the Bay Area. Their open spirit and way of life would dissolve the rigid structures of industrial production and bring other kinds of offers, which would attract young people and investments. Along with Jane Jacobs, Richard Florida has served as an inspiration for mayors, developers, and planners who pedestrianized streets, built bike lanes, and courted cultural attractions like art galleries and theaters (Wetherell, 2017). In his latest book, The New Urban Crisis (ibidem), he argues that the creative classes have grabbed hold of many of the world’s great cities and have lead them to crisis. Today the fifty largest metropolitan areas house just 7 percent of the world’s population but generate 40 percent of its growth. The results are streets full of Airbnbs and empty summer homes and not the kind of community and collaboration that Florida was envisioning at the beginning of the millennium. The popularity of this topic and the changes in theories show us that smart community development and collaboration are very complex and newly discovered dynamic topics that are being looked at from a new perspective – with a lack of the right skills and attitudes to reach the full potential. This leads us to realize the importance of education and development of required skills, which will play a very important role in the creation of communities, and ecosystems where 4Ps can grow.

94


3 Conclusions Technology paved the way towards smart cities. These processes, however, require wider acceptance as they may be costly and inefficient due to population resistance. Our research deals with the possible role of smart city marketing to ease the acceptance of new solutions caused by technology and in influencing social change. Moreover, the marketing approach will be inefficient if we do not assure cooperation of stakeholders in this change. Here, the instruments and measures of economic policy will have to consider the fact that the public has become more and more informed and is in a position to permanently test the accountability of the economic policy action. Ensuring cooperation also could essentially lower the cost of implementing smart city development by reducing resistance and helping marketing success in its role in the transition.

4 Bibliography 1. CIVICUS. (2017). 2017 State of civil society report. Available at: http://www. civicus.org/index.php/state-of-civil-society-report-2017. [Accessed: 4 October 2017]. 2. Crouzel, I. (2014). Democratic innovations: reshaping public governance? Field Actions Science Reports [Online], Special Issue 11 | 2014, Online since 05 November 2014, connection on 30 September 2016. Available at: http://factsreports.revues.org/3619. [Accessed: 4 October 2017]. 3. De Castro, R. (2016). Fostering Competitiveness In The New Urban Revolution. In Wise Cities. A new paradigm for urban resilience, sustainability and well-being. CIDOB edicions, Barcelona. 4. Christiansen, J., Leurs, B, Duggan, K. (2017). What are the skills and attitudes for successful public problem solving? Available at: http://www.nesta.org.uk/blog/what-are-skills-and-attitudes-successfulpublic-problem-solving? [Accessed 8 September 2017]. 5. Delizonna, L. (2017). High-Performing Teams Need Psychological Safety. Hereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s How to Create It. Available at: https://hbr.org/2017/08/high-performing-teams-need-psychologicalsafety-heres-how-to-create-it? [Accessed 30 August 2017]. 6. ECPR - European Consortium for Political Research. (2017). Standing group on democratic innovations. Available at: http://standinggroups.ecpr.eu/democraticinnovations/. [Accessed 30 August 2017]. 7. Ercan, S.A. and Gagnon, J.-P. (2014). The Crisis of Democracy Which Crisis? Which Democracy? Democracy Theory. Volume 1(2). 8. Florida, R. (2017). The New Urban Crisis. New York: Perseus Books, LLC. 9. Frost & Sullivan. (2014). Global Smart Cities market to reach US$1.56 trillion by 2020. Available at: http://ww2.frost.com/news/pressreleases/frost)-sullivan-global-smart-cities-market-reach-us156-trillion95


2020 [Accessed 23 October 2016]. 10. Godin, S. (2017). With the sound off or on? Available at: http://sethgodin.typepad.com/seths_blog/2017/04/with-the-sound-offor-on.html [Accessed 11 April 2017]. 11. Lawson, E. and Jenke, E. (2015). Let's ask more of Australian democracy. Adelaideâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s independent news. Otober 21, 2015. Available at: http://indaily.com.au/opinion/2015/ 10/21/lets-ask-more-of-australian-democracy/. [Accessed 11 April 2017]. 12. McConnell, B.; Huba, J. (2006). The 1% Rule: Charting citizen participation. Church of the Customer Blog. Available at: https://web.archive.org/web/20100511081141/ http://www.churchofthecustomer.com/blog/2006/05/charting_wiki_p.ht ml [Accessed 10 June 2017]. 13. Mulder, B. (2011). Design and government. In Open Design Now. Available at: http://opendesignnow.org/index.html%3Fp=429.html [Accessed 10 June 2017]. 14. Sapolsky, R.M. (2017). Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst. New York: Penguin Random House LLC. 15. Smith, G. 2006. Studying Democratic Innovations: From Theory to Practice and Back Again. ECPR Workshop Nicosia: Studying Forms of Participation. Available at: https://ecpr.eu/Filestore/PaperProposal/45a1920a-281f-41c9-a7e7b52bb88d4a2d.pdf. [Accessed 10 June 2017]. 16. 6WDUF3HF]HQ\82YLQ5DQG0DĂžHN$  Marketing in smart cities through the collaboration design. In: Bobek, V. 2017. Management of Cities and Regions. 17. Tormey, S. (2016). The Contemporary Crisis of Representative Democracy. Papers on Parliament. No. 66. Parliament of Australia. Available at: http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Senate/Powers_practice_n_p rocedures/pops/Papers_on_Parliament_66/The_Contemporary_Crisis_of _Representative_Democracy. [Accessed 10 June 2017]. 18. Wetherell, S. (2017). Richard Florida Is Sorry. Available at: https://jacobinmag. com/2017/08/new-urban-crisis-review-richard-florida [Accessed 20 August 2017].

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Dr. Miro Puhek Docent, DOBA Fakulteta Maribor, Slovenija miro.puhek@doba.si Jasna Dominko Baloh Direktorica, DOBA Fakulteta Maribor, Slovenija jasna.dominko.baloh@doba.si

Pametna mesta v Sloveniji: primeri dobrih praks Povzetek Pametna mesta so eden izmed odgovorov na rešitev pritiskov na GDQDãQMD PHVWD 8SRUDED QDSUHGQH WHKQRORJLMH VH MH QDPUHþ pRND]DODNRWNOMXþQLVWHEHUSULQDGDOMHYDQMXWUDMQRVWQHUDVWLPHVWLQ zagotavljanju kvalitete življenja prebivalcev. Moderne metropole v WXMLQL VR åH SUHG þDVRP XVSHãQR SRGSUOH SURFHVH V SDPHWQLPL SRGDWNL V NDWHULPL MH XSUDYOMDQMH PHVW XþLQNRYLWHMãH ELYDQje pa kvalitetnejše. V Sloveniji smo na »pametno« pot resneje stopili šele leta 2015 (izdana Strategija pametne specializacije), koristi poti pa VR VH RWLSOMLYHMH åH ]DþHOH ND]DWL WXGL SUL QDV ýHSUDY VPR QD QHNDWHULKSRGURþMLKSULPHUOMLYL]GUXJLPLSDQDs za zaživitev ideje v FHORWL QSUQHSRYH]DQHUHJLMHPDQMãHREþLQH þDNDãHYHOLNRGHOD .OMXþQHEHVHGHSDPHWQDPHVWDSDPHWQHREþLQHSDPHWQHUHJLMH Koda JEL klasifilacije: Z00

Smart Cities in Slovenia: Examples of Good Practice Abstract Smart cities are one of many answers to the question of how to relieve modern cities from pressure. The usage of advanced technology is considered a key pillar regarding continuous sustainable city growth and assurance of quality of life for its citizens. The modern foreign metropolises successfully began to support smart data processes some time ago, which enabled a more efficient way of managing the cities and improving the quality of life in them. 97


Slovenia decided on the »smart« way no earlier than in 2015 with the Smart Specialization Strategy, which is already showing some benefits. Although some areas of the strategy, in comparison with other smart cities, have reached a high level, there is lot of work to be done, if the idea (not attached regions, smaller municipalities) is to be successfully and completely implemented. Keywords: smart cities, smart municipalities, smart regions. JEL classification code: Z00

1 Uvod 5D]FYHW PHVW SR VYHWX LQ SRVOHGLþQR åHOMD SR RKUDQMDQMX EROMãHJD åLYOMHQMDWHUSULORåQRVWLYQMLKMH]DVHERMSRWHJQLORWXGLSRYHþDQMH pritiskov in spopadanje z novimi izzivi (DOBA 2017). Po nekaterih RFHQDKELQDMHYURSVNDPHVWDGR]GUXåHYDODQDPUHþ åHYHþNRW YVHJDSUHELYDOVWYD &L]HOMLQ7DYåHOM ãHYHþMLSULUDVWSD MH ]QDþLOHQ ]D QHNDWHUH $]LMVNH SUHVWROQLFH '2%$   DOL FHOR megalomanske »centre«, ki postajajo pomembnejši od držav, v katerih se nahajajo (London, Bruselj, Barcelona itd.). V zadnjih dvajsetih letih se je ob napredku tehnologije uveljavil termin SDPHWQR PHVWR DQJO VPDUW FLW\  NL MH Y RVSUHGMH NRW NOMXþQR ]D ohranjanje kvalitete življenja prebivalcev postavil informacijsko komunikacijsko tehnologijo (IKT) (Coe, Paquet in Roy 2001; Schaffers in dr. 2012; Saunders in Baeck 2015). Pametna mesta torej najlažje definiramo kot inovativne pristope mest, ki predvsem RE SRGSRUL WHKQRORJLMH REVWDMDMR WXGL L]MHPH  V SRYHþDQMHP XþLQNRYLWRVWL ]PDQMãDQMHP VWURãNRY RKUDQMDQMHP RNRlja, SRYH]RYDQMHPSUHELYDOFHYLQPUHåUD]OLþQLKMDYQLKVWRULWHYWHåLMRN trajnostni rasti mest in boljšemu življenju prebivalcev v njih (Deakin in Al Wear 2011; Schaffers in dr. 2012; Puhek in Dominko Baloh 2017). V osnovi sta se izoblikovala dva pristopa pametnih mest, ki VWDHQDNRSRPHPEQDLQVWDVLPHGVHERMQDVSURWXMRþD 6DXQGHUVLQ %DHFN ýHVLSRQDMEROMIXWXULVWLþQLKVFHQDULMLKSUHGVWDYOMDPR gradnjo informacijsko bogatih in tehnološko dovršenih mest po GRORþHQHP QDþUWX SRYVHP QD QRYR NL VR RUganizirani s strani države/upravljalcev mest (angl. top-GRZQ  MH ORJLþQR QDVSURWMH izhajanje iz potreb ljudi, ki so združeni v skupnosti in praviloma bolj organski razvoj mesta (angl. bottom-up), za katerega množica tehnoloških inovacij ni nujno potrebna (na primer zadružništvo, ponovna uporaba materialov ipd.). V vsakem primeru pa se s hitrim UD]YRMHPSRGURþMDKLWURSRYHþXMHMRWXGLILQDQþQDYODJDQMDNLELQDM po ocenah do leta 2020 dosegala že 1,3 trilijona EUR (DOBA 2017). )LQDQþQHSHUVSHNWLYH(YURSVNe unije za obdobje od 2014 do 2020 za 98


SRGURþMH SDPHWQLK PHVW LQ SDPHWQH VSHFLDOL]DFLMH Y RNYLUX kohezijskih sredstev namenjajo 3,3 milijarde evrov (SVRK 2015). 2EVWRMHþL SULVSHYHN ] REUDYQDYR SDPHWQLK PHVW NL MH SULPDUQR obravnaval razvoj trajnostnega in JOREDOQRNRQNXUHQþQHJDWXUL]PDY Sloveniji (Puhek in Dominko Baloh 2016), smo nadgradili s SULPHUMDYR YVHK SRGURþLM SDPHWQLK PHVW Y 6ORYHQLML LQ Y PHGQDURGQHP NRQWHNVWX 9 SUHGKRGQHP SULVSHYNX MH ELOR QDPUHþ XJRWRYOMHQRGDVRVHNOMXþQHDNWLYQRVWLSULQDVSULþHOHãHOHOHWD LQVPRSRVOHGLþQRYSULPHUMDYLVWXMLQRY]DRVWDQNX6HMHVWDQMHSR GREUHPOHWX]DþHORL]EROMãHYDWLWXGLSULQDVDOLVPRãHYHGQR]JROMSUL QDþUWRYDQMX"

2 Pametna prihodnost Po razvoju in uveljavitvi termina pametno mesto, se je ta prenesel še na vse komponente, ki so povezane z življenjem in upravljanjem mesta ali celo širše (npr. pametne regije, pametne skupnosti). V praksi (Lombardi in dr. 2012; Albino, Berardi in Dangelico 2015; Cizelj in Tavželj 2015; DOBA 2017) se je med razdelitvijo posameznih komponent ob splošni neenotnosti stroke uveljavila naslednja razdelitev (Graf 1): a) Pametno upravljanje L]SRVWDYOMD SUHGYVHP YNOMXþHQRVW YVHK GHOHåQLNRYYVLVWHPXRGORþDQMD QSUMDYQHXSUDYHSUHELYDOFHY iniciativ, organizacij), kjer je v centru dobrobit prebivalcev. Kot VLFHUYHOMD]DYVRSRGURþMHMHWXGLWXNDMSRPHPEQDXþLQNRYLWRVW procesov in njihova trajnostno in družbeno odgovorna naravnanost. b) Pametno zdravstvo predstavlja ob podatkih o staranju prebivalstva osnovo za njihovo kvalitetno življenje. S kvalitetnim LQ XþLQNRYLWLP ]GUDYVWYRP GRVHJOMLYRVWMR VWRULWHY RE SRGSRUL tehnologije, zdravstveno varnostjo in nenazadnje možnostjo UHNUHDFLMHVHQDPUHþL]EROMãDWXGLVWRULOQRVWSUHELYDOFHY c) Pametne zgradbe združujejo tako naše kvalitetno življenje v povezavi zmanjšanje odtisov na okolje z arhitekturnim QDþUWRYDQMHP QSUMDYQDUD]VYHWOMDYD QL]NRHQHUJLMVNDJUDGQMD d) Pametna mobilnost se navezuje tako na prevozna sredstva QSU HOHNWULþQL DYWRPRELOL VDPRVWRMQD YR]LOD  NRW QD SRQRYQR defLQLFLMR WUDQVSRUWQLK LQ ORJLVWLþQLK VLVWHPRY WHU LQIUDVWUXNWXUH (npr. souporaba vozil). V ospredju postavlja trajnost, varnost in mrežno povezavo sistemov (npr. mreža javnih prevozov), ki z usklajenim in vzajemnim delovanjem znižajo stroške, hkrati pa zmanjšajo vpliv na okolje. e) Pametna infrastruktura povezuje pametna mesta v celoto in VNUEL ]D QMHQR XþLQNRYLWRVW WUDMQRVW LQ GUXåEHQR RGJRYRUQRVW 99


Obsega tako infrastrukturo za oskrbo z energijo, internetna ter WHOHNRPXQLNDFLMVNDRPUHĂĽMDORJLVWLĂžQHPUHĂĽHLWG. f) Pametna tehnologija MH ] YSOLYRP QD YVD RVWDOD SRGURĂžMD osnova pametnih mest. Z obvladovanjem, obdelavo in SRVUHGRYDQMHP SRGDWNRY RODMĂŁD SURFHVH LQ Y ]DGQMHP ĂžDVX postaja sestavni del ljudi (npr. podpora pametne inteligence, prikaz informacij na zahtevo). g) Pametna energija predstavlja enega izmed stebrov pametnih mest, saj je med vsemi komponentami najjasneje povezana s trajnostjo okolja. Obravnava tako zagotavljanje obnovljivih virov energije (npr. fotovoltaika), ravnanje z odpadki, sisteme v povezavo z vodo (npr. merilniki kakovosti, zalogovniki), primere kroĹžnega gospodarstva in ponovne uporabe materialov ipd. h) Pametni ljudje in pametno in izobraĹževanje sta osrednji NDSLWDO SDPHWQLK PHVW VDM OH L]REUDĂĽHQL OMXGMH ODKNR VRGHOXMRĂžH prispevajo k nadaljnjemu razvoju mesta in skupnosti ter sledijo napredku tehnologije. Pametno izobraĹževanje sloni predvsem na razvoju strokovnih in prenosljivih kompetenc (npr. kreativnost, produktivnost in sposobnost inovacij), ki izhajajo iz potreb gospodarstva. Pametni ljudje so naklonjeni vseĹživljenjskemu XĂžHQMX VR SULODJRGOMLYL RGSUWL PXOWLNXOWXUQL SULSUDYOMHQL ]D sodelovanje in delujejo proaktivno.

Graf 1'LDJUDPNOMXĂžQLKNRPSRQHQWNLGHILQLUDMRSDPHWQRPHVWR (DOBA 2017) 100


3 Kje smo v Sloveniji? Primeri dobrih praks LHGLQRQDSRGURþMXSDPHWQLKPHVWY6ORYHQLMLVRSR]DSLVLKL]YLURY ]DþHOL RUDWL V SURMHNWRP 8SVLGH Y NDWHUHP VR Y SUYHP SDPHWQHP PHVWX 0DULERU ]DþHOL V SUHQRVRP GREULK SUDNV L] WXMLQH (-zavod   3UDNWLþQR Y LVWHP REGREMX VR YHOLNH SUHPLNH QDUHGLOL WXdi v Ljubljani, kjer je potekal tudi prvi slovenski »pametni« forum za prestavitev prihodnjih trendov in dobrih praks iz enajstih mestnih REþLQ 6ORYHQLMH *RORE LQ +DEMDQ   +NUDWL VR ELOL Y SUHVWROQLFL zelo uspeÅ¡ni z realizacijo in hitrim sprejetjem projektov med prebivalci (souporaba koles BicikeLJ, enotna kartica za mobilnost, XUHGLWHYSDUNLULãþ]HOHQHFRQHWUDMQRVWQRXSUDYOMDQMHLSG ]DNDU so bili v letu 2016 nagrajeni z nazivom Zelena prestolnica Evrope. Kot osrednji strateÅ¡ki dokument za ministrstva pa je bila Å¡ele v sredini leta 2015 osnovana Strategija pametne specializacije (SPS), NL MH NRQþQR SRVWDYLOD WXGL WHPHOMH ]D QDGDOMQMH UD]LVNRYDOQRrazvojno usmerjevanje (SVRK 2015). Glede na SPS se je Slovenija RVUHGRWRþLOD SUHGYVHP QD SUHGQRVWQD SRGURþMD ]DJRWDYOMDQMD »zdravega bivalnega in delovnega okolja«, »uporabe naravnih in tradicionalnih virov« za prihodnost in »industrijo 4.0«, po katerih se MHÃ¥H]DþHOSUHQRVGREULKSUDNVL]WXMLQH Tabela 1: Primerjava med izbranimi primeri dobrih praks v Sloveniji in tujini Primer iz Slovenije Tkalka â&#x20AC;&#x201C; skupnost za združevanje in so-delovanje iniciativ in posameznikov, ki želijo prispevati delež v povezavi s pametnimi mesti. Flapax.com â&#x20AC;&#x201C; pospeÅ¡evalnik za þH]PHMQRSRYH]RYDQMHVNXSQRVWL in sodelovanje na raziskovalnem WHUJRVSRGDUVNHPSRGURþMX IzboljÅ¡ajmo Maribor â&#x20AC;&#x201C; spletna VWRULWHY]DYNOMXþLWHYSUHEivalcev za soupravljanje mesta â&#x20AC;&#x201C; oddaja pobud, pohval in vpraÅ¡anj. eZdravje â&#x20AC;&#x201C; informatizacija zdravstva za zmanjÅ¡anje stroÅ¡kov (eRecept) in YHþMR XþLQNRYLWRVW H1DURþDQMH  Fontana piv Zeleno zlato â&#x20AC;&#x201C; WHKQRORãNRSRGSUWDWXULVWLþQD

Primer iz tujine Underbroen (Danska) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; laboratorij s kreativno platformo za deljenje znanja in združevanje inovativnih posameznikov, start-upov, podjetij.

FixMyStreet.com (Združeno kraljestvo) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; platforma za povezavo prebivalcev z odgovornimi za ureditev infrastrukture. SMART (ZDA) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; aplikacija za povezovanje zdravstvenih institucij, ponudnikov opreme in SDFLHQWRY]DYHþMR]GUDYVWYHQR varnost. iBeacon Living lab (Nizozemska) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; mobilna 101


znamenitost/spomenik za trĹženje kraja in poklon hmeljarski GHGLĂŁĂžLQL Bicike(LJ) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; mreĹža mestnih koles za trajnostno mobilnost v PHVWQHPVUHGLĂŁĂžX 'LQDPLĂžQLSULND]RYDOQLNL voznih redov na avtobusih in celostna ureditev informatizacije sistema v MOM. Avantcar â&#x20AC;&#x201C; HOHNWULĂžQDPRELOQRVW za poslovne in osebne uporabnike ter predstavitev modela souporabe vozil. Flex4Grid â&#x20AC;&#x201C; razvoj tehnoloĹĄkega sistema za upravljanje podatkov o proĹžnosti uporabnikov v energijskem omreĹžju.

aplikacija za posredovanje informacij turistom (npr. RGSLUDOQLĂžDVL]DVHGHQRVW znamenitosti, kaĹžipoti) eTaxi Wien (Avstrija) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; HOHNWULĂžQLWDNVLML]DzmanjĹĄevanje ogljikovih izpustov v mestnem VUHGLĂŁĂžX UBER (ZDA) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; spletna storitev za posredovanje deleĹžnikov za souporabo vozil, ki je na novo definirala mobilnost v svetu.

SNSP (Singapur) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; mreĹža senzorjev za pridobivanje odprtih podatkov iz javne infrastrukture (npr. kakovost zraka, energetska XĂžLQNRYitost, promet). SUMO â&#x20AC;&#x201C; razvoj sistema za Pametni zabojniki (Ĺ panija) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ocenjevanje zmogljivosti omreĹžja informatizirani zabojniki za LQSRYHĂžDQMHQMHJRYH XĂžLQNRYLWHMĂŁHXSUDYOMDQMH] zanesljivosti odpadki. circularchange.com â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The Ellen MacArthur platforma za kroĹžno Foundation (ZDA) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; fundacija, gospodarstvo in povezovanje ki med drugim deluje tudi kot deleĹžnikov. promotor kroĹžnega gospodarstva po svetu. WCYCLE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; model kroĹžnega Model Viennese (Avstrija) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; gospodarstva za izmenjavo nagrajen sistem dvojnega surovin (tudi recikliranih filtriranja odpadne vode za odpadkov) med podjetji. KNUDWQRXĂžLQNovitost in trajnost mesta. Management pametnih mest â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Digital City Wien (Avstrija) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; edinstven program v Sloveniji in SREXGD]DSURPRFLMRLQQDĂžUWQR JV Evropi, za usposabljanje usposabljanje za poklice kadrov in uspeĹĄno delovanje v prihodnosti. mestih/regijah prihodnosti.

ýH VPR ãH SUHG OHWL QD SRGURÞMX SDPHWQLK PHVW RÞLWQR FDSOMDOL ]D WXMLQRVRVHY]DGQMHPÞDVX]DÞHOLND]DWLUH]XOWDWLQDÞUWQHJDGHOD katerih izbor je prikazan v Tabeli 1. Primerljivo s tujino je prebivalcem (in ostalim deleŞnikom) na YROMRYHÞVSOHWQLKVWRULWHYV NDWHULPLMLPRPRJRÞDMRYNOMXÞHYDQMHSULRGORÞDQMXWHUVNUEL]DEROMãH üLYOMHQMHYPHVWX.RWSRURÞDMRDYWRUMLWDNãQHVWRULWYHRESRYHÞDQMX NDNRYRVWL ELYDQMD OMXGL Y PHVWX XSUDYOMDOFHP RPRJRÞDMR EROMãL nadzor nad teŞavami v PHVWX LQ SRVOHGLÞQR ODüMR RGSUDYR 102


le-teh (Saunders in Baeck 2015). Podobni so pristopi ustvarjanja skupnosti (npr. Tkalka, Underbroen), ki poleg povezovanja enako PLVOHþLKRGSLUDMRQRYHPRåQRVWLKNUDWLSDSRJRVWRGHOXMHMRNRWåLYL laboratoriji za preizkušanje novih modelov, storitev in produktov. Ena od prioritetnih nalog SPS je tudi razvoj Slovenije kot zelene WXULVWLþQH GHVWLQDFLMH LQ UD]YRM WUDMQRVWQLK VWRULWHY 695.   'HORYDQMH WHKQRORãNHJD RSOHPHQLWHQMD WXULVWLþQH SRQXGEH QD enostaven primer prikazuje Fontana piv Zeleno zlato, ki je že v prvem letu delovanja povrnila investicijo, hkrati pa postavila Žalec YLãMHQDOHVWYLFLWXULVWLþQLKNUDMHYY6ORYHQLML 0HMDþ 9RVWDOLK primerih iz turizma je še pogostejša uporaba IKT storitev, ki uporabnikom nudijo informacije (npr. o prostih kapacitetah, SURPHWX WXULVWLþQLK SRQXGEDK  WHU Y NUDWNHP þDVX ]DGRYROMLMR QDMUD]OLþQHMãH åHOMHSRVDPH]QLNRY %XKDOLV LQ $PDUDQJJDQD   V Barceloni tako turistom ponujajo interaktivne avtobusne postaje, kjer imajo le-ti možnost pridobiti vse informacije o prevozu po mestu, WXULVWLþQR SRQXGER KNUDWL SD VL ODKNR QDSROQLMR VYRMH SDPHWQH naprave (Gretzel in dr. 2015). Dodatno je na voljo informacija o razpoložljivosti prostih koles za trajnejšo mobilnost po centru, kot so ga vzpostavili v Ljubljani (BicikeLJ) in drugih evropskih mestih (npr. 'XQDM 3RGURþMHPRELOQRVWLSDMHYSRUDVWXWXGLSULQDGRPHãþDQMX REVWRMHþHJDYR]QHJDSDUND]XþLQNRYLWHMãLP QSUHOHNWULþQLWDNVLMLQD Dunaju) in z inovativnimi storitvami (npr. souporaba avtomobilov, WIFI na javnih ponudnikih). Pri zagotavljanju in upravljanju SRGDWNRYSUDNWLþQRQDYVHKSRGURþMLKSDGHOHåQLNLSRXGDUMDMRSRPHQ hkratnega delovanja celotne mreže, saj lahko le celoten ekosistem GHOXMH XþLQNRYLWR LQ XVSHãQR 'HO &KLDSpaa in Baggio 2015). Pomemben delež pri zagotavljanju kvalitetnega življenja in trajnosti PHVWLPDMRWXGLRGSDGNLNLVRMLKSRGMHWMDLQPHVWD]DþHODL]VWURãND SUHXVPHUMDWL Y GRELþHN 695.   9 %DUFHORQL VR WDNR informatizirali sistem upravljanja z odpadki do te mere, da zabojniki VSRPRþMRSRVHEQLKPHULOQLNRYYVLVWHPVSRURþLMRQMLKRYRVWDQMHR] SRWUHER SR SUD]QMHQMX V þHPHU RPRJRþDMR SULKUDQHN SUL RGYR]X smeti in izgledu mesta (Saunders in Baeck 2015). Energija je postala GRVWRSQHMãD WXGL QD UDþXQ QRYLK QDþLQRY SULGRELYDQMD WHU XSRUDEH REQRYOMLYLKYLURYNMHUSUHGQMDþLMRVRQþQHLQYHWUQHHOHNWUDUQH '2%$  3RSRURþDQMXPHGLMHY +RþHYDU VPRY6ORYHQLMLJOHGH naložb v pametna omrežja celo na drugem mestu v Evropi, kar bo v prihodnosti imelo NOMXþQRYORJRSUL]DJRWDYOMDQMXSRWUHEQHHQHUJLMH ]D SULþDNRYDQ UD]YRM %UH] SDPHWQLK RPUHåLM QDPUHþ QL PRJRþH ]DJRWRYLWL ]DGRVWQH NROLþLQH HQHUJLMH ]D PQRåLþHQ SRUDVW ãWHYLOD HOHNWULþQLKDYWRPRELORYKNUDWLSDYGLVWULEXFLMVNDRPUHåMDQLPRJRþH povezati YVHKQDQRYRXVWDQRYOMHQLKHOHNWUDUQ QSUVRQþQHFHOLFHQD stavbah v mestu). V nekaterih primerih pa Slovenija tujim uspešnim praksam pametne specializacije še posebej uspešno parira oz. SRVWDMD FHOR SDUDGQL NRQM 9 VHSWHPEUX  VH MH QDPUHþ QD 103


svetovnem kongresu o odprtih tehnologijah v Ljubljani, Slovenijo SRVWDYOMDOR Y RVSUHGMH NMHU EL QDM SRVWDOD UHIHUHQĂžQD GUĂĽDYD ]D odprto izobraĹževanje (Digitalna Slovenija 2020). Brez razvoja SDPHWQLK OMXGL QDPUHĂž REVWDMDYHOLND QHYDUQRVW ]DVODEĂŁL L]NXSLĂžHN njihovega potenciala (Saunders in Baeck 2015). Tudi sicer pa sta ob ]HOHQLLGHQWLWHWLGUĂĽDYHQMHQDQDMYHĂžMDSULORĂĽQRVWUDYQRL]REUDĂĽHYDQMH LQUD]YRMĂžORYHĂŁNLKYLURYVNDWHULPERGROH-WLVSRVREQL]DXĂžLQNRYLWR upravljanje pametnih mest (DOBA 2017).

4 =DNOMXÞHN Pametna mesta so kljub zakasnitvi dogajanja postala nepogreťljiva WXGL SUL QDV ýHSUDY ]DUDGL VSHFLILÞQRVWL 6ORYHQLMH QSU PDMKQD mesta, razprťena poseljenost) teŞko v evropskem merilu govorimo o pravih mestih, veljajo praviloma podobni izzivi, ki smo se jih v praksi lotili predvsem s prenaťanjem dobrih praks iz tujine. Slovenska 6WUDWHJLMD SDPHWQH VSHFLDOL]DFLMH NRW SUHGQRVWQD SRGSRGURÞMD ]D nadaljnje raziskovalno-UD]YRMQR GHOR SUHGYLGHYD ãLURNR SRGURÞMH tem, ki bodo drŞavo ob podpori tehnoloťkih reťitev iQQLãQLKSRGURÞLM skuťale umestiti kot zeleno, aktivno, zdravo in digitalno regijo z vrhunskimi pogoji za ustvarjanje ter inoviranje. 3ULPHUL GREULK SUDNV L] WXMLQH VR SRND]DOL GD QD XÞLQNRYLWRVW delovanja mest, pomembno vpliva sinergija vzajemnega delovanja UD]OLÞQLK GHOHüQLNRY SRGSRUH ,.7 LQ LQRYDWLYQLK SULVWRSRY Najpogosteje primeri dobrih praks (za London, Dunaj, Barcelono, Singapur, Amsterdam itd.) obravnavajo napredno obvladovanje podatkov (informacije o prometu, merilniki na mestni infrastrukturi ipd.), personaliziranje izkuťenj za prebivalce (podatki na enem PHVWXSRYH]RYDQMH]DVRXSUDYOMDQMHLSG XÞLQNRYLWDLQWUDMQRVWQD uporaba surovin (ponovna uporaba, obnovljivi viri ipd.), nadgradnja infrastrukture v napredna omreŞja ter pametne oblike mobilnosti (souporaba vozil, kolesarske mreŞe ipd.). Ne gre zanemariti niti SULVWRSRY]DGHOMHQMH]QDQMDLQNUHSLWYHPRÞLVSRYH]RYDQMVNXSQRVWL ali ťirťih regij. Brez ustrezno izobraŞenega kadra, ki bo sposoben upravljati s pametnimi mesti in pristopi ter ustrezno izobraŞenega prebivalstva, ki bo sposobno interaktivno podpirati to vizijo prebivalstva, strategije QHERPRJRÞHYFHORWLLQXÞLQNRYLWRSUHQHVWLYSUDNVR1DWHMWRÞNLSD je izrednega pomena, da se tudi izobraŞevalne institucije zavedajo svoje odgovornosti, saj bodo skrbele in izobraŞevale za pameten kader, brez katerega zgodba o popolnem pametnem mestu ni UHDOQDLQXUHVQLÞOMLYD

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5 Literatura in viri 1. Albino, V., Berardi, U. in Dangelico, R. M. (2015). Smart Cities: Definitions, Dimensions, Performance, and Initiatives. Journal of Urban Technology, 22(1), p. 3â&#x20AC;&#x201C;21. 2. Buhalis, D. in Amaranggana, A. (2015). Smart Tourism Destinations Enhancing Tourism Experience Through Personalisation of Services. Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2015, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, pp. 377-389. 3. Cizelj, B. in TavĹželj, D. (2015). Urbanisation - Smart cities - Knowledge cities. Weekly Brief no. 33, Brussels: Knowledge Economy Network. 4. Coe, A., Paquet, G. in Roy, J. (2001). E-governance and smart communities: a social learning challenge. Social Science Computer Review, 19(1), p. 80â&#x20AC;&#x201C;93. 5. Deakin, M. in Al Waer, H. (2011). From Intelligent to Smart Cities. Journal of Intelligent Buildings International, 3(3), p. 140â&#x20AC;&#x201C;152. 6. Del Chiappaa, G. in Baggio, R. (2015). Knowledge transfer in smart tourism destinations: Analyzing the effects of a network structure. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 4(3), p. 145â&#x20AC;&#x201C;150. 7. Digitalna Slovenija 2020 (2016). Strategija razvoja informacijske druĹžbe do leta 2020. Dosegljivo na: http://www.mju.gov.si/fileadmin/mju.gov.si/pageuploads/DID/Informacijsk a_dr uzba/DSI_2020.pdf [dostop 30. 9. 2017]. 8. DOBA Fakulteta (2017). 5 pametnih mest, ki bi jih morali poznati. Maribor: DOBA Fakulteta. 9. E-zavod (2015). Projekt UPSIDE (UporabniĹĄko usmerjene inovativne reĹĄitve digitalno usmerjenih ekosistemov). Dosegljivo na: http://www.ezavod.si/eu-projekti/tekoci-projekti#informacije-o-projektu [dostop 30. 9. 2017]. 10. Golob, B. in Habjan, H. (2015). 3RURĂžLOR8UEDQLIRUXP3DPHWQD mesta za trajnostni razvoj Slovenije in zeleno rast. Ig: InĹĄtitut GFS. Dosegljivo na: http://www.goforesight.eu/urbaniforum/mesta/docs/Urbani%20forum%20porocil o%202015%20web.pdf [dostop 30. 9. 2017]. 11. Gretzel, U., Sigala, M., Xiang, Z. in Koo, U. (2015). Smart tourism: foundations and developments. Electron Markets, 25, p. 179â&#x20AC;&#x201C;188. 12. +RĂžHYDU%  6ORYHQLMDGUXJDY(8SULQDORĂĽEDKYSDPHWQDRPUHĂĽMD Finance, [online]. Dosegljivo na: https://oe.finance.si/8820985/Slovenijadruga-v-EU-pri-nalozbah-v-pametna-omrezja?cctest& [dostop 30. 9. 2017]. 13. Lombardi, P., Giordano, S., Farouh, H. in Yousef, W. (2012). Modelling the Smart City Performance. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 25(2), p. 137â&#x20AC;&#x201C;149. 14. 0HMDĂž/  )RQWDQDVSLYRPNDNRQDPHUDYDMRYäDOFX]HOHQR]ODWR pretopiti v evre. Finance, [online]. Dosegljivo na: https://www.finance.si/8848712 [dostop 30. 9. 2017]. 15. Puhek, M. in Dominko Baloh, J. (2016). Trajnostni turizem in pametna mesta v Sloveniji. V: F. Ĺ˝ohar, ur., Zbornik IX. posveta Delovanje skupnih REĂžLQVNLKXSUDYY6ORYHQLML0DULERU6NXSQRVWREĂžLQ6ORYHQLMH/MXEOMDQD =GUXĂĽHQMHREĂžLQ6ORYHQLMH/MXEOMDQD0LQLVWUVWYR]DMDYQRXSUDYRS29. 105


16. Saunders, T. in Baeck, P. (2015). Rethinking Smart Cities from the Ground Up. London: Nesta. 17. Schaffers, H., Komninos, N., Pallot, M., Aguas, M., Almirall, E., Bakici, T., Barroca, J., Carter, D., Corriou, M. in Fernadez, J. (2012). Smart Cities as Innovation Ecosystems sustained by the Future Internet. Dosegljivo na: https://hal.inria.fr/hal-00769635/document [dostop 30. 9. 2017]. 18. SVRK (2015). Slovenska Strategija Pametne Specializacije - S4. Ljubljana: SluĹžba Vlade Republike Slovenije za razvoj in evropsko kohezijsko politiko. Dosegljivo na: http://www.svrk.gov.si/fileadmin/svrk.gov.si/pageuploads/Dokumenti_za_ objavo_na_vstopni_strani/SPS_10_7_2015.pdf [dostop 30. 9. 2017].

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Dr. Andrej Raspor Docent, DOBA Fakulteta Maribor, Slovenija in Fakulteta za uporabne druĹžbene ĹĄtudije v Novi Gorici, Nova Gorica andrej.raspor@ceatm.org 'U'DUNR/DFPDQRYLĂź Redni profesor, University â&#x20AC;&#x153;Mediterraneanâ&#x20AC;?, Faculty for tourism â&#x20AC;&#x153;Montenegro Tourism Schoolâ&#x20AC;?, Podgorica, Montenegro darko.lacmanovic@unimediteran.net

Vpliv kitajskega izhodnega turizma na drĹžave nekdanje Jugoslavije Povzetek Kitajska postaja vse SRPHPEQHMĂŁL SDUWQHU GUĂĽDYDP QD REPRĂžMX nekdanje Jugoslavije. V prispevku smo se omejili na prihode kitajskih WXULVWRY NDWHULK ĂŁWHYLOR VH YVDNR OHWR SRYHĂžXMH 9 SULVSHYNX VR REUDYQDYDQLLQSULPHUMDQLGRVWRSQLVWDWLVWLĂžQLSRGDWNLL]QDFLRQDOQLK VWDWLVWLĂžQLK uradov ter mednarodnih organizacij (UNWTO, World Bank, CNTA ...). Podatki zato dovoljujejo primerjave o prihodih, ne SD WXGL R QRĂžLWYDK =D SRMDVQLWHY JLEDQMD ĂŁWHYLOD WXULVWRY VR XSRUDEOMHQH ]JRGRYLQVND GHVNULSWLYQD LQ VWDWLVWLĂžQD PHWRGD ]D primerjavo med posameznimi drĹžavami pa metoda komparacije. 2EUDYQDYDQHGUĂĽDYHVLODKNRREHWDMRYHĂžMLWUHQGUDVWLNRWMHQDSRYHG UDVWLNLWDMVNHJDL]KRGQHJDWXUL]PD7RSDELPRUDORGDWLRGORĂžHYDOFHY LQ WXULVWLĂžQLP SRQXGQLNRP GRGDWHQ ]DJRQ GD VH QD WH WXULVWH pripravijo in oblikujejo ponudbo, ki bo bolj oblikovana na njihove SRWUHEH1DNLWDMVNHPJRYRUHĂžHPWUJXSDELPRUDOLQDVWRSDWLVNXSDM .OMXĂžQHEHVHGH: turisti, Kitajska, drĹžave nekdanje Jugoslavije Koda JEL klasifikacijE: Z32

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The impact of the Chinese outbound tourism on the states of the former Yugoslavia Abstract China is becoming an increasingly important partner of the countries of the former Yugoslavia. In the paper, we limited ourselves to the income of Chinese tourists, whose number is growing every year. The article deals with and compares available statistical data from national statistical offices and international organizations (UNWTO, World Bank, CNTA ...). The data, therefore, allows comparisons of arrivals, but not overnight stays. In order to explain the trend in the number of tourists, historical, descriptive and statistical methods have been used, and the comparative method for comparison between individual countries has been used. The countries concerned can be expected to have a higher growth trend than the forecast for the growth of Chinese outbound tourism. Keywords: tourists, China, former Yugoslav republics JEL classification code: Z32

1 Uvod Namen prispevka je nadgraditi predhodne raziskave (Raspor, 6WUDQMDQþHYLü%XODWRYLü /DFPDQRYLü; LacmanoYLü 5DVSRU 2016; 5DVSRU /DFPDQRYLü 6WUDQMDQþHYLü  %XODWRYLü  %RIXOLQ 5DVSRU 6WUDQMDQþHYLü %XODWRYLü  /DFPDQRYLü   R vplivu kitajskega izhodnega turizma na države bivše Jugoslavije in sicer QDQDþLQGDVRVHL]YHGOHQRYHQDSRYHGLUDVWLSULKRGRYWXULVWRY za obdobje do leta 2027. Znanstvena in ekonomska relevantnost tega dela se kaže v tem, da VHYVDNROHWRSRYHþXMHãWHYLORNLWDMVNLKWXULVWRYWDNRVYHWRYQRNRW WXGL QD REPRþMX GUåDY ELYãH -Xgoslavije. Poleg tega pa je v SRVDPH]QLK GUåDYDK ELYãH -XJRVODYLMH WR SRGURþMH UD]PHURPD QHUD]LVNDQR,]MHPDVROH6ORYHQLMD+UYDãND6UELMDLQýUQD*RUDNL VRMLKREUDYQDYDOLþODQNLDYWRUMHYWHJDSULVSHYND

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Glavno raziskovalno vprašanje se glasi: Ali si lahko države bivše -XJRVODYLMHREHWDMRYHþMLWUHQGUDVWLNLWDMVNLKJRVWRYNRWMHVYHWRYQD napoved rasti kitajskega izhodnega turizma? Za odgovor na raziskovalno vprašanje so bile uporabljene naslednje metode znanstvenega raziskovanja: opisna in zgodovinska metoda ]DRSLVVWDWLVWLþQLKSRGDWNRY]DSUHWHNORREGREMHPHWRGDLQGXNFLMH in dedukcije. Podatki so bili obdelani z programskim orodjem EXCEL in Tableau 10.3 za napovedi trendov do leta 2027. Prispevek je razdeljen na tri dele. V prvem delu je prikazano WHRUHWLþQR R]DGMH 6OHGL SRJODYMH NMHU VR SULND]DQH QDMQRYHãH XJRWRYLWYHLQ]EUDQLQDMQRYHãLVWDWLVWLþQLSRGDWNL]QDSRYHGPLUDVWL 9 ]DNOMXþQHP GHOX VH SROHJ RPHMLWHY SUL UD]LVNRYDQMX QDKDMD RGJRYRU QD UD]LVNRYDOQR YSUDãDQMH V SUHGORJL LQ SULSRURþili na nadaljnje raziskovanje.

2 Pregled predhodnih raziskav o vplivu kitajskega izhodnega turizma na države nekdanje Jugoslavije 3RWUHEQRMHSRXGDULWLYHþGHMVWHYRYSOLYXWXUL]PDQD.LWDMVNHPNRW globalne destinacije in kakÅ¡en je njen vpliv na globalni turizem. Glede na nekatere podatke, kot so: 10,2 % celotnega svetovnega BDP, 9,7 % celotne svetovne zaposlenosti (neposreden, posreden in SRY]URþHQ YSOLY  MH WXULVWLþQD LQGXVWULMD HQD QDMSRPHPEQHMãLK LQ QDMKLWUHMH UDVWRþLK SDQRJ QD VYHWX 3UHGVWDYOMD   svetovnega L]YR]D V SULþDNRYDQR SRYSUHþQR VWRSQMR UDVWL   QD OHWR PHG letoma 2010 in 2030 (UNWTO 2017b). Stopnja rasti turizma v obdobju 2012â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2016 je viÅ¡ja od rasti mednarodne trgovine (3,3 % u odnosu na 3 %) (United Nations World Economic Situation Prospects 2017). Na sploÅ¡no so se v zadnjem pol stoletja zgodili globalni SUHPLNL ýH MH OHWD  SUYLK SHW WXULVWLþQR QDMEROM UD]YLWLK GUÃ¥DY ustvarilo kar 71 % od vseh prihodov turistov, je leta 2010 ta delež SDGHO QD  RGVWRWQLK WRþN LQ OHWD  ]QDãD VDPR   (Levasseur, 2011; UNWTO, 2017a). 1DMYHþMDSRYSUHþQDUDVWWXULVWLþQLKSULKRGRY 6, v obdobju 1995â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2015, je ugotovljena v Armeniji (25,85 %), sledi Kirgizija (24,85 %), *UX]LMD    6OHGLMR GUÃ¥DYH ELYãH -XJRVODYLMH ]DþHQãL V ýUQR

6 Zaradi vojne v državah bivÅ¡e Jugoslavije je bilo Å¡tevilo prihodov turistov leta YSULPHUMDYL]OHWRPYL]MHPQRQL]NR3RYSUHþQHVWRSnje rasti so L]UDþXQDQH]DUD]OLþQDREGREMD$UPHQLMD.LUJL]LMD*UX]LMD$OEDQLMD+UYDãND (1995â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ýUQD*RUD6UELMD â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2016) in Bosna in Hercegovina (1997â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2016).

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Goro (19,57 %), Albanijo (13,94 %), HrvaÅ¡ko (11,32 %), Srbijo (10,61 %) ter Bosno in Hercegovino (10,58 %) (World Bank, 2017; UNWTO, 2017a). Tudi Slovenija posWDMDYHGQREROMSUHSR]QDYQDWXULVWLþQDGHVWLQDFLMD 3RGLUDMR VH WXULVWLþQL UHNRUGL NL MLK PRUGD QLVPR SULþDNRYDOL LQ VR NRJDSUHVHQHWLOLþHSUDYVRMLKDYWRUMLWHJDSULVSHYNDÃ¥HQDSRYHGRYDOL (Bofulin et al. 2016)9HþLQDGUÃ¥DYELYãH-XJRVWDYLMHMHSREXUQLKOHWLK 1991â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2001, glede na globalne mirovne indekse na visokih ali vsaj stabilnih mestih po varnosti (Institute for Economics & Peace 2017). V letu 2016 je bilo zabeleženo 59,3 mio. prihodov turistov na .LWDMVNR NDU SUHGVWDYOMD þHWUWR PHVWR PHG YVHPL VYHWRYQLPL destinacijami (prva je Francija 82,6 mio., ZDA je druga s 75,6 mio. in tretja Å panija s 75,6 mio. prihodov turistov). Kitajska beleži porast za 4,2 % prihodov glede na predhodno leto 2015 (UNWTO 2017b). Ustvarila je 44,4 mld. USD prihodkov od turizma, kar jo ponovno XYUãþDQDþHWUWRPHVWR ]D='$POG86'âSDQLMRPOG USD in Tajsko 49,4 mld. USD) (prav tam). Potrebno je poudariti, da so prihodi turistov in prihodki od turizma omejeni zgolj na »Mainland China 7©LQGDQLVRYNOMXþHQLSULKRGLLQSULKRGNLY+RQJ.RQJX  mil. prihodov; 32,9 mld. USD prihodkov), Macau (15,7 mil. prihodov; 29,9 mld. USD prihodkov) in Taiwanu (10,7 mil. prihodov; 13,4 mld. prihodkov). To pomeni, da imajo vse Å¡tiri destinacije skupaj 112,2 PLOSULKRGRYLQPOG86'SULKRGNRYL]WXUL]PD7RELMLKXYUãþDOR na prvo mesto po prihodih in na drugo mesto po prihodkih (prav tam). 7XGL QD SRGURþMX ãWHYLOD L]KRGQLK WXULVWRY LQ QMLKRYH SRWURãQMH .LWDMVNDSUHGQMDþLÃ¥HYVHRGOHWDýHMHQMLKRYRãWHYLORYOHWX ]QDãDORQHNDMYHþNRWPLRMHELORYOHWXWHKÃ¥H PLR NDU MH   SRYHþDQMe, v primerjavi z letom 2015. Obstaja WXGLL]MHPQRSRYHþDQMHSRUDEHNLWDMVNLKWXULVWRYYWXMLQLâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; v letu 2016 VR SRUDELOL  POG 86' NDU MH ]D  POG 86' YHþ NRW VR potroÅ¡ili državljani ZDA, ki potujejo v tujino. V primerjavi s preteklim letom znDãD   SRUDVW LQ SUHGVWDYOMD YHþ NRW  FHORWQHJD svetovnega tržnega deleža (21,4 %) (UNWTO 2017a). V prejÅ¡njih raziskavah (Raspor et al., 2012; Bofulin et al., 2016; /DFPDQRYLü 5DVSRU5DVSRU/DFPDQRYLü6WUDQMDQþHYLü  %XODWRYLüERaspor et al., 2017) smo že napovedovali visoko rast obiskov kitajskih turistov. Vendar pa zadnji pospeÅ¡eni trendi rasti postavljajo vpraÅ¡anje, do kje se bo ta trend lahko že nadaljeval.

7

Nanaša se na Celinsko Kitajsko. 110


S tem prispevkom želimo ponovno preveriti, kaj se bo s prihodi NLWDMVNLKWXULVWRYGRJDMDORQDREPRþMXGUåDYELYãH-XJRVODYLMH

3 NajnoveÅ¡e ugotovitve Tudi turizem je podrvržen dnevnim dogajanjem. Iz slike 1 je razvideno, kako se je Å¡tevilo turistov gibalo v obdobju od leta 1995 GDOMH7DNRMHELODYHþMDVWDJQDFLMDYOHWLKâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;2003, zaradi recesije pred tem (Smeral 2010)1DVOHGQMLYHþMLSDGHFãWHYLODWXULVWRYYOHWLK 2007â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2009 je bil prav tako posledica svetovne gospodarske krize (Kaar 2009). TakÅ¡ne dogodke lahko kljub stabilni napovedi UNWTO SULþDNXMHPR WXGL Y ERGRþH âH SRVHEHM WR YHOMD ]DUDGL QHPLUQHJD %OLÃ¥QMHJDY]KRGDVHYHUQH$IULNHLQWHURULVWLþQLKQDSDGRYSR(YURSLY zadnjih treh letih. Turisti bodo zagotovo iskali mirnejÅ¡e destinacije. Tu pridobivajo prav države bivÅ¡e Jugoslavije, saj se po obdobju vojne v letih 1991â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2001 izboljÅ¡ujejo varnostne razmere. 6 SURJUDPRP 7DEOHDX  NL MH UHIHUHQþQR RURGMH ]D QDSRYHGL trendov, smo simulirali prihodnje gibanje Å¡tevila svetovnih turistov iQ SULSUDYLOL QDSRYHGL GR OHWD  3ULþDNXMHPR ODKNR GD ER OHWD 2027 8 SRWRYDOR  POG WXULVWRY LQ GD ER SRYSUHþQD OHWQD UDVW 2,36 %, kar je sicer manj kot napoveduje UNWTO, ki napoveduje SRYSUHþQR UDVW   9 (UNWTO 2017a). Odstopanja z UNWTO nastajajo, ker ta organizacija razpolaga s podatki od leta 1950 (sami imamo podatke od leta 1995) in napovedi ne zajemajo zadnjih WHURULVWLþQLKQDSDGRY QSUY9HOLNL%ULWDQLML)UDQFLML(JLSWX YSOLYD migrantskih tokov skozi sredozemske in države Balkana ter QHPLUQHJD DUDEVNHJD VYHWD VSORK QSU /LELMD 6LULMD  âH YHþMD odstopanja od teh napovedi tako lahko nastanejo v primeru svetovne recesije ali prisotnosti oz. verjetnosti svetovnih spopadov. Vpliv je lahko zgolj lokalen (turisti VHHQHPXREPRþMXL]RJQHMRLQJUHGRQD GUXJR GHVWLQDFLMR  DOL JOREDOHQ NR VR WXULVWLþQL WRNRYL ]DUDGL vsesploÅ¡ne nevarnosti paralizirani).

8 /HWRVPRY]HOLNRWUHIHUHQþQRVDMQDPRPRJRþDQDSRYHGRYDQMH] verjetnostjo. 9 Napoveduje se 3,8 % rast za obdobje 2010â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2020; in 2,9 % rast za obdobje 2020â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2030

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Slika 1: Prihodi in napovedi turistov - svet (1995 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2027) Vir: (UNWTO, 2017; lastni izraþXQL

3ULSRGDWNLKRRGKRGLKNLWDMVNLKWXULVWRYYWXMLQRVHSRMDYOMDMRUD]OLþQH PHWRGRORJLMH 1DYDMDMR VH SRGDWNL R SUHþNDQMX PHMH %RUGHU crossings 10 NLMLKQDYMDMD.LWDMVNDQDFLRQDOQDWXULVWLþQDRUJDQL]DFLMD CNTA (China National Tourism Administration 2016), povzemajo pa MRãHGRORþHQLGUXJLYLUL(Arlt & Deng-Westphal 2017). Kitajska ima 102 11 YHþMD PHMQD SUHKRGD RG WHJD MLK MH VDPR QD PHML R] neposredni povezavi (letala, vlaki, ladje) s Hong Kongom 25, kjer GQHYQR SUHþND PHMR WXGL YHþ NRW  SRWQLNRY 12. UNWTO za leto 2015 navaja, da je iz Kitajske v Hong Kong potovalo 18 mil. Kitajskih turistov (UNWTO 2017a). Poleg tega imamo podatke UNWTO in Svetovne banke, kjer govorijo o prihodih turistov v posamezno državo. Tudi tu ni enotne metodologije zbiranja podatkov o prihodih turistov. Nekatere države 13 vodijo vse kitajske turiste v enotni katergoriji, druge pa jih delijo na skupine: »Mainland China«, »Hong Kong-China«, »Macao-

http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/border-crossing: a place on the border between two countries where people can cross, have their passports checked, and go through customs. 11 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Border_crossings_of_China 12 http://www.immd.gov.hk/publications/a_report_2015/en/ch2.html 13 =L]MHPR+UYDãNHNLMLKYRGLORþHQRYVHGUÃ¥DYHELYãH-XJRVODYLMHLQYHþLQD VYHWRYQLKGUÃ¥DYYRGLMR.LWDMFHÃ¥LYHþHY/MXGVNLUHSXEOLNL.LWDMVNLDOLWL&HOLQVNL Kitajski, â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ª0DLQODQG &KLQD© WHU Y SRVHEQHP DGPLQLVWUDWLYQHP REPRþMX »Macao« in »Hong Kong« in s strani Ljudske republike Kitajske nepriznane Republike Kitajske â&#x20AC;&#x201C; »Taiwan«, v enotni skupini - Kitajska. Za nadalnje potrebe þODQNDERPRXSRUDEOMDOLRULJLQDOQDLPHQD 10

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&KLQD© LQ ª7DLZDQ© 3R]QDYDMRþ VWDQMH Y QDFLRQDOQLK VWDWLVWLþQLK XUDGLK Y GUåDYDK ELYãH -XJRVODYLMH VPR ]D SRWUHEH WHJD þODQND združili prihode turistov iz prej navedenih držav v enotno skupino 14. Generalno gledano so podatki CNTA relevantnejši za države, ki mejijo neposredno s Kitajsko. Podatki UNWTO in Svetovne banke RPRJRþDMRQDSRYHGL]DYVHSUHRVWDOHVYHWRYQHGUåDYHNLMLKGQHYQL migracijski tok ne zajema. Podatke navajamo od leta 1995 z napovedovanjem trendov do leta 2027. V sliki 2 prikazujemo trend pretekle rasti z napovedjo, koliko NLWDMVNLKWXULVWRYODKNRSULþDNXMHPRSRSRVDPH]QLNDWHJRULML

Slika 2: Prihodi in napovedi potovanja kitajskih turistov na svetovni ravni (1995â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2027) Vir: (World Bank, 2017; UNWTO, 2017a; China National Tourism Administration, 2016; Arlt & Deng-Westphal, 2017; /DVWQLL]UDþXQL

http://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/macau-sar-china.asp Vodijo jih kot specialne administrativne regije.

14

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Z 90 % gotovostjo lahko napovedujemo, da bo leta 2027 potovalo  PLO NLWDMVNLK WXULVWRY 3UHþNDQM PHMH ER ELVWYHQR YHþ 1DSRYHGXMHVHGDERQHSRVUHGQRL].LWDMVNHXSRãWHYDMRþãHª+RQJ Kongâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;China«, »Macaoâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;&KLQD© LQ ª7DLZDQ© YNOMXþXMRþ QMLKRY neposredni dnevnLPLJUDFLMVNLWRNSUHþNDORPHMRPLORVHE VOLND  3RYSUHþQDOHWQDVWRSQMDUDVWLYREGREMXâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;2027 bo znaÅ¡ala   NDU MH QDG VYHWRYQLP SRYSUHþMHP   NL VPR JD L]UDþXQDOLYVOLNL 7XGL Y GUÃ¥DYDK ELYãH -XJRVODYLMH EHOHÃ¥LPR PRþQH WUHQGH UDsti kitajskih turistov (slika 3). V obzir smo vzeli gibanja leta od 2010 QDSUHM VDM QHNDWHUL QDFLRQDOQL VWDWLVWLþQL XUDGL V SRGDWNL SUHG WHP OHWRP QH UD]SRODJDMR LQ EL ELOL ]DWR WUHQGL QHSRSROQL 1DMYHþML koeficient rasti beleži Bosna in Hercegovina (17,23), sledita ji +UYDãND  LQýUQD*RUD  1DMSRþDVQHMãLWUHQGUDVWLLPD 6ORYHQLMD NL SD MH ]DþHOD EHOHÃ¥LWL YHþMH ãWHYLOR NLWDMVNLK WXULVWRY Ã¥H pred tem letom, in sicer od leta 2007 dalje. HrvaÅ¡ka je pravi »bum« doživela po vstopu v EU, saj turiVWLQLVRYHþSRWUHERYDOLGRGDWQHYL]H ]D YVWRS Y WR GUÃ¥DYR +UYDãND MH QDPUHþ V VYRMLPL  ORNDFLMDPL 8QHVFRYHVYHWRYQHGHGLãþLQH(UNESCO World Heritage Centre 2017) zelo zanimiva za svetovne popotnike. Od tega so imele neposredne koristi tudi sosednje države, ki mejijo na HrvaÅ¡ko. Kitajskim turistom, v kolikor je njihov prihod neposredno v državo EU in se YUDþDMRQD.LWDMVNRL]GUÃ¥DYH(8RPRJRþDMRSUHKRGEUH]GRGDWQih lokalnih viz. Srbija in San Marino sta vizume za kitajske turiste celo ukinila.

Slika 3: Koeficient rasti kitajskega turizma v državah bivÅ¡e Jugoslavije v letih 2010â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2016 114


Vir: (5HSXEOLND 6ORYHQLMD 6WDWLVWLþQL 8UDG 56 ; Republic of Kosovo Kosovo Agency of Statistics, 2017; Republic of Macedonia State Statistical Office, 2017; Republika Hrvatska Državni zavod za statistiku, 2017; Agencija za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine, 2017; Zavod za statistiku Crne Gore Monstat, 2017; Republika Srbija 5HSXEOLþNL]DYRG]DVWDWLVWLNX). .DÃ¥HSDRSR]RULWLGDVHODKNRHQWXULVWSRMDYLYVWDWLVWLNLYHþNUDWNR npr. prihaja v Slovenijo iz smeri Avstrije, Italije ali Madžarske, QDGDOMXMH SRW SR +UYDãNL SUHþND %RVQR LQ +HUFHJRYLQR YVWopi SRQRYQR QD +UYDãNR JUH SUHNR ýUQH *RUH Y 6UELMR LQ VH SRQRYQR YUQHþH]+UYDãNRY6ORYHQLMRLQQDGDOMXMHSRWY$YVWULMR,WDOMLMRDOL Madžarsko 15 (GLQL PHURGDMHQ SRGDWHN VR QRþLWYH D Ã¥DO V WHP podatkom UNWTO ne razpolaga in zato teh primerjav nismo mogli pripraviti. V tabeli 1 prikazujemo vse prihode Kitajcev v države bivÅ¡e -XJRVODYLMH =D KUYDãNR VR YNOMXþHQL WXGL SULKRGL L] ª+RQJ .RQJChina«, »Macao-&KLQD© LQ ª7DLZDQ© VDM MLK YRGLMR ORþHQR 2VWDOH države bivÅ¡e Jugoslavijo jih vodijo v enotni kategoriji »China«. ,]KDMDMRþL]SRGDWNRYL]WDEHOHVPRSULSUDYLOLQDSRYHGLUDVWLYOHWLK 2017â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2027, ki so predstavljeni v Sliki 5. Tudi v tem primeru velja 90 ]DQHVOMLYRVWQDSRYHGRYDQMD=DUDGLNUDWNHþDVRYQHVHULMHREVWDMD zelo velika razlika med povprHþQR RSWLPLVWLþQR LQ SHVLPLVWLþQR napovedjo. Za leto 2027 se tako napoveduje vsaj 600.000 prihodov. 7R SD MH YHþ NRW   YHþ NRW VPR QDSRYHGRYDOL Y SUHWHNORVWL (Bofulin et al. 2016). Tabela 1: Prihodi kitajskih turistov v države bivÅ¡e Jugoslavije (20052016) BIH 200 5 200 6 200 7 200 8

Hrvaš ka

Koso vo

Makedo nia

ýUQD Srbij Gora a

Sloven Skupa ija j

308

1.754

2.062

194

2.615

2.809 12.33 1 14.21 4

497

6.416

15

300

100

534

6.375

18

400

200

1.50 0 1.80 0

3.503 4.887

Teh kombinacij je možno þH] 6lovenijo QDUHGLWL ãH YHþ Poleg tega lahko Y]DPHPRNRWUHIHUHþQRGUåDYRWXGL+UYDãNRNLMHWXGLY(8 15

115


16.80 200 2.20 478 7.534 19 550 400 0 5.627 8 9 15.47 1.00 3.00 29.17 201 770 9 20 704 0 0 8.205 8 0 1.40 3.47 42.32 201 2.24 22.45 4 9 39 1.664 0 0 11.050 6 1 2.70 4.81 72.22 201 3.36 43.24 9 9 62 2.828 0 2 15.208 8 2 150.7 201 5.64 111.4 4.00 5.78 2 54 70 4.026 0 3 19.801 76 3 7.93 9.59 200.5 201 6.54 148.0 9 37 75 4.517 2 2 23.827 29 4 13.3 14.2 290.2 201 9.94 208.1 8 04 78 7.256 62 38 37.234 20 5 201 13.2 209.6 11.8 18.4 304.3 6 66 03 110 6.565 94 09 44.464 11 Vir: (5HSXEOLND 6ORYHQLMD 6WDWLVWLþQL 8UDG 56 ; Republic of Kosovo Kosovo Agency of Statistics, 2017; Republic of Macedonia State Statistical Office, 2017; Republika Hrvatska Državni zavod za statistiku, 2017; Agencija za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine, 2017; Zavod za statistiku Crne Gore Monstat, 2017; Republika Srbija 5HSXEOLþNL]DYRG]DVWDWLVWLNX). 8SRãWHYDMRþYVHSUHGKRGQHSRGDWNHRSULKRGLKODKNRUDþXQDPRGD ERSRYSUHþQDVWRSQMDUDVWLSULKRGRYYOHWLKâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;2027 znaÅ¡ala 10,5 %.

Slika 4: Prihodi in napovedi kitajskih turistov v države bivÅ¡e Jugoslavije (2007â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2027) 116


Vir: (5HSXEOLND 6ORYHQLMD 6WDWLVWLþQL 8Uad RS, 2017; Republic of Kosovo Kosovo Agency of Statistics, 2017; Republic of Macedonia State Statistical Office, 2017; Republika Hrvatska Državni zavod za statistiku, 2017; Agencija za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine, 2017; Zavod za statistiku Crne Gore Monstat, 2017; Republika Srbija 5HSXEOLþNL]DYRG]DVWDWLVWLNX).

4 5D]SUDYDLQ]DNOMXþHN V prispevku smo obravnavali prihode kitajskih turistov v države bivÅ¡e -XJRVODYLMH .R VH SULPHUMDMR SRYSUHþQH VWRSQMH UDVWL SULKRGRY kitajskih in tujih turistov po posameznih državah bivÅ¡e Jugoslavije in za vse države skupaj v obdobju 2010â&#x20AC;&#x201C; MH PRÃ¥QR ]DNOMXþLWL QDVOHGQMHYHþMRUDVWJOHGHQDYVHWXULVWHGRVHJDMRNLWDMVNLWXULVWLY Bosni in Hercegovini (17,23 % oz. 12,25 %), HrvaÅ¡ki (13,54 % oz.    LQ ýUQL *RUL  % oz. 7,26 %), a nižjo stopnjo v Makedoniji (9,33 % oz. 11,88 %), Srbiji (6,14 % oz. 11,12 %), Kosovu (5,50 % oz. 17,76 %) in Sloveniji (5,42 % oz. 8,09 %). 1DMYHþML GHOHÃ¥ SULKRGRY NLWDMVNLK WXULVWRY PHG YVHPL SULKRGL WXMLK turistov, v obdobju 2014â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2016 je na HrvaÅ¡kem (1,48 %), sledijo ji Bosna in Hercegovina (1,46 %), Slovenija (1,29 %), Makedonija  6UELMD  ýUQD*RUD  LQ.RVRYR   ,]QDYHGHQHJDODKNR]DNOMXþLPRGDLPDMRNLWDMVNLWXULVWLYVWUXNWXUL vseh prihodov tujih WXULVWRYLQSRVOHGLþQRQDMYHþMLYSOLYQD+UYDãNHP LQ Y %RVQL LQ +HUFHJRYLQL 1D SULþDNRYDQH VWRSQMH UDVWL MH PRJRþH SULþDNRYDWLGDVHERWDYSOLYSRYHþDOWXGLYýUQL*RUL.OMXEYVHPX je delež kitajskih turistov v strukturi vseh prihodov tujih turistov Å¡e vedno majhen v vseh obravnavanih državah. Skupen delež vsek kitajskih turistov, med vsemi tujimi turisti, se je v državah bivÅ¡e -XJRVODYLMHSRYHþDONUDW3RSRVDPH]QLGUÃ¥DYLMHWRSRYHþDQMH QDVOHGHQMH QDMYHþMH MH QD +UYDãNHP   VOHGLMR %RVQD Ln +HUFHJRYLQD  ýUQD*RUD  0DNHGRQLMD  6ORYHQLMD (3,47), Srbija (3,27) in Kosovo (2,26). Ko se ti koeficienti primerjajo s stopnjami rasti (slika 4), se lahko preveri konciznost teh kazalnikov. Prognoza rasti svetovnega turizma v letih 2017â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2027 znaÅ¡a 2,36 % SRYSUHþQMDVWRSQMDUDVWLOHWQR UDVWNLWDMVNHJDL]KRGQHJDWXUL]PD SD]QDãD=DQDãRUD]LVNDYRMHSRPHEQDSRYSUHþQDVWRSQMD rasti prihodov kitajskih turistov v države bivÅ¡e Jugoslavije, ki znaÅ¡a 10,5 % (letno). Iz tega lahko ]DNOMXþLPRGDODKNRYREGREMXâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; SULþDNXMHPRGDERSUHþNDORPHMRPOGNLWDMFHYLQGDERRG tega bo skupaj 6 mio. prihodov v države bivÅ¡e Jugoslavije. 117


Glede na raziskovalno vpraĹĄanje, postavljeno v uvodu: Ali si lahko drĹžave bivĹĄe Jugoslavije REHWDMR YHĂžML WUHQG UDVWL NLWDMVNLK JRVWRY kot je svetovna napoved rasti kitajskega izhodnega turizma?, lahko odgovorimo pritrdilno. 1DYHGHQR EL PRUDOR GDWL RGORĂžHYDOFHY LQ WXULVWLĂžQLP SRQXGQLNRP dodaten zagon, da se na te turiste pripravijo in oblikujejo ponudbo, ki bo bolj prilagojena njihovim potrebam, jih poskusijo zadrĹžati za GDOMĂŁH REGREMH LQ SRYHĂžDWL QMLKRYR GQHYQR SRWURĂŁQMR =DWR SD EL PRUDOLQDNLWDMVNHPJRYRUHĂžHPWUJXQDVWRSDWLVNXSDM

5 Literatura in viri 1. Agencija za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine, 2017. Statistika turizma, Kumulativni podaci, januar-decembar 2016. 6DRSĂźHQMHJRGLQD;EU Statistika turizma, Kumulativni podaci, januar-decembar 2016. http://www.bhas.ba/index.php?option=com_publikacija&view= publikacija_pregled&ids=3&id=16&n=Turizam [dostop 15. 8. 2017]. 2. Anon, 2017. World Development Indicators | DataBank. 3. Arlt, W.G. & Deng-Westphal, M., 2017. 2018 EU-China Tourism Year Getting Ready For China 2018, Hamburg, Germany. http://chinaoutbound.com/wbt/. 4. Bofulin, M. et al., 2016. Small Destinations In Large Tourism Market: The analysis of Western Balkan countries and the Chinese outbound tourism. In The VIII International Scientific Conference â&#x20AC;&#x153;The role and effectiveness of investments in the integration process of the Balkan societies after Stabilisation Association Agreement. Ulcinj: Institut for scientific research and development, pp. 130â&#x20AC;&#x201C;143. 5. China National Tourism Administration, 2016. Travel China Guide: China Outbound Tourism in 2015, Bejing. http://www.travelchinaguide.com/tourism/2015statistics. 6. Institute for Economics & Peace, 2017. SDG16 Progress Report, Sidney, Australia. http://visionofhumanity.org/app/uploads/2017/09/SDG16Progress-Report-2017.pdf. 7. Kaar, M., 2009. A critical analysis of the 2007-2009 global financial and economic crisis and its implications for the travel industry and associated businesses, diplom. de. 8. /DFPDQRYLĂź' 5DVSRU$(FRQRPLFLPSDFWRI&KLQHVHRXWERXQG tourism in Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro. In HOTEL PLAN 2016, 7KH6L[WK,QWHUQDWLRQDO%LHQQLDO&RQJUHVδª+RVSLWDOLW\DQGWRXULVPâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; interdisciplinary approachÂŤ. Belgrade, Serbia: The College of Hotel Management, pp. 100â&#x20AC;&#x201C;111. 9. Levasseur, M., 2011. Global ranking of destinations and source markets. Tourism Intelligence Network. Dosegljivo na: http://tourismintelligence.ca/2011/07/26/global-ranking-of-destinationsand-source-markets/ [dostp 10. 8. 2017]. 10. Raspor, A. et al., 2016. Chinese tourists in Slovenia and Montenegro: Preferences, characteristics and trip motivation 1st ed., London: Vega Press LTD. 11. Raspor, A. et al., 2017. Tourism invisible part of exports: the analysis of 118


6ORYHQLDDQG0RQWHQHJURRQWKH&KLQHVHRXWERXQGWRXULVP,Q$0DþHN ed. International Trade-On the Brink of Change. Rijeka: InTech, pp. 95â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 121. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/66628. 12. RDVSRU$.REDO7 5RGLþ%&+,1(6(7285,676â&#x20AC;&#x201C;ARE THEY AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE SLOVENE AND CROATIAN TOURIST INDUSTRY? Tourism and hospitality management, 18(1), pp.111â&#x20AC;&#x201C;125. 13. 5HSXEOLFRI.RVRYR.RVRYR$JHQF\RI6WDWLVWLFV6HULHVδ(FRQRPLF Statistics Hotel Statistics Q4 2016. 6HULHVδ(FRQRPLF6WDWLVWLFV+RWHO Statistics. http://ask.rks-gov.net/media/3145/hotel-statistics-q4-2016.pdf [dostop 15. 8. 2017]. 14. Republic of Macedonia State Statistical Office, 2017. Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia, 2017. Statistical Yearbook Republic of Macedonia, 2017. http://www.stat.gov.mk/ PrikaziPublikacija_1_en.aspx?rbr=674 [dostop 15. 8. 2017]. 15. 5HSXEOLND+UYDWVND'UÃ¥DYQL]DYRG]DVWDWLVWLNX'RODVFLLQRüHQMD turista u 2016. 3ULRSüHQMHJRGLQD/,,,EURM'RODVFLLQRüHQMDWXULVWD u 2016. https://www.dzs.hr/ [dostop 15. 8. 2017]. 16. 5HSXEOLND6ORYHQLMD6WDWLVWLþQL8UDG563ULKRGLLQSUHQRþLWYHWXULVWRY SRYUVWDKREþLQSRYUVWDKQDVWDQLWYHQLKREMHNWRYLQSRGUÃ¥DYDK6ORYHQija, letno, 2016. Podatkovni portal SI-67$7(NRQRPVNRSRGURþMH6H]QDPWDEHO. http://pxweb.stat.si/pxweb/Dialog/varval.asp?ma= 2164505S&ti=&path=../Database/Ekonomsko/21_gostinstvo_turizem/02_2 1645_nastanitev_letno/&lang=2 [dostop 15. 8. 2017]. 17. Republika SrELMD5HSXEOLþNL]DYRG]DVWDWLVWLNX7XULVWLþNLSURPHWX Republici Srbiji, decembar 2016. SaopÅ¡tenje broj 18-god. LXVII Statistika ugostiteljstva i turizma. http://pod2.stat.gov.rs/ObjavljenePublikacije/G2017/pdf/G20171018.pdf [dostop 15. 8. 2017]. 18. Smeral, E., 2010. Impacts of the world recession and economic crisis on tourism: Forecasts and potential risks. Journal of Travel Research, 49(1), pp.31â&#x20AC;&#x201C;38. 19. The World Bank, 2017. International tourism, number of arrivals. Data Bank, World Development Indicators. http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=worlddevelopment-indicators&preview=on# [dostop 12. 8. 2017]. 20. UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 2017. World Heritage. http://whc.unesco.org/en/about/ [dostop 24. 9. 2017]. 21. United Nations World Economic Situation Prospects, 2017. World Economic Situation Prospects 2017, http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/wesp2 014.pdf. 22. UNWTO, 2017a. UNWTO Tourism Highlights 2017 Edition, Madrid, Spain. http://www.e-unwto.org/doi/book/10.18111/9789284419029. 23. UNWTO, 2017b. UNWTO world tourism barometer march 2017, Madrid, Spain. http://www.eunwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/wtobarometereng.2017.15.2.1. 24. =DYRG]DVWDWLVWLNX&UQH*RUH0RQVWDW'RODVFLLQRüHQMDWXULVWD 2016. 'RODVFLLQRüHQMDWXULVWDX. http://www.monstat.org/cg/page.php?id=1457&pageid=44 [dostop 15. 8. 2017].

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Dr. Andrej Raspor Docent, DOBA Fakulteta Maribor, Slovenija in Fakulteta za uporabne druĹžbene ĹĄtudije v Novi Gorici, Nova Gorica andrej.raspor@ceatm.org 'U'DUNR/DFPDQRYLĂź Redni profesor, University â&#x20AC;&#x153;Mediterraneanâ&#x20AC;?, Faculty for tourism â&#x20AC;&#x153;Montenegro Tourism Schoolâ&#x20AC;?, Podgorica, Montenegro darko.lacmanovic@unimediteran.net

Uporaba druŞbenih omreŞij in Online potovalnih agencij v fazi iskanja destinacije za potovanje: ťtudija primera kitajskih turistov v Sloveniji in ýUQL*RUL Povzetek 8SRUDEDGUXüEHQLKRPUHüLMMH]HORSULVRWQDSULSODQLUDQMXWXULVWLÞQHJD potovanja. Ko turisti vrednotijo destinacijo, kamor se napotujejo na SRWRYDQMHüHOLMRSULGRELWLÞLPYHÞXSRUDEQLKLQIRUPDFLM9SULVSHYNX smo predstavili ugotovitve o potovalnih navadah kitajskih turistov, ki jih je zajela leta 2015 izvedena raziskava med kitajskimi turisti v 6ORYHQLMLLQýUQL*RUL,]SRVWDYLOLVPRNDNRQDÞUWXMHMRSRWRYDQMDLQ ugotovitve primerjali z najnoveťimi navadami kitajskih turistov. Za pojasnitev namenov in navad turistov smo uporabili metodo ankete, za predstavite najnovejťih trendov pa deskriptivno metodo, za SULPHUMDYR PHG 6ORYHQLMR LQ ýUQR *RUR SD PHWRGR NRPSDUDFLMH LQ VWDWLVWLÞQR PHWRGR W-test). Glavni doprinos tega dela je dokaz, da REVWDMDMRVWDWLVWLÞQR]QDÞLOQHUD]OLNHYL]YRULKSULGRELYDQMDLQIRUPDFLM LQ QDÞLQX XSRUDEH GUXüEHQLK RPUHüLM SUL SODQLUDQMX SRWRYDQMD PHG NLWDMVNLPLWXULVWLY6ORYHQLMLLQýUQL*RUL .OMXÞQHEHVHGHWXULVWVRFLDOQHPUHüHRQOLQHWXULVWLÞQDDJHQFLMD KLWDMVND6ORYHQLMDýUQD*RUD Koda JEL klasifikacije: Z33

121


Using Social Media and Online Tourist Agencies (OTA) in searching for tourist destination: case study of Chinese tourists in Slovenia and Montenegro Abstract The use of social media is very present when planning a tourist trip. When tourists value the destination they travel to travel, they want to get as much useful information as possible. In the paper, we presented findings on the travel habits of Chinese tourists, which were covered by a survey of Chinese tourists in Slovenia and Montenegro in 2015. We will highlight how to plan trips and compare the findings with the latest tourist habits. In order to clarify the purposes and habits of tourists, we will use the survey method. A descriptive method is used to present the latest trends. For the comparison between Slovenia and Montenegro, the comparison method and the statistical method (t-test) are used. The main contribution of this work was whether there are differences in sources of information acquisition and how to use the social media when planning a trip between Chinese tourists in Slovenia and Montenegro. Keywords: Tourist, social networking, Online tourist agency, China, Slovenia, Montenegro. JEL classification code: Z33

1 Uvod UporDEDLQWHUQHWDGUXüEHQLKRPUHüMLQSRVHEHMªRQOLQHŠWXULVWLÞQLK agencij (OTA 16) je na sploťno zelo razťirjena oblika ob procesu RGORÞDQMD WXULVWRY SUL L]ELUL WXULVWLÞQH GHVWLQDFLMH ]DWR WXGL LPD SRPHPEQH SRVOHGLFH ]D XSUDYOMDQMH WXULVWLÞQH GHVWLQDFLMH 7Lste destinacije, ki so na spletu dostopnejťe, pogosteje in bolje SUHGVWDYOMHQHLPDMRWXGLYHÞQRPRüQRVWGDERGRL]EUDQHNRWFLOMQH destinacije za potovanje. 16

Online Travel Agency 122


Pri raziskovanju omenjenega problema smo izhajali iz raziskave kitajskih turistov. Raziskava je ELODL]YHGHQDYOHWXVSRPRÞMR WHUHQVNHJD DQNHWLUDQMD Y 6ORYHQLML LQ ýUQL *RUL =EUDQR JUDGLYR MH RPRJRÞDOR NDU QHNDM XJRWRYLWHY LQ REMDY 5DVSRU /DFPDQRYLß 6WUDQMDQÞHYLß  %XODWRYLß D %XODWRYLß 6WUDQMDQÞHYLß /DFPDQRYLß 5DVSRU 5DVSRU/DFPDQRYLß6WUDQMDQÞHYLß  %XODWRYLß E 6WUDQMDQÞHYLß %XODWRYLß /DFPDQRYLß  5DVSRU 2016)9WHPSULVSHYNXMLKQDGJUDMXMHPRVWHPGDVHRVUHGRWRÞDPR na to ali kitajski turisti uSRUDEOMDMR UD]OLÞQH SULVWRSH SUL XSRUDEL GUXüEHQLK RPUHüLM LQ 27$ SUL RGORÞLWYL R SRWRYDQMX Y 6ORYHQLMR DOL ýUQR*RUR" To je tudi glavno raziskovalno vpraťanje te raziskave. 5H]XOWDWL UD]LVNDYH VR ODKNR Y SRPRÞ RGORÞHYDOFHP LQ WXULVWLÞQLP ponudnikom gledH PRJRÞHJD REVWRMD UD]OLN SUL REQDãDQMX NLWDMVNLK WXULVWRY SUL QDÞUWRYDQMX SRWRYDQMD Y 6ORYHQLMR LQ ýUQR *RUR GD VH jim ustrezno prilagodijo. 9 WHM VPHUL MH RUJDQL]LUDQR LQ QDÞUWRYDQR GHOR SUL WHM UD]LVNDYL 9 uvodu je predstavljen predmet raziskave, raziskovalno vpraťanje, uporabljane raziskovalne metode in vsebinska struktura. V drugem GHOX MH SUHGVWDYOMHQR WHRUHWLÞQR R]DGMH JOHGH XSRUDEH GUXüEHQLK RPUHüLMLQ27$SULRGORÞDQMXNLWDMVNLKWXULVWRYSULSULSUDYLQDÞUWDLQ rezervaciji potovanja. Tretji del predstavlja raziskovalno metodologijo in rezultate raziskave, zadnji pa je namenjen razpravi, NLVHQDYH]XMHQDWHRUHWVNRR]DGMH]]DNOMXÞNLLQSUHGORJL]DQDGDOMQMH raziskovanje.

2 Pregled literature Ĺ tevilni raziskovalci (Jie & Zi, 2004; Tseng, Ding, & Chen, 2010; Souffriau & Vansteenwegen, 2010; RodrĂ­guez, Molina, PĂŠrez, & Caballero, 2012; Ho, Lin, & Chen, 2012; Prabu, 2013; Meriaux, 2015; â&#x20AC;&#x153;Social Media influences Chinese travellers,â&#x20AC;? 2015; â&#x20AC;&#x153;Charts Showing Growth of Online and Mobile Travel Bookings by 2020,â&#x20AC;? 2016; Rapp, 2016; Tanner, 2016) so Ĺže obravnavali potovalne QDYDGHNLWDMVNLKWXULVWRYYID]LQDĂžUWRYDQMDSRWRYDQMD6WHJDYLGLND je posebej zanimiva uporaba druĹžbenih omreĹžij (ang. Âťsocial networksÂŤ) in OTA kot virov informacij ali predlog glede izbire WXULVWLĂžQH GHVWLQDFLMH NL JD REUDYnavamo tudi sami. Te socialne mreĹže si oblikujemo sami s tem ko dodajamo nova poznastva in L]ORĂžDPR WLVWD NL QLVR YHĂž DNWXDOQD ,QIRUPDFLMVND WHKQRORJLMD MH ] novimi orodji (npr. Google, Wikipedia, Facebook, YouTube, LinkedIn, â&#x20AC;Ś), te moĹžnosti ĹĄe dodatno pRYHĂžDOD VDM RPRJRĂžDMR LQWHUDNWLYQR izmenjavo informacij, interoperabilnost in uporabniĹĄko-orientirano QDĂžUWRYDQMHPHGOMXGPLQHJOHGHQDQMLKRYRRGGDOMHQRVW 123


2.1 Prodajni kanali 7XULVWL VH VUHĂžXMHMR ] UD]OLĂžQLPL NDQDOL NR LĂŁĂžHMR LQIRUPDFLMH LQ planirajo potovanje. Sistemi, ki se ukvarjajo neposredno ali posredno V SRVUHGRYDQMHP VWRULWHY QD SRGURĂžMX WXUL]PD VR SUHGYVHP XVPHUMHQL N ĂžLP YHĂžMHPX ĂŁWHYLOX XSRUDEQLNRY SD QDM JUH ]D rezervacijske sisteme (booking.com, Trivago), popotniĹĄke portale (Lonely planet), kot seveda druĹžbena omreĹžja in iskalnike (Google, Yahoo, â&#x20AC;Ś). Vsi temeljijo na prodajnem modelu: dostopni so za veliko ĹĄtevilo raznovrstnih uporabnikov, dodatno se prodaja oglaĹĄevalski prostor. 'Offline' kanali Ti zajemajo knjige in revije o turizmu. Njihova prednost je v tem, da jih preprosto vzememo v roke, saj ne potrebujejo povezave s VSOHWRP LQ ] HOHNWULĂžQLP RPUHĂĽMHP 6ODERVW SD MH GD VR NYDOLWHWQH NQMLJHGUDJHRPHMHQHQDR]NDVSHFLILĂžQDSRGRĂžMDLQKLWUR]DVWDULMR 'Online' kanali V ta sklop spadajo kompleksne spletne strani: Lonely planet (http://www.lonelyplanet.com/bookings/), expedia.com (http://www.expedia.ie/), travelocity.com KWWSZZZWUDYHORFLW\FRP 2PRJRĂžDMRizbiranje in rezervacijo hotelskih sob, letov, kriĹžarjenj, vozil in izletov. Njihova slabost je, GDMHSRWUHEQRYVHQDUHGLWLURĂžQRNDUSUHGVWDYOMDSRWUDWRĂžDVDVR pa tudi neselektivne. Drugi sklop spletnih strani so: booking.com (http://www.booking.com/), hotels.com (http://www.hotels.com), venere.com (www.venere.com). Ponujajo izbiranje in rezervacijo hotelskih sob, nimajo pa ostale ponudbe za katero turist povpraĹĄuje, ko pride na destinacijo. Pomembno prodajno orodje so 'affiliate' sistemi: trivago (http://www.trivago.si/), hotelscombined (http://www.hotelscombined.com/SL/), kjer sistem v imenu turista LĂŁĂžHQDMEROMĂŁRSRQXGERQDUD]OLĂžQLKUH]HUYDFLMVNLKVLVWHPLK.HU 'affilate' gostuje v drugih rezervacijskih sistemih, imamo najmanj nadzora nad kakovostjo, ki jo ponujajo ponudniki in smo zato kot potroĹĄniki najbolj ranljivi. Dodatna obogatitev so sistemiNLSULSRURĂžDMRWXGLL]OHWHQSU tripadvisor (http://www.tripadvisor.com/). Dajejo dober nabor izletov in destinacij, veliko informacij, ĹĄe vedno pa ni razreĹĄen 124


VLVWHPQDþUWRYDQMDLQSODþLODSRWRYDQMDNLJDPRUDXSRUDEQLN L]YHVWLURþQR 9HþLQD VLVWHPRY je prilagojena tudi za t. i. pametne telefone in WDEOLFH NDU RPRJRþD LVNDQMH LQIRUPDFLM LVNDQMH LQ UH]HUYDFLMR QD mestu samem. 9HþLQDUH]HUYDFLMVNLKVLVWHPRY %RRNLQJFRP7ULYDJRWUDYHO EORJL (Lonely planet) in družbenih omrežij za iskanje turistiþQLKLQIRUPDFLM so usmerjena na populacijo uporabnikov brez personalizacije ali QLãQLK VSHFLILþQRVWL 3RGREQR YHOMD ]D QMLKRY SRVORYQL PRGHO RPRJRþDMR VWRULWHY ]D ãLUãR SODVW XSRUDEQLNRY SURGDMMDR RJODVQL prostor in prevzemajo stroške rezervacij. Medtem NRMHWDQDþLQ]HOR GRQRVHQMHþDVRYQRQHXþLQNRYLW]DXSRUDEQLND1DPHQMHGDREGUåL uporabnike na svoji spletni strani za preprodajo njihovih podatkov in usmerjanje ter sooblikovanje njihovih preferenc. Znano je, da so lahko uporabniki tudi žrtve prevar, saj se poleg tega, da npr. v resnici ne dobijo potovanja, se njihovi osebni podatki prodajo tretjim osebam in drugim ponudnikom storitev. 2.2 Kitajski »online« trg Kitajski »online« trg je v letu 2016 dosegel vrednost 23,5 milijard US $. V strukturi glavnih OTA so najbolj zastopani: Ctrip (36 %), Qunar (30 %) in Alitrip (15 %). Najpomembnejši viri informacij so: official WeChat accounts (48 %) in WeChat Moments (47 %), medtem ko so specializirane spletne strani za potovanja zastopane z 42 %, app push messages z 37 % in WeChat shares by travel advisers s 35 % (The Momentum Group TMG Worldwide 2016). Vodilna družabna omrežja na Kitajskem imajo veliko število uporabnikov: Qzone (600 mio./letno), Sina Weibo (500 mio./letno), :HFKDW  PLRPHVHþQR  LQ 7HQFHQW 44  PLRPHVHþQR  (Anon 2015). 9SRURþLOX5HVRQDQFH&RQVXOWLQJ/WGMHSUHGVWDYOMHQRGHMVWYRGDVR GUXåEHQD RPUHåMD QDMSRPHPEQHMãL GHMDYQLN SUL L]ELUL WXULVWLþQH destinacije in da kitajski blogerji vplivajo na druge, s tem ko delijo svoje izkušnje glede potovanj. Pomemben vpliv imajo tudi neodvisni potniki/FIT's (Free Indepedent Travelers), ki uporabljajo platformi, kot sta Weibo in WeCha za delitev svojih izkušenj z drugimi uporabniki (Resonance Consultancy Ltd. 2016). Raziskave tudi ugotavljajo, da so države Balkana, glede na preostale GUåDYH =DKRGQH (YURSH LQ 6NDQGLQDYLMR ]QDþLOQR VODEãH predstavljene kitajskim turistom glede ponudbe v regiji. To prihaja 125


še toliko bolj do izraza pri »online« promociji. Na glavnih spletnih stUDQLK NRW VR &WULS 7XQLX LQ 4XQDU EDONDQVNH GUåDYH SUDNWLþQR nimajo nobene promocije (COTRI 2016).

3 Rezultati raziskave 3.1 Metodologija =D SRWUHEH WHJD ]QDQVWYHQHJD GHOD MH ELOD XSREOMHQD HPSLULþQD raziskava, ki smo jo v obdobju od januarja 2014 do novembra 2015 L]YHGOL QD REPRþMX 6ORYHQLMH LQ ýUQH *RUH =EUDQL SRGDWNL VR ELOL SULGREOMHQLVWHUHQVNLPDQNHWLUDQMHPQDQDNOMXþQHPVWUDWLILFLUanem vzorcu. Da bi odgovorili na raziskovalno vprašanje Ali kitajski turisti XSRUDEOMDMRUD]OLþQHSULVWRSHSULXSRUDELGUXåEHQLKRPUHåLMLQ27$SUL RGORþLWYLRSRWRYDQMX Y6ORYHQLMRDOLýUQR*RURVPRVSRPRþMRRURGMD SPSS izvedli t-test. 3.2 Rezultati Vpliv ciljne destinacije na izbiro družbenih omrežij in OTA pri postopku rudarjenja po spletu med kitajskimi turisti v Sloveniji in ýUQL*RULVPRXSRUDELOLW-test za neodvisna vzorca, s katerim smo XJRWDYOMDOLVWDWLVWLþQRSRPHPEQHUD]OLNHDULWPHWLþQLKVUHGLQYzorcev. 1HRGYLVQD VSUHPHQOMLYND MH FLOMQD GHVWLQDFLMD 6ORYHQLMD DOL ýUQD Gora). Ugotovitve so v predstavljene tabelah (Tabele 1, 2, 3).

126


Tabela 2: T-test za neodvisna vzorca Levene's Test for Equality of Variances F Sig.

Q20a WeChat, Weibo

Equal 0,51 variance 4 s assumed Equal variance s not assumed

t-test for Equality of Means

0,47 4

t

df

Sig. (2tail. )

Mean Dif.

Std. Error Dif.

3,86 0

21 5

0

0,333

0,08 6

3,87 3

21 5

0

0,333

0,08 6

95% Confidence Interval of the Dif. Lowe Uppe r r 0,50 0,16 2 3 0,50 2

0,16 3

Vir: ODVWQLL]UDĂžXQL

Tabela 3: T-test za neodvisna vzorca Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

Q20b Webpa ges of tour agencie F s

Equal 0,4 varianc 72 es assume d Equal varianc es not assume d

t-test for Equality of Means

Sig.

t

df

0,493

3,3 34

230

3,3 38

227 ,5

Sig. (2tail. )

Mean Differe nce

Std. Error Differe nce

0,0 01

0,264

0,079

0,0 01

0,264

0,079

Vir: ODVWQLL]UDĂžXQL

127

95% Confidence Interval of the Dif. Low Upper er 0,1 0,420 08

0,1 08

0,420


Tabela 4: T-test za neodvisna vzorca Q20c Daodao, TripAdvi sor, Ctrip, Elong, Qunar, etc.

Levene's Test for t-test for Equality of Means Equality of Variances

F

Equal 4,4 variance 26 s assume d Equal variance s not assume d

df

Sig . Mean (2- Differe tail nce .)

Std. Error Differe nce

0,03 4,6 6 00

241

0

0,371

0,081

4,6 68

234 ,3

0

0,371

0,079

Sig.

t

95% Confidence Interval of the Dif. Low Upper er 0,2 0,530 12

0,2 14

0,527

Vir: (lastni L]UDþXQL

*ODYQD XJRWRYLWHY MH GD REVWDMD VWDWLVWLþQR ]QDþLOQD UD]OLND PHG opazovanimi skupinami pri vseh družbenih omrežjih in OTA, skupaj ] UD]OLþQR YHOLNRVWMR YSOLYD QHRGYLVQH VSUHPHQOMLYNH .RHQRY HWD kvadrat (Cohen 1988)), ki je za WeChat, Weibo, Daodao, TripAdvisor, Ctrip, Elong in Qunar 0,082/3 (srednji vpliv), medtem ko je za spleWQHVWUDQLWXULVWLþQLKDJHQFLM PDMKHQYSOLY 

4 5D]SUDYDLQ]DNOMXþHN Opazovana struktura virov informiranja, posebej družbenih omrežij, Y6ORYHQLMLNRWWXGLYýUQL*RULMHVWDWLVWLþQRUD]OLþQDJOHGHQDSRURþLOR COTRI (COTRI 2015). Uporaba WeChat spletne strani za iskanje informacij o potovanju je za Slovenijo podobna kot v študiji The Momentum Group (The Momentum Group TMG Worldwide 2016) DPSDNUD]OLþQD]DýUQR*RUR NRVHUDQJLUDLQWH]LWHWDXSRUDEHJOHGH na vrsto socialnih omrežjih in OTA). To pomeni, da je za Slovenijo QDMSRPHPEQHMãL PHGLM :H&KDW Y ýUQL *RUL SD VSOHWQH VWUDQL WXULVWLþQLKDJHQFLMLQ27$3ULPDUQDXSRUDEDVSOHWQLKVWUDQLpotniških DJHQFLMLQ27$YýUQL*RULMHSRGREQDUDQJLUDQMXYãWXGLML([SHGLMH (Expedia MediaSolutions 2017), v kateri je OTA zastopljena s 67 %, socialne in blog strani s 56 %, kar je podobno v Sloveniji. Opažena je bila tudi konsistentnost v rezultatih raziskave. 128


5D]OLþQRVWVWUXNWXUHXSRUDEOMHQLKGUXåEHQLKRPUHåLM27$LQVSORãQR XSRUDEOMDQLK YLURY LQIRUPDFLM Y ID]L QDþUWRYDQMD WXULVWLþQHJD potovanja kaže na nivo zaželenosti doloþHQLKNDQDORYLQIRUPDFLMNDU je lahko pomembno za destinacijski menadžment organizacij pri REOLNRYDQMX SURPRWLYQH YVHELQH ]D NLWDMVNL WXULVWLþQL WUJ NRW MH predstavljeno z primerom v pregledu literature (Yang & Wang 2015). Vsaka destinacija rabi pozorno raziskovanje virov informacij zaradi oblikovanja ustrezne konsistentnosti promocije produktnega miksa. Iz WHJDODKNR]DNOMXþLPRLQRGJRYRULPRQDUD]LVNRYDOQRYSUDãDQMH GD NLWDMVNL WXULVWL DQNHWLUDQL Y 6ORYHQLML LQ ýUQL JRUL XSRUDEOMDMR UD]OLþQHSULVWRSHSULXSRUDELGUXåEHQLKRPUHåLMLQ27$SULRGORþLWYLR SRWRYDQMX Y 6ORYHQLMR DOL ýUQR *RUR 7R GDMH NUHDWRUMem politik promocije omenjenih destinacij dovolj reprezentativne informacije, GD VH PRUDMR SUL SURPRFLML SRVOXåHYDWL UD]OLþQLK SURGDMQLK LQ promocijskih kanalov. Sama raziskava ni dala odgovorov o vzrokih, zakaj je temu tako, kar je tudi njena omejitev. To bi lahko ugotovili le z globinskimi intervjuji LQIRNXVQLPLVNXSLQDPLNDUSULSRURþDPR]DQDGDOMQMHUD]LVNRYDQMH

5 Literatura in viri 1. Anon, 2015. Social Media influences Chinese travellers. Chinese Tourists Blog. Available at: http://chinesetouristagency.com/social-mediainfluences-chinese-travellers/ [Dostop July 14, 2017]. 2. %XODWRYLü,HWDO7KHIDFWRUVRIVDWLVIDFWLRQDPRQJ&KLQHVHWRXULVWV in Montenegro and Slovenia. Research in Social Change (RSC), 8(2), pp.94â&#x20AC;&#x201C;114. 3. Cohen, W.J., 1988. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences 2nd ed., Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 4. COTRI, 2015. China â&#x20AC;&#x2122; s Outbound Tourism Market COTRI China Outbound Tourism, 5. COTRI, 2016. Report of the Balkan Regional Workshop on Route and Product Development, 6. Expedia MediaSolutions, 2017. Multi-national Travel Trends Connecting the Digital Dots: The Motivations and Mindset of Online Travelers, 7. Ho, C.I., Lin, M.H. & Chen, H.M., 2012. Web usersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; behavioural patterns of tourism information search: From online to offline. Tourism Management, 33(6), pp.1468â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1482. 8. Jie, L. & Zi, L., 2004. Development, Distribution and Evaluation of Online Tourism Services in China. Electronic Commerce Research, 4(3), p.221. 9. Meriaux, T., 2015. How Chinese Travelers Engage Online. Frederic Gonzalo Blog. 10. Peltier, D., 2016. Charts Showing Growth of Online and Mobile Travel Bookings by 2020. Skift.com. Available at: https://skift.com/2016/06/30/4charts-showing-growth-of-online-and-mobile-travel-bookings-by-2020/ [Dostop June 19, 2017]. 11. Prabu, K., 2013. Chinese traveller profiles â&#x20AC;&#x201C; viewed through the lens of 129


social media. Tnooz Live. 12. Rapp, J., 2016. More Than 70 Percent of Chinese Tourists Will Use a Travel App to Book Vacations. Jing Daily. 13. Raspor, A. et al., 2016a. Chinese tourists in Slovenia and Montenegro: Preferences, characteristics and trip motivation 1st ed., London: Vega Press LTD. 14. Raspor, A. et al., 2016b. Using Web applications for travel planning: Case study of Chinese tourists in Slovenia and Montenegro. Research in Social Change (RSC), 8(2), pp.4â&#x20AC;&#x201C;29. 15. Resonance Consultancy Ltd., 2016. The Future of Chinese International Travel Resonance Report, 16. RodrĂ­guez, B. et al., 2012. Interactive design of personalised tourism routes. Tourism Management, 33(4), pp.926â&#x20AC;&#x201C;940. 17. Souffriau, W. & Vansteenwegen, P., 2010. Tourist trip planning functionalities: State-of-the-art and future. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). pp. 474â&#x20AC;&#x201C;485. 18. 6WUDQMDQĂžHYLĂź$HWDO7RXULVWGHVWLQDWLRQVWUHQJKWVDQG opportunitites: Is Montenegro ready for Chinese tourists? Economics, 4(1), pp.151â&#x20AC;&#x201C;164. 19. Tanner, M., 2016. From Minerals to Mobiles â&#x20AC;&#x201C; driving Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s GDP Growth. ChinaSkinny. 20. The Momentum Group TMG Worldwide, 2016. Understanding the Global Chinese Traveler, 21. Tseng, S.Y., Ding, J.W. & Chen, R.C., 2010. WEB-Based Tour Planning Support System Using Genetic and Ant Colony Algorithms. Journal of Internet Technology, 11, pp.901â&#x20AC;&#x201C;908. 22. Yang, X. & Wang, D., 2015. The Exploration of Social Media Marketing Strategies of Destination Marketing Organizations in China. Journal of China Tourism Research, 8160(December), pp.1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;20.

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Dr. Marina Letonja Assistant professor, GEA College - Faculty of Entrepreneurship, Ljubljana, Slovenia and DOBA Business School Maribor, Slovenia marina.letonja@gea-college.si; marina.letonja@doba.si Dr. Mitja Jeraj Assistant professor,GEA College - Faculty of Entrepreneurship, Ljubljana, Slovenia mitja.jeraj@gea-college.si

(PSLULĂžQDĂŁWXGLMDRGQRVDPHG podjetniĹĄkimi sposobnostmi in inovativnostjo naslednikov v manjĹĄih druĹžinskih podjetjih Povzetek 9 ]DGQMHP ĂžDVX VH ]QDQVWYHQL LQWHUHV ]D GUXĂĽLQVNR SRGMHWQLĂŁWYR LQ QDVOHGVWYR SRYHĂžXMH 9 UD]LVNDYL UD]LVNXMHPR RGQRV PHG podjetniĹĄkimi sposobnostmi ustanoviteljev v druĹžinskih MSP in inovativnostjo njihovih naslednikov. Z uporabo Pearsonovega NRHILFLHQWD NRUHODFLMH VPR SUHXĂžHYDOL GYD NRQVWUXNWD SRGMHWQLĂŁNLK sposobnosti ustanoviteljev in inovativnost naslednikov, da bi preverili pozitivno korelacijo med obema. Rezultati kaĹžejo, da so podjetniĹĄke sposobnosti ustanoviteljev pomemben dejavnik za spodbujanje LQRYDWLYQRVWL QDVOHGQLNRY 7D ĂžODQHN SRYH]XMH WH NRQVWUXNWH LQ predstavlja dragocen prispevek k teoriji podjetniĹĄtva; rezultate je PRJRĂžH XSRUDELWL ]D QDGDOMQMH UD]LVNDYH LPD SD WXGL SUDNWLĂžQH posledice. .OMXĂžQHEHVHGH: podjetniĹĄke sposobnosti, inovativnost, nasledniki, ustanovitelji, druĹžinska MSP, Kode JEL klasifikacije: L26, L29, O31

131


An Empirical Study of the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Competences and Innovativeness of Successors in family SMEs Abstract Recently, scholarly interest for family entrepreneurship and succession has been increasing. Current research explores the relationship between entrepreneurial competences of the founders in family SMEs and innovativeness of their successors. Using Pearsonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s coefficient of correlation we studied two constructs of entrepreneurial competences of the founders and innovativeness of successors to test the positive correlation between the two. The results indicate entrepreneurial competences of founders are an important factor for fostering innovativeness of successors. This paper links these constructs and presents a valuable contribution for entrepreneurship theory; the results can be used for further research as well as for practical implications. Keywords: Entrepreneurial Competences, Successors, Founders, Family SMEs,

Innovativeness,

JEL classification codes: L26, L29, O31

1 Introduction A majority of Slovenian companies are family businesses (from 80 to 83%). They represent 70% of jobs. 95% of these companies are small and micro companies with a max of 50 employees (Ey, 2015). The interest for research in the field of family entrepreneurship and specifically the issues of succession has been increasing since the nineties, but research in the field of innovativeness of family SMEs has been very limited (Letonja, 2016; Cefis and Marsili, 2006). Tacit, socially complex production resources are often linked to the founder and their firm in the field of entrepreneurship theory. According to Itami (1987; in: Ĺ irec, 2009; Letonja, 2016) these are 132


idiosyncratic resources, having a higher value when used within the firm than outside the firm. Tacit resources are difficult to observe, describe or evaluate, but they have a large impact on the competitive edge of the firm (Itami, 1987, in: Širec, 2009; Letonja, 2016). Many production resources, which enable heterogeneity, are socially complex and dependent on historical circumstances. Such socially complex production resources are entrepreneurial competences, an entrepreneur's experiential knowledge and skills or expert knowledge. They allow entrepreneurs to exploit business opportunities more effectively than others. Our research was focused to the transfer of entrepreneurial competences from the founder of the family SME to the second generation of family SMEs. The transfer of the family business between the first and the second generation is found to be the most problematic generational transfer (e.g., Miller et al., 2003) as only 30% of the family businesses survive this phase (Duh, Letonja and Vadnjal, 2015). The main goal of the research was to increase understanding of the role of entrepreneurial competences of the founder of a family SME in successors’ innovativeness and the main research question was: “are entrepreneurial competences of the founder in a family SME an important factor for fostering innovativeness of successors in family SMEs?”

2 Entrepreneurial competences Our literature review showed there are different definitions of entrepreneurial competences. Chandler and Jansen (1992, in: Vidic, 2012) have identified entrepreneurial competences as:  the ability to organize and motivate (effective delegation, the ongoing development of the organization, setting and coordination of targets, monitoring, impact and management, mobilization and allocation of resources and maximization of results);  the ability to recognize opportunities (identification of unmet needs, search for products and services that will bring benefits for customers, identification of products and services customers want, exploitation of high-quality business opportunities);  leading organizations to the harvest (conceptualization of the new business, regardless of the circumstances, avoiding collapse, personal development);  technical and functional skills (experience in technical and functional areas, mastering of technical fields);

133


 political skills (integration of people with significant resources, support personnel and the integration of complementary teams). Man and co-authors (2002, in: Vidic, 2012) analyzed publications of various authors (Bird, 2002), and distilled the factors of entrepreneurial competences into six categories: 1.competences related to identifying and exploiting market opportunities; 2.competences related to interpersonal relationships communication, confidence, connection set-up, interpersonal skills; c 3.onceptual abilities related to different conceptual skills, which are reflected in the behavior - decision-making, understanding of complex situations, risk-taking and innovativeness; 4.organizational skills - managing external and internal human, physical, financial and technological resources, including training, team building, employee management and controlling; 5.strategic skills - the ability to set-up, manage and evaluate strategies; 6.the abilities of belonging, leading the entrepreneur to insist his/ her business. Litz and Kleysen (2001) linked factors of entrepreneurial competences with innovativeness and identified them as: divergent thinking (Guilford, 1963), attitude toward risk (Glassman, 1986), cognitive mode (Kirton, 1976), intrinsic motivation, appropriate skills in domain creativity skills (Amabile, 1988), political courage (Maute and Locander, 1994), self-esteem, autonomy and openness (West and Farr, 1989), the energy charge, talent and creativity of individual members of the family (Kanter, 1988), family culture, freedom, flexibility, inter-generational respect and family atmosphere (Kanter, 1988). Ganzaroli and co-authors (2006) also linked factors of entrepreneurial competences with innovativeness and among them they placed: attitude to problem solving, managing entrepreneurship, social relationships, attitudes to risk, attitudes toward routine, perseverance, focus, motivation, commitment, negotiation skills, attitude towards teamwork, creativity, communication skills, technical, commercial, administrative knowledge and skills. As Ĺ irec states (2009), entrepreneurial competences enable entrepreneur to exploit business opportunities more effectively than the others. Entrepreneurial competences change over time and can be obtained (Bird et al., 1995, in: Vidic, 2012). According to Mullins (1996), an entrepreneur can extend his/ her entrepreneurial competences through synergistic effects to the group. Onstenk (2003) notes entrepreneurial competences can be 134


combined into the ability of managing business activities and solving business problems. In our study we follow Ganzaroli and co-authors (2006), who placed between the factors of entrepreneurial competences as the source of innovation (as already mentioned) the following competences: attitude to problem solving, managing entrepreneurship, social relationships, attitudes to risk, attitudes toward routine, perseverance, focus, motivation, commitment, negotiation skills, attitude towards teamwork, creativity, communication skills, technical, commercial, administrative knowledge and skills.

3 Innovativeness The definition of innovativeness which relates to the individual and not to the company, was written by Hurt, Joseph and Cook (1977); Hurt and Teigen (1977); Rogers and Schoemaker (1971), who understand innovation as the degree to which individuals, in comparison with others in a social system, adopt something new relatively early. Innovativeness is based on knowledge; a new way of doing things must be based on a new way of looking at things (Marcati et al., 2008). Kim (1997) and Lall (1992) defined innovation as "the skills and knowledge needed for effective absorption, control and improvement of existing, as well as the creation, of new technologies, products and processes", that refers to the level of the individual as well. There are two different constructs - general and specific innovativeness (Kirton, 2003; Midgley and Dowling, 1993, in: Marcati et al., 2008). General innovativeness refers to the openness and creativity of the individual, to his willingness to follow new paths and to a specific level of creativity in the cognitive style - that is the way in which individuals mentally process information, make decisions and solve problems. Specific innovativeness relates to the assumption to be the first in adapting innovation in a specific field (Goldsmith and Hofacker, 1991, in: Marcati et al., 2008). Verhees and Meulenberg (2004) have interpreted innovation and the willingness of the business owner to obtain information on innovation and adapting it to both - the supplier markets and customers, and thus portray innovation as a personality characteristic of creativity and conscious decisions on the level of openness to novel ideas. Other authors derive from the insights of Kirton (1976, in: Verhees and Meulenberg, 2004), that the kind of creativity and decisionmaking is very individual and varies from adaptive to innovative.

4 Entrepreneurial competences of founders innovativeness of successors in family SMEs

and

Based on the theory above we operationalized the assumption that entrepreneurial competences of founders in family SMEs can be transferred to the successors and increase innovativeness of successors in family SMEs. 135


In line with that, we developed the following hypotheses: H1: “Entrepreneurial competences of the founder in a family SME affect innovativeness of successors in family SMEs.” H2: “Entrepreneurial competences, such as: creativity, attitude toward risk-taking and attitude toward negotiations affect innovativeness of successors in family SMEs.” H3: “Entrepreneurial competences, such as: technical knowledge and skills and marketing knowledge and skills affect innovativeness of successors in family SMEs.“

5 Methods 5.1 Sample and data collection The data for an empirical quantitative research were gathered by a survey. We used two separate questionnaires - for the founders of family SMEs, and for the successors in the family SMEs. We designed closed-ended questions, where all possible answers were provided in advance and were well suited for the verification of the survey, as they were enabling generalization (Zelenika, 2000).A weakness of closed-ended questions do not allow in-depth answers, but they enable faster answers by respondents and are easier to process (Easterby-Smith et al., 2005, in: Štrukelj, 2015). The Likert scale was used in the questionnaires. We could also analytically check the validity and reliability of the shaped scales (Hlebec, 2009). Questionnaires were sent to a random sample of 408 family SMEs. We received 206 fully completed questionnaires from 103 family SMEs – 103 from the founders and 103 from the successors. For processing and analyzing data, we used the statistical program IBM SPSS Statistics 22 and MS Excel 2013. To make the concept of family business operational (e.g., Lambrecht and Lievens, 2008) we define a family business as a business where the founder / owner/ manager considers the business as a family one. The first question was, “do you consider your firm as a family firm?” Using this approach, applied by Chua, Chrisman, Sharma (1999) and Sharma, Chrisman, Chua (2003), we avoid the threat, that answers would not be representative, as they include answers of different interest groups from SMEs (Letonja, 2016).

136


Table 1: Basic demographic characteristics of the sample: founders/ successors Structure of answers/ Variable characteristics Yes, the SME is a family Family business 100,0 % business Average age of a family SMEs 103 family SMEs 23.5 years Average number of employed All employed 30.26 in a family SMEs Average number of employed family members in a family Employed family members 2.77 SME production (28) 27.2% Dominant activity of the family services (48) 46.6% SME trade (27) 26.2% Podravska (12) 11.6% Osrednjeslovenska (36) 35.0% Region Obalno-kraška (15) 14.6% Others 38.8% Average revenues of a family 2010 in EUR 2.694.052 SME 2014 in EUR 3.572.927 male (85) 82.5% Gender – founder female(18) 17.5% male (63) 61.2% Gender – successor female (40) 38.8% management (27) 26.2% ownership - entirely (2) Transfer of management and/ 1.9% ownership – partially (5) or ownership 4.9% management and ownership 19.4% (20) Generation of the family SME The first generation (82) 79.6% according to transfer of The second generation (21) 20.4% management and ownership Vocational (19) High school – technical (27) 18.4% High school – general (14) 26.2% Education founder Bachelor degree – business 13.6% (12) 11.7% Bachelor degree – technical 13.6% (14) High school – technical (16) 15.5% High school – technical (23) Education successor 22.4% Bachelor degree - business 34.0% (35) No prior working experience before employing in a family 43.7% Successor's working SME (45) experience prior to Work in another company – 12.6% employment in a family SME internship up to 3 months (13) Work in another company over 22.3% one year – different industry (23) Source: Letonja, 2016. 137


All founders and successors from the 103 family SMEs declared their firms as family SMEs. The average age of the firms was 23,5 years. In the sample the first generation family SMEs prevail (79.6%) in comparison to the second generation family SMEs (20.4%). The sample consists of 54 (52.4%) micro, 30 (29.1%) small and 19 (18.5%) medium sized firms. Although micro firms prevail in the sample, the average number of employed is 30, which is the size of a small firm and these firms employ on average 3 family members (2.77). Our sample is dominated by the SMEs from service industries - 46.6% (48), followed by production firms - 27.2% (28) and trading firms - 26.2% (27). The sample involves firms from all but one statistical region of Slovenia (Zasavje) and the distribution of the sample is broadly consistent with the number of firms in statistical regions of Slovenia (SURS, 2015). The average revenues of these family SMEs in the recent five years of their operations were 3.6 m EUR, showing an increase of 32,6% in revenues in this period. The sample consists of 85 (82.5%) male founders and of 18 (17.5%) female founders. Most of the founders are still active and employed in their family SMEs. In 27 (26.2%) cases the management was transferred to the successors and in 20 (19.4%) cases entire ownership had already been transferred to the successors. The successors in our sample are mostly men (63; 61.2%); there are 40 female successors (38.8%). Most of the founders finished technical high school or vocational school and most of the successors finished a bachelorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree in business or completed high school. Most of the successors do not have previous working experience from other companies (45; 43,7%). 5.2 Description of measures Innovativeness of successors was measured with the JPI (Jackson Personality Inventory), which was adapted by Mueller and Thomas (2000) from Jackson (1994). Adjectives used by Jackson (1994) in the JPI describe entrepreneurs who are innovative, with the words: imaginative, inventive, enterprising, original, inventive and forwardoriented. Definition of the individual who reaches on a scale JPI (Jackson, 1976) higher number of points is that they are a creative and inventive individual, capable of original thinking, motivated to develop new solutions to problems, that appreciates new ideas, and likes to improvise. The scale for measuring innovativeness of individuals contains eight items. Studies have confirmed the reliability and validity of JPI to measure generalized risk-taking (Jackson, 1976). Further research has also supported reliability (Howell and Higgins, 1990) and the validity of the JPI scale (Jackson, 1976; Sexton and Bowman, 1984). 138


For measuring the innovativeness of successors in family SMEs, we used 11 variables. The coefficient of reliability (Cronbach alpha) is 0.764, which means that the reliability of the construct in the field of innovativeness of successors is good (coefficient between 0.70 and 0.90). Table 2: Coefficient of reliability of the construct on the field of innovativeness of successors Coefficient of reliability â&#x20AC;&#x201C; successors Cronbach's N of Items Alpha .764 11 Table 3: Descriptive statistics of variables of the construct on the field of innovativeness of successors Variable Statement â&#x20AC;&#x201C; argument V1 I often surprise with novel ideas I am often being asked to help people in creative V2 activities I am more satisfied if I develop a novel idea than if I V3 master a skill V4

I prefer work which requires original thinking

V5

Usually I do not continue with work as I was used to do I prefer the work which requires inventiveness as skills V6 and practice V7 I am a very creative person I like to experiment with different ways of doing the V8 same things In the last 5 years I developed / started to market 0, V9 1, 2, 3-5, more than 5 new lines of products and services In the last 5 years I developed / started to market 0, V10 1, 2, 3-5, more than 5 new processes In the last 5 years the changes in production / V11 services/ process lines â&#x20AC;Ś. Source: Letonja, 2016. Entrepreneurial competences of the founders in family SMEs, which are positively associated with the next generation, and the entrepreneurial orientation of family SMEs, are variables crucial for the smooth and effective implementation of the succession and innovativeness and survival of family SMEs in the next generation. According to Mullins (1996), an entrepreneur can extend his 139


entrepreneurial skills through synergistic effects to the group. In family SMEs founders pass their entrepreneurial skills on to the next generation and thus influence the development of entrepreneurial skills of the next generation and their innovativeness, resulting in increased competitiveness of family SMEs. In our study we follow Ganzaroli, Fiscato and Pilotti (2006), which define the following factors of entrepreneurial competences as the source of innovativeness: "The attitude to problem solving; managing entrepreneurship; social relationships; attitude to risk; attitude to the routine; persistence; focus; motivation; work commitment; negotiation skills; attitude to teamwork; creativity; communication skills; technical, commercial, administrative knowledge and skills." Table 4: The coefficient of reliability of the construct in the field of entrepreneurial competences Cronbach alfa â&#x20AC;&#x201C; entrepreneurial competences of founder Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .879 16 Table 5: Descriptive statistics of variables of the constructs in the field of factors of innovativeness of successors â&#x20AC;&#x201C; entrepreneurial competences of founders in family SMEs Variable Statement/ argument

N

V12 V13

Attitude to problem solving Attitude towards entrepreneurship

198 4.19 200 4.27

Standard Deviation .669 .638

V14

Social relationships

198 4.02

.719

V15

Attitude to risk

201 3.88

.804

V16

Attitude to routine

198 3.57

.936

V17

Attitude to negotiations

200 3.97

.859

V18

Attitude to team-work

201 3.94

.864

V19

Creativity

199 4.13

.816

V20

Persistence

201 4.34

.689

V21 V22 V23

Focus Technical knowledge and skills Commercial knowledge and skills

198 4.27 200 4.00 200 3.97

.796 .908 .891

V24

Administrative knowledge and skills 199 3.51

1.096

V25 V26 V27

Work commitment Communication skills Motivational skills

.684 .788 .779

Mean

200 4.38 200 4.15 198 4.18

Source: Letonja, 2016.

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In the construct in the field of the factor "entrepreneurial competences of the founder," the mean value of variables is between 3.51 (â&#x20AC;&#x153;administrative knowledge and skills"; V24) and 4.38 for the variable "dedication to work" (V25). The next highest mean value has the variable "persistence" (V20), 4.34, while the variable "attitude towards entrepreneurship" (V13) has the mean value of 4.27. The values of standard deviations are between 0,638 and 1,096. Except for the variable "administrative knowledge and skills" (V24), where the standard deviation exceeds 1.0, for the other variables in the construct in the field of the factor "entrepreneurial competences of the founder," the value of the standard deviation is less than 1.0 and a dispersion of responses is consistent.

6 Results We researched the relationship between the entrepreneurial competences of founders and innovativeness of successors in family SMEs. The correlations between the variables of both constructs are shown in table 6. Table 6: Correlation between entrepreneurial competences of the founders (V12 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; V27) and innovativeness of the successors (V1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; V11) in family SMEs Innovativen ess of successors I often surprise with novel ideas (V1) I am often being asked to help people in creative activities (V2) I am more satisfied if I develop a novel idea than if I master a skill (V3) I prefer work which requires

Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed)

V1 2

V1 3

V1 4

V15

V16

V1 7

V1 8

V1 9

.07 0

.21 9*

.08 6

.16 8

.02 2

.03 8

.05 2

.32 8**

.49 2 98 .04 0 .70 2

.03 0 98

.40 1 97

.09 8 98

.83 4 97

.71 2 97

.61 1 98

.00 1 98

.01 0

.10 4

.07 7

.05 6

.16 3

.11 4

.11 6

.92 1

.31 4

.45 6

.59 2

.11 4

.26 9

.26 2

N

96

96

95

96

95

95

96

96

Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N

.24 1*

.09 7

.14 1

.01 3

.24 2*

.34 4 98

.16 6 98

.13 9 .17 3 97

.08 3

.01 7 98

.10 8 .29 4 97

.42 0 97

.90 2 98

.01 6 98

Pearson Correlat ion

.19 0

.21 3*

.06 7

.15 8

.30 4**

.13 6

.19 2

141

.09 8


original thinking (V4) Usually I do not continue with work as I was used to do (V5) I prefer the work which requires inventivenes s than skills and practice (V6) I am a very creative person (V7)

I like to experiment with different styles of doing the same things (V8) In the last 5 years I developed / started to market 0, 1, 2, 3-5, more than 5 new lines of products and services (V9) In the last 5 years I developed / started to market 0, 1, 2, 3-5, more than 5 new processes (V10)

Sig. (2tailed) N Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N

.06 1 98 .17 6

.03 5 98 .15 5

.12 1 98 .34 0**

.34 0 97 .15 1

.00 2 97 .18 2

.18 2 98 .10 9

.05 8 98 .18 0

.00 1 97 .18 9

.28 6 97 .02 9

.07 8 97 .24 3*

.06 1 99

.14 3 96 .04 4 .67 0 98

.07 6 96 .04 5

.77 6 99

.13 0 97 .13 4 .18 7 99

.51 5 97 .03 3 .74 9 96 .05 1 .62 0 98

.08 5 97 .02 9

.66 2 98

.77 6 99

.01 5 99

Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N

.11 8

.21 8*

.07 4

.21 8*

.02 7

.11 2

.11 3

.26 6**

.24 5 98 .18 6

.03 1 98 .21 8*

.47 0 97 .06 8

.03 1 98 .10 3

.27 5 97 .08 6

.26 9 98 .16 3

.00 8 98 .24 1*

.06 7 98

.03 1 98

.50 8 97

.31 4 98

.79 6 97 .15 7 .12 4 97

.40 2 97

.10 8 98

.01 7 98

Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N

.04 9

.06 9

.10 0

.13 0

.09 4

.52 6 88

.35 9 87

.08 0 .46 0 87

.12 3

.64 8 88

.04 6 .67 1 88

.25 7 87

.22 6 88

.38 3 88

Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N

.01 1

.12 6

.22 8*

.07 4

.13 0

.14 3

.21 7*

.18 6

.91 8 83

.25 5 83

.03 9 82

.50 7 83

.24 6 82

.19 9 82

.04 8 83

.09 2 83

142


In the last 5 years the changes in production / services/ process lines... (V11) Innovativen ess of successors I often surprise with novel ideas (V1)

I am often being asked to help people in creative activities (V2) I am more satisfied if I develop a novel idea than if I master a skill (V3) I prefer work which requires original thinking (V4) Usually I do not continue with work as I was used to do (V5) I prefer the work which requires inventivenes s than skills and practice (V6) I am a very creative person (V7)

.06 9

.08 4

.18 3

.14 7

.14 3

.05 4

.22 7*

.20 5

.53 0 85

.44 4 85

.09 4 85

.18 1 85

.19 0 85

.62 2 85

.03 6 85

.06 0 85

V2 0

V2 1

V2 2

V23

V24

V2 5

V2 6

V2 7

Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N

.23 9*

.18 6

.29 6**

.20 0*

.09 2

.20 2*

.14 7

.26 3**

.01 8 98 .04 4

.06 7 98 .10 7

.00 3 98 .18 5

.04 9 98 .16 3

.36 8 98 .22 3*

.04 7 98 .05 6

.14 8 98 .15 8

.00 9 97 .25 8*

.67 3 96

.30 1 96

.07 1 96

.11 2 96

.02 9 96

.58 9 96

.12 3 96

.01 2 95

Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N

.15 5

.01 2

.03 7

.06 2

.08 7

.90 4 98

.02 3 .82 6 98

.04 0

.12 9 98

.02 5 .80 3 98

.69 5 98

.54 7 98

.39 9 97

Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N

.12 1

.01 9

.02 2

.02 6

.10 4

.11 4

.14 1

.23 4 98 .05 0 .62 7 97 .00 8

.85 2 98 .00 6 .95 5 97 .02 3

.82 7 98 .08 8

.80 3 98 .05 8 .57 3 97 .05 0

.30 6 98 .07 2 .48 1 97 .05 6

.26 4 98 .10 7 .29 9 97 .09 4

.16 8 97 .01 5 .88 3 96 .07 9

.93 6 99

.82 2 99

.39 2 97 .02 6 .79 8 99

.00 8 .93 9 98 .00 5 .96 2 97 .04 7 .64 4 99

.62 2 99

.58 0 99

.35 5 99

.44 0 98

Pearson Correlat ion

.16 0

.16 6

.13 7

.00 9

.17 3

.06 4

.16 0

.19 3

Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N

143

.71 6 98


I like to experiment with different styles of doing the same things (V8) In the last 5 years I developed / started to market 0, 1, 2, 3-5, more than 5 new lines of products and services (V9) In the last 5 years I developed / started to market 0, 1, 2, 3-5, more than 5 new processes (V10) In the last 5 years the changes in production / services/ process lines... (V11)

Sig. (2tailed) N Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N

.11 7 98 .10 1

.10 3 98 .13 2

.17 8 98 .05 9

.92 6 98 .06 6

.53 1 98 .14 6

.11 6 98 .13 4

.05 8 97 .24 7*

.51 5 98

.08 8 98 .01 2 .90 8 98

.32 0 98

.19 6 98

.56 2 98

.15 3 98

.18 7 98

.01 5 97

Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N

.08 8 .41 5 88

.00 9 .93 0 88

.09 3

.21 8*

.00 1

.04 4

.08 5

.39 0 88

.04 1 88

.99 6 88

.68 1 88

.42 9 88

.01 9 .86 4 87

Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N

.13 3

.04 0

.35 8**

.29 9**

.11 0

.18 3

.18 3

.23 1 83

.71 7 83

.00 1 83

.00 6 83

.32 2 83

.09 7 83

.09 8 83

Pearson Correlat ion Sig. (2tailed) N

.08 8

.05 8

.18 7

.09 4

.11 2

.10 0

.42 5 85

.59 5 85

.08 7 85

.39 3 85

.04 3 .69 6 85

.30 8 85

.36 2 85

.01 9 .86 7 82

.04 4 .69 0 84

Our research revealed that between the innovativeness of the successor in family SME, measured by "I often surprise with new ideas" (V1) and the founder's attitude to entrepreneurship" (V13), his "persistence" (V20), technical knowledge and abilities (V22), "commercial knowledge and skills" (V23), "work commitment" (V25) and "motivational skills" (V27) are positive, weak correlations. There is a medium strong correlation between the variables of innovativeness of the successor "I often surprise with new ideas" (V1) and the founder's "creativity" (V19). A positive, weak 144


correlation is between the innovativeness of successors, measured by the "People often ask me for help with creative activities" (V2) and the founders' "motivational skills" (V27). Innovativeness of successors, measured by "I am more satisfied if I develop a new idea, than if master the skill" (V3) shows positive, weak correlation with the founders' attitude to "problem solving" (V12) and the founder's "creativity" (V19). Among the innovativeness of successor, measured by "I prefer work that requires original thinking" (V4) and the founder's attitude to entrepreneurship" (V13) there is a positive, weak correlation, while to the founders' attitude towards negotiations" (V17) there is a medium strong correlation. A positive medium strong correlation is between the innovativeness of successors, measured by "I usually do not continue to do new work as I have been taught to" (V5) and the founders' attitude to risk "(V15). Among the innovativeness of successors, measured by the "I prefer work that requires inventiveness rather than skills and practice" (V6) and the founder's "creativity" (V19) is positive, a weak link. Between the innovativeness of successors, measured by "I'm a very creative person" (V7) and the founders' attitude to entrepreneurship" (V13), "attitude to risk" (V15), the founder's "creativity" (V19), there are positive, weak correlations. Also among the innovativeness of successors, measured by "I want to experiment with different ways of doing the same things" (V8) and the founders' attitude to entrepreneurship" (V13), his "creativity" (V19), "motivational skills" (V27), there is a positive, weak correlation. Innovativeness of successors, measured by "In the last five years I have developed / commercialized/ started to market 0, 1, 2, 3-5, more than 5 new lines of products and services" (V9) shows a positive, weak correlation with the founders' "commercial knowledge and skills" (V23). Among the innovativeness of successors, measured by "In the last five years I have developed / commercialized/ started to market 0, 1, 2, 3-5, more than 5 new processes" (V10) and the founders "social relationships" (V14), his "attitude to teamwork" (V18), there are positive and weak correlations; while with the founders' "technical knowledge and abilities" (V22) and "commercial knowledge and skills" (V23) there are positive medium strong correlations. The innovativeness of successors, measured by "In the last five years there have been changes in the product / service / process lines minimum ..... very significant nature" (V11) shows a positive, weak correlation with the founderâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s "attitude towards teamwork" (V18).

145


7 Discussion This study confirmed that there are many positive correlations between entrepreneurial competences of the founders of family SMEs by individual sources of these innovations and the innovativeness of successors in family SMEs. The transfer of entrepreneurial competences by founders partially positively correlates with the innovativeness of successors in family SMEs. Among the variables of the innovativeness of successors (V1 – V11) and the variables of transferring entrepreneurial skills by the founders in family SMEs, there exist 27 positive correlations. The strength of these correlations ranges from between weak to medium. Based on these findings we can partly confirm the hypothesis H1. The following entrepreneurial competences of the founders are highlighted, which are positively, medium strongly associated with the innovativeness of successors: the creativity of the founder (V19), the founder's attitude to negotiations (V17), the founder's attitude toward risk (V15), technical (V22) and commercial (marketing) knowledge and skills (V23) of the founder. Based on these findings we can confirm the two hypothesis: H2: “Entrepreneurial competences, such as: creativity, attitude toward risk-taking and attitude toward negotiations affect innovativeness of successors in family SMEs,” and H3: “Entrepreneurial competences, such as: technical knowledge and skills and marketing knowledge and skills affect innovativeness of successors in family SMEs.”

8 Conclusions, contributions, implications for theory, research, practice and economic policy Past studies have shown entrepreneurial competences enable entrepreneurs to exploit business opportunities more effectively than others (Širec, 2009). Our findings correspond with the findings of Mullins (1996) that entrepreneurial competences of an entrepreneur (e.g. founder) can be extended to the group (e.g. successors) through synergistic effects. In family SMEs in Slovenia founders pass their entrepreneurial skills to the next generation which is positively related and affects the development of entrepreneurial competences of successors and their innovativeness, leading to greater competitiveness of family SMEs. This study contributes to a better understanding of the segment of the family SMEs from the perspective of the problem of succession and innovation management in the family SMEs in Slovenia. Slovenia is still a transition economy. As the research in this area in transition 146


economies is rare, the results of our study cannot be directly compared with any other country in transition.

9 Limitations and future research opportunities An important limitation of the research is that there are few theoretical sources with combinations of the studied areas. Many researchers are examining the individual aspects of the transfer of succession in family SMEs to the next generation, but nobody studied the factors relevant to the innovativeness of successors. Current results cannot be generalized to any population of enterprises, as they are limited to the family SMEs. The study is quantitative (at the beginning of our research we conducted a qualitative research on 30 family SMEs by using indepth, semi-structured interviews; the findings helped us in development of a suitable measuring instrument for quantitative research). It makes sense to upgrade the qualitative research through in-depth interviews with e.g. additional 10 to 20 family SMEs, who participated in the quantitative study, from the fields of various activities at different stages of the transfer of SME from founder to successors. In doing so, we would verify the individual constructs and factors such as: entrepreneurial competences of the founders and their interconnectedness and its impact on the innovativeness of successors.

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25. Miller, D., Steier, L., & LeBreton-Miller, I. (2003). Lost in time: Intergenerational succession, change and failure in family business. Journal of Business venturing, 18 (4), pp. 513-531. 26. Mueller, S. L., & Thomas, A. S. (2001). Culture and entrepreneurial potential: A nine country study of locus of control and innovativeness. Journal of business venturing, 16(1), 51-75, http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.lib.ukm.si/10.1016/S0883-9026(99)00039-7 27. Mullins, J. (1996). Early growth decision of entrepreneurs, the influence of competency and prior performance under changing market conditions. Journal of business venturing, 11, pp. 89-105. 28. Onstenk, J. (2003). Entrepreneurship and vocational education. Entrepreneurship educational research journal, 2 (1), pp. 74-89. 29. Rogers, E. M., & Schoemaker, F. F. (1971). Communication of innovations. New York: Free Press. 30. Sexton, D.L., & Bowman, N. (1984). Personality inventory for potential entrepreneurs: Evaluation of a modified JPI/ PRF-E test instrument. In: J. Hornaday, F. Tarpley, Jr., J. Timmons, and K. Vesper, eds., Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Wellesley, MA, Babson College. 31. Sharma, P., Chrisman, J. J., & Chua, J. H. (2003b). Predictors of Satisfaction with the succession process in family firms. Journal of Business Venturing, 18 (5), pp. 667-687. 32. Širec, K. (2009). Teorija proizvodnih virov in podjetništvo. Naše gospodarstvo, 55 (1/2), pp. 85-95. 33. Štrukelj, T. (2015). »'LDOHNWLþQLVLVWHPYLGLNRY]DLQRYLUDQMHXSUDYOMDQMDLQ vodenja tranzicijskega podjetja«. Doktorska disertacija. Maribor: Ekonomsko poslovna fakulteta, Univerza v Mariboru. 34. Verhees, Fr. J. H. M., & Meulenberg, M. T. G. (2004). Market orientation, innovativeness, product innovation and performance in small firms. Journal of Small Business Management, 42 (2), pp. 134-154. 35. Vidic, F. (2012). Vpliv podjetniške in tržne naravnanosti ter kreiranja znanja na uspešnost podjetij. Ljubljana: Ekonomska fakulteta. 36. West, M., & Farr, J. (1989). Innovation at work: psychological perspectives. Social Behavior, 4. pp. 15-30. 37. Zelenika, R. (2000). Metodologija i tehnologija izrade znanstvenog i VWUXþQRJGMHOD (4 izd.). Rijeka: Ekonomski fakultet u Rijeci.

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Dr. Tomislav Rozman Director at BICERO Ltd. and Assist. prof. dr. DOBA Business School Maribor, Slovenia tomislav.rozman@bicero.com 0DJ7DQMD.RFMDQ6WMHSDQRYLþ Director at Prava Poteza and Senior lecturer DOBA Business School Maribor, Slovenia tanjaks@prava-poteza.si Dr. Andrej Raspor Director at CEATM d.o.o. and Assist. prof. DOBA Business School Maribor, Slovenia andrej.raspor@ceatm.org

Analiza uporabe spletnih komunikacijskih in dokumentacijskih orodij med EU projektnimi vodji Povzetek 9SULVSHYNXREUDYQDYDPRVRGREQHREODþQHVLVWHPH]DVNXSQRUDER dokumentov in komunikacijo z vidika vodje EU projektov, ki vodi multidisciplinarne in mednarodne time. V raziskavi smo ugotavljali, kakšni uporabniki uporabljajo omenjena orodja in kateri motivacijski IDNWRUMLYSOLYDMRQDQMLKRYHRGORþLWYH]DXSRUDEROH-teh. V raziskavi smo analizirali osebne izkušnje projektnega vodje in intervjuje s 40 projektnimi vodji, ki so vodili 244 EU projektov. Glavna ugotovitev UD]LVNDYH MH GD ãH YHGQR YHþLQD SURMHNWnih vodij ne uporablja REODþQLK LQ VRGHORYDOQLK GRNXPHQWQLK VLVWHPRY .RW QDMYHþMR RYLUR ]DEROMXþLQNRYLWRXSRUDERRPHQMHQLKVLVWHPRYQDYDMDMRQHSULMD]QRVW RURGLM YDUQRVWQH SRPLVOHNH LQ SRPDQMNDQMH ,7 YHãþLQ 0HG intervjuvanci prevladuje mnenje, da so sestanki v živo še vedno QDMXþLQNRYLWHMãRVUHGVWYR]DUD]GHOMHYDQMHLQSRURþDQMHRSURMHNWQLK nalogah, vendar jim tesno sledi sodobna programska oprema za komunikacijo. Upoštevanje ugotovitev iz naše raziskave lahko vodi k boljši komunikaciji na EU projektih, boljšemu vodenju in vpeljavi

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dokumentnih sistemov in komunikacijskih orodij, kar neposredno YSOLYDQDXĂžLQNRYLWRVWSURMHNWQHJDYRGHQMD .OMXĂžQH EHVHGH Vodenje EU projektov, virtualni timi, projektna NRPXQLNDFLMD REODĂžQL VLVWHPL ]D GHOMHQMH GRNXPHQWRY, komunikacijska programska oprema Koda JEL klasifikacije: M15

An analysis of web-based document management and communication tools usage among project managers Abstract The article analyzes modern cloud document management systems and communication tools from the viewpoint of a EU project managers, who lead multidisciplinary, multilingual and international teams. It also explores the types of users who use these tools as well as the motivation factors guiding their choices. The research includes observation within the project group, interviews and semistructured surveys among 40 EU project managers, who have managed 244 EU projects. The main finding is that a lot of project managers still donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t use shared, cloud document system. The biggest obstacle to more efficient usage of existing systems is their unfriendliness, security concerns and lack of skills. Meetings are still perceived as the most efficient channel for distributing and receiving project tasks, but they are closely followed by communication software. Applying our findings to the project management practice can lead to better communication and shared document storage management, which can influence overall effectiveness of project management. Keywords: Project management, virtual communication, cloud, document management JEL classification code: M15 152

teams,

project


1 Introduction Imagine you are a project manager of an EU project, coordinating an international team. You are aware of the fact, that the single most significant factor affecting the success of a project is the communication ability of the project manager (Zulch, 2014). How can you live up to such expectations when project participants come from various cultures and organizations? They have various beliefs and statuses within their organizations. Partners use their own documentation and communication information systems and processes used within their organizations. For shared project purposes, yet another documentation and communication system is usually selected. Project partnersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; knowledge and motivation to use such systems may vary significantly. The question is: Is it possible to achieve smooth and effective collaboration of a virtual team and timely finalization of tasks, and eventually reach project objectives in such complex environment? The authors of this paper are involved in management of virtual project teams daily and struggle with similar issues as described in literature. They are especially interested in the IT aspect of virtual teamsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; management: shared documentation and IT-supported communication. Cloud-based document management tools (such as Google Drive, Dropbox, SharePoint, Office 365 and similar) have been used for a decade and are quite mature in technological and usability terms. Nevertheless, their adoption and usage is still limited. Similarly, in the age of modern communication tools (email, sound & video conferences, chats, social media platforms), the selection of appropriate communication channels for different project management tasks is still an issue. Firstly, we will present existing literature on the following topics: virtual teams, distributed teams, document management and similar. Then, we will present a typical EU project environment. Next, we will present the problem which is in the focus of our research: collaboration between project team members using online tools. We will summarize the types of project document management in 9 patterns. Next, we will present the results of the research (survey). These results include answers from various project participants and their attitude towards various communication tools and techniques. The results (descriptive statistics) were analyzed using pivot tables and calculation of the correlation coefficient among the variables.

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At the end, the results are discussed and guidelines for project managers are presented. The results were used to create guidelines for project managers and reference processes for document and communication management, which are presented in the last chapter.

2 Related work 2.1

Virtual, distributed teams and project networks

Managing virtual teams is tightly integrated with effective usage of information technology (Olariu and Aldea, 2014). Electronic communication is ranked the highest among effective communication methods in some researches (Zulch, 2014) that were done among construction, occupational health, environment, safety, finance and claims managers in non-virtual teams. Based on the vast research within project management area, the large share of knowledge-intensive projects performed by virtual teams struggle with serious issues (Ayoko, Konrad and Boyle, 2012). Those issues can negatively influence achieving project objectives, communication and relations between team members. (Harej and Horvat, 2007) state that a virtual team is defined by the degree of online communication, not the geographical dispersion. A temporary team is established for a specific time-limited project, whereas a permanent team is established for long-term tasks (such as open-source development community). In contrast, other authors (Guzmรกn et al., 2010) state the difference between virtual and traditional teams: members work at different geographical locations, they come from different cultures, have different teamwork practices, speak different languages, knowledge management and distribution is different and time difference makes agenda management difficult. Same authors also emphasize (among others) problems related to virtual teams: ineffective management of shared knowledge among different team members causes duplication and inconsistency. Moreover, (Ale Ebrahim, Ahmed and Taha, 2009) identified 12 factors which influence the virtual teams. The same authors compiled a comprehensive literature review on this topic and defined virtual team as geographically dispersed, driven by a common purpose, enabled by communication technologies and involved in crossboundary collaboration. Other characteristics of virtual teams are: they are not permanent teams, the team size is small, the members 154


are knowledge workers and may belong to different companies. Other authors offer similar definitions (Joinson, 2002; Hertel, Geister and Konradt, 2005; Shea et al., 2011), (Watkins, 2013). The main advantage of a virtual team is its agility. At the same time, those teams are especially vulnerable to mistrust, communication issues, conflicts and power struggles. (Ale Ebrahim, Ahmed and Taha, 2009) also compiled a list of advantages and disadvantages of virtual teams. Some of a virtual teams disabling factors are addressed in this research, such as: requirements for complex technological applications, task-technology fitness, technophobia, training. Project networks thus maintain a stable core of project team members while at the same time dynamically tapping into the expertise within the personal networks of members as necessary (Cummings and Pletcher, 2011). When the task is non-routine, this set-up often increases the chance of success of a project. A project network combines the advantages of the project team with those of the personal network. EU projects can be viewed as a special type of project networks. Core members of an EU project represent the core of the project team, while their associates/assistants and subcontractors represent non-core contributors of the project network. We are aware of the fact that trust is very difficult to develop and maintain in a virtual team (Huls, Piggott and Zwiers, 2014), because of different barriers (Kimble, 2011) in culture, time and geography. It is therefore even more important to select the adequate technological solution to support and not to diminish trust in project teams. A thorough research of VT development in the last ten years (Gilson et al., 2015) found different results for impact of technology use in virtual teams: from no effect to better overcoming of teamwork challenges. It recommends more investigation and attention to newer technological solutions, which is actually what we are doing specifically for EU funded projects. Software development projects in virtual teams are especially common. For example, most of the open source software is being developed in virtual teams. Several authors have researched the performance of the virtual software development team. (ColomoPalacios et al., 2014) found out that the performance of such projects is lower than in-house projects. One of main reasons of lower performance of a team is lack of attention of virtual project manager to development tasks. (Misra et al., 2013) discusses the role of people in GSD (global software development). Challenges in GSD virtual teams can be summarized as: communication, knowledge management, 155


coordination, collaboration, socio-cultural distance and lack of trust challenges. Authors propose several ideas to overcome these challenges such: investment in people, promotion of mobility and improvement of the software development process. Virtual project teams are here to stay and growing (Shea et al., 2011). For example, 145,463.81 M â&#x201A;Ź are spent for EU projects in a single year (EU_comission, 2014). A big part of this funds (e.g. 17,551.69 M â&#x201A;Ź for Competitiveness and for growth and jobs) are managed in virtual teams. To ensure more optimal expenditure of EU project funds, the management of project teams should be improved. The existing literature mainly explores key success factors for managing project teams, but skips the technological dimension and its relations to the project team members motivation. 2.2

EU projects

EU projects are usually long-term relationships between organizations. For example: three year project actually means that the organization is joining in project-related relationships for a much longer period (up to nine years) from proposal preparation to the end of the possible evaluation period (Horvat, Harej and Rozman, 2006). Web-based collaboration tools are considered as enablers for successful cooperation, which is of the utmost importance in such long periods (Schwarz, 2005). Numerous programs and funding opportunities (EU_Commision, 2014) exist for different types of activities. Different types of organizations can apply for funding. The main characteristics of EU co-financed projects (like Lifelong Learning â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Leonardo da Vinci, FP7 or the latest Erasmus+ and Horizon 2020), which are considered in this article, are: duration: 1-3 years; types of projects: research, development of innovation, transfer of innovation, partnerships, knowledge alliances and similar; number of partners (organizations): min. 3, average 8, max. 12 with 1-5 people/ partners; location of partners: minimum 3 different EU countries (core partners) and other countries (associated partners), but generally more than that (typically 4-5); partners organization type: private companies, public organizations, NGOs, academic institutions, associations etc.; partners organization size: micro to medium companies; expected project results: mostly intellectual outputs like research reports, events, training materials, courses, e-content, software, new processes and services; project organization: network/virtual team; project scope: multidisciplinary 156


2.3

Patterns of collaboration in a project using D&CM tools

The possibility to access distributed and distinct computing resources can bring substantial advantages to project management. Cloud computing is particularly useful to support a lean and digitalized approach to project management (Nicoletti, 2012). Cloud-based document management systems are used for intellectual outputs (documents, spreadsheets, presentations, schemes â&#x20AC;Ś) exchange within knowledge-intensive projects. For several years our project partners report the usage of Google Drive, Dropbox or proprietary document management systems with mixed success. According to our experience, document management within a project team can be summarized in at least 9 patterns [Figure 1]. The first and simplest pattern is represented by local editing of files and their exchange by email system. The second pattern is represented by a traditional file server, which enables central storage of files, with no locking mechanism. The third pattern of document management is represented by CVS, Subversion or similar system, which allow versioning, committing, updating and branching of files. Some examples of the fourth pattern are SharePoint, Blackboard, Moodle, or any other web based system which allows manual document uploading and downloading. Examples of the fifth pattern are Office365 and Microsoft SharePoint, which allow paragraphbased online editing. Examples of the sixth pattern include Google Drive (local sync client), Dropbox and OneDrive, and Only Office, which allow automatic synchronization of the files. Examples of the seventh pattern are Google Drive/Docs system, Draw.io or similar, which allow simultaneous real-time editing of the documents. The eighth pattern could be represented by cloud project management tools, which also include event, task and project portfolio management. The ninth pattern includes social messaging.

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Figure 1: Different models of cloud /other document management systems usage patterns17 Other tools for online project management, which include event/task management and social messaging (e.g. Only Office, Wiggio, Teambox, Manymoon, BaseCamp etc. 18), were omitted from the research. Nevertheless, these tools could be interesting candidates for future research, because within this research we have found out their efficiency for task distribution is on-pair with e-mail communication [Figure 4]. Document management does not eliminate a need for proper communication between project partners. Communication patterns and channels have been well known for quite some time (Katz and Tushman, 1979), but what we wanted to find out is which channel is the most efficient for assigning and accepting project tasks. Communication within EU project virtual project team is usually performed using different channels. There is less face-to-face communication (except on yearly meetings) and more ecommunication. The communication can be asynchronous (e-mail, Logos of Google Drive, Dropbox and Office365 are property of their respective owners 18 http://www.1stwebdesigner.com/project-management-collaboration-tools/ 17

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chat) or synchronous (chat, voice (e.g. skype), phone, video conference (many-to-many), webinar (one-to-many). Those communication channels are the only way of the project manager to reach project members, therefore it is useful to know which one is the most appropriate for which situation. The effectiveness of different communication channels was addressed within our research. 2.3.1 Research questions and hypotheses The main research question is: Which factors influence the usage of modern document management and communication (D&CM) tools for managing virtual teams in EU projects? Specific research questions are:  RQ1: Is the usage of D&CM tools influenced by demographics (age, location, education â&#x20AC;Ś)? Based on these research questions, hypotheses were formulated:  H1. The majority (>½) of projects performed by virtual teams uses some kind of IT supported documentation management system  H2. Younger project managers from private companies prefer using cloud-based document management tools  H3. The most effective communication channels for assigning and accepting project tasks are those with IT support Within this article, we will mostly tackle the collaboration and communication aspects of project management. We will look at the factors that are related to collaboration and communication tools, such as messaging systems (e-mail, skype) and document management systems (Google Drive, SharePoint, Dropbox, proprietary systems). Our research focuses on collaboration using online tools within virtual project teams. We are especially interested in temporary virtual project teams, which are common in EU co-financed projects.

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3 Research design 3.1

The context

A typical project, as observed here, is usually led by the main partner (contractor) and coordinator, who are not necessary the same person. Project team members usually meet face-to-face twice per year. Therefore, most of the communication and collaboration is performed on-line. The team usually consist of the following roles: project manager, quality manager, developers, teachers, administrative staff and technical staff, all from different organizations. Therefore, the term project network could be used instead of project team. For the best collaboration, the team should use central storage for documents and results, which are produced within the project. But as we will see from the results, most projects still exchanged documents exclusively via e-mail. The online cloud-based document management systems have a lot of advantages over exchanging files using e-mail. Those advantages are: a single point of document storage, less document duplication, the proper (automatic) version management, better document visibility, less time wasted for local classification and storage, better information circulation, better collaborative work etc. We wanted to find out, what are the reasons behind the low acceptance rate of online document management systems. In addition to document management tools, we were interested in online communication platforms. Since teams are geographically dispersed we wanted to find out, which communication medium is suitable for task assigning and accepting. We were interested in the influence of personal characteristics (self-starter, leader, being part of the hierarchy, motivation for participation in the project) to the usage of online collaboration platforms. We also wanted to know if the usage of online collaboration platforms is influenced by age or the type of organization that project members come from. Our research was motivated by our own work: we (authors) are project managers and face these issues daily. At the beginning of our research we suspected that acceptance of cloud-based IT tools for project management and communication depends on the age of the project team members. The younger generation (up to the age of 40) should be more inclined to using the tools mentioned above. But this theory was rejected by the fact that some of the older project team members have no problems using IT tools for project 160


management. The next thought was: does it depend on the type of the organization? Each project manager who was interviewed had their own personal limiting factor of the usage of IT tools for collaboration. Therefore, we started our research in 2014 by preparing a short article, which was posted on LinkedIn platform. We asked project managers: “Why do people resist using shared, cloudbased document management systems (such as Google Drive/Dropbox/Office365)? 19” The received free-text answers were grouped in the following groups: I don’t understand cloud based DMs; I’m afraid of losing the files; I’m concerned about my privacy; Lack of knowledge (caused by generation gap); I don’t know how to use it; The DM system is not safe. The participants answers became the starting point for broader research, where we conducted a survey and asked project managers about their motivation to use modern cloud-based IT tools for collaboration. We wanted to find out which are the factors influencing acceptance, therefore we asked the research participants about their demographics, experiences, motivation, self-drive and similar. 3.2

Type of the research

Our research includes qualitative (observation and interviewing EU project managers) and quantitative techniques (web survey). This kind of methodological triangulation gives a more balanced picture of the situation. To establish a preliminary set of factors that influence effectiveness of virtual teams in project management, the authors have conducted preliminary research. Firstly, the authors have been collaborating in EU projects for more than a decade and have been observing collaboration processes from within. Next, the authors have queried social networks (LinkedIn) and gathered responses from fellow project managers regarding the usage of cloud-based document management systems for project management tasks. 3.3

Preliminary research

Within the preliminary qualitative research, the authors observed a small set of EU project managers for several years (field research direct observation). The result of those observations and interviews is a set of factors which influences the effectiveness of project https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20141014102142-12084826-why-dopeople-resist-to-use-shared-cloud-based-document-management-systemssuch-as-google-drive-dropbox-office365?trk=mp-reader-card 19

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management in a virtual team. The main research question was: What is the main reason for poor performance of a virtual project team? Each project manager had their own view of the reasons for poor performance and cooperation. For example, some older project managers thought that age is a limiting factor for effective use of online document management tools, while others thought that the difficulty of using the tools hinders their usage the most. There is no clear consensus among project managers on which factors influence the effectiveness of collaboration in virtual teams. As it seems, the effectiveness itself is a term whose meaning depends on the observer. 3.4

A survey

Using a web survey, we gathered data about project participant demographics (country, age, type of organization, educational background), experiences with project management (proposal preparation and coordination, the number of coordinated/collaborated/ administered projects), types of projects (source of financing, hierarchical structure), motivation (self-starter, being part of an organizational structure, leadership, motivation for participation). The most important questions included technologyrelated issues of collaboration and communication platform usage (main collaboration/communication platform, its effectiveness, user friendliness, obstacles for usage). In addition, we asked the participants, which factor is the most influential when assigning or receiving tasks. We also asked the participants about their self-drive, their motivation to participate in the most recent project and their leadership abilities. 3.5

Sampling and validity of the research

We used non-probability accidental sampling. We selected the participants for the survey from the authors personal networks of current or past project partners. This type of sampling was used because we were mostly interested in collaboration improvement within our own project partners networks. We extended the target group by posting a request to participate in the survey within a LinkedIn group, which is dedicated to EU project management. We are aware that the conclusions of this research are difficult to generalize to all project managers in EU but that was not our primary intention. The survey was constructed using Google Forms and invitations were sent by e-mail and posted to LinkedIn groups. 44 persons who 162


managed 244, partnered in 544 and administered 484 EU projects participated in this research. The full population of EU project managers is difficult to determine; there are currently more than 55 EU programmes (EU_Commision, 2014) which comprise a large number of projects. Those calls/projects have various duration and funding. There is no summary information about the total number of EU projects granted per year for all calls. For example, only Horizon 2020 published 173 calls in the year 2014/2015 (EU_commision, 2015). 3.6

Analysis

The data gathered was analyzed using Google sheets and IBM SPSS Software. First, we conducted a univariate analysis and then we used a bivariate analysis to investigate the correlation between the variables. Descriptive statistics were prepared using simple statistics (averages etc.). For the data summarization, pivot tables were used. Correlations were discovered using Pearsonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s correlation coefficient. There were no missing data to handle, because all questions, which used the 7-level Likert scale, were mandatory to answer. The answers to open questions were classified in groups (coded). 3.7

Demographics

Demographic data: age group (40% were born 1971-1980, 20%: 1961-1970, 22%: 1981-1990, 14%: 1944-1960); country of the respondents: France, Netherlands, Italy, Slovenia, UK, Romania, Iceland, Bulgaria, Spain, Belgium); organization type: 36% private institution, 28% public institution, 14% independent consultants, 11% NGOs, 11% others; educational background: 36% economics, 14% social sciences, 6% education, 22% technical sciences, 8% informatics. Most projects overall are managed by the generation 1961-1970 (generation X).

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Figure 2: Who manages EU projects by types of organizations If we take a closer look, we notice, that most project managers in private organizations belong to the generation 1944-1960 (generation baby boomers) [Figure 2]. If we focus only on consultants, most them are from generation X. Public/academic organizations show an interesting distribution: approximately one third of the sample is from 1944-1960, another third from 1961-1970 and the last third from the 1971-1980 generation. Millennials (19802000) are underrepresented in all types of organizations except in private institutions. Education background of the survey participants: 32% technical sciences, 43% economics, 7,7% law, 7,7% social sciences and other. We have separated informatics and technical sciences categories to determine if there is any correlation with educational background and IT systems usage. Most projects are managed by persons with economics background, out of which most are from generation 19441960 [Figure 3].

164


Figure 3: Education background and age groups of EU project managers Experiences: 66% participants have already prepared a full proposal, 30% have collaborated in one and 5% have not been involved in proposal preparation yet. 72% have coordinated preparation of a project proposal and 28% have not. Project organization: Most of projects followed a network type of project organization (60%), followed by hierarchical organization (39%) and a mix of those (the remaining). A network type of organization (as expressed by lead partners) is more common in Bulgaria, Italy and Slovenia whereas strict hierarchical organization is more common in Belgium. Overall, most teams are organized as networks. This complies with the findings of (Hoch and Kozlowski, 2014), who have found out that shared leadership (including nonhierarchical organization) is significantly related to virtual team performance. 3.8

Receiving and assigning tasks efficiency

As we see from [Figure 4], live communication and formal meeting still present the most efficient communication channels, closely followed by live informal meeting. Surprisingly, e-mail is the third most efficient system for task assigning/receiving, closely followed by dedicated task assignment system.

165


Figure 4: Effectiveness of various communication channels for delegating and accepting project tasks It is not surprising that synchronous communication channels are most effective. More interesting is the observation that asynchronous electronic communication channels (like e-mail & task assignment system) are more effective as synchronous (skype, mobile, traditional phone). With focus only on asynchronous electronic communication channels, skype with voice and video is considered as the most effective. There are subtle differences between different communication channels and assigning/receiving tasks, which are considered not significant (comparison of red/blue bars). If we focus only on the use of communication tools, results [Figure 5] show that most users are concerned with security and improper use of web etiquette.

Figure 5: What prevents effective usage of online communication tools 166


3.9

Document management system

Many projects are still being managed without a shared documentation system (32%). Among others, Google Drive and Dropbox are the most used systems with an approximately equal share (GDrive-34.1% and Dropbox 33.5%). If we observe only those answers, which use document management (DM) and group them by user types [Figure 6], we find out that Google Drive is mainly used by project managers, which work as consultants or come from private organizations. The reason could be in this products attractive pricing, quick learning curve and broad product coverage. Public, governmental and academic institutions mainly use Dropbox or a self-developed system.

Figure 6: Which DM systems EU project managers use (by types of organizations) An analysis of DM systems usage by age groups shows that generations 1961-1970 and 1944-1960 are less keen to use the cloud-based DM system. The two main obstacles for using cloudbased DM systems are: 1. the system is too cumbersome (it takes too many clicks to perform a task) and 2. security concerns. Other responses are presented in [Figure 7].

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Figure 7: What prevents effective usage of document management tools 3.10 Motivation and leadership of EU project managers We asked our participants questions about motivation and leadership: 1. Do you consider yourself as a self-starter? 2. Do you prefer being part of a well-organized and led structure? 3. Do you prefer leading others? and 4. Have you felt motivated to participate in your recent project? The results show that most persons from the group of consultants consider themselves as self-starters, persons from the age groups 1981-1990 and before 1943 alike. Most people from NGOs prefer to be part of a well-organized and led structure. Persons who prefer leading others are mostly from private institutions and consultants. An analysis by the age group shows the persons born before 1943 and between 1991 and 2000 prefer leading others. Persons born in 1971-1980 least prefer leading others, which is a very interesting result. Most motivated to participate in recent project were persons from NGOs and private institutions. An analysis of correlations between variables showed that project managers who consider themselves as self-starters were also motivated to participate in their most recent project (Pearsonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s coefficient 0,327* at 0.05 level, 2-tailed). 3.11 Open comments from participants From the free-text answers we could extract and summarize the following useful information: 1. complex systems can cause problems 168


in temporary project settings (e.g. people were unhappy with the introduction of Wigglio), 2. exchanging documents (only) via e-mail is not recommended because of poor version history tracking capabilities, and 3. training of project partners for efficient usage of DM tool is strongly advised.

4 Results 4.1

Hypotheses

H1. The majority (>½) of projects performed by virtual teams uses some kind of IT supported documentation management system The hypothesis is confirmed. We have found out that 64% of survey participants use some kind of cloud-based documentation system for project management. H2. Younger project managers from private companies prefer using cloud-based document management tools The hypothesis is partially confirmed. We have found out that in generations 1971 and younger, the share of participants which do not use any of the cloud DM systems is almost zero. In generation 1944-1961-, almost half of the participants do not use any DM system, and in generation 1961-1970 approximately a quarter of the participants do not use any of DM systems. H3. The most effective communication channels for assigning and accepting project tasks are those with IT support The hypothesis is not confirmed. We have found out that live communication (formal and informal) is still most effective for assigning and receiving project tasks. 4.2

Suggestions for management

better

document

and

communication

The results derived from our research are a set of reference processes, DM patterns and recommendations, which need to be in place to ensure effective project management of virtual teams. [Figure 8] shows a high level of key process areas and processes which need to be established for effective document and communication management.

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Figure 8: Reference process models for document communication management within virtual project teams

and

[Table 1] shows suggestions for project managers which can be used for deployment of D&CM processes. Table 1: Suggestions for process deployment Process

Suggestions for process deployment

P1: Establish integrated DM and CM environment

If the team is well trained, has cooperated and used integrated D&CM system before, introduction of an integrated system could be a good solution. If not, introduction of a new integrated system can be a burden (e.g. see results from our research chapter Open comments from participants). Sometimes less is more (e.g. combining simple DM with e-mail task delegation).

P2: Choosing and establishing project cloud DM system

Choose the DM system for a project team considering patterns presented in [Figure 1]. For example, if most project deliverables are in the form of files, a cloud based repository with local file synchronization is a good solution (e.g. Dropbox). If you expect that collaborative work on the same deliverables (e.g. documents, spreadsheets, presentations) will be performed, choose Google Drive or Office 365. Establish repository, grant access rights. Consider edit/read-only access for different members. Establish initial folder structure. 170


Dedicate one person as a document manager. P3: Training of DM users

Allocate some time at the project kick-off meeting to perform initial training of project team members. Then, train core team members using video-conference and screen sharing. Perform individual trainings (one-on-one) if necessary. Employ social learning (e.g. learning from most IT literate in the partner groups)

P4: Versioning and releasing

Develop deliverables using versioning and releasing rules. Team members who have no background in software development, usually have difficulties managing versions. Standardize and set up rules (within configuration management plan) for file naming, classifying, versioning and releasing. Train users, explain how automatic history preservation of files works (if used). Avoid branching of deliverables development, because it takes a lot of effort to merge them. Instead, introduce shared files to develop (e.g. shared training content presentation or shared spreadsheet for status tracking).

P5: Monitoring the usage of DM and periodical retraining of users

A dedicated person must periodically track what is happening in the documentation system. This includes: monitoring of activity (e.g. Google Drive Activity stream), monitoring of file naming, classification, content, duplicates. Without regular monitoring, your DM repository will quickly become a mess. Use the insights of DM monitoring for re-training of users.

P6: Choosing and establishing project communicatio n plan and tools

Establish a communication plan which includes: events, source, destination, frequency of communication and communication channels. Consider the findings from our research (see chapter Receiving and assigning tasks efficiency). Choose appropriate tools, e.g. Skype for virtual meetings, Doodle for planning communication events, GoToMeeting for webinars, e-mail or task assignment system for task distribution etc. 171


P7: Choosing the right communicatio n channel

For each communication event, choose the appropriate communication channel. Consider the findings from our research (see chapter Receiving and assigning tasks efficiency). For the most important events (e.g. kick-off meeting), use live communication. Combine formal and informal communication. Example: Perform a formal project kick-off meeting in the morning and plan socializing activities for the afternoon and evening. For regular task distribution, use e-mail or task assignment system. Avoid using phone and chat tools for distributing tasks. People do not consider them effective, the message can get lost easier than in an e-mail. Synchronous channels (e.g. phones) are effective for resolving issues and getting quick feedback and less for distributing tasks.

P7: Periodically communicatin g the tasks and responsibilitie s

If no task management system is used, project manager should periodically communicate the status of the tasks (open, closed, cancelled â&#x20AC;Ś). Also, a simple shared spreadsheet â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a list of tasks with statuses will work if updated regularly. Keep it simple, but donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t oversimplify.

5 Discussion and further work The results of our research are interesting: the biggest obstacles for more efficient usage of online communication tools are: bad web etiquette, security concerns and lack of skills. Results also show that live communication is still the most efficient method to delegate tasks, closely followed by e-mail or dedicated task assignment systems. Therefore, we suggest to project managers to use multiple channels for communication. Live meetings should be held at the major milestones (e.g. at project kick-off or intermediate reporting). E-mail (or other type of asynchronous) communication should be used for delegating packages of tasks to team members. Synchronous communication should be used for daily operation, micro- management and quick resolving of issues, which need immediate feedback. The communication system should be used simultaneously with online documentation system.

172


The biggest obstacle for more efficient usage of online document management systems is user (un-)friendliness (the system is too cumbersome/it takes too many clicks). Before conducting the research, we speculated that security concerns will be the major obstacle for online document management systems. Interestingly, respondents evaluated security concerns with a relatively low score of importance. We have also found out that there is no consensus about which obstacle prevents more efficient usage of DM and communication tools the most. But we gathered a set of possible obstacles, which can be studied by the project manager or configuration/documentation manager when choosing the DM system for a virtual project team. After the original article was published, new tools appeared on the market (e.g. OnlyOffice, which is also used by the author in one 3year EU project). As the tools mature and evolve, it would be interesting to repeat the research after a year or two and check if the new tools affect the level of their usage. Despite the drawbacks detected in DM usage, we believe that cloudbased DM systems for project management provide many advantages: transparency of work, easy insight into history of changes, easier version management and, most importantly, simpler collaboration. These advantages are drawbacks by some: insight in document changes can be understood as breach into a persons privacy. Moreover, when collaborating in real time, a persons incompetence can be spotted more easily. Is this the issue most of us are afraid of? [dostop 23. avgust 2017].

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Dr. Rasto Ovin Redni profesor, dekan, DOBA Fakulteta Maribor, Slovenija, rasto.ovin@doba.si

Kdo je vazal EU? Primer enakopravnega sodelovanja z PRĂžQLPWXMLPSDUWQHUMHP Povzetek 3ULVSHYHN WHPHOML QD ]DYUDĂžDQMX SULVORYLĂžQR SRGUHMHQHJD SRORĂĽDMD Slovenije v zgodovini nasproti velikim gospodarstvom in drĹžavam. Prikazuje nekaj izkuĹĄenj, ki govorijo o tem, da je tudi Slovenija izkoristila nekaj priloĹžnosti, kjer je uveljavila svoje koristi. Na takĹĄnih temeljih je bil pripravljen tudi mednarodni projekt, kjer je slovensko druĹĄtvo avtomobilskih entuziastov s konsistentnim pristopom uspelo uveljaviti in pripraviti projekt spremenjenih vrednot. Primer je PRJRĂžH ODKNR WXGL ]JOHG NDNR QDĂžUWRYDWL VRGHORYDQMH ] PRĂžQLP tujim principalom â&#x20AC;&#x201C; HQRRGQDMYSOLYQHMĂŁLKJOREDOQLKGUXĂĽEVSRGURĂžMD avtomobilske industrije. .OMXĂžQH EHVHGH mednarodno sodelovanje, strategije vodenja, neoinstitucionalizem, kulturno-kognitivne institucije, ĹĄtudija primera. Koda JEL klasifikacije: M19

Who is the EU vassal? A case of cooperation on an equal basis with a strong foreign partner Abstract The paper is based on the rejection of a typical opinion that Slovenia has through its history been subjected to unequal treatment by bigger states and economies. It demonstrates several cases in history when Slovenia had its chance and took the advantage of current situations. This attitude was a starting point with the organization of a big international project where Slovenian leadership wanted to bring in new values with the community of car enthusiasts, and through a consistent approach succeeded in preparing a big 177


international event through an equal partnership with one of most influential global companies in the automotive industry. Key words: equal position of small states, big international event, leadership strategies when cooperating with strong partners. JEL classification code: M19

1 Uvod 2E YVDNHP YHþMHP SURMHNWX NL EL JD 6ORYHQLMD QDM RGGDOD WXMLP izvajalcem ali z njimi sodelovala, se med ocenami, ki jih javno dajejo SUHGVWDYQLNL UD]OLþQLK VWUXNWXU WXGL V SRYVHP UD]OLþQR SRGODJR Y ]QDQMX  QDMGHMR WXGL NULWLþQD VWDOLãþD V VNXSQLP LPHQRYalcem, da 6ORYHQLMDJOHGHRGSLUDQMDSUHYHþXERJD XND]H RG]XQDM1HUHGNRVH YWHPNRQWHNVWXQRVLOFHSROLWLþQLKLQGUXJLKRGORþLWHY]PHUMD]YD]DOL (8 LQ V SRGREQLPL L]UD]L NL MLK XSRUDEOMDPR ]D SUHYHþ SRVOXãQH  6ORYHQLMDVHMHSRYHþGHVHWOHWQLKSUL]DGHYDQMLKSULNOMXþLODYHOLNHPX projektu EU in je tako gotovo relevantno vprašanje, v kolikšni meri JUHWXNDM]DPDWHULDOQHSRGODJH]DWDNãQDVWDOLãþDYNROLNãQLPHULSD ODKNRJRYRULPRRSULVORYLþQLPDNOMXERYDOQRVWLLQXSRUQRVWLNLVHQDP tudi pripisuje. ZDJRWRYR SD WDNãQD VWDOLãþD RGUDåDMR WXGL YU]HO Y znanju o demokraciji, evropskih vrednotah in o mednarodnih odnosih ter poslovanju. 6 VWDOLãþD HNRQRPVNH WHRULMH VH ODKNR QDYHåHPR QD QREHORYFD Douglasa Northa (1993) ki govori o zamujenem trenutku, da bi inVWLWXFLMH NL VOHGLMR SUHYODGXMRþL SUDNVL RGYLVQRVW RG SUHKRMHQH poti), sledile kompleksnosti povezav, ki se porajajo ob tehnološkem LQJRVSRGDUVNHPQDSUHGNX7DNãQDGUXåEDODKNRRVWDQHXNOHãþHQDY LQVWLWXFLRQDOQL PDWULNL NL QH RPRJRþD NRULVWL RG VSHFLDOizacije in delitve dela. Nedvomno zapiranje pred zunanjim svetom nato ]PDQMãXMH SURGXNWLYQRVW LQ NRQNXUHQþQRVW LQ V WHP ]DYLUD SURFHV XþHQMDHNRQRPVNLKVXEMHNWRY7DNãQLSRJRMLVLFHUXVWUH]DMRREVWRMHþL strukturi interesnih skupin, ki ne želijo prerazporedLWYH PRþL VDM lahko posegajo v korekcijo delovanja anonimnih mehanizmov, kot so demokracija, zakonodaja, trg ali cene. Seveda s tem predstavljajo oviro za to, da bi nacionalno gospodarstvo lahko dohitevalo razvite ekonomije. Prispevek najprej opisuje ravnanje Porsche kluba Slovenija, s katerim se je ta klub postavil ob bok velikim in vplivnim evropskim klubom. To poglavje se v tem delu navezuje na objavi Ovin (2016) in Ovin in dr. (2016), dodana pa so poglavja 1, 2 in 5, v katerih je dodana analiza pogojev in pristopov, ki so v primeru, ki ga obravnavamo, naredili razliko med 'vazalskim' odnosom s partnerji globalno gospodarsko družbe iz avtomobilske industrije in partnerskim ter enakopravnim odnosom. Upamo, da bodo ugotovitve 178


iz tega prispevka lahko v pRPRþVQRYDOFHPSRVORYQHLQHNRQRPVNH SROLWLNHSULQMLKRYHPXPHãþDQMXNRWSDUWQHUML] YHOLNLPL 

2 Iskrice iz slovenske zgodovine in majhnost Slovenije Spodbijamo tradicionalni izgovor o majhnosti Slovenije kot razlogu za naÅ¡ podrejeni položaj v zgodovini, ter želimo spomniti na priložnosti, ki jih je imela v preteklosti Slovenija in jih je tudi izkoristila. Najprej je tukaj dejstvo, da kot suverena država QDVHOMXMHPR JHRJUDIVNR L]MHPQR ]DQLPLYR REPRþMH LQ VPR RE YVHM QDãL PDMKQRVWL ]DSUOLQHPãNRJRYRUHþL civilizaciji dostop do toplega morja. Tukaj so, kot vemo, igrali vlogo Å¡tevilni dejavniki od kulturnih (jezik) pa vse do zaprtosti, ki je v zgodovini gotovo koristila samobitnosti â&#x20AC;&#x201C; GDQHVJOHGHQD]JRUDMSRYHGDQRJRWRYRQLYHþWDNR Dejstvo je, da smo uspeli obraniti naÅ¡ geografsko in zgodovinsko zelo ]DQLPLYLQSRPHPEHQELYDOQLSURVWRUSUHGYHOLNRYHþMLPLPRþQHMãLPL itd. in s tem pridobili tudi veliko priložnosti, ki jih prinaÅ¡a lega Slovenije. V ekonomskem pogledu velja spomniti na priložnost, ki jo je v 20. stoletju podobno kot Slovenija izkoristila le Å¡e Å vica. Ne bomo XSRãWHYDOLJRVSRGDUVNHJDY]SRQD1HPþLMHNLJDMHGRVHJODSRGYHK neuspelih vojnah. Povod za popolno preobrazbo je bil sicer ameriÅ¡ki Colm-Dodge-*ROGVPLWKQDþUWPRQHWDUQHLQILQDQþQHUeforme po letu 1948, vendar je ta država gospodarski razcvet vendar dosegla na QHNQDþLQ]ODVWQLPLVLODPL3UL6ORYHQLMLLQâYLFLSDODKNRJRYRULPRR WHP GD VWD WL GUÃ¥DYL L]NRULVWLOL SULORÃ¥QRVW QD UDþXQ GUXJLK LQ WR Y oblikah, ki jih sicer pripisujemo kolonializmu. Pri Å vici mislimo na njeno nevtralnost v obeh svetovnih vojnah, s þLPHU MH SRVWDOD WD GUÃ¥DYD R]LURPD QMHQH EDQNH LGHDOHQ WUH]RU ]D QHJRWRYR HOLWR Y YRMVNXMRþLK VH GUÃ¥DYDK â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ãH SRVHEHM 1HPþLMH 9 drugi svetovni vojni se v Å¡vicarske banke preseli Å¡e bogastvo, ki so JDÃ¥LGRYVNHGUXÃ¥LQHXVSHOHVNULWLSUHGSUHJDQMDQMHPYþDVXQDFL]PD Poleg tega da so banke sredstva lahko plasirale na trgu, je tukaj tudi priliv iz naslova deponiranega bogastva, ki je zaradi Holokavsta ostal brez lastnikov. Slika Slovenije je povezana z vstopom avstrijskih pokrajin, ki so jih pretežno naseljevali Slovenci, v Jugoslavijo. Do druge svetovne vojne se je takratna Dravska banovina utrdila kot nacionalna industrijska regija. Ta vloga se je po drugi svetovni vojni razÅ¡irila Å¡e na trgovino in predvsem panoge z viÅ¡jo dodano vrednostjo. Tako je leta 1990 ob 8% teritorija in 8% prebivalstva v Jugoslaviji Slovenija ustvarjala 25% državnega BDP in 32% izvoza v zahodne države. 7DNR QH SUHVHQHþDMR L]UDþXQL 0LKDMORYLüD   DOL 6WDQNRYLü 3HMQRYLüHYH    SR NDWHULK MH WDNUDWQD MXJRVORYDQVND republika Slovenija imela neto ekonomsko korist od Jugoslavije. 179


0HUMHQR ] LQGHNVRP Y SULPHUMDYL ] MXJRVORYDQVNLP SRYSUHþMHP (indeks 100) je Slovenija izboljšala svoj ekonomski položaj od 153  QD  =DSUWRVWMXJRVORYDQVNHJDWUåLãþD]XYR]QLPL RPHMLWYDPL MH RPRJRþLOD QDVWDQHN PDVWRGRQWVNLK SRGMHWLM NL VR V VYRMRSUHYODGRQDGRPDþHPWUJXILQDQFLUDODVYRMRNRQNXUHQþQRVWQD zahodnih trgih. Primeri so takratni pohištveni giganti Meblo, Lesnina LQ 6ORYHQLMDOHV JLJDQW QD SRGURþMX EHOH WHKQLNH *RUHQMH HGHQ QDMYHþMLK VYHWRYQLK SURL]YDMDOFHY VPXþL (ODQ QDMYHþML REODþLOQL NRPELQDW Y (YURSL 0XUD DOL QDMYHþMD ]ODWDUQD QD VYHWX &HOMVND ]ODWDUQD = L]MHPR *RUHQMD NL SD ]GDOHþ QH SUHGVWDvlja enako SRPHPEQHJD LJUDOFD NRW Y þDVX -XJRVODYLMH VR RVWDOL JLJDQWL RE RGSLUDQMX WUåLãþD SUDNWLþQR LPSORGLUDOL LQ VR VH PRþQR ]PDQMãDOL DOL pa so propadli. +NRULVWLP]DUDGLYLãMHJD]QDQMDNRWSRVOHGLFRYHþVWROHWQHDYVWULMVNH izkušnje moramo dodati tudi razne oblike prehajanja tujega bogastva v jugoslovanske (slovenske) roke, v katerih so po koncu 1. svetovne YRMQH QDSUHM GUåDYD $YVWULMD WHU WXGL RGKDMDMRþL $YVWULMFL 1HPFL ,WDOLMDQL ýHKL LQ GUXJL 6ORYHQFHP SUHSXVWLOL ]QDWQR QDFLRQDOQR bogastvo, ki je bilo torej posledica tujih naložb. 0HQLPRGDELåHJRUQMDGHMVWYDODKNRSRGSUODNULWLþQHMãLUD]PLVOHNR tem ali smo bili Slovenci v svoji zgodovini res zmeraj le podrejeni ali pa smo imeli tudi priložnosti, od katerih smo jih nekaj znali tudi izkoristiti. To se mi zdi pomembno kot osnova za boljšo samopodobo, s katero bomo vstopali v nova partnerstva in projekte z razvitimi tujimi državami. Pomembno pri tem pa je, da samozavest temeljimo na znanju in VSRVREQRVWLK NL VH VWDOQR SUHYHUMDMR Y YHþMHP SURVWRru, kot je VORYHQVNL 7R Y RVQRYL ]DKWHYD SUHPDMKQRVW GRPDþHJD WUJD LGHM LQ projektov. Zato moramo biti sposobni jezikovno komunicirati z zunanjim okoljem ter sprejeti tudi njegovo gospodarsko razmišljanje LQ NXOWXUR VDM MH Y SRYSUHþMX EUH] GYRPD XþLQNRYLtejša. V QDVSURWQHP SULPHUX ODKNR XVSHPR NRW þODQL QHNHJD HNVRWLþQHJD projekta, ki je z upornostjo in kljubovalnostjo pritegnil trenutne VLPSDWLMHãLURNHJDSURVWRUD$QLþYHþNRWWR3ULQDGDOMHYDQMXVWLNRY ] RNROMHP VH þODQL SURMHNWD EUH] ]JRUDM QDYHGHQH podlage spet SRMDYOMDMR NRW VLFHU VLPSDWLþQL D QHSRPHPEQL LJUDOFL LQ QDãD 'majhnost' se nadaljuje.

3 Parada 'out of the box' â&#x20AC;&#x201C; NOMXEGUXJDþQLPQDVYHWRPLQ zahtevam principala Porsche klub Slovenija (PKS) so navduÅ¡enci za Å¡portne avtomobile ustanovili leta 1996 v Logarski dolini. 10 let so bile klubske dejavnosti omejene na manjÅ¡e izlete z udeležbo do 10 vozil. Leta 2007 je nastopilo sedanje vodstvo kluba. Njegova prva naloga je bila 180


registrirati klub pri tovarni Porsche. Tukaj smo bili s tovarno nekoliko rD]OLþQHJDPQHQMDSULQHNDMVWYDUHK  NaÅ¡ predlog imena je bil Porsche klub Slovenija. Tovarna je svetovala ime v angleÅ¡kem jeziku: Porsche Club Slovenia, kot je RELþDM SUL GUXJLK NOXELK Y (YURSL =QDQ QDP MH SRPHQ NL JD MH doslej imel jezik pri ohranjanju slovenske samobitnosti in smo tako vztrajali smo na tem, da želimo uporabljati ime, kot se zapiÅ¡e v slovenskem jeziku, ter uspeli.  3ULURþQLN ]D 3RUVFKH NOXEH ]DKWHYD GD VR þODQL ODKNR OH ODVWQLNL vozil te znamke. Vztrajali smo na tem, da je pomembno, da je PHULOR]DþODQVWYRPRÃ¥QRVWXSRUDEOMDWLYR]LOD3RUVFKHVDMGDMHWR bliže poslanstvu Porsche klubov v svetu, ki naj pritegnejo predvsem navduÅ¡ence, ne pa tiste, ki si avtomobil te znamke lahko SDþSULYRãþLMR1DNRQFXVRVHYWRYDUQLVWHPVWULQMDOL  LetDVPRXYHGOLþODQVWYRPODGLKNLQLPDMRSULORÃ¥QRVWLYR]LWL te znamke avtomobilov, so pa avtomobilski entuziasti â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Bernd Rosemeyer 20 sekcija PKS. To ni upoÅ¡tevano v nobenih navodilih za Porsche klube. Vendar pa je takrat PKS že veljal za enega aktivnejÅ¡ih evropskih klubov in nismo bili deležni odprtega nasprotovanja tej praksi. Omenjeno ravnanje novega vodstva seveda ni bila idealna popotnica za sodelovanje s principalom. V naslednji fazi pa je vodstvo kluba Å¡e XWUMHYDORÃ¥HREVWRMHþHGREURVRGHORYDQMH] uvoznikom te znamke v Sloveniji in kmalu smo lahko na letnih sestankih vodstev evropskih NOXERYSRURþDOLR]JOHGQHPVRGHORYDQMXWHUSUYLþELOLFLWLUDQLWXGLNRW PRGHO]DGUXJH ELVWYHQRYHþMHLQVWDUHMãHNOXEH  Aktivno delovanje v mednarodnem telesu predsednikov Porsche klubov Evrope (Porsche Club Committee - PCC), izkazano dobro sodelovanje s sosednjim (sicer mnogo manjÅ¡im in manj strukturiranim) Porsche Club Croatia ter usidrane vrednote OMXELWHOMVWYD Y ODVWQHP þODQVWYX NL VPR MLK GHPRQVWULUDOL WXGL navzven, so PKS izpostavili kot možnega organizatorja bienalnega QDMYHþMHJDGRJRGNDOMXELWHOMHYãSRUWQLKYR]LO3RUVFKHQDNRQWLQHQWX Porsche Parade Europe (PPE). Leta 2011 je zamisel za to parado pri nas dozorela in na svetovnem VUHþDQMX SUHGVHGQLNRY 3RUVFKH NOXERY Y -XÃ¥QL $IULNL VPR SULþHOL ] organizirano kampanjo z vodstvom Porsche Community Management 3&0 2VUHGRWRþLOLVPRVHQDGRGDQHYUHGQRVWLNLELMLKSRQDãHP mnenju moral vsebovati prenovljen koncept parade. Do takrat je ta sicer temeljil na prijateljskem druženju, (Å¡portni!) avtomobili in Za imenovanje sekcije mladih po Berndu Rosemeyerju smo dobili pristanek RG QMHJRYH GUXÃ¥LQH 1MHJRY YQXN SUDY WDNR %HUQG 5RVHPH\HU MH þDVWQL þODQ PKS.

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QMLKRYDYRÃ¥QMDSDVRELOLRþLWQRYGUXJHPSODQX9HQGDUVRELOH]YUKD 3&0 WDNRMQD]DþHWNXNULWLþQRREUDYQDYDQHDOL]DYUQMHQHQHNDWHUH spremembe, ki smo jih videli kot stebre novega koncepta parade. To so bile:  Parada naj bi potekala na dveh osrednjih lokacijah (Bled in Rovinj). Nasprotno mnenje na strani principala je bilo, da bi prijava in RGMDYD Y GYHK KRWHOLK ]DKWHYDOD SUHYHþ QDSRUD RG XGHOHÃ¥HQFHY (predvsem žensk);  Razdalja med dvema lokacijama naj daje možnost za vožnjo avtomobilov, ki jih navduÅ¡enci kupujejo zaradi veselja do vožnje in ne zaradi razkazovanja. Nasprotno mnenje je tudi tukaj navajalo prevelik napor za udeležence;  3ULþDNRYDQRYHOLNRãWHYLORXGHOHÃ¥HQFHYELUD]GHOLOLQDYHþVNXSLQSR izbranih aktivnostih â&#x20AC;&#x201C; izmenjava informacij o doživljajih naj tiste, ki so izbrali druge aktivnosti, pritegne k novemu obisku lokacije. Nasprotno mnenje je bilo, da bi izmenjava informacij lahko UD]RþDUDODXGHOHÃ¥HQFHNLVR QDSDþQR L]EUDOL  Predviden program je zahteval 4 dnevni dogodek, kar je bilo GUXJDþHRGGRVHGDQMHSUDNVHNRMHWDGRJRGHNWUDMDOGQL7XGL temu je vodstvo PCM nasprotovalo;  Na PPE ni miÅ¡ljena predstavitev nacionalnih kultur v smislu posebnih nastopov. Temu smo ugovarjali, saj se Bled nahaja le nekaj kilometrov stran od zibelke najuspeÅ¡nejÅ¡ega slovenskega DQVDPEODYVHKþDVRYâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; DQVDPEODEUDWRY$YVHQLN1DSUYHPYHþHUX so tako nastopili so eni njihovih naslednikov, poželi izjemen uspeh LQQDQHNQDþLQ]DþUWDOLUD]SRORÃ¥HQMHQDFHORWQHPGRJRGNX  9]WUDMDOL VPR QD YNOMXþHYDQMX ORNDOQH ]DLQWHUHVLUDQH SRSXODFLMH Y GRJRGHN =DYHGDMRþ VH GHPRQVWUDFLMVNHJD XþLQND DWUDNWLYQLK DYWRPRELORY NL VR ]D GYD GQL SUDNWLþQR RNXSLUDOL %OHG VPR QDþUWRYDOL YDELOD LQ YRÃ¥QMR ]DLQWHUHVLUDQLK REþDQRY QD XUHMHQL hitrostni stezi na Alpskem letalskem centru Lesce. Vodstvu PCC se MH WD ]DPLVHO ]GHOD QHSULPHUQD þHã GD LPDMR XGHOHÃ¥HQFL WDNãQLK parad radi zasebnost 21.  Vodja PCM, ki je odgovorna za delovanje Porsche klubov na svetu ]  þODQL QDMYHþMD VNXSQRVW OMXELWHOMHY ene znamke avtomobilov na svetu) je opozarjala na tveganje, da tako oblikovan dogodek ne bi pritegnil zadostnega Å¡tevila udeležencev. =DXSDMRþ QRYHPX NRQFHSWX LQ SRGSRUL þODQVWYD VR YRGVWYR 3.6 LQ predsednik Porsche Club Croatia kljub neformalni zavrnitvi

Tudi to smo izvedli in poželi veliko odobravanja s strani udeležencev in GRPDþLQRY

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nadaljevali z delom na konceptu, kot smo si ga zamislili. Pristop, ki MH WHPHOMLO SUHGYVHP QD SR]QDYDQMX L]URÞLOD DYWRPRELOVNLK navduťencev ťportnih vozil Porsche, je pomenil ciljano seznanjanje predsednikov drugih evropskih klubov s svojimi pogledi na Porsche parado temeljnih vrednot ťportnega avtomobilizma. Novembra leta 2012 je bila na letnem sestanku PCC v Wolfsburgu predstavitev konceptov parade za leto 2016, ki so jih pripravili Porsche Club Czech Republic (s podporo PCM), Porsche klub Slovenija skupaj s Porsche Club Croatia in Porsche Club Ireland. Predstavitev PKS je bila na vrsti GUXJD]DSUHGVWDYLWYLMRÞHãNLKNROHJRY.RWWUHWMLQDYUVWLMH3&,RG odstopil od kandidature. Rezultat glasovanja med Slovenijo in +UYDãNRQDHQLWHUýHãNR5HSXEOLNRQDdrugi strani je bil 55: 1 v naťo korist in smo tako lahko tudi uradno nadaljevali s pripravo parade.

4 ,]LG33(LQQHNDMGHMVWHYNLVRRPRJRĂžLODQMHQR uspeĹĄno izvedbo Kot udeleĹženci parad drugih klubov smo opazili upadanje zanimanja ĂžODQRYHYURSVNLK Porsche klubov za ta dogodek. Po uspeĹĄni paradi na 'XQDMX  NMHUVWDYHOLNDKRWHODRPRJRĂžLODXGHOHĂĽERSUHNR ekip (avtomobilov), je Pariz (2012) zabeleĹžil 120 ekip, Luksemburg (2014) pa le ĹĄe 85 ekip. Zaznali smo, da se je tradicionalni model parade (druĹženje v elegantnih hotelih, masovni ogledi mest, avtomobili pa v glavnem parkirani pred hoteli) izpel in skupaj s hrvaĹĄkim predsednikom poiskali nove priloĹžnosti, ki bi lahko pritegnili navduĹĄence ĹĄportnih avtomobilov za ta tradicionalni dogodek. TakĹĄen relativen neuspeh parad v Parizu in v Luksemburgu je RPHKĂžDO YRGVWYR 3&0 0HG WHP MH OHWD  3RUVFKH &OXE &URDWLD SULSUDYLOSUYRGDOMĂŁRGYRGQHYQRYRĂĽQMR]DĂžODQHREHKNOXERYLQRG]LY je bil zelo dober. Zato smo leta 2013 skupaj pripravili poskusno parado (Alpe Adria Porsche Clubs Tour). UdeleĹžilo se je je 55 DYWRPRELORYL]6ORYHQLMH+UYDĂŁNH,WDOLMH1HPĂžLMH$YVWULMHLQ='$ Pomembna pa je bila udeleĹžba vodje PCM za Evropo, Azijo, Afriko, Avstralijo in Novo Zelandijo. Na tem dogodku se je ta predstavnica WRYDUQH3RUVFKHSUHSULĂžDODRVSRVREQRVWLLQQDPHQXRUJDQL]DWRUMHY glede parade novih vrednot. 22 PPE 2016 je popolnoma uspela. Seveda tako velik dogodek ne mine EUH]PDQMĂŁLK]DSOHWRYD]DKYDOMXMRĂžRUJDQL]DFLMLLQPHGVHERMQHPX zaupanju med organizatoUMLLQĂžODQVWYRPVRELOLKLWURRGSUDYOMHQL SULVRWQLK HNLS R]QDĂžXMH PRĂĽHQ SUHREUDW Y SDGDQMX XGHOHĂĽEH QD zadnjih dveh paradah. Verjamemo, da je uspeh posledica tudi dobrih Pred samo izvedbo PPE 2016 sta obe lokaciji dvakrat obiskali direktorica Porsche Community management in njena namestnica za Evropo in ostale NRQWLQHQWHUD]HQ$PHULN6SUHPHPEYSRWHNXSDUDGHQLVWDYHĂžSUHGODJDOL

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QRWUDQMLK UD]PHU Y 3RUVFKH NOXEX 6ORYHQLMD NL MH ]DUDGL QDþLQD vodenja in velikRVWLYSURMHNWXLJUDORGORþLOQRYORJR 232]QDþXMHMRMLK tudi:  3UHGVHGVWYRNOXEDVHVWDYOMDSROHJSUHGVHGQLNDãHãHVWþODQRYNL s svojo aktivnostjo in prispevkom vrednotam in delovanju PKS izstopajo.  Odprtost kluba, ki se zrcali v neposrednem sprejemanju pobud þODQRY GRJRGNL ORNDOL ]D VUHþDQMD LWG  QMLKRYR VWDOQR LQIRUPLUDQMHRYVHPLQQMLKRYHPYNOMXþHQRVWLSULGHORYDQMXNOXED  Za razliko od uveljavljene prakse PKS ne pozna pristopne vsote ]D QRYH þODQH 9VHEXMH UHGQH þODQH SULGUXåHQH YHþLQRPD L] tujineNLVHQHPRUHMRXGHOHåHYDWLYVHKGRJRGNRY þDVWQHþODQH SUHGVHGQLNL3RUVFKHNOXERYV NDWHULPLVRGHOXMHPR LQþODQVWYR sekcije Bernd Rosemeyer24 NL YNOMXþXMH PODGH GR  OHW NL ãH nimajo rednega dostopa do vozil Porsche.  2E QHNDWHULK ]DþHWQLK SRPLVOHNLK YHOLNRVW SURMHNWD þH]PHMQR sodelovanje) je podpora PPE 2016 znotraj PKS nenehno rasla. Pri RUJDQL]DFLML LQ L]YHGEL SDUDGH MH WDNR VRGHORYDOR  þODQRY LQ QMLKRYLK GUXåLQVNLK þODQRY 6 WHP MH XUHVQLþHQR HQR RG SULþDNRYDQM WRYDUQH GD SUL RUJDQL]DFLML Sarad sodelujejo SUHGYVHPþODQLLQQMLKRYHGUXåLQHWXGLQDãHL]NXãQMH]XVWUH]QLPL agencijami so potrdile veliko vrzel v njihovem znanju in izkušnjah, ko gre za populacijo avtomobilskih navdušencev. To so udeleženci kmalu po prihodu opazili in takoj je bila vzpostavljena klima medsebojnega zaupanja.  V klubu je razvita tolerantnost do slabše organiziranih sredin v tujini in jim pomagamo pri njihovem uveljavljanju.  .RQþQR LQ QH QD]DGQMH YRGVWYR NOXED ]QRWUDM LQ QDY]YHQ demonstrira odprtost do vseh avtomobilskih navdušencev doma in v tujini, komunicira v tujih jezikih in na delovanje kluba prenaša svoje dobre izkušnje in prakso sodelovanja s tujimi uglednimi univerzami in podjetji. Dogodek je imel za PKS številne pozitivne posledice. Poleg porasta samozavesti dRVORYHQVNHJD]QDQMDLQVSRVREQRVWLþODQRYVRWXãH materialna dejstva:  6RGHþSRRG]LYLKMHELODRFHQDXGHOHåHQFHYLQYRGVWYD3&0]HOR XJRGQD3UYLþYOHWQL]JRGRYLQL3RUVFKHSDUDGVHMHSUHGVHGQLN

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Nadzornega sveta Porsche AG dr. Wolfgang Porsche pisno osebno ]DKYDOLOLQþHVWLWDORUJDQL]DWRUMHP 25; Organizatorji naslednje PPE (2018 v Amsterdamu) so prek PCM XUDGQR]DSURVLOL]DFHORWHQQDþUWLQSULURþQLNSULUHGLWYH 9RGMD 3&& ]D SRGURþMH (YURSH $]LMH $IULNH $YVWUDOLMH LQ 1RYH =HODQGLMHMHSRVWDODþODQLFa PKS â&#x20AC;&#x201C; to je edini klub, v katerega je YþODQMHQD Polaganju kamna za muzej Porsche Å¡portnih avtomobilov Andreja Malgaja v Kobdilju v oktobru 2016 so se udeležili: Bernd Rosemeyer s celotno družino ter visoki predstavniki Porsche NOXERY+UYDãNH1HPþLMH$vstrije in Italije. Predsednik kluba iz Italije (Porsche Club Trentino) je najprej prosil ]DþODQVWYRQDWRSDMXQLMDRUJDQL]LUDOYHOLNGRJRGHN3.6Y Dolomitih; 9NOMXþXMHPR VH Y SURMHNW WUDFN GD\V  LQ ãLULPR VRGHORYDQMH V Porsche Club Deutschland tudi na naÅ¡ih tleh; Za leto 2020 so kot organizatorji (na naÅ¡e prigovarjanje klubu in PCM) predvideni prijatelji Porsche Club Pannonia. Sprejeli so naÅ¡ SUHGORJ LQ ERGR ] QDãR SRPRþMR OHWD  SR QDãHP ]JOHGX organizirali poskusno parado. PKS ima pobudo in zdUXÃ¥XMHPRþLV3RUVFKHNOXEL,WDOLMH$YVWULMH Madžarske in Srbije za vzpostavitev (prvega takÅ¡nega) omrežja Porsche klubov Alpe-Donava-Jadran, ki bi pripravljalo tudi svojo regionalno Porsche parado â&#x20AC;&#x201C; po zgledu velikih klubov v tujini, le da gre pri nas za mednarodno sodelovanje. .RW QDMSRPHPEQHMH XSRãWHYDPR GD VH þODQL 3.6 ]DYHGDMR znamke, ki jo ima klub â&#x20AC;&#x201C; v letu 2017 so doslej vsi dogodki potekali QDYLãMLUDYQL YHþMLRUJDQL]DFLMVNLWHDPLREVHÃ¥QHMãLLQYHþYUVWQL program).

6HYHGDMHWRODåHGRVHþLYprostovoljnem združenju kot sicer. Vendar SDQD YVHK VUHþDQMLKSRXGDUMDPRYUHGQRWHNLVRRþLWQRPHGQDPL žive in se jih oklepamo. To so: znanje, navdušenje in prijateljstvo 26. Vse zamisli in projekti so bili na pDUDGLWXGLL]YHGHQLLQVRSULSRPRJOLNRGOLþQLP ocenam dogodka od udeležencev (ob omejitvi na 200 avtomobilov, smo jih na koncu uspeli sprejeti 2014), predsednikov drugih klubov do predsednika 1DG]RUQHJD VYHWD 3RUVFKH $* GU :ROIJDQJD 3RUVFKHMD LQ þODQD +Dnsa-Petra 3RUVFKHMDâHVHGDMSRYHþNRWOHWXGQLSRGRJRGNX 6HSWHPEHU VH33(  QD PHGQDURGQLK VUHþDQMLK ãH ]PHUDM QDYDMD NRW YUKXQVNR L]YHGHQ dogodek. 26 Tukaj se pravila za uspešno delovanje ne razlikujejo od zahtev za uspešno gospodarsko družbR 9HþLQD þODQRY 3.6 MH L]MHPQLK SR]QDYDOFHY PRELOQH WHKQRORJLMH LQ GRND]DQLK RGOLþQLK YR]QLNRY V SUL]QDQML QD ãWHYLOQLK GRPDþLK LQ tujih tekmovalnih prireditvah. To je komplementarno z zahtevo, da gospodarska 25

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5 =DNOMXþHN Zaprtost, kjer se pojavlja v Sloveniji, je tudi posledica stalnega strahu pred 'velikimi'. Gotovo je materialno dejstvo, da v zgodovinski in ekonomski praksi ni ravno veliko primerov, kjer bi majhni oz. VODERWQHMãLQDG]RURYDOLYHOLNHR]PRþQH3ULQDãLRFHQLWHKUD]PHULM LQ NDNR SUL WHP UDYQDWL VH QH SRVYHþDPR REUDPEL SUHd velikimi, WHPYHþ LVNDQMX PRåQRVWL QD NDWHULK SRGURþMLK LQ NDNR ODKNR SRVWDQHPRYHOLNLPL'HMVWYRMHGDPDMKQRVWQLOH SULVUþQD WHPYHþ MHWXGLSRVOHGLFDQHXVSHãQLKDOLRSXãþHQLK]JRGRYLQVNLKSULORåQRVWL da bi postali veliki ali del velikih držav ali projektov. A preden smo ]DYUQMHQL V WHP GD VR WXMFL SDþ LPHOL PRþQHMãH YRMVNH ]DNDM QH UHþHPRUDMHEROMãHWHKQRORJLMHLQQHOHRURåMDLQYRMVNRYDQMD" QDMR tem govorijo dejstva iz našega primera. 1HVPHPRSXVWLWLREVWUDQLWLSLþQLKGHOLWHYPHG6ORYHQFL2SROLWLþQLK delitvah tukaj ne bomo razpravljali. Spominjamo pa na pogoste izkušnje, ko se zaradi nezaupanja znotraj strank ali pa timov SRVDPH]QLKYHOLNLKSURMHNWRYWXMFLSRJRVWRVUHþXMHMR]L]NXãQMRNLMR WHåNRUD]XPHMRýODQLVNXSLQH VWUDQNHSURMekta) v odsotnosti svojih GRPDþLK QDVSURWQLNRY SRJRVWRPHGVHERMREUDþXQDYDMRSUHGWXMLPL partnerji, v lastno 'korist' zmanjšujejo vlogo sodelavcev v timu ali celo vodje tima in namigujejo na potrebo po njegovi zamenjavi. Zavedamo se tudi pogostih koruptivnih dejanj, a tudi to tukaj L]SXãþDPR7XMHãHSRPDQMNOMLYR]QDQMHVNDWHULPVH]DYHURYDQLY VYRMRYHOLþLQRNLMLPMRMH SUL]QDO ]DQHPDUOMLYRPDMKHQNXOWXUQLLQ gospodarski prostor, preambiciozni predstavniki javljajo k besedi na mednarodnem parketu. S parketom pa je nujno povezana tudi omika. Pustimo ob strani še to, da se del doma uglednih SUHGVWDYQLNRY SROLWLNH LQ JRVSRGDUVWYD QHUDGR DNWLYQR YNOMXþXMH Y mednarodni prostor zaradi nezaupanja v svoje znanje tujega jezika. To, kar se v Sloveniji upošteva kot pretirana vljudnost (denimo v prestolnici stisk rok ob prihodu), je zunaj standard, pod katerim se sogovornika težko razume. Gotovo ni treba posebej pojasnjevati, kaj takšne prakse pomenijo ne le za ugled ampak tudi za položaj naše strani nasproti tujim partnerjem. Navzven potem ostane edino le EUDPERYVNLSRORåDMþHãGDVR]DYVHQDãHWHåDYHNULYLWXMFL27, tisti NLSD]QMLPLQDMGHMH]LNSDMHRþLWQRQMLKRYYD]DO

družba pozna in obvlada predmet (proizvod) svojega poslovanja. Navdušenje lahko interpretiramo kot pripadnost viziji in poslanstvu, prijateljstvo pa kot sprejemanje civilizacijskih vrednot, kot je n.pr. zaupanje, osebna integriteta, svoboda posameznika, spoštovanje osebne svobode in priznavanje raznolikosti pogledov ter prioritet. 27 7XNDM MH VLPSWRPDWLþQR GD MH SRQDURGHOD VNODGED 7RPDåD 'RPLFOMD

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Proti takÅ¡nemu kompleksu pred tujci se lahko borimo le s svojim zgledom. Naloga je vse prej kot lahka, saj imamo pri omenjenih žalostnih praksah kar dolgo tradicijo. Kljub temu, da je preteklo skoraj stoletje in pol, so razmere, ki jih kritiziramo zgoraj, komplementarne z dogodki v Avstrijskem Državnem zboru ob koncu 19. stoletja. Tako naj bi slovenski poslanci prihajali slabo pripravljeni na seje. Namesto, da bi sodelovali na sejah zbora, so raje hodili igrati tarok v gostilno prek ceste parlamenta in jih je k po njihovem mnenju SRPHPEQLPWRþNDPDOLJODVRYDQMXSULKDMDOLVNDWVOXJDL]SDUOamenta (Å uklje 1933; povzeto po Cvirn 2015, 204). Seveda so tako lahko QXGLOLãLEHNRGSRUQDPHUDPYHþLQH WXMFHY LQELOLQH]DQHVOMLYþOHQSUL pobudah opozicije. Namesto za dobre priprave na seje prej, so nato energijo kasneje namenjali objokovanju tujega SULWLVNDYGRPDþHP tisku. Prav tako so â&#x20AC;&#x201C; tudi Å¡e danes omenjani kot sicer ugledni slovenski možje, medsebojne razprtije razpredali pred tujimi poslanci (Cvirn, prav tam, 212). 9HUMDPHPR GD VR RGORþLWYH QD NDWHULK SRGURþMLK ERPR ]DY]HPDOL 'ozemlje' velikih, stvar strategije. Tukaj najprej pomislimo na 'blue RFHDQVWUDWHJ\  &KDQ.LPLQ0DXERUJQH VDMQLSULþDNRYDWL GD EL ELOL GREURGRãOL QD SRGURþMLK NMHU SULKDMD GR YHOLNLK HNVWHUQLK XþLQNRY R] NMHU VR YNOMXþHQL YHOLNL  WUJL QSU ãLEHN PHGQDURGni odmev in neenakopravna obravnava mednarodnih uspehov slovenskih Å¡portnikov). To so projekti, ko se sestavijo vrednote, energija in vodenje v omejenih sredinah in ki s svojim uspehom ogromno pripomorejo k znamki Slovenije. Trajnostno pa bo naÅ¡ dober poloÃ¥DMY RGSUWHP HNRQRPVNHPSURVWRUXMDPþLODOHY]WUDMQR in konsistentno sledenje strategiji. Ta bo temeljila na naÅ¡ih prednostih, ki jih je kar nekaj, a tudi na znanju, ki ga objektivno premoremo, pripadnosti viziji in medsebojnem zaupanju. Tudi v Sloveniji je sprememba sistema na pogled na strategijo GHORYDODNRWQLKDOR2GQHNGDQMLKGROJLKVSORãQLKLQEHVHGLOPXþQLK za branje, smo sedaj zanihali v obdobje, ko je že govorjenje o strategiji nezaželeno. Tukaj ima seveda odgovornost (ekonomska) politika. UspeÅ¡na bo tista, ki bo razumela pomen strategije. Pri pomembnih projektih bo morala opredeliti raven, iznad katere so strankarska nasprotovanja neprimerna. Dokler se to ne bo zgodilo, bodo imeli dobre pogoje za mednarodni prodor le manjÅ¡i projekti, ki ne bodR JUR]LOL V SUHUD]SRUHGLWYLMR PRþL PHG GRPDþLPL LQWHUHVQLPL VNXSLQDPL9HþMLSDVHERGRUD]ELOLQDSUYLKþHUHKNLMLKWRUHMYHQGDU SRVWDYOMDPRVDPL7XMFLQLPDMRVWHPQLþ

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6 Literatura in viri 1. Chan Kim, W. and Mauborgne, A. (2005). Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make Competition Irrelevant. Boston. Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. 2. Cvirn, Janez (2015). Dunajski državni zbor in Slovenci. Zgodovinski druÅ¡tvo Celje in Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani. 3. 0LKDMORYLü K. (1981). Ekonomska stvarnost Jugoslavije. Beograd: Ekonomika. 4. North, D. C. (1993). Economic Performance through Time. Lecture to the memory of Alfred Nobel, December 9, 1993. [online] Accessed: https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/ economic-sciences/laureates/1993/north-lecture.html (accessed: 3. Oct. 2017) 5. Ovin, R. (2016). Brexit in Slovenija. V: 2UDþXQRYRGVWYXUHYL]LMLGDYãþLQDK in financah;;;,SRVYHWRYDQMHRUDþXQRYRGVWYXUHYL]LMLGDYãþLQDKLQ ILQDQFDK'UXãWYRUDþXQRYRGLMILQDQþQLNRYLQUHYL]RUMHY0DULERU0DULERU RNWREHU=ERUQLNUHIHUDWRY0DULERU'UXãWYRUDþXQRYRGLM ILQDQþnikov in revizorjev. 2016, str. 5-23. 6. 2YLQ50DOJDM$0DþHN$  2YHUODSSLQJOHDGHUVKLSDQG management - the case of sport cars enthusiasts international event = Podudaranje voditeljstva i menedžmenta - SULPHUPHÿXQDURGQHSULUHGEH automobilskih entuziasta. V: Conference Proceedings : integrated politics of research and innovations. Belgrade: Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans [etc.], 2016, str. 510-520. 7. 6WDQNRYLü 3HMQRYLü V. (2010). Raspad Jugoslavije. NiÅ¡. Teme. (34) 2. str. 601-618. 8. Å uklje, Fran (1933). Iz mojih spominov. I. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; II. Ljubljana.

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Pedja Ašanin Gole Predavatelj, DOBA Fakulteta za uporabne poslovne in družbene vede Maribor, Slovenija pedja.asanin-gole@net.doba.si

Vladovanje podjetjem v državni lasti: neoinstitucionalni pogled na korporativno upravljanje Povzetek 6HVWDYHN SULQDãD UD]SUDYR R YORJL YODGRYDQMD SRGMHWMHP Y YHþLQVNL državni lasti. Avtor uvodoma povzema bistvene ugotovitve o vladovanju iz poglavja o globalizaciji, vladovanju, demokratizaciji in pošteni trgovini, nato pa utemeljuje uporabo neoinstitucionalne teorije pri razumevanju vloge koncepta vladovanja ter vladovalnih institucij, ki lahko uspešno pojasni vrzeli, ki so predmet vladovalnih mehDQL]PRYSRGMHWLMYYHþLQVNLGUåDYQLODVWL .OMXþQH EHVHGH: vladovanje, korporativno upravljanje, podjetja v državni lasti, družbena odgovornost podjetij, neoinstitucionalizem Koda JEL klasifikacije: G30

Governance of the StateOwned Enterprises: A NeoInstitutional View of Corporate Governance Abstract This chapter discusses the role of governance in state-owned enterprises. In the introduction, the author summarizes the main findings on governance from the chapter on globalization, governance, democratization and fair trade, and then justifies the use of a new-institutional theory in understanding the role of the concept of governance and governance institutions that can successfully explain the gaps that are the subject of the governance mechanisms of state-owned enterprises. 189


Keywords: governance, corporate governance, state owned enterprises, corporate social responsibility, new institutionalism JEL classification code: G30

1 Uvod V poglavju o globalizaciji, vladovanju, demokratizaciji in pošteni trgovini (Ovin in Ašanin Gole 2017) smo eno od raziskovalnih pozornosti usmerili na vladovanje 28 NRW SRGURþMX NL ODKNR SRMDVQL nekatere vrzeli, ki so predmet ukrepov v pobudah poštene trgovine. 2PHQLOLVPRWXGLLQVWLWXFLRQDOQHQDVWDYLWYHþLJDUYORJDMH]DJRWoviti sodelovanje med gospodarskimi subjekti, ki jih kot javno dobrino ODKNR SRQXGL VDPR YODGD NL MR YRGLMR JRVSRGDUVND QDþHOD LQ GHPRNUDWLþQL SULWLVN 7RNUDW VH ERPR SRJORELOL ]JROM Y NRQFHSW vladovanja podjetjem v državni lasti (to je korporativnega uprDYOMDQMD  SUL þHPHU ERPR XSRUDELOL SUDY QHRLQVWLWXFLRQDOQL pristop. Uvodoma pa bomo z nadgraditvijo povzeli naše takratne glavne ugotovitve o vladovanju. 1.1 .RQFHSW]QDþLOQRVWLLQNULWLNHGREUHJDYODGRYDQMD Vzpon ekonomske globalizacije je premaknil pozornost od vloge vlade in vladanja na vlogo vladovanja (Jessop 1995), globalizacija, ki jo pogRVWR REUDYQDYDMR NRW QHYDUQRVW VRGREQHJD þDVD SD MH bistveno spremenila kontekst vladovanja. Izraz »vladovanje« kot NRQFHSW QLPD HQHJD WHPYHþ PQRJRWHUH REUD]H NL VH PQRåLMR ] družbenimi spremembami in se razlikujejo glede na paradigmo, iz katere so opazovani (prim. Rhodes 1997, 2000, 2007; Stoker 1998; Pierre in Peters 2000; Bevir 2003, 2011; Kjaer 2004; Bevir in Rhodes 2006; Rhodes, Binder in Rockman 2008; Clarke in Branson 2012). Svetovna banka denimo govori o dobrem vladovanju (good governance) SRXGDUMDMRþ YORJR GHPRNUDFLMH LQ SUDYQH GUåDYH Y družbeno-gospodarskem razvoju predvsem tretjega sveta; pri tem

Izraz â&#x20AC;&#x17E;vladovanjeâ&#x20AC;&#x153; uporabljamo kot prevod angleÅ¡kega izraza »governance« YSRPHQXLQVWLWXFLRQDOL]LUDQLKQDþLQRYGUXÃ¥EHQHJDXVNODMHYDQMDSULUHãHYDQMX NROHNWLYQLKSUREOHPRYLQ]DJRWDYOMDQMX]DYH]XMRþLKSUDYLOLQSUHGSLVRYWDNR]D javne dobrine kot tudi storitve (Kooiman 1993; Rhodes 1997, 2007; Bevir in Rhodes 2006; Kooiman in Bavinck 2013) LQNRWXVPHUMDQMHGUXÃ¥EHVSRPRþMR LQWHUDNWLYQLKLQKLHUDUKLþQLKSURFHVRYYVPHULNROHNWLYQRGRJRYRUMHQLKFLOMHY (Ansell in Torfing 2016). Z uporabo izraza »vladovanje« želimo prispevati k uveljavitvi in nadaljnji standardizaciji rabe tega pomensko neobremenjenega izraza v slovenski politoloÅ¡ki in komunikoloÅ¡ki vedi (za vsebinsko in jezikovnosistemsko utemeljitev rabe tega izraza gl.: %DþOLMDýHUYLQ7XUQãHN +DQþLþ .

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so bile dokazane korelacije med kakovostjo vladovanja (to je kakovostjo struktur, procesov in institucij, ki opredeljujejo kakovost okolja, v katerem delujejo družbeni akterji) in gospodarsko rastjo, hkrati pa visoka kakovost vladovanja ni samoumevna posledica JRVSRGDUVNHUDVWL SULPYVDNROHWQHLQGHNVHJOREDOQHNRQNXUHQþQRVWL Svetovnega ekonomskega foruma, npr. Schwab, 2017). V literaturi RMDYQLXSUDYLVHYODGRYDQMHRELþDMQRXSRUDEOMD]DSR]LYHNUHIRUPDP MDYQHJDVHNWRUMD]YHGQRYHþMRXSRUDERWUÃ¥QLKPHKDQL]PRY(Rhodes, 1996; Bevir, Rhodes in Weller, 2003; Chhotray in Stoker, 2009; Sørensen in Torfing, 2016). Ekonomisti govorijo o vladovanju podjetjem (»korporativnem upravljanju«), to je o odgovornosti SRGMHWLM QDMSUHM GR WLVWLK NL LPDMR ILQDQþQL GHOHÃ¥ v podjetjih (do GHOQLþDUMHY WRUHM  SD WXGL GR ãWHYLOQLK SRVDPH]QLNRY DOL VNXSLQ NL imajo legitimni interes pri njihovih poslih ali pa njihovi posli vplivajo nanje - GRGpOHÃ¥QLNRYWRUHM'UXJLSRJOHGLSDVHRVUHGRWRþDMRQDLGHMR o vladovanju kot interakciji med omrežji akterjev (Kooiman, 2003; Mayntz, 2006; Ansell in Bevir, 2013; Kooiman in Bavinck, 2013) ipd. 9VDNRSRMPRYDQMHYODGRYDQMDGRORþDWXGLQRYRNYLU]DUD]XPHYDQMH GUXÃ¥EHQH RGJRYRUQRVWL SRGMHWLM ãLUL SRGURþMH NRPXQLFLUDQMD LQ UHGHILQLUDRGQRVHLQPRGHOHRGORþDQMDPHGVNXSLQDPLGpOHÃ¥QLNRY V osnovi je bil koncept dobrega vladovanja opredeljen v zDþHWNX let prejÅ¡njega stoletja s strani Svetovne banke z zahtevami po GHOXMRþHP WUÃ¥QHP JRVSRGDUVWYX LQ NRW LQVWLWXFLRQDOQR RYLUDQMH korupcije in drugih slabih praks ter navsezadnje kot legitimnost GUÃ¥DYH]GHPRNUDWLþQLPLPHKDQL]PLXþLQNRYLWRLQRGSUWR upravo ter uporabo konkurence in trgov v javnem in zasebnem sektorju. 2SUHGHOLOD JD MH NRW Ã&#x201E;QDþLQ QD NDWHUHJD VH XYHOMDYOMD PRþ SUL upravljanju gospodarskih in socialnih virov za razvoj" (Fiss 2008, str. 391) in ga uvrstila med merila, ki jih uporablja za dodelitev posojil, SUHGYVHPYVPLVOXGRVHJDQMDOLEHUDOQLKGHPRNUDWLþQLKQRUPLQSUDNV (reprezentativna in odgovorna vlada, pravna država/vladavina prava, odsotnost korupcije), hkrati pa tudi za privilegiranje neoliberalne vere v superiornost tržnih gospodarstev in pomen uvajanja tržnih mehanizmov v javni sektor. 5D]OLþQHPHGQDURGQHRUJDQL]DFLMH SROHJ6YHWRYQHEDQNHãHGHQLPR Združeni narodi, Mednarodni denarni sklad ipd.) so si prizadevale GRORþLWL ]QDþLOQRVti dobrega vladovanja za presojo in merjenje kakovosti in stabilnosti vladnih organov in praks, njihove SUHJOHGQRVWL RG]LYQRVWL SRVWRSNRYQH SRãWHQRVWL XþLQNRYLWRVWL spoÅ¡tovanja pravne države, interakcije z gospodarstvom in civilno družbo itd. Svetovna banka je tako sestavila seznam Å¡estih razsežnosti vladovanja v javnem sektorju, ki se skupaj uporabljajo za merjenje kakovosti vladovanja: javnost delovanja, zakonska

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odgovornost 29 SUDYQD GUÃ¥DYD GHPRNUDWL]DFLMD SROLWLþQD VWDELOQRVW in odsotnost nasilja, XþLQNRYLWRVW LQ SUHJOHGQRVW YODG NDNRYRVW predpisov in nadzor nad korupcijo (prim. Williams in Young 1994). 1D JOREDOQL UDYQL MH ELOD XYHGHQD YUVWD UHIRUP QD SRGURþMX upravljanja javnega sektorja, z namenom izboljÅ¡anja zmogljivosti in zmožnosti vlad, da se odzovejo na zunanje zahteve po boljÅ¡ih in bolj RG]LYQLK VWRULWYDK ]D REYODGRYDQMH SURUDþXQVNLK SULPDQMNOjajev in SUHVHÃ¥NRYWHUREUDYQDYDQMHNRQNXUHQþQLKSULWLVNRYNLVRSRVOHGLFD globalizacije. Tudi pri tem so bile ugotovljene pozitivne korelacije med gospodarsko rastjo in krepitvijo institucionalnih okvirjev, ki LPDMR SRPHPEHQ YSOLY QD GROJRURþQH UH]XOWDWH rasti in odzivanje gospodarstva na spremembe zunanjih dejavnikov (prim. npr. Gruss, Nabar in Poplawski-Ribeiro 2017). =DPLVOLR]QDþLOQRVWLKGREUHJDYODGRYDQMDVRSRVWDOHUD]ãLUMHQHLQVR del vsakdanjih diskurzov o razvojnih praksah. Tako denimo Komisija =GUXÃ¥HQLK QDURGRY ]D þORYHNRYH (United Nationsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Commission on Human Rights 2016) NRW NOMXþQH ODVWQRVWL GREUHJD YODGRYDQMD opredeljuje preglednost (transparentnost), odgovornost (responsibility), zakonsko odgovornost (acountability), participacijo YNOMXþHQRVW LQNOX]LYQRVW  LQ RG]LYQRVW QD SRWUHEH GpOHÃ¥QLNRY  Dobro vladovanje se torej nanaÅ¡a na optimalno delitev pristojnosti in medsebojno (so)delovanje med vlado, trgom in civilno družbo v VNODGX ] YQDSUHM GRORþHQLPL QRUPDPL 3R EHVHGDK %HYLUMD VH "vladovanje nanaÅ¡a na vse procese vladanja, ne glede na to, ali jih izvaja vlada, trg ali omrežje; ne glede na družino, pleme, korporacijo DOL R]HPOMH SR ]DNRQLK QRUPDK PRþL DOL MH]LNX >«@ VH QH RVUHGRWRþD OH QD GUÃ¥DYR LQ QMHQH LQVWLWXFLMH WHPYHþ WXGL QD oblikovanje pravil in reda v družbenih praksah [â&#x20AC;¦]. Izraža Å¡iroko SUHSULþDQMHGDMH država vedno bolj odvisna od drugih organizacij, da bi zagotovila svoje namene, zagotovila svoje politike in vzpostavila vzorec pravil« (Ansell in Bevir 2013, str. 1).

AngleÅ¡ki izraz â&#x20AC;&#x17E;accountabilityâ&#x20AC;&#x153; prevajam kot â&#x20AC;&#x17E;zakonska odgovornostâ&#x20AC;&#x153; (za razliko od moralne odgovornosti), v zavedanju, da to sicer ni najboljÅ¡i prevod ]DYHþGLPHQ]LRQDOHQSRMHPNLYDQJOHãþLQLYNOMXþXMHWULUD]OLþQHQDþLQH SUHSUHþHYDQMDLQRGJRYRURYQD]ORUDERREODVWLPRþLJURÃ¥QMRVDQNFLM zavezanost, GDVHPRþREODVWXGHMDQMDQDSUHJOHGHQQDþLQWHUSULVLORQRVLOFHY PRþLGDXSUDYLþLMRODVWQDGHMDQMD*UH]Dproces, v katerem se organizacije in posamezniki znotraj njih Å¡tejejo za (zakonsko) odgovorne za lastne RGORþLWYHLQSRVWRSNHYNOMXþQR]QMLKRYLPupravljanjem s sredstvi, SUDYLOQRVWMRWHUREOLNDPLL]YHGEH7RVHXUHVQLþXMHVNR]LGRVWRSQRVWWRþQLKLQ UHOHYDQWQLKLQIRUPDFLMILQDQþQHLQQHILQDQþQHQDUDYHWHUVSUDYRþDVQLP REMDYOMDQMHPWHKLQIRUPDFLMQRWUDQMLPLQ]XQDQMLPGpOHÃ¥QLNRP1HILQDQþQH informacLMHVHQDQDãDMRQDHNRQRPLþQRVWXþLQNRYLWRVWLQXVSHãQRVWSROLWLNLQ SRVORYDQMD SRGDWNLRXVSHãQRVWL VRGHORYDQMHLQYNOMXþHYDQMHSDUWLFLSDFLMR GpOHÃ¥QLNRYNRWWXGLQDQRWUDQMRNRQWURORLQQMHQRXþLQNRYLWRVW

29

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Kritika dobrega vladovanja je v razvojnih Å¡tudijah determinirana z RGQRVL PRþL PHG VHYHURP LQ MXJRP LQ QH QD SUHXþHYDQMH JUDGQMH RGQRVRYYNRQWHNVWXVWUXNWXUQHQHHQDNRVWLLQSULNUDMãDQRVWL1DþHOD dobrega vladovanja niso primerna za reÅ¡evanje razvojnih neUDYQRYHVLMLQNRWWDNDVRGLPQH]DYHVH]DãLUãDYSUDãDQMDSUDYLþQH WUJRYLQH SRUD]GHOLWYH PRþL LQ VRFLDOQH SUDYLþQRVWL (Chhotray in Stoker 2009, str. 222). Zato se v globalnih vladovalnih interakcijah pojavljajo zasebne organizacije za standardizacijo, ki urejajo socialne in okoljske standarde v svetovnih proizvodnih verigah, na primer v VHNWRUMLK JR]GDUVWYD þDMD NDNDYD NDYH LQ REODþLO =DVHEQH standardizacijske organizacije postavljDMR þH]PHMQH VRFLDOQH LQ okoljske standarde, zlasti za svetovne proizvodne verige, ki se razvijajo v razvitih državah (Fransen 2015). Kot izid globalnega vladovanja podjetij se nedržavni certifikacijski programi pojavljajo v sektorjih politik in panogah proizvodnje kave, v gozdarstvu, ribiÅ¡tvu, ribogojstvu, ekoloÅ¡kem kmetijstvu itd. Ti programi navadno vzpostavljajo okoljske standarde in standarde za družbeno RGJRYRUQRSURL]YRGQMRVSRãWHQLPSODþLORPLQXVWUH]QLPLGHORYQLPL pogoji. PovpraÅ¡evanje po regulaciji globalnega trga dejansko prihaja iz globalnih korporacij, ki poskuÅ¡ajo ustvariti in stabilizirati regionalne ali svetovne trge in tako vplivati na javne politike tako v razvitem svetu kot tudi v državah v razvoju. Izhajajo iz prostovoljnih NRGHNVRYUDYQDQMDLQVDPRUHJXODWLYQLKQDþLQRYXSUDYOMDQMDWDNRGD zahtevajo neodvisno preverjanje skladnosti s standardi in vladovalnimi mehanizmi. Poglavje o globalizaciji, vladovanju, demokratizaciji in poÅ¡teni WUJRYLQL 2YLQLQ$ãDQLQ*ROH VPR]DNOMXþLOL]XJRWRYLWYLMRGD je uspeh reformnih politik pogojen s kakovostjo struktur, procesov in institucij, ki opredeljujejo kakovost okolja, v katerem delujejo družbeni akterji. Obenem smo globalizacijo, modernizacijo in QDUDãþDMRþR VRRGYLVQRVW QDYHGOL NRW QRYH L]]LYH ]D XSUDYOMDQMH SRGMHWLM R]YODGRYDQMHSRGMHWMHP SULþHPHUprocesi, ki vodijo do visokih ravni kakovosti vladovanja (tudi podjetjem), niso samoumevni. â&#x20AC;&#x17E;Ekonomski razvoj ni samoumevna posledica demokracije ali demokratizacije, kot tudi ne velja, da ekonomski razvoj že sam po sebi spodbuja viÅ¡je ravni kakovosti vladanja.â&#x20AC;&#x153; (Vehovar 2006, str. 68).

2 .RUSRUDWLYQRXSUDYOMDQMHRGPDNVLPLUDQMDGRELþND]D GHOQLþDUMHGRRGJRYRUQRVWL]DYVHGpOHåQLNH 7H]DRORþLWYLODVWQLãNHRGXSUDYOMDYVNHIXQNFLMHNRPRþRGODVWQLND SUHLGH QD PHQHGåHUMH NL LPDMR YVR PRþ REYODGRYDQMD SRGMHWMD lastniki pa so skoraj brez YSOLYDQDRGORþLWYHL]KDMDL]WULGHVHWLKOHW prejšnjega stoletja (Berle in Means 1932)/RþLWHYPHGODVWQLãWYRP 193


in nadzorom v podjetjih vodi do potrebe po njihovem vladovanju, to MH SR XYHGEL PHKDQL]PRY QDPHQMHQLK ]DãþLWL SUDYLF ODVWQLNRY LQ vlagateljev, zmanjšanju menedžerskega oportunizma, skratka - po korporativnem upravljanju. Številni korporativni škandali, ki so se pojavili v mnogih državah proti NRQFXSUHMãQMHJDLQQD]DþHWNXWUHWMHJDWLVRþOHWMD 30 so se pokazali kot simptomi pomanjkljivega vladovanja ter usmerjanja, nadzora in upravljanja podjetij, saj so menedžerji pred interese lastnikov, podjetij in družbe postavili svoje interese (Ingram in Silverman 2002; Turnbull 2008). Obseg in vpliv teh škandalov je negativno YSOLYDOQDVYHWRYQRJRVSRGDUVWYR]JOREDOQRILQDQþQRLQJRVSRGDUVNR krizo na prelomu prvega desetletja 21. stoletja, ki je razkrila številne pomanjkljivosti v izvedbi korporativnega upravljanja in prav tem napakam in slabostim v veliki meri pripisujejo vzroke za to svetovno krizo (prim. Kirkpatrick 2009; Stiglitz 2009, 2010; Baker in Anderson 2010; Hansen in Spitzeck 2010; OECD 2010; Clarke in Branson 2012; Nedelchev 2013; Kjaer 2016). 7DNRãWHYLOQLãNDQGDOLNRWVYHWRYQDILQDQþQDLQJRVSRGDUVNDNUL]DVR prisilili politike, nacionalne borze, profesionalna združenja in WUDQVQDFLRQDOQH RUJDQL]DFLMH GD SRLãþHMR EROM XþLQNRYLWH SUDNVH NRUSRUDWLYQHJD XSUDYOMDQMD NDU YNOMXþXMH SRYHþDQMH SUHJOednosti njihovega delovanja, odgovornosti, zmanjšanja informacijske DVLPHWULMHUHãHYDQMDYSUDãDQMUD]PHUMDPRþLSULYRGHQMXSRGMHWLMWHU EROM XþLQNRYLWH ]DãþLWH SUDYLF ODVWQLNRY 31, kot tudi drugih

Spomnimo: Enron, Worldcom, Tyco, Lehman Brothers v ZDA; Parmalat in &LULRY,WDOLMLSDWXGLQDMEROMSHUHþHSULPHUHVORYHQVNLKSRGHWLMGHQLPRL] EDQþQHJDVHNWRUMD 1/%1.%0$EDQND%DQND&HOMH LSG 31 Tradicionalni model korporativnega upravljanja temelji na pogodbenem odnosu med lastniki (principali) in njihovimi zastopniki - menedžerji (agenti) in maksimiranju vrednosti za lastnike (prim. Friedman 1970; Sundaram in Inkpen 2004, str. 352). Vprašanja razmerij med principali in zastopniki obravnava t.i. teorija zastopništva (principal-agent theory), ki predvideva, da so menedžerji zastopniki lastnikov podjetja, ki jih je treba spremljati in QDG]RURYDWLGDELXþLQNRYLWRXVNODGLOLVYRMHUDYQDQMH]LQWHUHVLODVWQLNRY (Baker in Anderson 2010 str. 59). Ker obstaja tveganje, da menedžerji GHOXMHMRQDRSRUWXQLVWLþHQQDþLQLQVLSUL]DGHYDMRWXGL]DLQWHUHVHNLVRODKNR YQDVSURWMXVWLVWLPLNLMLKLPDMRGHOQLþDUMLVHWHRULMD]DVWRSQLãWYDRVUHGRWRþD SUHGYVHPQD]DãþLWRLQWHUHVRYODVWQLNRY(Cornforth in Chambers 2010). Poleg WHRULMH]DVWRSQLãWYDMHELOD]QDQVWYHQDUD]SUDYDRXWHPHOMLWYLUD]OLþQLK modelov korporativnega upravljanja v zadnjem GHVHWOHWMXRVUHGRWRþHQDãHY QDVOHGQMHWULJODYQHWHRUHWLþQHSULVWRSHWHRULMDVNUEQLãWYD stewardship theory); teorija odvisnosti od virov (resource dependency theory) in teorija déležnikov (stakeholder theory). 30

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déležnikov 32. Navedeni elementi so obenem tudi najbolj pogoste dimenzije korporativnega upravljanja 33. Drugi razlog za uvedbo in izboljÅ¡anje korporativnega upravljanja je želja po legitimnosti podjetij na (globalnem) trgu, ne glede na to, ali bo ta bistveno ali dejansko izboljÅ¡ala prakse usmerjanja, nadziranja, vodenja in upravljanja podjetij (Zattoni in Cuomo 2008). 2UJDQL]DFLMH QDPUHþ Ã&#x201E;SRWUHEXMHMR GUXÃ¥EHQR VSUHMHPOMLYRVW VYRMH vloge in dejavnosti, da bi preživele in se razvijaleâ&#x20AC;&#x153; (Sethi 1979, str. 64â&#x20AC;&#x201C;65) GD ODKNR GROJRURþQR GRVHJDMR VYRMH SRVODQVWYR LQ XUHVQLþXMHMRVYRMHFLOMHSDPRUDMRGHORYDWLYVRJODVMXVSULþDNRYDQML okolja (prim. Grunig in Hunt 1984; Suchman 1995; Heugens, van GHQ %RVFK LQ YDQ 5LHO  9HUþLþ LQ YDQ 5XOHU  +HDWK LQ Palenchar 2009). .RUSRUDWLYQRXSUDYOMDQMHVHYNODVLþQHPSULVWRSXWHRULMH]DVWRSQLãWYD (principal-agent theory  RVUHGRWRþD QD PDNVLPLUDQMH ERJDVWYD GHOQLþDUMHYLQVHODKNR obravnava kot formalni sistem odgovornosti upravnega odbora lastnikom-GHOQLþDUMHP 7D NODVLþHQ ODVWQLãNL NRQFHSW YODGRYDQMD SRGMHWMHP UD]XPH SRGMHWMH NRW L]NOMXþQR ekonomski subjekt, katerega edino poslanstvo, cilj in odgovornost je maksimalno zadovoljevanje materialnih interesov lastnikov kapitala PDNVLPLUDQMH YUHGQRVWL GUXÃ¥EH ]D GHOQLþDUMH  YVL LQWHUHVL déležnikov v podjetju in zunaj njega pa se morajo absolutno in samodejno podrejati temu lastniÅ¡kemu interesu, ki je hkrati edini interes družbe. NasproWQR WHPX SD VRGREQD GpOHÃ¥QLãND WHRULMD XþL SRSROQRPD GUXJDþH SRGMHWMH MH GUXÃ¥EHQRHNRQRPVNL VXEMHNW NDWHUHJD SRVODQVWYRLQRGJRYRUQRVWMHXUDYQRWHÃ¥HQRXUHVQLþHYDQMHLQWHUHVRY vseh notranjih in zunanjih déležnikov, tj. lastnikov, zaposlenih, lokalne in Å¡irãH GUXÃ¥EHQH VNXSQRVWL ] YVHPL QDMUD]OLþQHMãLPL HQWLWHWDPLNLVRWDNRDOLGUXJDþHRGYLVQLRGSRGMHWMDSRGMHWMHSDRG QMLK /RJLþQR NDMWL SRGMHWMH YVH YLUH ]D VYRMH SRVORYDQMH þUSD L] Za razliko od zastopniÅ¡ke teorije (agent-principal theory), je organizacija v skladu s teorijo déležnikov (stakeholder theory) pri virih in ustvarjanju vrednosti povsem odvisna od svojih déležnikov, zato so interesi déležnikov NOMXþQHJD SRPHQD 'pOHÃ¥QLãNL PRGHO NRUSRUDWLYQHJD XSUDYOMDQMD SRXGDUMD pomen razvoja odnosov zaupanja in sodelovanja z déležniki in zagotavlja okvir za opisovanje, kako organizacije upravljajo, uravnotežujejo in se odzivajo na VRþDVQHSRWUHEHUD]OLþQLKGpOHÃ¥QLNRY(prim. Freeman 1984; Freeman in Phillips 2002, str. 334; Baker in Anderson 2010 str. 60). Z vidika teorije déležnikov &DGEXU\MHYR SRURþLOR (The Committee on the Financial Aspects of Corporate Governance 1992) in OECD (2014b, 2015) opredeljujejo korporativno upravljanje kot sistem, po katerem so podjetja usmerjana in nadzorovana. 33 Prim. The Committee on the Financial Aspects of Corporate Governance 1992; Ljubljanska borza, ZNS in Združenje Manager 2009; OECD, 2014b, 2015; GZS, MGRT in ZNS 2016; IoDSA 2016; SDH 2017. 32

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svojega druĹžbenega in naravnega okolja, zato je dolĹžno temu okolju (ne SD VDPR ODVWQLNRP NDSLWDOD  WXGL XVWUH]QR YUDĂžDWL /DVWQLNL kapitala so torej samo ena od enakopravnih dĂŠleĹžniĹĄkih skupin, ki svojih interesov ne more vsiljevati vsem drugim dĂŠleĹžnikom, ampak je dolĹžna te interese z njimi usklajevati. V tem ĹĄirĹĄem pristopu se vladovanje podjetjem nanaĹĄa na vsa neformalna in formalna UD]PHUMD PHG RUJDQL]DFLMR LQ QMHQLPL GpOHĂĽQLNL QD QDĂžLQ NDNR organizacija usklajuje svoje cilje s cilji dĂŠleĹžnikov; in na vpliv RUJDQL]DFLMHQDGUXĂĽEHQRLQQDUDYQRRNROMHYNOMXĂžQR]QHILQDQĂžQimi vidiki, kot so druĹžbena in okoljska odgovornost ter trajnost. DĂŠleĹžniĹĄki pristop, ki temelji na teoriji o druĹžbeni odgovornosti podjetij, meni, da je vladovanje podjetjem, oz. korporativno upravljanje Âťgradnja ravnovesja med gospodarskimi in druĹžbenimi FLOMLWHUPHGSRVDPH]QLPLLQVNXSQRVWQLPLFLOML]QDPHQRPĂžLPEROM pribliĹžati interese posameznikov, organizacij in druĹžbeÂŤ (IoDSA 2016, str. 7). V tem kontekstu lahko korporativno upravljanje najbolj sploĹĄno opredelimo kot sposobnost za doseganje skladnosti med organizacijo in njenimi dĂŠleĹžniki, oz. kot interaktiven proces RGORĂžDQMD LQ QL] SURVWRYROMQR GRJRYRUMHQLK SUDYLO NL UHJXOLUDMR LQ nadzirajo obnaĹĄanje akterjev pri zasledovanju druĹžbeno relevantnih FLOMHYSULĂžHPHUMHNOMXĂžQDEHVHGDY]DMHPQRVW(prim. Commission on Global Governance 1995, str. 1. pogavje, 1, 3; Rosenau 1995, str. 13). 8YDMDQMHQDĂžHOYODGRYDQMDYSRGMetja - korporativnega upravljanja â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SUHGVWDYOMDQRYHQDĂžLQH]DNRQFHSWXDOL]DFLMRRGJRYRUQRVWLSRGMHWLMLQ povrnitev zaupanja vanje (Steyn in de Beer 2012; Steyn in Niemann 2014) 'HMDYQRVWLLQUH]XOWDWLRUJDQL]DFLMPRUDMRQDPUHĂžELWLÂŞVNODGQL z vrednostnim vzorcem druĹžbeÂŤ, da bi pridobile dovoljenje za delovanje, to je legitimnost. Zato se morajo prilagoditi SULĂžDkovanjem druĹžbe in dĂŠleĹžnikov, vrednotam in normam druĹžbenega okolja, da bi ohranile druĹžbeno (socialno, okoljsko in HNRQRPVNR  RGJRYRUQRVW 7D RGJRYRUQRVW VH L]UDĂĽD Y UD]OLĂžQLK konceptih, kot so druĹžbena odgovornost, korporativno upravljanje, korporativno drĹžavljanstvo, trojni izid (ali trojna bilanca â&#x20AC;&#x201C; poleg ILQDQĂžQH ĂŁH RNROMVND LQ GUXĂĽEHQD  SULĂžDNRYDQMD SD VH L]UDĂĽDMR Y UD]OLĂžQLK LQGHNVLK QSU LQGHNV RNROMVNH LQ GUXĂĽEHQH RGJRYRUQRVWL Dow Jones v ZDA, indeks druĹžbeno odgovornega investiranja JohannesburĹĄke borze, druĹžbeni indeksâ&#x20AC;Ś, pa tudi v zakonodaji, npr. Sarbanes Oxleyev zakon v ZDA iz leta 2002). 7XGL]YLGLNDWHRULMHGpOHĂĽQLNRY&DGEXU\MHYRSRURĂžLOR(The Committee on the Financial Aspects of Corporate Governance 1992) in OECD E   SD WXGL SRURĂžLOR R NRUSRUDWLYQHP XSUDYOMDQMX ]D JuĹžno Afriko, King IV (IoDSA 2016) opredeljujejo korporativno upravljanje kot sistem, po katerem so podjetja usmerjana in nadzorovana. 6WUXNWXUDNRUSRUDWLYQHJDXSUDYOMDQMDGRORĂžDUD]GHOLWHY 196


SUDYLF LQ RGJRYRUQRVWL PHG UD]OLĂžQLPL GpOHĂĽQLNL Y SRGMHWMX NRW VR odbori (upravni v enotirnem oz. nadzorni v dvotirnem modelu upravljanja), menedĹžerji (izvrĹĄni direktorji v enotirnem sistemu upravljaQMD ODVWQLNLLQGUXJLGpOHĂĽQLNLWHUGRORĂžDSUDYLODLQSRVWRSNH ]DRGORĂžDQMHRNRUSRUDWLYQLK]DGHYDK6WHPSDWXGLGRORĂžDRNYLUV SRPRĂžMRNDWHUHJDVRGRORĂžHQLFLOMLSRGMHWMDWHUVUHGVWYD]DGRVHJDQMH teh ciljev in spremljanje rezultatov.

3 Institucionalni stebri korporativnega SRGMHWLMYYHĂžLQVNLODVWLGUĂĽDYH

upravljanja

Zlasti po prvi svetovni gospodarski krizi v 21. stoletju se je drĹžava SRYVRGSRVYHWXYVDM]DĂžDVQRYUQLODYVUHGLĂŁĂžHVWUDWHJLMUHĂŁHYDQMD javnega in zasebnega sektorja ter ekonomskega dogajanja tudi kot lastnica (Kirkpatrick 2009; Rus 2009, 2011) 34, z intervencijskim obseĹžnim odkupom terjatev, dokapitalizacijami bank in prestrukturiranjem podjetij. Pod podjetje v drĹžavni lasti je razumljen ÂŞYVDN DYWRQRPQL MDYQL VXEMHNW NL MH YNOMXĂžHQ Y NRPHUFLDOQH dejavnosti in je pod nadzorom osrednje oblasti, neposredno ali prek drugih drĹžavnih nadzornih enotÂŤ (OECD 2014a, str. 10). Gre za GUXĂĽEHYNDWHULKGUĂĽDYD]DUDGLUD]OLĂžQLKUD]ORJRYÂŞL]YDMDQDG]RULQ ki pogosto zdruĹžuje komercialne in nekomercialne ciljeÂŤ (European Commission 2016, str. 1). Pomen podjetij v drĹžavni lasti je Ĺže v globalnih razmerah razmeroma YHOLNPHGQDMYHĂžMLPLSRGMHWMLQDVYHWXPHUMHQRYSULKRGNLKY ameriĹĄkih dolarjih (lestvica Fortune Global 500) je deleĹž podjetij v drĹžavni lasti, iz 9 % v leWXQDUDVHOQDYOHWXQDMYHĂž ]DKYDOMXMRĂžSRGMHWMHPYODVWL.LWDMVNH(Cendrowski 2015). V smislu kapitalske vrednosti in zaposlenosti so podjetja v drĹžavni lasti med ĂžODQLFDPL (8 ĂŁH SRVHEHM SRPHPEQD QD )LQVNHP Y 6ORYHQLML LQ Y Franciji (European Commission 2016, str. 7), tako je stopnja vpletenosti drĹžave v gospodarstvo v Sloveniji med najviĹĄjimi v Evropi. DrĹžavno lastniĹĄtvo v Sloveniji je skoncentrirano v zapleteni mreĹži podjetij v neposredni in posredni drĹžavni lasti ali pod drĹžavnim QDG]RURP EDQN DOL QHILQDQĂžQLK GUXĂĽE Y UD]OLĂžQLK VHNWRUMLK ]DYDURYDOQLFLQLQYHVWLFLMVNLKVNODGRY'UĂĽDYDMHQDMYHĂžMLGHORGDMDOHF upravljalec premoĹženja in nosilec zadolĹženosti podjetij v Sloveniji (OECD 2014b, str. 17)3RLVWHPYLUXLPDSUHYODGXMRĂžODVWQLĂŁNLGHOHĂĽ YEDQĂžQHPVHNWRUMX YHĂžNRWYVHKEDQĂžQLKVUHGVWHY LQXSUDYOMD z 88 % pokojninskih sredstev ter 60 % vseh obveznosti zavarovalnic. Poleg tega je ena tretjina delovne sile v Sloveniji zaposlena bodisi v

V Sloveniji denimo z dokapitalizacijami bank v drĹžavni lasti zaradi njihovih slabih terjatev, njihove slabe terjatve pa je prenesla na novoustanovljeno t.i. slabo banko (oz. DUTB).

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javnem sektorju (21 % vseh zaposlenih) ali v podjetjih v državni lasti (12 % celotne delovne sile). Po podatkih OECD je knjigovodska YUHGQRVW NDSLWDOD SRGMHWLM Y YHþLQVNL ODVWL 5HSXEOLNH 6ORYHQLMH QDG 50 % lastniÅ¡ki delež) glede na BDP najviÅ¡ja v Evropi, oz. druga najviÅ¡ja, upoÅ¡tevaje tudi manjÅ¡inske deleže v podjetjih v državnih lasti (med 10 % in 50 %) (European Commission 2016, str. 91). Skupne fiskalne in ekonomske posledice vpletenosti slovenske države v gospodarstvo (državni posegi, povezani s sanacijo EDQþQHJD VHNWRUMD MDPVWYD VXEYHQFLMH LSG GUÃ¥DYH Y SRGMHWMD Y državni lasti) so v obdobju 2007- RFHQMHQH QD YHþ NRW  PLOLMDUG HYURY R]LURPD QHNDM YHþ NRW WUHWMLQR %'3 XVWYDUMHQHJD Y OHWX(QRWUHWMLQRSRYHþDQMDMDYQHJDGROJDY6ORYHQLMLRGleta  GR OHWD  MH PRJRþH SULSLVDWL GUÃ¥DYQLP LQWHUYHQFLMDP povezanimi s podjetji v državni lasti (8,3 milijarde evrov oziroma za RGVWRWQLKWRþNSRYHþDQMD NRWVRGRNDSLWDOL]DFLMHRGSXVWGROJD jamstva, pa tudi 1,5 milijarde evrov sredstev za izdane obveznice za WL VODER EDQNR V NDWHULPL MH GUÃ¥DYD RPRJRþLOD SUHQRV VODELK kreditov nanjo (European Commission 2016, 15). Nadzor države nad upravljanjem državnega premoženja v podjetjih VHY6ORYHQLMLL]YDMDQDYHþQDþLQRYâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; centralizirano neposredno prek Slovenskega državnega holdinga (SDH), ustanovljenega leta 2014, kvazi-QHSRVUHGQR SUHN REþLQ DOL GUXJLK VNODGRY ]D XSUDYOMDQMH državnih podjetij (npr. sklada obveznega pokojninskega zavarovanja â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Kapitalske družbe) in posredno prek t.i. slabe banke (DUTB), bank, ]DYDURYDOQLFLQGUXJLKGUXÃ¥ELQQMLKRYLKKþHULQVNLKGUXÃ¥ENLVRYVHY celoti in neposredno v lasti Republike Slovenije. Za sistem korporativnega upravljanja podjetij v državni lasti so ]QDþLOQH QHNDWHUH SRVHEQRVWL VDM GUÃ¥DYD ] ODVWQLãWYRP zadovoljuje ]ODVWL SRWUHEH GUÃ¥DYOMDQRY QMHQD SULþDNRYDQMD GR WHK SRGMHWLM LQ njihovega ravnanja pa morajo biti transparentna in predvidljiva. Te SRVHEQRVWLL]KDMDMRL]DWLSLþQHJD]DVWRSQLãNHJDSUREOHPDªPHãDQMH MDYQLK LQ QHMDYQLK FLOMHY SUHYHþ DNWLYQD Dli premalo aktivna vloga države pri upravljanju, potreba upravljavca po dostopu do informacij o družbi« (SDH 2017, str. 5) ipd. Države uporabljajo korporativno upravljanje kot mehanizem za DORNDFLMR PRþL SULYLOHJLMHY LQ GRELþND PHG SRGMHWML LQ QMLKRYLPL déležniki; z drugimi besedami, »korporativno upravljanje je instrument javne politike« (Turnbull 2008, str. 92). Na NRUSRUDWLYQHPSRGURþMXGUÃ¥DYHXYDMDMRLQSRVRGDEOMDMRYODGRYDQMHV sprejemom regulativnih elementov (zakonov) in z uvajanjem normativnih elementov (npr. kodeksi dobre prakse, konvencije) v

198


institucionalno okolje 35NLVHXGHMDQMDMRSUHNLQVSRPRĂžMRVLmbolnih kulturno-kognitivnih elementov. Slednje predstavljajo skupna SUHSULĂžDQMDNLWYRULMRGUXĂĽEHQRUHDOQRVWR]]PRĂĽQRVWL]DSRGREQR dojemanje druĹžbene realnosti in delitev enakih okvirjev prek interakcij, skozi katere udeleĹženci ustvarjajo pomen. Te Âťregulativne, normativne in kulturno-kognitivne elemente, ki skupaj s povezanimi dejavnostmi in viri zagotavljajo stabilnost in pomen druĹžbenemu ĹživljenjuÂŤ Scott (2014, str. 51) opredeljuje kot institucije. North (1998) je opredelil institucije kot pravila igre, to je REQDĂŁDQMDYGRORĂžHQLGUXĂĽELRPHMLWYHNLVRMLKOMXGMHXVWYDULOLGDEL oblikovali medsebojne interakcije. V skladu z neoinstitucionalno ekonomiko so institucije sestavljene iz formalnih pravil (regulativnih in normativnih), neformalnih omejitev (kulturno-kognitivnih LQVWLWXFLM  LQ ]QDĂžLOQRVWL XYHOMDYOMDQMD WHK RPHMLWHY 0HGWHP NR VH IRUPDOQDSUDYLODODKNRVSUHPHQLMRĂžH]QRĂžVVWUDQLSROLWLĂžQLKHQWLWHW se neformalQDSUDYLODVSUHPLQMDMR]HORSRĂžDVL(North 1998, str. 95). Neoinstitucionalni ekonomisti razumejo formalne institucije kot sploĹĄna druĹžbena pravila, ki so kot takĹĄna javna dobrina (naloĹžene organizaciji od zunaj), neformalne institucije pa kot posebne organizacijske oblike pravil in omejitev ter posledico notranjih razmerij in ureditev organizacij, ki so omejene s formalnimi institucijami (Ovin 2001, str. 134). Tudi v skladu z neoinstitucionalno teorijo organizacijske sociologije institucije strukturirajo ÂťigreÂŤ v druĹžbi, ki so se oblikovala skozi zgodovino in usmerjajo subjekte pri njihovem delovanju, pa naj bo WR GHORYDQMH HNRQRPVNR SROLWLĂžQR DOL SD GUXĂĽEHQR =PDQMĂŁXMHMR QHJRWRYRVWLLQRPRJRĂžLMRY]SRVWDYLWHYVWDELOQH QHQXMQRXĂžLQNRYLWH  VWUXNWXUHNLGRORĂžDREQDĂŁDQMHVXEMHNWRY6FRWW(2001, str. 51) trdi, da organizacijske prakse temeljijo na treh institucionalnih stebrih regulativnem, normativnem in koJQLWLYQHP SUL ĂžHPHU UHJXODWLYQL VWHEHUYNOMXĂžXMHSUDYLOD]DNRQHLQVDQNFLMHNLRPHMXMHMRLQXUHMDMR organizacijsko vedĂŞnje, normativni steber se nanaĹĄa na vrednote in norme, ki vplivajo na vedĂŞnje (ibidem, str. 54), kulturno-kognitivni steber pa kot ÂťglDYQD ]QDĂžLOQRVW QHRLQVWLWXWLRQDOL]PD ]QRWUDM sociologijeÂŤ (ibidem, str. 57) opisuje pogoste scenarije in skupna SUHSULĂžDQMD NL WYRULMR GUXĂĽEHQR UHDOQRVW ]D VDPRXPHYQR 9VL WULMH stebri so medsebojno povezani kot produkt simbolnega sveta. Vsak od treh stebrov institucij velja za temelj legitimnosti (Frandsen in

Institucionalno okolje je Âťokvir, znotraj katerega je treba analizirati podjetje in obnaĹĄanje ekonomskih subjektov nasploh, institucije (na primer neformalna pravila vedenja, navade...) pa, kar je morda ĹĄe pomembneje,

XVPHUMDMR QRWUDQMHSRVORYDQMHSRGMHWMD7HKQRORãNH]QDÞLOQRVWLSURL]YRGQMe v SRGMHWMXVRYWHMOXÞLGUXJRWQHJDSRPHQDŠ(Lah, 2002).

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Johansen 2013a; 2013b), regulativni in normativni steber pa sta odvisna od kulturno-kognitivnega stebra. Podjetja v lasti države delujejo v institucionalnem okolju, ki ga v Sloveniji definirajo Zakon o gospodarskih družbah (ZGD-1) þOHQ  in Zakon o Slovenskem državnem holdingu (ZSDH-1), kar v skladu z neoinstitucionalizmom lahko štejemo za regulativne institucije korporativnega upravljanja. ZSDH-YWUHWMHPRGGHONXWDNRGRORþD ãWLUL WHPHOMQD QDþHOD XSUDYOMDQMD SRGMHWLM Y GUåDYQL ODVWL QDþHOR VNUEQRVWL LQ RGJRYRUQRVWL QDþHOR QHRGYLVQRVWL QDþHOR SUHJOHGQRVWL in naþHORJRVSRGDUQRVWL=*'-YSHWHPRGVWDYNXþOHQDGRORþD GDPRUDMRGUXåEHNLVR]DYH]DQHNUHYL]LMLYNOMXþLWLYVYRMHSRVORYQR SRURþLORL]MDYRRXSUDYOMDQMXGUXåEHNRWSRVHEHQRGGHOHNSRVORYQHJD SRURþLOD WHU SRGUREQR RSUHGHOMXMH YVHELQR L]MDYH VNOLcevanje na kodekse, odstopanja od kodeksov, opis notranjih kontrol, podatke o GHORYDQMXVNXSãþLQHSUDYLFDKGHOQLþDUMHYLQQMLKRYHPXYHOMDYOMDQMX sestavi in delovanju organov vodenja ali nadzora, opis politike raznolikosti (spolne, starostne, izobrazbene, poklicne) ipd.). 1DYHGHQDGRORþLOD=*'-1 se uporabljajo od 1. 1. 2016 tako, da smo YOHWRãQMHPOHWXSUYLþSULþDXUHVQLþHYDQMXWHJDUHJXODWLYQHJDSUDYLOD Razkritje politike korporativnega upravljanja v obliki letne izjave izhaja sicer iz Direktive (8 R UD]NULWMX QHILQDQþQLK informacij in informacij o raznolikosti in 3ULSRURþLOD Nomisije EU o NDNRYRVWL SRURþDQMD R XSUDYOMDQMX SRGMHWMD Razkritje bi moralo GHOQLþDUMHPLQGUXJLPGpOHåQLNRP]DJRWRYLWL]ODKNDGRVWRSQHNOMXþQH LQIRUPDFLMHQHOHRILQDQþQHPSDþSDWXGLRQHILQDQþQHPSRVORYDQMX in dejanski praksi glede okoljskih, socialnih in kadrovskih zadev (npr. zagotavljanje enakosti med spoloma, socialnega dialoga, pravice GHODYFHY GR REYHãþHQRVWL LQ SRVYHWRYDQMD GLDORJ ] ORNDOQLPL skupnostmi, ukrepi za zagotavljanja varstva in razvoja teh skupnosti LSG  VSRãWRYDQMD þORYHNRYLK SUavic (npr. informacije o SUHSUHþHYDQMX NUãLWHY þORYHNRYLK SUDYLF LQDOL R Y]SRVWDYOMHQLK instrumentih za boj proti korupciji in podkupovanju), sodelovanja/participacije v vladovanju podjetjem, s podrobnostmi o predvidljivih vplivih dejavnosti podjetja na okolje, zdravje in varnost ipd. Normativne institucije, ki veljajo za vsa podjetja v državni lasti, imajo SUDYQRSRGODJRYþOHQX]DNRQDR6ORYHQVNHPGUåDYQHPKROGLQJX in predstavljajo Kodeks korporativnega upravljanja kapitalskih naložb države 36 ter Politiko upravljanja naložb (SDH 2014b). Leta

Kapitalske naložbe so lastniški vrednostni papirji ali poslovni deleži. V SULþXMRþHP EHVHGLOX WR QHNROiko poenostavljamo in za kapitalske naložbe države uporabljamo izraz »podjetja v državni lasti«, ki je tudi sicer uveljavljen termin (prim. OECD, 2009b).

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2011 sprejet ter v naslednjih letih noveliran Kodeks upravljanja podjetij v državni lasti (AUKN 2011; SDH 2014a, 2016, 2017) krepi ORþLWHY SROLWLNH LQ UHJXODWLYQLK IXQNFLM GUåDYH RG YORJH GUåDYH NRW lastnice in velja za celoten spekter podjetij v državni lasti na podlagi QDþHOD ªXSRãWHYDM DOL SRMDVQL© ªcomply or explain«) razloge za odstopanje. Obenem vzpostavlja vlogo upravljavskih in nadzornih RUJDQRY QDþHOD XUHMDQMD RGQRVRY ] UD]OLþQLPL GpOHåQLNL QDþHOD SUHJOHGQRVWL WHU QDGRPHVWLO LQ QDJUDG ]D þODQH XSUDYQLK RGERURY .RGHNVQHL]NOMXþXMHY]SRUHGQHXSRUDEHGUXJLKRNYLUMHYYODGRYDQMD (uporabe drugih kodeksov korporativnega uSUDYOMDQMD  V þLPHU VH RGSUDYOMD PRåQRVW SULYLOHJLUDQH DOL NDNR GUXJDþH GLIHUHQFLUDQH obravnave podjetij v državni lasti v primerjavi s podjetji v zasebni lasti. Kulturno-NRJQLWLYQD SUHSULþDQMD SD VR SR VYRMHP ELVWYX NRPXQLNDWLYQL SRMDYL 'D EL SUHSULþDQMH SRVWDOR SUHSULþDQMH JD MH treba komunicirati. Skozi komuniciranje se nove strukture smiselno ustvarjajo, ohranjajo ali med notranjimi in zunanjimi déležniki (Lawrence in Suddaby 2006; Sternberg 2009; Frandsen in Johansen 2013b). Skladnost z družbenimi normami pomeni logiko primernosti, VDM QRUPH GRORþDMR NDM MH Y NRQNUHWQL GUXåEL SULPHUQR LQ NDM QH 9HþLQD QHRLQVWLWXFLRQDOQLK WHRUHWLNRY VH VWULQMD GD VNODGQRVW ] GUXåEHQLPLQRUPDPLNRWORJLNDSULPHUQRVWLRPRJRþDRUJDQL]DFLMDP da izkoristijo bolj pozitivna družbena vrednotenja 37. Podjetja in na VSORKRUJDQL]DFLMHQDPUHþYSUYLYUVWLVSUHMHPDMRY]RUFHLQQRUPH to je institucionalne okvirje svojega organizacijskega polja, zaradi grožnje prisile s strani déležnikov, od katerih so odvisne in iz želje, da bi bile sprejemljive in sprejete kot primerne (DiMaggio in Powell, 1983) 7L GpOHåQLNL VR QDYDGQR WLVWL NL SRPHQLMR NULWLþQH YLUH ]D RUJDQL]DFLMHLPDMR]DNRQRGDMQRPRþDOLPRþYSOLYDQDQMR9WDNãQL negotovosti organizacije posnemajo vedênja drugih organizacij, oz. vzorce vidnejših ali uspešnih organizacij znotraj svojega orJDQL]DFLMVNHJD SROMD 6þDVRPD SD VL SRVWDMDMR YVH EROM SRGREQH druga drugi, saj v iskanju sprejemljivosti, legitimnosti, virov in VSRVREQRVWL SUHåLYHWMD YNOMXþXMHMR SRGREQH Y]RUFH YHGrQMD organizacijske strukture in procesov (Meyer in Rowan 1977; DiMaggio in Powell 1983; Tolbert in Zucker 1983; Scott in Meyer 1991; Scott 2014) =D WD L]RPRUILþQL UD]YRM SRG YSOLYRP ]XQDQMLK institucionalnih pritiskov so z vidika institucionalne teorije podjetja QDJUDMHQD WH NRULVWL YNOMXþXMHMR YHþMR OHJLWLPQRVW YLUH LQ sposobnosti preživetja. DiMaggio in Powell (1983) sta opredelila dve YUVWL L]RPRUIL]PD LQ VLFHU NRQNXUHQþQHJD LQ LQVWLWXFLRQDOQHJD SUL VOHGQMHPSD VHRVUHGRWRþDWDQDWUL SRGWLSH3ULVLOQL L]RPRUIL]HPVH

37 3UHFHMãQMDQHVRJODVMDSDREVWDMDMRJOHGHSULþDNRYDQHJDXþLQNDVNODGQRVWLQD materialno uspešnost podMHWLMVþLPHUVHWRNUDWQHERPRXNYDUMDOL 201


nanaša na prilagajanje organizacijske oblike ali postopkov zaradi RGYLVQRVWL HQH RUJDQL]DFLMH RG GUXJH 0LPHWLþQL L]RPRrfizem YNOMXþXMH NRSLUDQMH XVSHãQLK SUDNV QRUPDWLYQL L]RPRUIL]HP SD nastane s sprejetjem praks s strani strokovnih in podobnih združenj QSU V VSUHMHPRP NRGHNVRY SULSRURþLO GREULK SUDNV VWDQGDUGRY ipd.).

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3. Marketing in prodaja, druĹžbeni mediji in odnosi z javnostmi


Dr. Amadea DoboviĹĄek Predavateljica, DOBA Fakulteta Maribor, Slovenija Svetovalka, Publi Una d.o.o. Ljubljana, Slovenija amadea.dobovisek@publiuna.si

Vpliv vrhnjega menedĹžmenta na vedenje zaposlenih v prodaji Povzetek 3RPHPEHQGHMDYQLNNLORĂžXMHXVSHĂŁQDSRGMHWMDRGPDQMXVSHĂŁQLK QL OH VSRVREQRVW REOLNRYDQMD RGOLĂžQLK WUĂĽQLK VWUDWHJLM DPSDN ]PRĂĽQRVWSRGMHWLMGDMLKXĂžLQNRYLWRXUHVQLĂžLMR=DSRVOHQLYSURGDML ki imajo s kupci neposreden stik, k temu s svojim delom najbolj RGORĂžLOQR SULVSHYDMR .OMXĂžQR MH GD YUKQML PHQHGĂĽHUML V SROLWLNDPL upravljanja poskrbijo za takĹĄen kontrolni sistem, ki bo vedenje prodajnih kadrov usmerjal v ĹžeOHQR VWUDWHĂŁNR VPHU 6 SRPRĂžMR poglobljenih intervjujev v prispevku ugotavljamo, da so te politike v YHOLNLK VORYHQVNLK SRGMHWMLK QHNRQVLVWHQWH NDU SRY]URĂžD UD]NRUDN med Ĺželenim in dejanskim vedenjem, implementacija strategij pa je PDQMXĂžLQNRYLWD .OMXĂžne besede: implementacija trĹžne strategije, vedenje prodajnih kadrov, vrhnji menedĹžment, kontrolni sistem Koda JEL klasifikacije: M12

Impact of senior executives on sales force behavior Abstract An important factor that separates successful companies from less successful ones is not the ability to formulate superior strategies but to effectively implement them. Sales people work in the boundaries between a company and its customers and have direct impact on the implementation phase. To push their behavior in the desired strategic direction, top management must set up a control system based on consistent management policies. On the basis of in-depth interviews I found out these policies are inconsistent in major Slovenian 211


companies. This leads to a gap between the desired and actual behaviour and to less effective strategy implementation. Keywords: implementation of marketing strategy, sales force behaviour, top management, control system JEL classification code: M12

1 Sprememba tržne paradigme 1.1 Od transakcije do marketinga odnosov 9þDVXNRODKNRNXSHFL]ELUDPHGãWHYLOQLPLVXEVWLWXWLLQVRPQRJLP blagovnim znamkam šteti dnevi, je vedenje zaposlenih, ki lahko ustvarijo odnos s kupcem, postalo sestavni del vrednostne ponudbe podjetja. To pomeni, da moUD YRGVWYR SRGMHWMD ]QDWL QDWDQþQR usmerjati in nadzirati želeno vedenje svojih zaposlenih, še zlati tistih YSURGDMLNLVRNOMXþQL]DXþLQNRYLWRXUHVQLþHYDQMHWUåQHVWUDWHJLMH 9 SUHWHNOLK OHWLK VH MH SURXþHYDQMH SURGDMQHJD PHQHGåPHQWD PHG teoretiki in praktiki silno razmahnilo, saj ima kakovost vodenja SURGDMH þHGDOMH YHþML SRJRVWR SD WXGL RGORþLOHQ YSOLY QD SRVORYQL XVSHK SRGMHWMD 9HþLQD ãWXGLM VH QDVODQMD QD VSUHPHPER NL VH MH ]JRGLODVUHGLGHYHWGHVHWLKOHWNRMHGRWHGDMSUHYODGXMRþRSDUDGLJPR transakcijskega marketinga (transactional marketing) zamenjala paradigma, ki temelji na odnosih med ponudnikom in kupcem (relationship marketing) - in ne zgolj na menjavi med njima. 3DUDGLJPDQLQLþGUXJHJDNRWQL]SUHYODGXMRþLKSUHSULþDQMLQSUDNVV NDWHULPL ODKNR UD]ORåLPR GRORþHQ IHQRPHQ Y GUXåEL NL MH ODKNR socialni, gospodarski, znanstveni ali podobno. Paradigma ostane GRPLQDQWQD WDNR GROJR GRNOHU NDNãQD NRQNXUHQþQD SDUDGLJPD ne razloži bolje tega istega fenomena (A Dictionary of Phylosphy, A.R Lacey 1996). Teorija in praksa transakcijskega marketinga je temeljila na modelu »marketing mix«-a, ki ga je s 4 P-ji (product, price, place, promotion) GDOMQHJDOHWDXVWROLþLO0FCarthy (Basic Marketing). Po nekaj desetletjih so se zasnove tega modela izkazale za preživete, VDM MH SRVWDOR RþLWQR GD NXSFL QLVR YHþ SDVLYQL LQ GD QMLKRYR SRYSUDãHYDQMH QL KRPRJHQR LQ VWDELOQR 'RNRQþQD VODERVW paradigme se pokaže, ko postanejo kupci bolj sofisticirani in zahtevni, željni ponudb po svoji meri (tailor-made  NR ]DþQH NRQNXUHQFD VWUPR QDUDãþDWL LQ NR SRVWDQHMR WUJL Y YHþLQL SDQRJ ]DVLþHQL 212


Alternativne definicije marketinga, ki so se vse bolj krepile, in so poleg potroÅ¡niÅ¡kih trgov (B2C - %XVLQHVVWR&RQVXPHUV YNOMXþHYDOH tudi Å¡tudije na medpodjetniÅ¡kih trgih, kjer sta tako prodajalec kot kupec v vlogi podjetja (B2B â&#x20AC;&#x201C; %XVLQHVVWR%XVLQHVV LQQDSRGURþMX VWRULWYHQLKGHMDYQRVWLVRSULSHOMDOHGRQHGYRXPQLK]DNOMXþNRYGDMH osvojitev kupca le vmesna faza tržnega uspeha, medtem ko gre temelje sodobnega trženja iskati v odnosu med kupci in dobavitelji. 3DUDOHOQL UD]YRM QD UD]OLþQLK SRGURþMLK %HUU\  *XPPHVVRQ 1994, Payne 1996) je torej osvetlil potrebo po spremenjeni paradigmi, ki so jo poimenovali marketing odnosov (relationship marketing), in velja Å¡e danes. ,VWRþDVQRSRVWDQHXVWYDUMDQMHRGQRVD s kupcem naloga celotnega podjetja, ne le prodajnega in marketinÅ¡kega oddelka, kar zahteva vzpostavitev dobrega medfunkcijskega sodelovanja 1D WD QDþLQ MH PRþ ] YHþMR JRWRYRVWMR GRVHþL ]DGRYROMVWYR LQ ]YHVWRER NXSFD LQ ] QMLP UD]YLWL GROJRURþQR menjavo in sodelovanje. Vendarle pa so raziskovalci (n.pr. Grönross 1994) v nadaljnjih ãWXGLMDK SULãOL GR ]DNOMXþNRY GD MH WUÃ¥QL SURVWRU RGSUW WDNo za transakcijski kakor za relacijski marketing in da gre pravzaprav za VWUDWHãNR RGORþLWHY SRGMHWMD QD NDNãHQ QDþLQ Ã¥HOL QDJRYRULWL VYRMH NXSFH 7XGL HPSLULþQH XJRWRYLWYH VXJHULUDMR GD MH WUDQVDNFLMVNL PDUNHWLQJSRGGRORþHQLPLSRJRMLYHURGRVWRMHQPDUNHtinÅ¡ki oziroma prodajni pristop, ne more pa se ohraniti kot marketinÅ¡ka paradigma. 3UHYODGDOR MH VSORãQR SUHSULþDQMH QDM SRGMHWMD VHJPHQWLUDMR NXSFH glede na vrsto odnosa, ki si ga s podjetjem želijo ustvariti kupci in QDMGRUD]OLþQLKVHJPHQWRYNXSFHYSULVWRSDMRUD]OLþQR %HUU\  1.2 Koncept ustvarjanja vrednosti za kupca 6NODGQR ] UD]YRMHP QRYH SDUDGLJPH VH MH SRMDYLO WXGL YVH YHþML LQWHUHV ]D SUHXþHYDQMH NRQFHSWD XVWYDUMDQMD YUHGQRVWL ]D NXSFD Tako akademiki in praktiki na eni strani, kakor kupci in tržniki na GUXJLVRYQDþLQXXVWYDUMDQMDYUHGQRVWL]DNXSFDSUHSR]QDOLQRYYLU NRQNXUHQþQH SUHGQRVWL SRGMHWMD 3UHJOHG OLWHUDWXUH SRNDÃ¥H UD]OLþQH perspektive teoretikov in praktikov na pojem ustvarjanja vrednosti. Med najbolj zanimivimi koncepti so tisti, ki ustvarjanje vrednosti za kupca vidijo bodisi kot strateÅ¡ki proces podjetja (Norman and 5DPLUH]   NRW WHPHOM XVWYDUMDQMD YUHGQRVWL ]D GHOQLþDUMH (Cleland in Bruno 1996) ali kot doseganje vzajemne koristi v sodelovanju med kupci in dobavitelji (Gummesson 1999). Rackham in De Vincentis (1998) pa sta v ospredje ustvarjanja vrednosti za kupca postavila vedenje prodajnih kadrov in ugotovila (2002), da ODKNR V SURGDMQR IXQNFLMR SRYHþXMHPR YUHGQRVW ]D NXSFD QD GYD 213


GLDPHWUDOQR UD]OLþQD QDþLQD ] ]QLåDQjem stroškov (transactional selling) ali VSRYHþHYDQMHPNRULVWL(consultative selling). Dokazala sta, tako kot pozneje tudi Guenzi in ostali (2011), da tradicionalna prodajna usmeritev ni škodljiva za podjetja, kadar gre za prodajo izdelkov manjše vrednosti, medtem ko je za prodajo YHþMLKYUHGQRVWLDOLYSULPHUXGROJRURþQHJDVRGHORYDQMDVNXSFLEROMH uporabiti svetovalni prodajni pristop. 1.3 Ustvarjanje vrednosti za kupca v prodaji ýHåHOLSRGMHWMHXVWYDULWLSRYVHPQRYHNRULVWL]DNXSFDYVYHWRYDOQHP prRGDMQHPSULVWRSXPRUDLPHWLRGOLþQRXVSRVREOMHQSURGDMQLWLPSUL þHPHU MH LQYHVWLFLMD SRGMHWMD Y VPLVOX YORåHQHJD þDVD ]QDQMD LQ VUHGVWHY YHþMD 9HQGDU ODKNR ]DSRVOHQL Y SURGDML Y WHP SULPHUX V VYRMLP GHORP XSUDYLþLMR YLãMH FHQH L]GHONRY LQ VWRULWHY 7R pa je PRåQR VDPR SUL WLVWLK NXSFLK NL Y QDVYHWLK LQ SRPRþL SURGDMDOFHY prepoznavajo želeno vrednost in so s prodajalci pripravljeni preživeti YHþþDVDYLVNDQMXUHãLWHYSRODVWQLPHUL V drugem primeru pa podjetje kupcu zagotavlja vrednost v obliki nLåMLK VWURãNRY LQþLP ODåMRSULGRELWHY L]GHONDDOLVWRULWYHVDMNXSFL YLGLMRYUHGQRVWL]GHONDL]NOMXþQRYVDPHPL]GHONXNLJDMHPOMHMRNRW ]ODKNDQDGRPHVWOMLYREODJR=DUDGLWHJDSRPRþSURGDMDOFHYYLGLMROH kot dodatne stroške, ki se jim raje izognejo. *UH WRUHM ]D GYD ELVWYHQR UD]OLþQD VWUDWHãND SULVWRSD XVWYDUMDQMD vrednosti za kupca v prodajnem procesu med katerima pa ni hierarhije. Najpogostejša strateška napaka vodilnih je, da prodajnega pristopa ne povežejo z naravo kupcev, ki jih želijo nagovoriti, kar lahko naredi podjetju precej škode. In to je tisti bistveni element, ki mu uprave podjetij, ko razmišljajo o LPSOHPHQWDFLML WUåQH VWUDWHJLMH SRVYHþDMR SUHPDOR SR]RUQRVWL =D SRGMHWMD NL LPDMR RSUDYND ] UD]OLþQLPL NXSFL MH VPLVHOQD XSRUDED ORþHQLK prodajnih pristopov. 6YHWRYDOQL QDþLQ SURGDMH ]D UD]OLNR RG WUDQVDNFLMVNHJD WRUHM istovetimo z medsebojno povezanostjo prodajalcev in kupcev, ki si na osnovi zaupanja in odnosov izmenjujejo pomembne informacije, SUL þHPHU LPDWD ILQDQþQH NRULVWL QD SRGlagi usklajenih strateških YODJDQM REH VWUDQL ýHSUDY MH VYHWRYDOQL QDþLQ YHOLNR EROM GRELþNRQRVHQSD]DQMSURGDMDOFLYHþLQRPDQLPDMRGRYROM]QDQMDQLWL zadostne podpore vodstva.

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2 Vpliv kontrolnih sistemov na Ĺželeno vedenje 2.1 Kontrolni sistem kot menedĹžersko orodje 7RNULWLĂžQRVWDQMHPHMHVSRGEXGLORGD  UD]LĂŁĂžHPL]]LYHVNDWHULPL VH VUHĂžXMHMR YUKQML PHQHGĂĽHUML NR SRVNXĂŁDMR YHGHQMH SURGDMQLK kadrov uskladiti z naravo svojih kupcev in (2) pokaĹžem, kako lahko s formalno rutino kot je kontrolni sistem, laĹžje vzdrĹžujejo ali pa spreminjajo vedenje svojih zaposlenih. Osrednje vsem kontrolnim sistemom je, da postavijo standarde ravnanja zaposlenih in vpeljejo mehanizme, ki bodo Ĺželeno vedenje zagotovili. Dober in konsistenten kontrolni sistem je menedĹžersko orodje, ki vodilnim pomaga nadzorovati proces implementacije, medtem ko slab kontrolni sistem zavira doseganje sprememb. Kontrolni sistemi pomagajo zaznati vrzeli v vedenju in aktivnostih zaposlenih ter jih odstraniti ali ublaĹžiti (Anthony 1965, Simons 1995, 0HUFKDQW 6WHPNRGDMHMRSUHGQRVWGRORĂžHQLPLQIRUPDFLMDP LQ RGYUDĂžDMR SR]RUQRVW RG GUXJLK SRĂŁLOMDMR YUKQML PHQHGĂĽHUML zaposlenim pomembne signale. 2.2 Kontrolni sistem prodajnih kadrov ,]ĂžUSQRSUHXĂžHYDQMHNRQWUROQHJDVLVWHPDSURGDMQLKNDGURYNLVWDJD utemeljila Anderson in Oliver (1987, 1994, 1995), in sodelovanje z uglednimi mednarodnimi strokovnjaki v okviru raziskav za mojo doktorsko disertacijo (DoboviĹĄek 2012), je pripeljalo do nastanka novega modela, ki kaĹže na to, da se vpliv vrhnjih menedĹžerjev na YRGHQMH SURGDMH QDMEROM XĂžLQNRYLWR REOLNXMH SUHNR PHGVHERMQHJD delovanja ĹĄestih politik upravljanja prodajnih kadrov, ki si sledijo v EROM DOL PDQM ORJLĂžQHP ]DSRUHGMX 7H SROLWLNH so: artikuliranje Ĺželenega vedenja, kreiranje kompetenc, ocenjevanje dela, nagrajevanje, nadzor in povezovanje prodajnih naporov z ostalimi funkcijami v podjetju. Na osnovi omenjenih politik lahko podjetja tvorijo celovit kontrolni sistem vodenja prodajnih kadrov, ki lahko bistveno vpliva na XUHVQLĂžHYDQMH VWUDWHJLMH LQ QD SURGDMQH UH]XOWDWH 6LVWHP SRĂŁLOMD SURGDMQLPNDGURPQDWDQĂžQHVLJQDOHRWHPNDMPHQHGĂĽPHQWRGQMLK SULĂžDNXMH6SRURĂžDMLPSRNDNĂŁQLKSULRULWHWDKQDMVHUDYQDMRNRVRY stiku s kupci. S NRQVLVWHQWQLP SULVWRSRP N WHP SROLWLNDP MH PRĂž prodajne kadre usmerjati v Ĺželeno strateĹĄko smer: v hitro sklenitev prodaje skozi transakcijski pristop ali pa v svetovalni in GRELĂžNRQRVQHMĂŁLSURGDMQLSULVWRSGRNXSFD

215


5D]OLÞQDXVPHUMHQRVWNRQWUROQLKVistemov prodajnih kadrov Anderson in Oliver (1987, 1995) sta zasnovala kontrolni sistem prodajnih kadrov vzdolŞ dimenzije, ki na eno stran postavlja politike, usmerjene h kontroli vedenja, na drugo stran pa politike, usmerjene h kontroli rezultatov. Ugotovila sta, da kontrolni sistemi v podjetjih UHGNR REVWDMDMR Y ÞLVWL IRUPL WHPYHÞ GD VR Y JODYQHP KLEULGQL  LQ YVHEXMHMRWDNRHOHPHQWHHQHJDNDNRUGUXJHJDVLVWHPDNDUSRYHÞXMH njihovo nekonsistentnost. Andersonova in Onyemah (2006) sta to ugotovitev na vzorcu 50 podjetij v 38 drŞavah sveta potrdila in posvarila, da je prav konsistentnost kontrolnega sistema bistvenega pomena za uspeťno vodenje prodajnih kadrov. Opozarila sta, da morajo podjetja razviti WDNãQRSURGDMQRILOR]RILMRNLMRERPRJRÞHMDVQRL]UDziti in jo podpreti z eno ali drugo usmeritvijo tudi v kontrolnem sistemu. 2.4 Nov konceptualni okvir sistemov kontrole prodajnih kadrov ýHSUDYMHELORWRUD]OLNRYDQMHWDNUDWãLURNRVSUHMHWRSDMHSRQXMDOR omejeno razlago o tem, zakaj podjetja izberejo SUDYGRORÞHQRYUVWR kontrolnih orodij. Prav zaradi tega sem razvila nov konceptualni okvir (2012), ki je opredelil kontrolne sisteme bolj precizno, kot jih opredeljuje dimenzija kontrole vedenja in rezultatov. To sem storila tako, da sem povezala dva lRÞHQD NRQFHSWD ªXVWYDUMDQMH vrednosti za kupce in kontrolni sistem v enoten okvir. Iz njega EROM ORJLÞQR L]KDMD GD PRUDMR SRGMHWMD XSRUDELWL NRQWUROQL VLVWHP usmerjen v vedenje takrat, ko presodijo, da je Şeleno vedenje prodajalcev do kupcev svetovalne narave, in kontrolni sistem, usmerjen v rezultate, ko je za zagotovitev trŞnega uspeha bolj primerno transakcijsko vedenje prodajalcev do kupcev. Pri kontroli transakcijskega vedenja so prodajni kadri v glavnem SUHSXãÞHQLVYRMLODVWQLSUHVRMLRWHPNDko bodo ustvarili rezultate, zato je nadzor vodilnih pri tem omejen in zahteva relativno HQRVWDYQDPHULOD]DPHUMHQMHQMLKRYHJDXVSHKDýLVWRGUXJDÞHMH ko je potrebno kontrolirati svetovalno vedenje prodajnih kadrov, kar ]DKWHYDEROMXÞLQNRYLWLQQHSRVUeden nadzor menedŞerjev. Kontrola je usmerjena v vmesne faze prodajnega procesa in zahteva individualno vrednotenje dela prodajnih kadrov. ýHSUDY NRQWUROQL VLVWHP RKUDQMD ORJLÞQR ]DVQRYR $QGHUVRQRYH LQ 2OLYHUMDSDJDODKNRQDWDQDÞLQRSUHGHOLPRY]GROüQove dimenzije. Skladno s to dopolnitvijo sem izpeljala raziskavo v slovenskih podjetjih.

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3 Kontrolni sistemi v slovenskih podjetjih 3.1 Nekonsistentnost kontrolnih sistemov Tudi ugotovitve moje raziskave (2012) kažejo, da so kontrolni sistemi v 12 velikiK VORYHQVNLK SRGMHWMLK NL VHP MLK SUHXþLOD YHþLQRPDKLEULGQLLQSRYUKYVHJDQHNRQVLVWHQWQLNDUUD]NRUDNPHG åHOHQLPLQGHMDQVNLPYHGHQMHPVDPRãHEROMSRYHþXMHXþLQNRYLWRVW implementacije strategije pa zmanjšuje. Vrhnji menedžerji v teh podjetjih od prodajnih kadrov sicer SULþDNXMHMR L]YDMDQMH VYHWRYDOQHJD SURGDMQHJD SULVWRSD YHQGDU njegovo izvajanje v praksi ustrezno ne spodbujajo in nadzirajo. To se jasno kaže v izvajanju posameznih politik, ki so del kontrolnega sistema prodajnih kadrov in sem jih YUD]LVNDYLDQDOL]LUDODVSRPRþMR intervjujev. 3RGMHWMDNLVHPMLKYNOMXþLODYUD]LVNDYRVHPL]EUDODQDRVQRYLGYHK NULWHULMHYªQDMYHþMDSRGMHWMDSRSULKRGNX©LQªSRGMHWMD]YHþNRW ]DSRVOHQLPL© Y OHWX  SR SRGDWNLK *=6 9NOMXþLOD VHP WDNR proi]YRGQDNDNRUVWRULWYHQDSRGMHWMDL]UD]OLþQLKSDQRJPHGWHPNR sem podjetja, katerih glavna dejavnost je maloprodaja, iz vzorca L]ORþLOD Zaposleni v prodaji so potrdili, da razumejo, kakšno vedenje vodstvo RG QMLK QD SUYHP PHVWX SULþDNXMH YHQGDU YSRJOed v vsebino in NROLþLQR QMLKRYLK WUHQLQJRY LQ LQGLYLGXDOQLK XVSRVDEOMDQM FRDFKLQJ  opozarja na pomanjkljivo oblikovanje kompetenc v to smer. 3UREOHPDWLþQDSDMHWXGLRUJDQL]DFLMDSURGDMQHIXQNFLMHQDVSORKVDM so prodajni kadri zasuti s kopico administrativnega dela in po njihovih EHVHGDK]DL]REUDåHYDQMHQDYDGQRQLWLQLPDMRþDVD Kriteriji za ocenjevanje dela prodajnih kadrov so izbrani tako, da stimulirajo raje transakcijsko kot pa svetovalno vedenje, na doseganje ciljev, ki jih ti kriteriji merijo, pa zaposleni s svojim delom navadno nimajo vpliva. V enem podjetju so sicer poskusili popraviti to stanje z iskanjem bolj primernih kriterijev, vendar pa eksperimentiranje ni prineslo bistvenega napredka. Odgovori v vzorcu so pokazali, da je v polovici podjetij nekonsistenten z artikuliranim želenim vedenjem prodajnih kadrov tudi sistem nagrajevanja. Namesto, da bi prodajne kadre še posebej nagrajevali za ustvarjanje in vzdrževanje odnosa s kupci ter za aktivnosti, ki so s tem tesno povezane, jih bodisi sploh ne QDJUDMXMHMR VDM LPDMR Y JODYQHP ILNVQR SODþR DOL SD VR YDULDELOQH nagrade tako majhne, da delujejo nespodbudno. Glavni razlog za to 217


MH PRĂž SULSLVDWL PHQWDOLWHWL ÂŞXUDYQLORYNHŠ NL MH SUHYODGRYDOD Y VRFLDOLVWLĂžQHP JRVSRGDUVWYX Ă˝H VR SURGDMQL NDGUL sploh deleĹžni kakrĹĄnekoli nagrade, temelji le-ta na obsegu prodaje, ne glede na to, kako so rezultati doseĹženi. Vodstvo tako bolj spodbuja transakcijski, kakor pa svetovalni pristop do kupcev. Nagrade so tudi na sploĹĄno premalo jasno povezane s predhodno dRORĂžHQLPL FLOML LQ VR ]D ]DSRVOHQHEROMSUHVHQHĂžDQMHNRWSDSUHPLĂŁOMHQDVWLPXODFLMD Kadar si podjetje prizadeva za svetovalni prodajni pristop, se mora ta odraĹžati tudi v dobri medsebojni povezanosti prodaje z ostalimi funkcijami v podjetju. Ĺ˝al v vseh podjetjih prihaja do vrzeli med SURGDMRUD]YRMHPLQSURL]YRGQMRĂŁHEROMSUREOHPDWLĂžHQSDMHRGQRV PHGSURGDMRLQPDUNHWLQJRPNLVHPJDĂŁHSRGUREQHMHSUHXĂžLOD9 QREHQHPSRGMHWMXQDPUHĂžQHGRVHJDWDNĂŁQHSRYH]DQRVWLNRWJDY VYRML ĂŁWXGLML SULSRURĂžDMR .Rtler in ostali (2006). Za teĹžave v sodelovanju prodajne funkcije s preostalimi funkcijami je pogosto ÂŞNULYDŠ PDWULĂžQD RUJDQL]DFLMD NRPSURPLV PHG IXQNFLMVNR LQ divizijsko organizacijsko strukturo). Zanimivo je, da so odgovori iz vzorca pokazali, da imajo vrhnji in srednji menedĹžerji intenzivne in pogoste kontakte s prodajnimi kadri, GR WH PHUH GD VH SRYVHP GHMDYQR YNOMXĂžXMHMR Y SURGDMQL SURFHV TakĹĄno ravnanje je povsem v skladu s svetovalno prodajno orientacijo podjetij, kar pa je tudi edini element, ki je znotraj SUHXĂžHYDQLK NRQWUROQLK VLVWHPRY NRQVLVWHQWHQ ] DUWLNXOLUDQLP Ĺželenim vedenjem. 3.2 Primerjava rezultatov s tujo raziskavo Ă˝H SRY]DPHPR XJRWRYOMHQH QHNRQVLVWHQWQRVWL LQ MLK NOMXE QHNROLNR GUXJDĂžQHPXL]KRGLĂŁĂžXYUD]LVNRYDOQHPPRGHOXSULPHUMDmo s tistimi, ki sta jih v svoji raziskavi odkrila Andersonova in Onyemah (2006), lahko ugotovimo, da je vzorec nekonsistentne rabe politik upravljanja s prodajnimi kadri v slovenskih podjetjih sicer povsem podoben njunemu vzorcu Âťzmeraj prisotnega menedĹžerjaÂŤ, vendar s pomembno razliko. Pri Andersonovi in Onyemahu podjetja uporabljajo politike kontrolnega sistema, ki prodajne kadre usmerjajo v rezultate, managerji pa se kljub temu nenehno vtikajo v njihovo delo â&#x20AC;&#x201C; kar je nekonsistentno. Obratno si slovenski vrhnji managerji Ĺželijo, da bi se prodajni kadri vedli svetovalno (analogno pomeni to usmerjenost v vedenje), kar s svojim sodelovanjem v prodajnem procesu sicer spodbujajo, nekonsistentnost pa se kaĹže pri izvajanju drugih politik kontrolnega sistema, ki so vse takĹĄne, da raje spodbujajo transakcijsko vedenje (analogno gledano so usmerjene v rezultate). 218


,]PRMHUD]LVNDYHMHPRĂžUD]EUDWLGDVHYUKQMLPHQHGĂĽHUMLGRQHNH mere zavedajo pomanjkljivosti v sistemih ocenjevanja in nagrajevanja prodajnih kadrov. Navajajo tudi manjĹĄe napetosti v med-IXQNFLMVNHP VRGHORYDQMX ĂžHSUDY SRVHEHM QH L]SRVWDYLMR slabĹĄega sodelovanja med marketingom in prodajo, na kar opozorijo ĹĄele zaposleni sami. Vrhnji menedĹžerji tudi povsem spregledajo potrebo zaposlenih v prodaji in marketingu po boljĹĄem usposabljanju in nagrajevanju.

4 =DNOMXÞHN Y]URNL ]D QHNRQVLVWHQWQRVW NRQWUROQLK sistemov 6LVWHPDWLÞQR LQ ]QDQVWYHQR VHP UD]LVNDOD WXGL Y]URNH ]D nekonsistentno rabo kontrolnih sistemov v teh slovenskih podjetjih. Med glavnimi razlogi so pomanjkanje enotnega pogleda vrhnjih menedŞerjev v posameznem podjetju na vodenje prodaje, v njihovem slabťem razumevanju spremenjene trŞne paradigme in YUHGQRVWQLK ]DKWHY NXSFHY Y SUHSRÞDVQHP XYDMDQMX L]EROMãDY QD SRGURÞMXNRQWUROQLKVLVWHPRYYSUHvelikem poudarku na doseganju NUDWNRURÞQLK UH]XOWDWRY LQ Y VDPR]DGRVWQHP RSLUDQMX QD ODVWQR ]QDQMH3UDYWDNRYRGLOQLYSRGMHWMLKSUHPDORSR]RUQRVWLSRVYHÞDMR razvoju prodajnih kadrov na vseh organizacijskih ravneh, kar zaposleni v veliki meri pogreťajo. Pri tem je ťe posebej pomanjkljivo usposabljanje prodajnih menedŞrjev. 1DMYHÞ WHüDY SUL YRGHQMX SURGDMH L]KDMD SUDY L] QHVNODGMD PHG Şelenim in dejanskim vedenjem prodajnih kadrov (Pons 2001). 0HGWHP NR MH üHOHQR YHGHQMH IXQNFLMD YUHGQRVWQLK SULÞDNRYDQM kupcev in strateťkih ciljev podjetja, pa je dejansko vedenje odraz politik upravljanja prodajnih kadrov. Naloga vrhnjih menedŞerjev je, da nenehno uravnavajo Şeleno in dejansko vedenje zaposlenih v prodaji, kakor tudi v ostalih poslovnih funkcijah, ki s prodajo sodelujejo. ýHSUDYPRMDãWXGLMDSRGSLUDXJRWRYLWYHSUHMãQMLKUD]LVNDYSDSRQXMD EROM QDWDQÞQR VOLNR R WHP NDNR ODKNR YUKQML PDQDJHUML YSOLYDMR QD Şeleno vedenje prodajnih kadrov, kar predstavlja pomembno UD]ãLULWHY ]QDQMD R PRüQLK XÞLQNLK NRQWUROnih sistemov. Prepoznavanje razlogov za nekonsistentno rabo kontrolnih sistemov ponuja samo po sebi odgovore in daje jasne napotke managerjem, kaj morajo izboljťati. Predvsem pa pokaŞe na to, da je znanje in razumevanje managerjev o sodobnih trŞnih konceptih treba bistveno bolj okrepiti, kot se managerji tega dejansko zavedajo. 219


5 Literatura in viri 1. Anderson E. and Oliver R.L. (1987), Perspectives on Behavior-Based Versus Outcome-Based Sales force Control Systems. Journal of Marketing, 51 (October), pp. 76-88. 2. Anderson E. and Onyemah V. (2006), How Right Should the Customer Be?. Harvard Business Review, 84 (7–8), pp. 58–67. 3. Anthony, R.N. (1965). Planning and Control Systems: A Framework for Analysis, Boston: Harvard University Press 4. Berry L.L. (1995), Relationship Marketing of Services - Growing Interest. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 3(4), pp. 236-245. 5. Cichelli, D.J. (2003). Compensating the Sales Force: A Practical Guide to Designing Winning Sales Compensation Plans, McGraw-Hill Trade 6. Cleland A.S. and Bruno A.V. (1996), Building Customer and Shareholder Value. Strategy and Leadership, 25(3), pp. 22-28. 7. Colletti, J.A. and Fiss, M.S. (2001). Compensating New Sales Roles: How to design Rewards That Work in Today’s Selling Environment, AMACOM 2 nd edition New York 8. Darmon R.Y. and Martin X.C. (2011), A New Conceptual Framework of Sales Force Control Systems. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management. 31(3), pp. 297-310 9. De Vincentis J.R. and Rackham N. (1998), Breadth of a Salesman. McKinsey Quarterly, 4(4), pp. 32–43 10. Dobovišek A (2012), Vpliv vrhnjega managementa na vodenje prodaje (Impact of senior executives on sales management) 11. Grönroos C. (1994), From Marketing Mix to Relationship Marketing: Towards a Paradigm Shift in Marketing. Management Decision 32(2), pp. 4-20. 12. Grönroos C. (1991), The Marketing Strategy Continuum: Towards a Marketing Concept for the 1990s. Management Decision 29(1), pp. 7- 13. 13. Guenzi P., De Luca L. M., and Troilo G. (2011), Organizational Drivers of Salespeople’s Customer Orientation and Selling Orientation. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 31(3), pp. 269–285. 14. Gummesson, E. (1999). Total Relationship Marketing, ButterworthHeinemann, Oxford. 15. Harker M.J. and Egan J. (2006), The Past, Present and Future of Relationship Marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 22(1/2), pp. 215-242. 16. Kotler P., Rackham N., and Krishnaswamy S. (2006), Ending the War Between Sales and Marketing. Harvard Business Review, 84 (July–August), pp. 68–78. 17. Lacey A.R. (1996). Dictionary of Phylosophy, Routledge 18. Leigh T.W., Pullins E.B., and Comer L.B. (2001), The Top Ten Sales Articles of the 20th Century. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 21(3), pp. 217–227. 19. McCarthy, E. J. (1960). Basic marketing, Homewood: Irwin 20. Merchant K.A. (2010), Performance-dependent incentives: Some puzzles to ponder. Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance, 25(4), pp. 559-567. 21. Norman R. and Ramírez R. (1993), From Value Chain to Value Constellation. Harvard Business Review, (July/August), pp. 65-77. 22. Oliver R.L. and Anderson E. (1995), Behavior- and Outcome-Based Sales Control Systems: Evidence and Consequences of Pure- Form and Hybrid 220


Governance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 15 (4), pp. 1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;15. 23. Onyemah V. and Anderson E. (2009), Inconsistencies among the constitutive elements of a sales force control system: test of a configuration theory-based performance prediction. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 29(1), pp. 9-24. 24. Payne A. and Holt S. (2001), Diagnosing Customer Value: Integrating the Value Process and Relationship Marketing. British Journal of Management, 12, pp. 159-182. 25. Pfeffer, J. (1998). The Human Equation: Building Profits by Putting People First, Boston:Harvard Business School Press. 26. Rackham N. and De Vincentis J.R. (1998), Breadth of a Salesman. McKinsey Quarterly, 4, pp. 32-43. 27. Rackham, N. and DeVincentis J. R. (2002). Rethinking the sales force: redefining selling to create and capture customer value, McGraw-Hill. 28. Simons, R. (1995). Levers of Control, Boston: Harvard Business School Press. 29. Simons, R. (2000). Performance Measurement and Control Systems for Implementing Strategy, Upper Saddle River, NY: Prentice Hall.

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Mag. Anita Hrast Direktorica Inštituta za razvoj družbene odgovornosti – IRDO, Slovenija Predavateljica, DOBA Fakulteta Maribor, Slovenija anita.hrast@irdo.si Dr. Urša Golob Podnar Izredna profesorica, Fakulteta za družbene vede Univerze v Ljubljani, Slovenija ursa.golob@fdv.uni-lj.si

Kako slovenska podjetja razvijajo družbeno odgovornost? Povzetek V prispevku predstavljamo ugotovitve raziskave, ki jo je aprila in maja 2016 v Sloveniji na podlagi polstrukturiranih intervjujev z 12 mnenjskimi voditelji opravil Inštitut za razvoj družbene odgovornosti. Eden izmed namenov raziskave je bil ugotoviti, kako v slovenskih podjetjih in ustanovah dojemajo in razvijajo družbeno odgovornost (DOP). Predstavljamo ugotovitve te raziskave in razmišljamo, kakšni ukrepi bi bili potrebni, da bi podjetja lahko še intenzivneje razvijala svojo družbeno odgovornost. .OMXþQHEHVHGH družbena odgovornost podjetij, mnenjski voditelji, razvoj, raziskava, intervju Koda JEL klasifikacije: D04

How are Slovenian companies developing social responsibility? Abstract The paper presents the findings of the survey, which was conducted in April and May 2016 in Slovenia, on the basis of semi-structured interviews with 12 opinion leaders by the Institute for the 223


Development of Social Responsibility - IRDO. One of the purposes of the study was to determine how Slovenian companies and institutions perceive and develop social responsibility. The paper is presents the findings of this research and considers what measures would be needed to allow enterprises to develop their social responsibility more intensively. Keywords: corporate social responsibility, development, research, interview

opinion

leaders,

JEL classification code: D04

1 Uvod (QRWQHGHILQLFLMHGUXĂĽEHQHRGJRYRUQRVWLQLYHĂžDYWRUMHYVLMRUD]ODJD drugDĂžH9VYRMLVRGREQLIRUPXODFLMLMH'23SURGXNWREGREMDSRGUXJL svetovni vojni. Glede na zagon, ki so ga prinesle spremembe v druĹžbeni zavesti, postavljene v ospredje v 60. letih prejĹĄnjega stoletja, zlasti drĹžavljanske pravice, Ĺženska, potroĹĄniĹĄka in ekoloĹĄka gibanja, je DOP zrasla v pomenu besede in zaslovela kot ĹĄe nikdar (Carroll 2015). Evropska komisija (2002) v Zeleni knjigi opredeljuje druĹžbeno RGJRYRUQRVW NRW ÂŞNRQFHSW NMHU SRGMHWMD SURVWRYROMQR YNOMXĂžXMHMR druĹžbena in okoljska vpraĹĄanja v svoje poslovne dejavnosti in v medsebojne odnose s svojimi deleĹžnikiÂŤ. Standard ISO 26000 (ISO 26000: 2010) druĹžbeno odgovornost definira tako: ÂťDruĹžbena RGJRYRUQRVWMHRGJRYRUQRVWRUJDQL]DFLMH]DYSOLYHQMHQLKRGORĂžLWHYLQ dejavnosti na druĹžbo in okolje, da s SUHJOHGQLP LQ HWLĂžQLP ravnanjem:  prispeva k trajnostnemu razvoju, YNOMXĂžQR]]GUDYMHPLQEODJLQMR druĹžbe,  XSRĂŁWHYDSULĂžDNRYDQMDGHOHĂĽQLNRY  je v skladu z veljavno zakonodajo in mednarodnimi normami delovanja ter  je integrirana v celotno organizacijo in jo izvaja v svojih odnosih.ÂŤ Med najpogostejĹĄimi pristopi, ki pojasnjujejo koncept druĹžbene odgovornosti v literaturi, so: teorija deleĹžnikov in pristop OHJLWLPQRVWL LQVWLWXFLRQDOQD WHRULMD WHU WHRULMD SROLWLĂžQH HNRQRPLMH (Garriga in Mele 2004 v Matten in Moon 2008). Kot osnova za UD]XPHYDQMHNRQFHSWDGUXĂĽEHQHRGJRYRUQRVWLVHQDMYHĂžNUDWRPHQMD leta 1979 predstavljena Carrollova piramida (Carroll v Jamali 2008), YNDWHULDYWRURSUHGHOLHNRQRPVNR]DNRQVNRHWLĂžQRLQILODQWURSVNR odgovornost. Velik vpliv na razvoj DOP v smislu sodelovanja 224


NRUSRUDFLM]YHĂžLQWHUHVQLPLVNXSLQDPLMHLPHO)UHHPDQ  NL je Ĺže v 1980-ih letih razvil deleĹžniĹĄki pristop in ga povezal v deleĹžniĹĄko teorijo. Ta je nadgradila teorijo podjetja in opozorila na pristranski pogled Friedmana, ki je v svojem raziskovanju zagovarjal predvsem ekonomski interes podjetij. Nadgradnjo deleĹžniĹĄke teorije so pripravili ĹĄtevilni avtorji, med njimi tudi Matten in Moon (2008), ki sta razvila t. i. eksplicitni in implicitni pogled na DOP in s tem teoretsko dokazala, da druĹžbena odgovornost ne nastaja v vakumu, WHPYHĂžQDQMRYSOLYDMRĂŁWHYLOQLGHMDYQLNLRNROMDYNDWHUHPVHUD]YLMD V tem prispevku Ĺželimo odgovoriti na vpraĹĄanje, kako v slovenskih organizacijah razumejo druĹžbeno odgovornost in njene razseĹžnosti. S tem dodajamo svoj del h korpusu literature, ki druĹžbeno odgovornost razume kot koncept, ki je kontekstualno pogojen, odvisen od institucionalnega okolja in procesno usmerjen. Avtorji QSU %UDPPHU LGU   QDPUHĂž L]SRVWDYOMDMR SRPHQ UD]OLĂžQRVti razumevanj druĹžbene odgovornosti in ĹĄirino diskurzov o tem NRQFHSWXNLQLYHĂžOHYGRPHQLSRVORYQHJDVYHWDWHPYHĂžQMHJRYH pomene soustvarjajo tudi drugi deleĹžniki oz. druĹžba nasploh.

2 DruĹžbeno odgovorno podjetje (DOP) in druĹžbeno odgovoren nastop (DON) -DPDOL  VHRVUHGRWRĂžDQDGYHNRQFHSWXDOL]DFLML'23NLVWDY literaturi dobro utemeljeni. Prva je Carrollova (1979) ĹĄtiridelna GHILQLFLMD'23GUXJDSD'21 '21ĘĽGUXĂĽEHQRRGJRYRUHQQDVWRS ang. CSP â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Corporate Social Performance), ki ga je razvila Woodova   6OHGQML '23 SRVWDYOMD Y FHORYLW RNYLU NL SRXGDUMD QDĂžHOD vodenja odgovornega ravnanja, procese odzivanja in rezultate nastopa. Po Carrollu (1979 v Jamali 2008) so ekonomske in pravne RGJRYRUQRVWLVRFLDOQD]DKWHYD WMREYH]QRVW HWLĂžQa odgovornost se GUXĂĽEHQR SULĂžDNXMH PHGWHP NR MH ILODQWURSLMD GUXĂĽEHQR ]DĂĽHOHQD (Windsor 2001 v Jamali 2008). Vsaka od teh odgovornosti predstavlja osnovni element skupne druĹžbene odgovornosti podjetja. 3R :RRGRYL   MH '23 YHĂž NRW OH VDPRVWRMQD RSUedelitev, postavljena je v ĹĄirĹĄi kontekst. DON je konceptualiziran kot zmnoĹžek SRVHEQH VHVWDYH QDĂžHO GUXĂĽEHQH RGJRYRUQRVWL SRGMHWMD SURFHVRY druĹžbene odzivnosti in opazovanih izidov poslovanja, povezanih z druĹžbenimi odnosi podjetja, kot to prikazuje Tabela 2.1.

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Tabela 2.1: Model druĹžbeno odgovornega nastopa 1DĂžHOD'23 GUXĂĽEHQH odgovornosti podjetja) ,QVWLWXFLRQDOQRQDĂžHOR legitimnost 2UJDQL]DFLMVNRQDĂžHORMDYQD odgovornost ,QGLYLGXDOQRQDĂžHORYRGVWYHQD presoja Procesi DOO (druĹžbeno odgovorne odzivnosti) Okoljska presoja DeleĹžniĹĄko upravljanje VpraĹĄanja upravljanja Rezultati ravnanja podjetij DruĹžbeni vplivi DruĹžbeni programi DruĹžbene politike (Wood, 1991) Model Woodove (1991) predstavlja napredek v raziskovanju DOP. Z njenim modelom je PRJRĂžHQDMSUHMDQDOL]LUDWLQDĂžHODNLPRWLYLUDMR podjetje za druĹžbeno odgovorne aktivnosti, in sicer na treh ravneh analize: institucionalni, organizacijski in individualni. Na institucionalni ravni je motivacija za druĹžbeno odgovornost podjetja ODKNR QDĂželo legitimnosti, na organizacijski ravni je to javna odgovornost, ĹĄe posebej za rezultate, povezane s prvim in drugim SROMHP YNOMXĂžHYDQMD SRGMHWMD 0RWLYDFLMD ODKNR L]YLUD WXGL L] L]ELU SRVDPH]QLKPHQHGĂĽHUMHYLQQMLKRYLKRVHEQLKQDJQMHQMWHUSUHSULĂžDQM MHG GYHPD DOL YHĂž QDYHGHQLPL QDĂžHOL ]D PRWLYDFLMR GUXĂĽEHQR odgovornega nastopa lahko potekajo tudi interakcije. Po Woodovi (1991) odzivnost oblikuje razseĹžnost akcije, ki je potrebna za dopolnitev normativnih in motivacijskih sestavin druĹžbene odgovornosti. Obsega tri vidike: okoljsko oceno, deleĹžniĹĄko upravljanje in upravljanje odprtih vpraĹĄanj, kar je medsebojno povezano. Odzivnost izvira iz znanja o zunanjem okolju in doslednem pregledu/analizi okolja. To znanje je nato lahko uporabljeno za oblikovanje okolju prilagojenih strategij ali za njihovo spreminjanje. 'HOHĂĽQLĂŁNR XSUDYOMDQMH MH ĂŁH HQR QDĂžHOR RG]LYQRVWL NL JD ODKNR UD]LĂŁĂžHPR V SUHXĂžHYDQMHP SRVHEQLK YUVW RURGLM ]D GHOHĂĽQLĂŁNR XSUDYOMDQMH QSULQWHUQLĂžDVRSLV]D]DSRVOHQHUHIHUHQW]DRGQRVH] javnosWPL SRURĂžDQMH SRGMHWMD R GUXĂĽEHQLK YLGLNLK SRVORYDQMD  VpraĹĄanja upravljanja zahtevajo preiskovanje pristopa podjetja k oblikovanju in spremljanju odgovorov na socialne zadeve. 226


Rezultati ravnanja podjetij so pomembni za oceno DON. Razdeljeni so na naslednje tri vrste: druĹžbeni vplivi ravnanja podjetij, programi, ki jih podjetja uporabljajo za izvajanje odgovornosti, in politike, ki jih podjetja razvijajo za obravnavo druĹžbenih vpraĹĄanj ter interesov deleĹžnikov. Objektivno se ocenjuje, ali ima ravnanje podjetij pozitiven ali negativen vpliv (pozitiven vpliv so npr. zagotavljanje delovnih mest, ustvarjanje blaginje ali tehnoloĹĄke inovacije, QHJDWLYHQ YSOLY SD QSU VWUXSHQL RGSDGNL DOL QH]DNRQLWD SODĂžLOD politikom). Pomembna je narava programov, ki jih podjetje izbere za vlaganje svojih sredstev, da bi zagotovilo poseben namen, pa tudi REVHJ YNOMXĂžHYDQMD GUXĂĽEHQLK ]DGHY LQ YSOLYRY Y VDPR SROLWLNR podjetja (Wood 1991). Meehan in drugi (2006 v Jamali 2008) trdijo, da ta model predstavlja velik prispevek k znanosti, manj pa je uporaben v dejanski praksi upravljanja, zlasti pri izvajanju programov DOP/DON ter pri merjenju njihovih vplivov.

3 DruĹžbena odgovornost in podjetja v Sloveniji â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ugotovitve raziskave Zanimalo nas je, kako slovenska podjetja razvijajo druĹžbeno odgovornost, zato smo najprej opravili namizno raziskavo v aprilu 2016, aprila in maja 2016 pa ĹĄe 12 polstrukturiranih intervjujev z mnenjskimi voditelji v Sloveniji. Z deskriptivno metodo analize smo zbrane podatke iz dvanajstih polstrukturiranih intervjujev s WUDQVNULSFLMR WXGL ]DSLVDOL 3RGDWNH VPR ] YHĂžNUDWQLP NRGLUDQMHP oblikovali v tematske mreĹže, kategorije in podkategorije. NaĹĄa NOMXĂžQDXJRWRYLWHYMHELODGDMHWHĂĽDYDY6ORYHQLMLQHSR]QDYDQMHLQ nerazumevanje pojma DOP. Ljudje so premalo informirani o tem SRGURĂžMX ]D]QDYDMR SULPDQMNOMDM Y L]REUDĂĽHYDQMX VSORĂŁQH MDYQRVWL podjetnikov in javnih usluĹžbencev o DOP. V sami raziskavi pa smo pridobili ĹĄe naslednje ugotovitve: 3.1 Problem izraza Sogovorniki so bili mnenja, da druĹžbena odgovornost ni pravi termin, ker predstavlja neko razumevanje, kot da je to kolektivna odgovornost nas vseh za vse. Smo individualne osebe, posamezniki, ki smo odgovorni za vsako dejanje, in moramo tudi nositi posledice, GREUH DOL VODEH 2GJRYRUQRVW VH ]DĂžQH SUL Sosamezniku, torej do sebe, in potem tudi do osebe s katerim si (v odnosu), do svoje druĹžine in potem do skupnosti, kjerkoli Ĺže delujeĹĄ, v kakrĹĄnih koli oblikah. Gre za nivo osebne integritete, ki jo nosimo s sabo, 227


kamorkoli gremo; odvisno, kakĹĄne imamo moĂĽQRVWL PRĂž SRREODVWLODÂŤ V WHP VH WXGL YHĂžD QDĂŁD RGJRYRUQRVW QLNROL SD QLVPR brez odgovornosti. To podpira potrebo, da definicijo DOP razĹĄirimo v definicijo DOO â&#x20AC;&#x201C; GUXĂĽEHQD RGJRYRUQRVW RVHEH QH JOHGH QD YUVWR SUDYQH DOL IL]LĂžQH kot posameznika). Ĺ ele nato lahko to razĹĄirimo v odgovornost posameznih skupin v druĹžbi, med katera sodijo vse organizacije (podjetja, neprofitne organizacijeâ&#x20AC;Ś) ter skupine, kjer se kdorkoli zdruĹžuje. O tem je Ĺže leta 2006 sprejel razĹĄirjeno definicijo tudi strokovni svet inĹĄtituta IRDO, ki pravi: ÂťAktivnosti inĹĄtituta IRDO izhajajo iz EU opredelitve druĹžbene odgovornosti. Pri tem Strokovni svet InĹĄtituta IRDO druĹžbeno odgovornost pojmuje ĹĄe ĹĄirĹĄe, in sicer kot (Knez Riedl in Mulej 2006):  individualno druĹžbeno odgovornost (posameznikovo),  druĹžbeno odgovornost organizacij (podjetij, zavodov, izobraĹževalnih in raziskovalnih inĹĄtitucij, nevladnih  organizacij, vladnih organizacij),  druĹžbeno odgovornost poklicnih skupin,  druĹžbeno odgovornost naroda, drĹžave, zveze. Na podlagi raziskovaOQHJDGHODLQĂŁWLWXWD,5'2LQUD]OLĂžQLKDYWRUVNLK ĂžODQNRY NDWHULK VRDYWRUML VPR ELOL Y SUHWHNOLK -tih letih, lahko potrdimo pomen osebne odgovornosti posameznika in njegovih vrednot za razvoj druĹžbene odgovornosti. Probleme in njihove moĹžne reĹĄitve, ki so jih izpostavljali naĹĄi intervjuvanci, prikazujemo v strnjeni obliki v sklopu tematskih kategorij, ki smo jih pridobili s kodiranjem v procesu analize besedil LQWHUYMXMHY3UHGVWDYOMHQLVRNOMXĂžQLSRXGDUNLL]L]MDYLQWHUYMXYDQFHY 3.2 Vrednote v druĹžbi Problem:  ,PDPRNUL]R]DUDGLYUHGQRWNLSUHYODGXMHMR9UHGQRWHVHQDPUHĂž dokazujejo v praksi in skozi dejanja.  IzobraĹževanje hkrati, ko daje znanje, daje vrednoteâ&#x20AC;Ś  Interesi so pojavna oblika uporabe vrednot in so lahko ozki in NUDWNRURĂžQLDOLĂŁLUĂŁLLQGROJRURĂžQL  Vrednote so padle ravno zato, ker se tudi premalo namenja konec NRQFHY]DWRDOLSDQLĂžVUHGVWHY]DL]REUDĂĽHYDQMHYWHMVPHUL  9 6ORYHQLML ĂŁH QHNDM OHW QD]DM QL QLKĂžH UHFLNOLUDO YVH VPR RNURJ PHWDOL SD ĂŁH VHGDM LPDPR SUREOHPH V ĂžUQLPL RGODJDOLĂŁĂžL SD QH YHPĂŁHVĂžLPYVH3DJUHGROMXGMH]OLMHMRYUHNHQRWHUQHNRVYRMR svinjarijo, pa tako naprejâ&#x20AC;Ś mislim. To je neprimerljivo. 228


 6SUHPLQMDWLRGORþHYDOFHWLVWHNLVRVWDULOHWQLPRJRþHNHU MLPMHSUHYHþXGREQR ReÅ¡itev:  Družbena odgovornost je zgodba o vrednotah, za katere so VSR]QDOL GD VR GREHVHGQR QXMQH GD þORYHãWYR SUHÃ¥LYL Y REGREMX neoliberalizma ter krize izobilja in bede.  StrateÅ¡ki pristop z elementi: vrednote â&#x20AC;&#x201C; NXOWXUQD GHGLãþLQD â&#x20AC;&#x201C; HYURSVNH SROLWLNH V SURJUDPL LQ ILQDQþQLPL YLUL â&#x20AC;&#x201C; inovativnost â&#x20AC;&#x201C; HNRQRPVNL XþLQNL â&#x20AC;&#x201C; bi prispeval tudi k uveljavitvi družbene odgovornosti v naÅ¡i družbi.  Bo treba delati na tem v pozitivnem duhu te družbene odgovornosti in na spremembi kulture.  UpoÅ¡tevanje družbene odgovornosti na osebni ravni in na poslovni ravni bi pomenila spremembo vrednot v družbi in dvig tega stanja duha, ki je trenutno relativno slab v državi.  2GORþHYDOFL QDM EL ELOL YHþNUDW Y VWLNX ] UHDOQRVWMR Y 6ORYHQLML LQ SRWHPELRGORþLWYHNLVRSDþWUDMQRVWQHR]YH]DQHYVDMQDQMLKRY mandatELOHGUXJDþQH  Imamo kulturo bivanja, imamo kulturo življenja in kultura družbene odgovornosti ni sama po sebi dana. Treba jo je vzgojiti, WUHEDMRMHXþLWLWUHEDMRMHNRWURÃ¥R]DOLYDWL]DWRGDER]UDVOD 2GQRVIL]LþQHRVHEH SRVDPH]QLND GR'OP Problem:  7UHQXWQRMHWROHQDNOMXþQR]DQLPDQMH  3UHPDORVH]DYHGDPRGDWRQLOHNRQFHSWDPSDNGDMHWRþORYHãND ODVWQRVWGDXSRãWHYDãSRVOHGLFHVYRMLKPRÃ¥QLKGHMDQMLQRGORþLWHY za ljudi in naravo.  1XMQR MH SRWUHEQR '2 UDYQDQMH ]D þORYHãWYR VDM JUH za veliko SUHQRYRþORYHNRYLKODVWQRVWL]DWRGDELþORYHãWYRSUHÃ¥LYHOR ReÅ¡itev:  Okrepiti bi morali podzavestno zavedanje o tako potrebnem ravnanju.  To bi za posameznika morala postati navada tako živeti.  DO mora postati sestavni del družine kot osnovne celice, saj gre za skrb za sedanje in prihodnje generacije.  '2MHSRWUHEQRSRYH]DWLVVWURNRYQLPSRGURþMHPGHORYDQMDRVHEH

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3.4 Odnos podjetja do DOP Problem:  Podjetja imajo dvojno odgovornost: odgovornost, da nekaj QDUHGLMRLQQDNDNãHQQDþLQWRQaredijo in zakaj, ter odgovornost, da bi nekaj morali narediti, pa tega ne naredijo.  Gre za kompleksen celostni koncept, princip delovanja podjetij.  3RGMHWMD QH REVWDMDMR VDPD QH RGORþDMR VDPD RGORþDMR YSOLYQL ljudje v njih.  Problem je razumevanje pojma DOP - odgovornost niso samo donacije ali pa sponzorstva, ampak je to mnogo širše. Rešitev:  DO naj bo sestavni del DNK podjetja, delovanje podjetja ob zavedanju odgovornosti do vseh deležnikov.  DO je odgovornost podjetja za svoje delovanje, pri katerem vklMXþXMHYVHVYRMHGHOHåQLNHWDNR]QRWUDMNRW]XQDMSRGMHWMD  '2 QDM SUHGVWDYOMD FHORYLWR LQ þLP EROM VLVWHPDWLþQR YSHWRVW podjetja v okolje, v katerem deluje, lokalno in globalno. Predstavlja QDMQDþLQIXQNFLRQLUDQMDRSHULUDQMDSRGMHWMD 3.5 Strateški pristopi podjetij k DOP Problem:  Deležniški koncept jim ni tako blizu in ga jemljejo bolj parcialno.  Še vedno jim družbena odgovornost pomeni predvsem filantropijo, pa tudi že orodje marketinga.  Z DO se ukvarjajo predvsem slovenska podjetja, ki delujejo na tujih trgih in podjetja, ki so v tuji lasti in delujejo v Sloveniji (multinacionalke)  ='2VHXNYDUMDMRSUHGYVHPGREURVWRMHþDSRGMHWMDNLQLVRYQHNL krizi. So pa tudi takšna, ki so se z dobrimi praksami iz krize ven SREUDODLQVRSDþGDQHVXVSHãQDSRGMHWja.  Filozofija, ki ni podkrepljena s kakšnim denarjem, pomeni, da ni WROLNRGHMDQMYR]DGMXEHVHGHVRSDþSUHPDOR3RJRVWRMHWUHEDWR WXGLSRGNUHSLWL,QWDNUDWVHSDþSR]QDNDPGHQDUYELVWYXVOHGL  6ORYHQVND SRGMHWMD ERGR ]DþHOD L]JXEOMDWL SRVHO NRW dobavitelji v QDEDYQLYHULJLþHVHWHPXQHERGRSULODJDMDOD%LELORSDGREURþH bi se to bolj sistemsko delalo, da bi se res prilagajala in da bodo posel zadrževala. Ker so pritiski 'biznis to biznis' partnerjev vse YHþML VDM PRUDMR SRURþDWL SR FHOL GRbavni verigi in bodo od vseh dobaviteljev to zahtevali.  Neke konkretne povezave med poslovnim rezultatom in DO pobudami ni, ker se tudi ne spremlja tega sistemsko.  3RGMHWMDQH]QDMRL]PHULWLXþLQNRY'2 230


ReÅ¡itev:  DO je osnova za gospodarski razvoj  Podjetja uporabljajo družbeno odgovornost tudi za utrditev YUHGQRW]ODVWLWLVWDNLUD]PLãOMDMRGROJRURþQR  Preko odnosa in vrednot, ki se prenaÅ¡ajo znotraj podjetja, se kaže tudi identiteta in odnos podjetja do vsega ostalega.  = '2 VH NUHSL XJOHG SRGMHWMD LQ YHþa zavzetost ter pripadnost zaposlenih.  3RGMHWMDNLMLKSUHSR]QDPR]DGLQDPLþQRUDVWRþDLQWUDMQRUDVWRþD YHþLQRPDGUXÃ¥EHQRRGJRYRUQHGHMDYQRVWLÃ¥HRSUDYOMDMRMLKÃ¥LYLMR ampak jih tako bodisi ne poimenujejo ali pa se bodisi tega enostavno ne zavedajo, dDWRSRþQHMR-HSDGUXÃ¥EHQRRGJRYRUQR delovanje temelj za trajnostno rast podjetja.  3RGMHWMD Ã¥H SULSUDYOMDMR WUDMQRVWQD LQ '2 SRURþLOD LPDMR Ã¥H ponekod pripravljene strategije DO, ki jih tudi izvajajo v praksi. K temu jih spodbuja tudi nagrada Horus.  S kDQGLGLUDQMHP]DUD]OLþQHQDJUDGHLQSUL]QDQMD =ODWDQLW+RUXV Družini prijazno podjetje, Gazelaâ&#x20AC;¦) se podjetja primerjajo z drugimi in tekmujejo z njimi ter s seboj.  3RGMHWMD LPDMR UD]OLþQR UD]YLWRVW '2 RG WDNãQLK NL WR SRGURþMH UHVQLþQRGREUR SR]QDMR do takÅ¡nih, ki namenjajo sredstva samo za sponzorstvo in donacije, ali pa Å¡e to ne.  .RPXQLFLUDQMH]GHOHÃ¥QLNLSRWHND]YHþNRPXQLNDFLMVNLPLRURGMLLQ SR YHþ NDQDOLK )% VSOHW WLVNDQL PHGLML HOHNWURQVNL PHGLML navznoter in navzven, PRâ&#x20AC;¦).  DO je za podjetja tudi tržna niÅ¡a, ker jo zahtevajo tudi potroÅ¡niki.  3RGMHWMH VH PRUD RGORþLWL NDM MH WLVWR NDU PX ER GDOR QDMYHþMH XþLQNH]DQMHJRYRSRVORYDQMHLQKNUDWL]DYVHQMHJRYHGHOHÃ¥QLNH Na primer že v samem razvoju produkta se lahko razmiÅ¡lja o družbeni odgovornosti. Na državni ravni pa verjetno skozi razna izobraževanja in povezovanja s podjetji.  9SRGMHWMXVR]D'2RGJRYRUQLYVLYVLGHOHÃ¥QLNL9HGQRSDVH]DþQH z vzorom, kar pa mora biti ali lastnik ali/in pa top menedžment.  'REUH SUDNVH VR NOMXþQH ]D ãLUMHQMH GUXJDþQHJD UD]PLVOHND LQ SRWHPGHORYDQMDQDSRGURþMXGUXÃ¥EHQHRGJRYRUQRVWL 3.6 DOP pri multinacionalkah v Sloveniji  Multinacionalke v Sloveniji prenaÅ¡ajo DO v lokalno prakso, s tem VHXþLMRWXGLSRGMHWMDYVORYHQVNLODVWLYORNDOQHPRNROMX  Multinacionalke imajo DO organizirano centralno. Gre za funkcijo, NL MH Y PDWLþQHP SRGMHWMX Y VNORSX QHNHJD GRORþHQHJD RGGHOND kjer se planirajo aktivnosti, kjer se postavljajo neke usmeritve, VPHUQLFH LQ WDNR GDOMH ,Q SRWHP ORNDOQD SRGMHWMD GRELMR  YHþ DOL manj proste roke za oblikovanje lokalnih strategij. 231


 Tuja podjetja imajo lahko pozitiven ali negativen vpliv na slovensko lokalno okolje. Imamo podjetja, ki so bila prevzeta, ki so bila prej mnogo bolj prisotna v lokalnem okolju, kot so potem, ko so bila prevzeta, ali pa se je njihov fokus spremenil.  3ULPXOWLQDFLRQDONDKNMHUVR'2VPHUQLFHGRORĂžHQH]HORNUDWNRLQ jedrnato, so z njimi seznanjeni vsi zaposleni in so se vsi zaposleni tudi dolĹžni ravnati v skladu z njimi.  3RURĂžDVHYOHWQHPSRURĂžLOXYVDWDSRGjetja kotirajo na seznamu, npr. 'Sustainability Index'. Vodja, se pravi predsednik uprave FHORWQH VNXSLQH LPD GRORĂžHQ RGVWRWHN VYRMHJD 1%2-ja, se pravi svojih letnih planov, ciljev, vezanih na ta indeks. Vodja je dolĹžan ne samo zagotoviti dobre rezultate iz poslovanja, ampak tudi, da se podjetje dobro odreĹže na Sustainability indeksu npr.. 3.7 Pomen vodje za DOP  Za uspeĹĄnost podjetja je pomembno, da se vodja zaveda pomena vrednot DO in da to izvaja tudi v praksi.  9UKQMLPHQHGĂĽPHQWVHRWHPSRGURĂžMXQHL]obraĹžuje veliko preko seminarjev ipd., ampak predvsem skozi primere dobrih praks in v ODVWQL SUDNVL 2 WHP SRGURĂžMX VH EROM L]REUDĂĽXMH VUHGQML menedĹžment, ki nato spoznanja prenaĹĄa vodstvu in drugim zaposlenim. Zlasti so to oddelki za kadrovski menedĹžment, odnose z javnostmi in marketing.  2GORĂžLWHY]D'2MHĂŁHSRVHEHMYPDOLKLQVUHGQMHYHOLNLKSRGMHWMLK ]HOR RGYLVQD RG ODVWQLND 9 YHĂžMLK SRGMHWMLK SD VH ]D WR RGORĂžD SUHGVHGQLN XSUDYH DOL GLUHNWRU NRW NOMXĂžQL SURPRWRU WRYUVWQLK DNWLYQRVWL 8UHVQLĂžHYDQMH ]DYez za DO nato predajo srednjemu menedĹžmentu, ko oddelki med seboj sodelujejo, da vse skupaj sistemsko izvajajo.  Pobuda za DO prihaja tako od spodaj navzgor kot od zgoraj navzdol. .RULVWLNLMLKVSRPRĂžMR'23SUHSR]QDMRVORYHQVNDSRGMHWMD Pozitivni uĂžLQNL  podjetje vidi, da ljudje opazijo DO pobude, zlasti stranke in zaposleni  podjetja prepoznavajo krepitev prepoznavnosti v lokalnem okolju, v slovenskem okolju  SRGMHWMDGRELYDMREROMĂŁHNDGUHLQSRVOHGLĂžQR]GREULPLNDGULODKNR tudi uspeĹĄneje gradijo svojo poslovno zgodbo  '2SULVSHYDNLQRYLUDQMXNHUVROMXGMHNLĂžXWLMRGDVRYRGVWYDGR njih druĹžbeno odgovorna, bolj pripadni, bolj zagnani in tudi bolj ustvarjalni zaradi tega, vse do inovativnosti.  3RGMHWMDVHĂĽH]DYHGDMRGDVHMLP'2VSODĂžDLQGDMHto dobro. 232


1HJDWLYQLXĂžLQNL  podjetja ponekod DO izrabljajo za promocijo, v resnici pa ne delajo QLĂžNRQNUHWQHJDGUXJDĂžHÂŤ  Y6ORYHQLMLY]DĂžHWNXSRGMHWMDRWHPQLVRYHOLNRYHGHODĂžHSUDYVR marsikatera druĹžbeno odgovorno Ĺže delovala, zato so DO omejila le nDHQGHONDUMHPRJRĂžHQDY]YHQODKNRGHORYDORSUHMQHJDWLYQR kot pozitivno. 3.9 Pobude za spodbujanje DOP v Sloveniji Sogovorniki so prepoznali naslednje pobude za razvoj DOP v Sloveniji in mnenja:  Zlata nit, Gazela, certifikat DruĹžini prijazno podjetje, Slovenska nagrada za druĹžbeno odgovornost Horus.  Organizatorji tekmovanj na temo DO poskuĹĄajo druĹžbeno odgovornost podjetij vpenjati tudi v metodologijo, zastavljali so tudi vpraĹĄanja v zvezi z druĹžbeno odgovornostjo oziroma njihovim druĹžbenim odtisom.  2G]LYL SRGMHWLM VSORK WLVWLK NL VR QHNDM ĂžDVD VDPR RSD]RYDOFL SRWHPSDVHYSURMHNWHYNOMXĂžLMRVR]HORGREUL  2G]LYVWUDQNQDSUHMHPQDJUDGHDOLSUL]QDQMDGRORĂžHQHJDSRGMHWMD MH ELO RELĂžDMQR ]HOR SR]LWLYHQ 3RMDYOMD VH YHOLNR OMXGL NL VH prijavljajo na prosta delovna mesta in napiĹĄejo v prijavi, da jih podjetje zanima, saj so videli, da ima podjetje to nagrado.  Horus in podobne iniciative so k razvoju in boljĹĄemu razumevanju DO zelo pripomogle.  InĹĄtitut IRDO je precej dvignil pozornost do druĹžbene odgovornosti. Tudi nagrada Horus, ki se podeljuje, je vzpostavila eno pozornost, to so dobre aktivnostiâ&#x20AC;Ś 3.10 DOP v slovenski druĹžbi Problem: 7HĂĽDYH V NDWHULPL VH WUHQXWQR VRRĂžD VORYHQVND GUXĂĽED JOHGH druĹžbene odgovornosti, so:  Stanje druĹžbene odgovornosti v Sloveniji je na ĹĄe zelo nizkem nivoju.  2EĂžLQVNLVYHWQLNLLQREĂžLQVNHXSUDYHGDMRSUHPDORSRXGDUNDDOLSD premalo cenijo trud za DO. ReĹĄitev - pri analizi odgovorov sogovornikov smo ugotovili, da je potrebno: 1.Spremeniti kulturo â&#x20AC;&#x201C; druĹžbena odgovornost mora postati normalna QDYDGDYVHKĂžODQRYGUXĂĽEHLQER]DĂĽLYHODNRMRERPRYVLĂĽLYHOLY praksi. 233


2.Enoplastni ali pa eno-deležniški modeli družbene odgovornosti, ki VPRMLPELOLSULþDR]VHãHNDURGYLMDMRYQDãHPRNROMXHQRVWDYQR ne doprinesejo dovolj. 3.Da je potrebno družbeno odgovornost izvajati tudi v lokalnem okolju, s podporo lokalnih skupnosti. 4.'D RGORþHYDOFL QD YVHK UDYQHK SUHPDOR UD]XPHMR NRQFHSW družbene odgovornosti, zato ga tudi ne morejo izvajati v praksi (tako na nacionalni, kot na lokalni ravni). 3.11 Drugi pojmi, povezani z družbeno odgovornostjo Sogovorniki so v intervjujih podali tudi izraze, povezane z drugimi SRMPL Y RNYLUX GUXåEHQH RGJRYRUQRVWL DOL ãLUãH 1DMYHþNUDW VR omenjali trajnostni razvoj, krožno, zeleno gospodarstvo, socialno podjHWQLãWYR GUXåEHQL XþLQHN LQ LQWHJUDOQR ]HOHQR HNRQRPLMR Y kontekstu družbene odgovornosti.

4 Sklepne misli Kot je razvidno iz naših intervjujev, veliko sogovornikov ugotavlja, da neodgovornost do sebe in drugih, ležernost in užitek bivanja v ªREPRþMXXGREMD©PQRJLPSUHSUHþXMHGDELVH'23DNWLYQRORWLOL 3UHYHþ ELURNUDFLMH LQ QHMDVQD ]DNRQRGDMD SDUFLDOQR RGORþDQMH državnih organov, lokalnih skupnosti in nekaterih podjetij brez strukturiranega pristopa prav tako prispevajo k temu. Kljub temu ugotavljamo, da se zlasti v civilni družbi in gospodarstvu DOP vse EROM XYHOMDYOMD *UH ]D SURFHV ªRG VSRGDM QDY]JRU© NL SRþDVL velikokrat tudi skozi neformalne strukture in institucije, spreminja odnos do vprašanja v družbeni odgovornosti in ga uveljavlja v praksi. 2WHPSULþDMRãWHYLOQLªDUWHIDNWL©NRWVRGHQLPRUD]OLþQHQDJUDGHLQ certifikati za družbeno odgovornost ter iniciative nevladnih organizacij in podjetij. ýHWXGLY6ORYHQLMLãHQL]DGRVWQHSRGSRUHYYODGQLKSROLWLNDK]DUD]YRM DOP, le-WR NRW NRQNXUHQþno prednost uporabljajo mnoga podjetja, zlasti tista, ki delujejo na tujih trgih ali pa tuja, ki prihajajo k nam. =DKWHYH QD WXMLK WUJLK QDPUHþ VSRGEXMDMR SRGMHWMD N XYHOMDYOMDQMX družbene odgovornosti v njihovi poslovni praksi, kar pa tuja podjetja uspešno prenašajo tudi v poslovanje svojih podjetij v Sloveniji. Tako se med seboj podjetja vse bolj primerjajo in kreirajo svoje lastne VWUDWHJLMH GUXåEHQH RGJRYRUQRVWL N þHPXU MLK QHQD]DGQMH XVPHUMD WXGL SROLWLND (8 QD SRGURþMX GUXåEHQH RGJRYRUQRVWL 9VD HYURpska podjetja, torej tudi slovenska, so z letom 2017 primorana (to ]DHQNUDWYHOMDSUHGYVHP]DYHOLNDSRGMHWMD SRURþDWLRQHHNRQRPVNLK YLGLNLK SRVORYDQMD Y VNODGX ] GLUHNWLYR R QHILQDQþQHP SRURþDQMX 0RUGDERWXGLREYH]QRSRURþDQMHR'23GRGDWQLNRUDNNWHmu, da bo 234


GUXĂĽEHQD RGJRYRUQRVW Y 6ORYHQLML SRĂžDVL UD]XPOMHQD ĂŁLUĂŁH NRW SROLWLĂžQLNRQFHSWQHOHSURVWRYROMQDSUDNVDNLMHL]NOMXĂžQRYGRPHQL poslovanja podjetij.

5 Literatura in viri 1. Brammer, S., Jackson, G. in Matten, D. (2012). Corporate social responsibility and institutional theory: New perspectives on private governance. Socio-Economic Review 10 (1): 3ĘĽ28. 2. Carroll, A. B.. (2015). Corporate social responsibility: The centerpiece of competing and complementary frameworks. Organizational Dynamics 44: ĘĽ 3. Evropska komisija. (2002). Green Paper on corporate social responsibility. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=URISERV:n26039&from=EN [dostop 30. 1. 2016]. 4. Evropska komisija. (2011). $UHQHZHG(8VWUDWHJ\ĘĽIRUFRUSRUDWH social responsibility. Brussels: COM 681. http://ec.europa.eu/growth/industry/corporate-social-responsibility/ index_en.htm [dostop 2. 5. 2016]. 5. Evropska komisija. (2011). 6SRURĂžLOR.RPLVLMH(YURSVNHPXSDUODPHQWX svetu, Evropskemu ekonomsko-socialnemu odboru in odboru regij. Obnovljena strategija EU za druĹžbeno odgovornost podjetij za obdobje 2011â&#x20AC;&#x201C;14  &20NRQĂž KWWSHXU-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/SL/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:52011DC0681&from=EN [dostop 2. 5. 2016]. 6. Evropska komisija. (2014). Strategija za druĹžbeno odgovornost podjetij Evropske Komisije 2014. http://ec.europa.eu/growth/industry/corporatesocial-responsibility/index_en.htm [dostop 2. 4. 2016]. 7. Evropska komisija. (2015). EU Multi Stakeholder Forum on Corporate Social Responsibility. Executive Summary. Brussels, Belgium. http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search ?q=cache:aF06m48C6RYJ:ec.europa.eu/DocsRoom/documents/8774/at tachments/1/translations/en/renditions/native+&cd=1&hl=sl&ct=clnk& gl=si [dostop 2. 5. 2016]. 8. Freeman, R. Edward. (1984). Strategic management: a stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman. 9. Freeman, R. Edward. (2001). Stakeholder Theory of the Modern Corporation. Perspectives in Business Ethics 3:144. http://businessethics.qwriting.qc.cuny.edu/files/2012/01/Freeman.pdf [dostop 22. 2. 2016]. 10. Hrast, A. (2015). Koncept razvoja druĹžbene odgovorQRVWLYSRGMHWMLKĘĽ Preglednica predlaganih ukrepov. Maribor: InĹĄtitut IRDO za SPIRIT Slovenija. 11. ,5'2 ĘĽ *UDGLYD,5'2ĘĽ,QĂŁWLWXWD]DUD]YRMGUXĂĽEHQH odgovornosti. ĘĽ $UKLY  12. Jamali, D. (2008). A Stakeholder Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility: A Fresh Perspective into Theory and Practice. Journal of Business Ethics (2008) 82:213â&#x20AC;&#x201C;231. Springer 2008. DOI 10.1007/s10551007-9572-4

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13. Knez Riedl, J. in Mulej, M.. (2006). IRDO definicija DOP. http://www.irdo.si/druzbena_od govornost.html [dostop 4. 5. 2016]. 14. Matten, D. in Moon, J.. (2004). 'Implicit' and 'Explicit' CSR â&#x20AC;&#x201C; A conceptual framework for understanding CSR in Europe. International Centre for Corporate Social responsibility. Nottingham, UK. 15. Matten, D. in Moon, J.. (2008). â&#x20AC;&#x153;Implicitâ&#x20AC;? and â&#x20AC;&#x153;Explicitâ&#x20AC;? CSR: A Conceptual Framework for a comparative understanding of Corporate Social Responsibility. Academy of Management Review 33 (2): 404â&#x20AC;&#x201C;424. 16. Standard ISO 26000: 2010. (2010). ,62ĘĽ Social responsibility. http://www.iso.org/ iso/home/standards/iso26000.htm [dostop 2. 5. 2016]. 17. Vlada RS. (2005). Strategija razvoja Slovenije. Urad Republike Slovenije za makroekonomske analize in razvoj. http://www.umar.gov.si/fileadmin/user_upload/projekti/02_Strategijarazv ojaSlovenije.pdf [dostop 2. 5. 2016]. 18. Vlada RS. (2014). Strategija razvoja Slovenije 2014â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2020 (osnutek). Avgust 2013. Vlada RS. http://www.mgrt.gov.si/fileadmin/mgrt.gov.si/pageuploads/EKP/Drugi_dok umenti/SRS_09_08_2013.pdf [dostop 2. 4. 2016]. 19. Vlada RS. (2015). Slovenska Strategija Pametne Specializacije S4, 2015. http://www.svrk.gov.si/fileadmin/svrk.gov.si/pageuploads/Dokumenti_za_ objavo_na_vstopni_strani/S4_dokument_potrjeno_na_VRS_150920.pdf [dostop 2. 5. 2016]. 20. Vlada RS. (2016). Vizija Slovenije 2050. http://www.svrk.gov.si/si/medijsko_sredisce/novica /article/1328/6259/e5232d518957bd131f21d9f6146bfd12/ [dostop 4. 5. 2016]. 21. Wood, D. J. (1991). Corporate Social Performance Revisited. The Academy of Management Review   ĘĽ

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'U7LQD9XNDVRYLĂź Associate Professor, DOBA Business School Maribor, Slovenia and International School for Social and Business Studies Celje, Slovenia tina.vukasovic@net.doba.si

6WDOLĂŁĂžDĂŁWXGHQWRYGRSRWURĂŁQMH perutninskega mesa Povzetek Dogajanja na prehrambenem trgu zaznamujejo v zadnjih nekaj letih hitre, presenetljive in kompleksne spremembe. Prehrambena LQGXVWULMD GHOXMH Y GLQDPLĂžQHP RNROMX NL ]DKWHYD QHQHKQR prilagajanje in ukrepanje. Dobro poznavanje potroĹĄnikov, njihovih QDYDGLQĂĽHOMDWHUPRWLYRY]DQDNXSGRORĂžHQHJDL]GHONDMHĂžHGDOMH SRPHPEQR SRGURĂžMH UD]LVNRYDQMD 9 SULVSHYNX SULND]XMHPR UH]XOWDWHUD]LVNDYHRVWDOLĂŁĂžLKĂŁWXGHQWRYGRSRWURĂŁQMHSHUXWQLQVNHJD mesa v Sloveniji. Uporabili smo kvantitativno metodo raziskovanja. 5H]XOWDWL NDĂĽHMR SR]LWLYQR SHUFHSFLMR LQ VWDOLĂŁĂžD do potroĹĄnje perutninskega mesa. Ĺ tudentje percepirajo perutninsko meso kot zelo zdravo, varno, okusno in kvalitetno. .OMXĂžQH EHVHGH VWDOLĂŁĂžD QDNXSQH QDYDGH SRWURĂŁQMD ĂŁWXGHQWMH perutninsko meso Koda JEL klasifikacije: M31, Q13

The attitudes of students in consumption of poultry meat Abstract The development of the food market has, in recent years, been marked by rapid, unexpected and complex changes. Based on the results of the analyses and trends in the meat processing industry, it has been discovered that the poultry meat sector represents the market which is growing and is very dynamic. Good familiarity with consumers, their habits, wishes, and motives for buying a certain product is becoming an increasingly important research area. The goal of this chapter was to explore attitudes and habits of students in consumption of poultry meat in Slovenia. The quantitative method of research was used. The results showed that Slovenian students 237


express a positive attitude towards poultry meat. Students perceive poultry meat as very healthy, safe, tasty, and of good quality. Keywords: attitudes, habits, consumption, students, poultry meat JEL classification code: M31, Q13

1 Introduction Recently, there have been significant changes in the field of food sales and thus new challenges and opportunities have also presented themselves. The food processing industry is faced with complex challenges that are associated with changes in the global environment (at local and national levels, in Europe and worldwide): changes in the volume and structure of demands (a decline of trust and rationalization of consumption), changes in the volume of food production, food prices rise, the need to provide quality and safe food and high consumer preference to products of domestic origin. Consumers have been becoming pessimistic, suspicious, thoughtful and rational. Food quality and safety have become an important consumer concern. Therefore, new safety and quality rules and standards have been designed by the public and private sectors and have been widely adopted as well as by brands and labels. The meat industry is one of the most competitive international branches and is currently in its mature stage of development. Especially nutritional habits regarding poultry meat have recently undergone some major changes. In the past, we have witnessed an intensive process of concentration and consolidation in the operating activities of the world poultry meat industry, as well as the poultry meat market that were formed by the influence of the shocks caused by the outbreak of the avian influenza (H5N1). Consumer attitudes to meat consumption are influenced by a number of factors, such as price and availability. The major differences, in the volume and type of meat consumed between countries, are thought to be primarily due to differences in culture and eating habits (0DJQXVVRQHWDOâDUÞHYLßHWDO). Even though some studies have already reported signs of people in industrialized countries eating less meat than before (âDUÞHYLß HW DO ), globally the trend is opposite. For instance, Fiala (2008), expects that the consumption of meat worldwide will rise by 72% between 2000 and 2030, and Steifield et al., (2006) projects the global production of meat to more than double between 2000 and 2050 due to 238


increasing world population, (âDUÞHYLßHWDO 

rising

income

and

urbanization

The goal of this chapter is to explore attitudes and habits of students regarding the consumption of poultry meat. The survey examined various factors and determinants that influence the attitudes, perceptions, and consumption of poultry meat in Slovenia. A very important segment of the research was the one where we tried to determine the importance of the origin of fresh poultry meat in the purchase-decision-making process.

2 Research materials and methods In the next part of the chapter we will summarize the key research characteristics. The consumer survey was conducted using a selfadministered questionnaire on a sample of 120 undergraduate students with the use of closed and open questions. The survey examined various factors and determinants that influence their attitudes, buying habits, perceptions and consumption of poultry meat in Slovenia. The sample consisted of 85 women and 35 men. The highest number of respondents was in the age group between 25 and 35 years. The respondents were interested in poultry meat suggesting that the survey respondents would provide an interesting study group for this issue. Several attributes of poultry meat were measured in the questionnaire by means of the five-point Likert scale anchors of 1 = low or bad degree of the characteristic, and 5 = high or good degree of the characteristic. The questionnaire was distributed among the respondents, self-administrated and collected after three days. The data obtained from the survey were analyzed with univariate analysis in order to check distributions of frequencies and to detect possible errors occurring during the research and/or data entering. Univariate analysis was performed to examine the differences in attitudes and habits among respondents. The level of comparison was set at, 0.05. The data collected from the surveys was put through a validity assessment (KMO = 0.845; Bartlettâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Test sign = 0.000) thus revealing that the sample of the study was appropriate for factor analysis and that there is a strong relationship between the variables. The reliability analysis of the research instrument yielded a Cronbachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Alpha value of 0.87 and a significance level of 0.000 which represents that the reliability of the questionnaire is acceptable.

239


3 Results and discussion Buying habits and perceptions of poultry meat Results of our survey show that 100% of students consumed meat. The data indicates that most of the students consume poultry, pork, beef/veal and lamb. Students consume mainly chicken (93%), turkey (85%), beef/veal (55%) and pork meat (47%). Similar consumer meat consumption results were obtained in a study of European consumers by 9XNDVRYLĂź    as well as in the study for Greek consumers by Sismanoglou and Tzimitra-Kalogianni (2011) and in the study for Turkish consumers by Aral et al., (2013). Also, this is in accordance with previous statements regarding poultry meatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s position, based on attitude towards poultry meat in Slovenia and eating habits, as being very important in everyday use. Table 1 shows the results, i.e. answers to the question, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Do you like to eat poultry meatâ&#x20AC;?, as follows: 62.98% of the students answered with â&#x20AC;&#x153;I like it very muchâ&#x20AC;?, 27.13% answered â&#x20AC;&#x153;I like itâ&#x20AC;?. A small percentage of students choose the answer â&#x20AC;&#x153;Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s goodâ&#x20AC;?, 9.89%. Answers â&#x20AC;&#x153;I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t like itâ&#x20AC;? and â&#x20AC;&#x153;I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t like it at allâ&#x20AC;? were not chosen at all. A T-test was performed and Leveneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s test results indicated equal variances between both male and female students groups (F = 0.981; p = 0.322). No significant differences could be detected (p = 0226>0.05). Table 1. The percentage of responses to the question â&#x20AC;&#x153;Do you like to eat poultry meat?â&#x20AC;? % 62.98 27.13 9.89

I like it very much I like it Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s good

Among the purchase motives domestic origin (M=4.86), fresh (M=4.84), taste (M=4.81), quality (M=4.74), healthy (M=4.68) and safety (M=4.55) meat were indicated as the most important reasons for purchasing poultry meat. Results related to the place where meat was prepared, showed that students primarily consumed meat prepared at home. Consumption of meat, prepared in student's restaurants and fast food restaurants were equally represented, but to a lesser extent than home-prepared meat (Figure 1). Bowen et al., (2012) have noted that most meat and poultry consumption occurs in the home environment. This is 240


very important result from both surveys, because, in our opinion, it gives very dispersive space for some nutritive health recommendations for young consumers, like students.

Figure 1. Locations where poultry meat is most common consumed by students Figure 2 illustrates the results of different ways of preparing meat, which respondents indicate they are using in their diet. The primary consumption of poultry meat was in cooked dishes like (in soup, in sauce), as well as, grilled and roasted meat. 35 35 30 25

in coocked dishes

25

grilled

21 roasted in the oven

20 15 10 5

11

fried

8 stewed

0

Figure 2. The most common preparation manner of poultry meat consumed by students In the next part of the research, we looked at the perception of students towards poultry meat. Characteristics of poultry meat, prepared in advance were in the questionnaire in order to help the consumers express their points of view toward the mentioned meat. Respondents expressed their opinions by marking an answer in the proper spot. They were evaluating the characteristics that refer to poultry meat. The average evaluations of the recounted characteristics were then calculated based on the acquired

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evaluations and in this way an image of how students view poultry meat was determined. The research made with the help of Slovenian students shows that students perceive poultry meat as very healthy, fresh, safe, tasty, and of good quality (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Poultry meat perception in Slovenia

4 Conclusion The food industry is changing due to the changes in lifestyle, reshaped nutritional habits and needs of consumers. The latter are more and more aware of the meaning of a healthy and balanced diet. Nevertheless, we are concerned about what we eat. Health has become the most cherished value which means more health-friendly products are coming to market. Therefore, the producers are developing products which offer more benefits to consumers' health – they are promoting products with a high impact on well-being. Trends like light, safe, less fat, without preservatives and additives, with additions of vitamins, minerals, dietary fibers and probiotics, are becoming increasingly valued. This study provides interesting insights, which could help to foresee future developments of the food market – poultry meat in Slovenia.

5 References 1. Aral Y, Aydin E, Demir P, Akin A C, Cevger Y, Kaya Kuyululu C Y and Arikan M S. (2013). Consumer preferences and consumption situation of chicken meat in Ankara province, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. Volume 37, pp. 582 – 587. 242


2. Bowen J, Baird D, Syrette J, Noakes M, Baghurst K. (2012). Consumption of beef/veal/lamb in Australian chil-dren: Intake, nutrient contribution and comparison with other meat, poultry and fish categories. Nutrition & Dietetics Volume 69 (2), pp. 1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;16. 3. Fiala N. (2008). Meeting the demand: an estimation of potential future greenhouse gas emissions from meat production. Ecological economics. Volume 67 (3), pp. 412â&#x20AC;&#x201C;419. 4. Magnusson M K, Arvola A, Koivisto Hursti U K, Aberg L and Sjoden P O. (2001). Attitudes towards organic foods among Swedish consumers. British Food Journal. Volume 103 (3), pp. 209-26. 5. Steifield H, Gerber P, Wassernaar T, Castel V, Rosales M, de Haan C. (2006). Livestockâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s long shadow. Environmental issue and options. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [online] Avaliable from: www.ftp.fao.org 6. Sismanoglou A and Tzimitra-Kalogianni I. (2011). Consumer percpetion of poultry meat in Greece. World's Poultry Science Journal. Volume 67 (2), pp. 269-276 7. âDUĂžHYLĂź'/LOLĂź6Ä&#x2C6;RUĂżHYLĂź90LOLĂźHYLĂź'9UDQLĂź'/DNLĂźHYLĂź%0LOLMDĂŁHYLĂź M. (2011). The role of consumersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; perception and attitude in purchasing of meat and meat products. Tehnologija mesa. Volume 52 (2), pp. 283â&#x20AC;&#x201C;290. 8. 9XNDVRYLĂź7  The importance of national chicken meat origin in Central and South â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Eastern Europe. Worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Poultry Science Journal. Volume 67 (2), pp. 237 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 42. 9. 9XNDVRYLĂź7  2SWLRQVFKDOOHQJHVDQGSRWHQWLDOVRISRXOWU\PHDWDQ empirical investigation on European consumers. Revista brasileira de ciĂŞncia avĂ­cola. Volume 16 (4), pp. 431-436.

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Dr. Tina VukasoYLü Izr. prof., DOBA Fakulteta Maribor, Slovenija in MFDPŠ Celje, Slovenija tina.vukasovic@mfdps.si Mag. Urša Šinkovec SLG Celje, Slovenija ursa.sinko@gmail.com

Ustvarjanje prepoznavnosti blagovne znamke na družabnih RPUHåMLKVSRPRþMRWUåQHJD komuniciranja Povzetek Namen prispevka je predstaviti tržno komuniciranje na družabnih omrežjih in raziskati, kakšen vpliv ima na prepoznavnost blagovne znamke. Pozornost smR QDPHQLOL UD]OLþQLP YUVWDP GUXåDEQLK omrežij, ki jih uporabljajo v organizaciji, in merjenju prepoznavnosti EODJRYQH ]QDPNH Y UD]OLþQLK VWDURVWQLK VNXSLQDK 8SRUDELOL VPR kvantitativno metodo raziskovanja. Ugotovili smo, da se prepoznavnost blagovne znamke na družabnih omrežjih ne razlikuje glede na spol in da komunikacija na družabnih omrežjih nikoli ne vpliva na nakup storitve. .OMXþQH EHVHGH: tržno komuniciranje, družabna omrežja, prepoznavnost, blagovna znamka, management znanja, tehnologije managementa znanja Kode JEL klasifikacije: M15, M31, M37

245


Creating brand awareness on social networking sites by marketing communication Abstract The main purpose of this chapter is to study the introduction of marketing communications on social networking sites and researc its influence on brand recognition. We reviewed different social networking sites used by the organisation, and we measured the recognition of the brand by different age groups. Through the quantitative method of research, we found out that the visibility of the brand on social networking sites does not differ by gender, and that marketing communication on the social networking sites does not increase sales. Keywords: marketing communications, social networking sites, recognisability, brand, knowledge management, knowledge management technologies JEL classification codes: M15, M31, M37

1 Uvod DruĹžabna omreĹžja so v zadnjih letih postala nepogreĹĄljiv del naĹĄega vsakdana. Ĺ tevilo uporabnikov interneta, ki uporabljajo druĹžabna omreĹžja, z dneva Y GDQ QDUDĂŁĂžD =DUDGL L]MHPQH SULOMXEOMHQRVWL druĹžabnih omreĹžij raste tudi zanimanje podjetij, da prek njih predstavijo svoje izdelke, storitve in dejavnosti ter vzpostavijo komunikacijo s kupci. Po podatkih Eurostata je bil leta 2014 deleĹž uporabnikov druĹžabnih omreĹžij v Evropi 46 %, v letu 2016, pa kar 52 % (Eurostat, 2017). 7R EL ODKNR SRYH]DOL ] UD]YRMHP WHKQRORJLM LQ YHGQR YHĂž WHPDWVNLK druĹžabnih omreĹžij, ker lahko skoraj vsak najde druĹžabno omreĹžje po svoji meri. Mobilni telefoni so v zadnjih letih vedno bolj tehnoloĹĄko napredni in poganjajo vedno bolj zapletene aplikacije, kot so na primer Instagram, Snapchat, Facebook, Twitter ipd. V ZDA je raziskava Pew Research Centra o popularnosti druĹžabnih RPUHĂĽLM L]YHGHQD QD SRSXODFLML RGUDVOLK $PHULĂžDQRY Oeta 2014, SRND]DODGDMH)DFHERRN]GDOHĂžQDMEROMSRSXODUQRGUXĂĽDEQRRPUHĂĽMH s kar 71% odraslih uporabnikov, ki so aktivni na internetu. Sledita 246


LinkedIn in Pinterest z 28% odraslih uporabnikov, ki so aktivni na internetu. Za tem sledita Instagram s 26% in Twitter s 23% odraslih uporabnikov, ki so aktivni na internetu. Facebook dnevno uporablja  YVHK QMHJRYLK XSRUDEQLNRY  L]PHG QMLK WXGL YHĂžNUDW dnevno (Duggan, Ellison, Lampe, Lenhart in Madden (2015). Najbolj obiskano druĹžabno omreĹžje v svetu je Facebook (1,8 milijarde obiskovalcev na mesec), sledijo YouTube (1 milijarda obiskovalcev na mesec), Instagram (0,5 milijarde obiskovalcev na mesec) in Twitter (313 milijonov obiskovalcev na mesec) (Liza, 2017). Za Slovenijo je bila med 27. majem in 10. junijem 2016 v okviru spletnega panela anketirancev Jazvem.si izvedena raziskava Valicon, v kateri je sodelovalo 9798 ljudi, starih od 18 do 75 let. Rezultati so pokazali, da je najbolj priljubljeno druĹžabno omreĹžje v Sloveniji Facebook, ki ga dnevno uporablja 594.500 od 833.500 slovenskih uporabnikov. Na drugem mestu po ĹĄtevilu dnevnih uporabnikov je Snapchat (66.500), sledi Instagram (62.000) ter Twitter (33.000). Raziskava MEDIA+ o uporabi druĹžabnih omreĹžij v Sloveniji pa je pokazala, da je po ĹĄtevilu ustvarjenih profilov prav tako prvi Facebook, na drugem mestu Twitter, sledijo pa Instagram, Linkedin in Snapchat (STA, 2016). 1D SUHSR]QDYQRVW EODJRYQH ]QDPNH YSOLYD QDĂžLQ NRPXQLNDFLMH NL PRUD ELWL ĂžLPEROMHGLQVWYHQSUHSR]QDYHQ LQSUHPLĂŁOMHQ'UXĂĽDEQD omreĹžja lahko tako dvignejo prepoznavnost blagovne znamke med potroĹĄniki. Pri komuniciranju je treba paziti, da vsebina ni vsiljiva, VDMODKNRQDWDQDĂžLQSRGMHWMDL]JXELMRSRWHQFLDOQHSRWURĂŁQLNH 'UXĂĽDEQDRPUHĂĽMDLPDMRSR]LWLYHQXĂžLQHNVDMSUHGVWDYOMDMRLdealen SURVWRU]DYLUXVQRNRPXQLFLUDQMHNMHUVHVSRURĂžLODPHGXSRUDEQLNL ]HOR KLWUR ĂŁLULMR 3UL WHP VR YNOMXĂžHQL WDNR SRWHQFLDOQL NRW REVWRMHĂžL potroĹĄniki. Z naĹĄo raziskavo bomo tako pridobili podatke o tem, katera druĹžabna omreĹžja uporablja organizacija X v komuniciranju s potroĹĄniki in kakĹĄen vpliv ima tovrstna komunikacija na prepoznavnost blagovne znamke. Ugotavljali bomo prednosti in VODERVWL XSRUDEH UD]OLĂžQLK GUXĂĽDEQLK RPUHĂĽLM NL MLK XSRUDEOMD organizacija X, ter podali predloge za izboljĹĄave v komuniciranju s potroĹĄniki. 1.1 Namen in cilji raziskave Ĺ tevilo uporabnikov druĹžabnih omreĹžij, ki spremljajo in objavljajo UD]OLĂžQH YVHELQH GQHYQR QDUDĂŁĂžD +NUDWL VH WXGL RUJDQL]DFLMH zavedajo priloĹžnosti dodatnega trĹženja, ki ga nudi komuniciranje na 247


druĹžabnih omreĹžjih. Namen raziskave je ugotoviti, kakĹĄen vpliv ima trĹžno komuniciranje na druĹžabnih omreĹžjih v Sloveniji na SUHSR]QDYQRVW EODJRYQH ]QDPNH SUL ĂžHPHU VH ERPR SRVHEHM RVUHGRWRĂžLOLQDRPUHĂĽMDNLMLKXSRUDEOMDMRYRUJDQL]DFLML;=DVWDYOMD se vpraĹĄanje, ali organizacija X pri komuniciranju na druĹžabnih omreĹžjih upoĹĄteva potrebe in Ĺželje vseh starostnih skupin. Zanima QDVDOLVRRĂžLWQHUD]OLNHPHGVSRORPDYNRPXQLNDFLMLLQ]D]QDYDQMX prepoznavnosti blagovne znamke. Pridobljeni odgovori bodo uporabni za organizacijo X in druge organizacije s podobno GHMDYQRVWMR NL ODKNR V SRPRĂžMR QDĂŁLK XJRWRYLWHY L]EROMĂŁDMR VYRMH delovanje in naĹĄe rezultate uporabijo v praksi. V nadaljevanju SULND]XMHPR OH NOMXĂžQH L]VOHGNH UD]LVNDYH 3RGUREQHMĂŁL SULND] rezultatov raziskave je predstavljen v magistrski nalogi (Ĺ inkovec, 2017). 1.2

Metodologija in vzorec raziskave

V raziskavi smo uporabili primarno zbiranje podatkov in s tem NYDQWLWDWLYQR PHWRGR UD]LVNRYDQMD 6 SRPRĂžMR RURGMD ]D VSOHWQH ankete 1KA smo pripravili anketni vpraĹĄalnik, ki obsega 18 vpraĹĄanj, od tega so 4 vpraĹĄanja demografskega tipa. VpraĹĄalnik smo v elektronski obliki poslali 400 QDNOMXĂžQR L]EUDQLP OMXGHP VWDULP RG 15 do 70 let, ki uporabljajo druĹžabna omreĹžja. Omejitev, ki se je pri tem pojavila pa je bila nepripravljenost oseb za reĹĄevanje anketnega vpraĹĄalnika in pomanjkljivi odgovori na odprta vpraĹĄanja. Pred izvedbo ankete v spletnem okolju smo izvedli pilotsko testiranje vpraĹĄalnika. Pridobljene podatke smo analizirali s programom SPSS.

2 Rezultati raziskave 2.1 Analiza demografskih podatkov V raziskavi je sodelovalo 36 oseb moĹĄkega spola, kar predstavlja 25 % vseh anketiranih, in 108 oseb Ĺženskega spola, kar predstavlja   DQNHWLUDQLK =DUDGL ODĂĽMH VWDWLVWLĂžQH REGHODYH VPR spremenljivko starost razdelili v tUL UD]UHGH SUL ĂžHPHU MH ĂŁLULQD razreda 20 let. Prvi razred zajema skupino anketirancev starih od 11 do 30 let, drugi razred zajema skupino anketirancev od 31 do 50 let, tretji razred pa zajema skupino anketirancev od 51 do 70 let. 1DMYHĂž anketirancev se nahaja v prvem starostnem razredu, kar pomeni, da je 67 (36,8 %) anketirancev mlajĹĄih od 30 let. Na drugem mestu je drugi starostni razred, kar pomeni, da je 57 (31,3 %) anketirancev starih od 31 do 50 let. V tretjem starostnem razredu, ki zajema osebe, starejĹĄe od 50 let, pa je 20 (11,0 %) anketirancev. 20,9 % anketirancev se starostno ni opredelilo. 1DMYHĂž   DQNHWLUDQFHY ima izobrazbo VI. stopnje. Sledijo jim anketiranci (41) z izobrazbo 248


VII/2 stopnje in nato anketiranci (34) z izobrazbo V. stopnje. Osnovno ĹĄolo ali manj ima 10 anketirancev, najmanj anketirancev (2) pa ima izobrazbo IV. stopnje. 2 anketiranca se glede izobrazbe nista opredelila. Anketirance smo spraĹĄevali, kaj po njihovem mnenju najbolj vpliva na prepoznavnost blagovne znamke organizacije X. Anketirani so GHMDYQLNHRFHQMHYDOLVSHWVWRSHQMVNROHVWYLFRVWULQMDQMDSULĂžHPHUMH 1 pomenila, da se anketirani s trditvijo sploh ne strinjajo, 2 je pomenila, da se s trditvijo ne strinjajo, 3 je pomenila, da se s trditvijo niti ne strinjajo niti strinjajo, 4 je pomenila, da se anketirani s trditvijo strinjajo, in 5 je pomenila, da se anketirani s trditvijo popolnoma strinjajo. Tabela 1 prikazuje dejavnike, ki vplivajo na prepoznavnost blagovne znamke. Na podlagi zbranih podatkov smo ugotovili, da vsi anketirani, ki so reĹĄevali anketni vpraĹĄalnik, niso ocenili vseh navedenih dejavnikov, zato predstavljamo le veljavne podatke. Razvidno je, da se 62 anketirancev (39 %) od 157 (100 %) anketiranih popolnoma strinja, da so pomembne kakovostne storitve. NDMYHĂžDQNHWLUDQFHYNDU  RG  VHMH strinjalo, da so pomembne objave v tiskanih medijih. Sledi dejavnik oglaĹĄevanje s plakati in letaki, s katerim se strinja 87 (55 %) od 159 (100 %) anketiranih. 75 anketirancev (46 %) od 163 (100 %) se strinja, da so pomembne nagrade, ki jih prejmejo igralci za posamezne vloge. Da je pomemben dejavnik, ki vpliva na prepoznavnost blagovne znamke tudi komuniciranje na druĹžabnih, se strinja 64 (40 %) od 162 (100 %) anketiranih. Glede na rezultate raziskave ugotavljamo, da komuniciranje na druĹžabnih omreĹžjih ne vpliva na prepoznavnost blagovne znamke v primeru organizacije X, saj so anketirani mnenja, da vsi drugi dejavniki bolj vplivajo. Mnenja so, da najbolj vplivajo na prepoznavnost blagovne znamke kakovostne storitve ter nagrade, ki jih prejmejo igralci za posamezne vloge.

249


Tabela 1: Dejavniki, ki vplivajo na prepoznavnost blagovne znamke Dejavnik

Odgovori

3RYSUHĂžMH

Std. odklon

Niti se ne Sploh se Se Se ne strinjam Se ne popolnoma strinjam niti se strinjam Skupaj strinjam strinjam 2 strinjam 4 1 5 3 10 (6 %)

34 (20 %)

66 54 (32 %) (40 %)

167 (100 %)

3,9

0,96

Nagrade 9HĂžHURYD BorĹĄnikova), ki 6 jih prejmejo 0 (0 %) (4 %) igralci za posamezne vloge

31 (19 %)

75 51 (31 %) (46 %)

163 (100 %)

4,0

0,81

23 64 47 (29 %) 22 (14 %) (14 %) (40 %)

162 (100 %)

3,5

1,02

Igralski ansambel

Komuniciranje na druĹžabnih omreĹžjih

3 (2 %)

6 (4 %)

7 Objave v 0 (0 %) (4 %) tiskanih medijih

33 (21 %)

90 30 (19 %) (56 %)

160 (100 %)

3,9

0,75

Kakovostne storitve

5 (3 %)

32 (20 %)

57 62 (39 %) (36 %)

157 (100 %)

4,1

0,88

8 OglaĹĄevanje s 1 (1 %) (5 %) plakati in letaki

27 (17 %)

87 36 (23 %) (55 %)

159 (100 %)

3,9

0,81

1 (1 %)

V nadaljevanju smo anketirance spraĹĄevali, katere strani organizacije X poznajo, PRĂĽQLKMHELORYHĂžRGJRYRURY2GYVHK anketirancev je 142 anketirancev ustrezno izpolnilo vpraĹĄanje, 40  SDMLKQDWRYSUDĂŁDQMHQLRGJRYRULOR1DMYHĂžNDU   anketirancev pozna Facebook stran organizacije X. Samo 3 (2 %) anketiranci poznajo LinkedIn stran organizacije, 7 (4 %) pa jih pozna 7ZLWWHU VWUDQ RUJDQL]DFLMH ; 'UXJR MH R]QDĂžLOR     anketirancev, od katerih jih 28 ne pozna nobene strani, 10 anketirancev pozna spletno stran organizacije X, 3 anketiranci poznajo tiskano knjiĹžicR LQ PHVHĂžQL VSRUHG  DQNHWLUDQFHY SD QL napisalo razlage. V nadaljevanju smo anketirance spraĹĄevali, kako pogosto vpliva komuniciranje na druĹžabnih omreĹžjih na nakup storitve v organizaciji ; $QNHWLUDQL VR L]ELUDOL PHG HQNUDW WHGHQVNR YHĂžNUDW WHGHQVNR, HQNUDW PHVHĂžQR YHĂžNUDW PHVHĂžQR HQNUDW OHWQR YHĂžNUDW OHWQR LQ 250


nikoli. Od vseh 182 anketirancev je 140 anketirancev ustrezno izpolnilo vprašanje, 42 (23 %) pa jih na to vprašanje ni odgovorilo. Pri 77 (42 %) anketirancih komuniciranje organizacije na družabnih omrežjih nikoli ne vpliva na nakup storitve v organizaciji X, pri 21    DQNHWLUDQFLK YSOLYD YHþNUDW OHWQR LQ SUL     anketirancih vpliva enkrat letno. Pri 7 (4 %) anketirancih vpliva komuniciranje organizacije na družabnih omrežjih enkrat PHVHþQR na nakup storitve v organizaciji X, pri 5 (3 %) anketirancih vpliva YHþNUDWPHVHþQRLQSUL  DQNHWLUDQFLKYSOLYDYHþNUDWWHGHQVNR Pri 4 (2 %) anketirancih vpliva komuniciranje organizacije na družabnih omrežjih enkrat tedensko na nakup storitve v organizaciji X. 3UHYHUMDOL VPR NDNãQR XþLQNRYLWRVW GRVHJDMR QDþLQL NRPXQLFLUDQMD organizacije X na družabnih omrežjih. Anketirani so izbirali med ne XSRUDEOMDP QL XþLQNRYLWR PDQM XþLQNRYLWR XþLQNRYLWR EROM XþLQNRYLWRLQ]HORXþLQNRYLWR8JRWDYljamo, da 52 (40 %) od 131 (100 %) anketiranih ne uporablja Facebooka. 38 (29 %) od 131 (100 %) anketiranih meni, da je komuniciranje organizacije na Facebooku XþLQNRYLWR  DQNHWLUDQLK    MH PQHQMD GD NRPXQLFLUDQMH RUJDQL]DFLMH QD )DFHERRNX QL XþLQNRYito. Družabnega omrežja Twitter ne uporablja 97 (79 %) od 123 (100 %) anketiranih. Instagrama ne uporablja 83 (70 %) od 119 (100 %) anketiranih, 13 (11 %) anketiranih meni, da je komuniciranje organizacije na ,QVWDJUDPXXþLQNRYLWR2JODãHYDQMD*RRJOHQHXSorablja 68 (54 %) od 126 (100 %) anketiranih, 21 (17 %) anketiranih meni, da je NRPXQLFLUDQMHRUJDQL]DFLMHVWHPGUXåDEQLPRPUHåMHPXþLQNRYLWRLQ   DQNHWLUDQLKPHQLGDMHNRPXQLFLUDQMHEROMXþLQNRYLWR(poštnega marketinga ne uporablja 72 (60 %) od 121 (100 %) anketiranih, 17 (14 %) anketiranih meni, da je komuniciranje RUJDQL]DFLMH V WHP GUXåDEQLP RPUHåMHP XþLQNRYLWR     RG 125 (100 %) anketiranih ne uporablja YouTube oglaševanje, 19 (15 %) anketiranih meni, da je komuniciranje s tem družabnim RPUHåMHPXþLQNRYLWR  DQNHWLUDQLKPHQLGDNRPXQLFLUDQMH QDRPHQMHQHPRPUHåMXQLXþLQNRYLWRLQ  DQNHWLUDQLKPHQL GDMHPDQMXþLQNRYLWR = GRGDWQR VWDWLVWLþQR DQDOL]R VPR SUHYHULOL DOL VH SUHSR]QDYQRVW blagovne znamke na družabnih omrežjih razlikuje glede na spol. 1DYHGHQRVPRSUHYHUMDOLVSRPRþMRLQIHUHQþQHVWDWLVWLNHLQVLFHUV Chi-kvadrat testom. Izhajali smo iz domneve, da obstajajo povezave med spolom in spremenljivko poznavanje blagovne znamke. Za preizkušanje navedene domnevH VPR L]GHODOL ODVWQR LQ QLþHOQR hipotezo, ki smo jo preizkusili s Chi-kvadrat testom. Stopnja ]QDþLOQRVWLĮ  251


Lastna domneva: Prepoznavnost blagovne znamke na druĹžabnih omreĹžjih se razlikuje glede na spol. H0: Spol in prepoznavnost blagovne znamke nista povezana. 9 NRQWLQJHQĂžQL WDEHOL NL MR SULND]XMH WDEHOD  VR UD]YLGQH SULĂžDNRYDQHYUHGQRVWLNLVRWHRUHWLĂžQHYUHGQRVWLYNROLNRUVSROQHEL bil povezan s poznavanjem blagovne znamke. Prav tako so razvidni odstotki zastopanosti spola pri posameznem odgovoru v lestvici. Skupno ĹĄtevilo vseh anketirancev je 142, od tega 107 (75,4 %) Ĺžensk in 35 (24,6 %) moĹĄkih. Ĺ tevilo anketiranih, ki so odgovorili, da so Ĺže sliĹĄali za blagovno znamko organizacije X, je 131, od tega 100 Ĺžensk in 31 moĹĄkih. Ĺ tevilo anketiranih, ki pa so odgovorili z ne, je 11, od tega 7 Ĺžensk in 4 moĹĄki. Razmerje pri moĹĄkih, ki so in niso sliĹĄali za blagovno znamko organizacije X je 88,6 % â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 11,4 %. Razmerje pri Ĺženskah, ki so in niso sliĹĄale za blagovno znamko organizacije X, je 93,5 % â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 6,5 %. DeleĹž Ĺžensk, ki so sliĹĄale za blagovno znamko RUJDQL]DFLMH;MHYHĂžMLNRWSULPRĂŁNLK Tabela 2: .RQWLQJHQĂžQDWDEHODSULĂžDNRYDQLKYUHGQRVWLLQGHMDQVNLK vrednosti v % Spol MoĹĄki Ĺ tevilo 31 Da % 23,7 %

Ali ste Ĺže sliĹĄali blagovno znamko? organizacije X

Skupaj

za

% 88,6 % Spol Ĺ tevilo 4 Ne %

36,4 %

Skupaj Ženska 100 76,3 % 93,5 %

131 100,0 % 92,3 %

7

11

63,6 %

100,0 % 7,7 %

% 11,4 % Spol Ĺ tevilo 35 % 24,6 %

107 75,4 %

% Spol

100,0 %

100,0 %

6,5 %

142 100,0 % 100,0 %

Iz tabele 3 je razvidno, da je bila ob izvedenem Chi-kvadrat testu XJRWRYOMHQD HQD VWRSQMD VYRERGQH RGORĂžLWYH 3UDY WDNR MH ELOD ugotovljena p-YUHGQRVWNLMHYLĂŁMDRGVWRSQMH]QDĂžLOQRVWL NDU SRPHQL GD ]DVWDYOMHQH QLĂžHOQH KLSRWH]H GD VSRO Ln prepoznavnost blagovne znamke nista povezana, ne moremo 252


zavrniti. To pomeni, da lastno domnevo zavrnemo. Z navedenim ChiNYDGUDW WHVWRP VPR SRWUGLOL QLĂžHOQR KLSRWH]R H0: Spol in prepoznavnost blagovne znamke nista povezana. Tabela 3: Chi-kvadrat test

Pearson Chikvadrat Verjetnostno razmerje Linearna zdruĹžitev Ĺ tevilo veljavnih odg.

Vredn df ost

Asymp. Sig. (2delna)

0,881 1

0,348

0,814 1

0,367

0,875 1

0,350

142

3 =DNOMXĂžHN 9 GDQDĂŁQMHP ĂžDVX VR GUXĂĽDEQD RPUHĂĽMD SRVWDOD ]HOR SRPHPEHQ dejavnik trĹžnHJDNRPXQLFLUDQMDVDMVHL]GQHYDYGDQYHĂžDĂŁWHYLOR uporabnikov. Organizacije lahko tako s pravilno uporabo marketinĹĄkega znanja vplivajo na zaznavanje potencialnih in REVWRMHĂžLKSRWURĂŁQLNRYWHU]QMLKRYLPRGQRVRPGREODJRYQH]QDPNH SRYHĂžXMHMRSURGDMR Ĺ tevilni avtorji so mnenja, da trĹžno komuniciranje na druĹžabnih omreĹžjih vpliva na prepoznavnost blagovne znamke, saj lahko organizacija enostavno, hitro in poceni predstavi svojo blagovno znamko ĹĄirĹĄemu krogu uporabnikom druĹžabnih omreĹžjih. V porastu je komuniciranje, ki se prilagaja ciljnim skupinam porabnikom, s NDWHULPLJUDGLLQRKUDQMDGROJRURĂžQHRGQRVH=D]QDQHVRVSUHPHPEH komuniciranja, ki izhajajo iz sodobne in izpopolnjene tehnologije. 'DQHVVHYHGQRYHĂžSRGMHWLMRGORĂžLGDVHSUHGVWDYLMRQDGUXĂĽabnih omreĹžjih, saj slednje ponuja nove moĹžnosti za trĹženje, izboljĹĄanje ugleda in podporo uporabnikom. Kar 30% podjetij iz Evropske unije je v letu 2013 uporabljalo druĹžabna omreĹžja za marketing izdelkov in izboljĹĄanje svojega ugleda, kar pa je tudi dobro ]D NRQĂžQH uporabnike, saj lahko na druĹžabnih omreĹžjih najdejo veliko koristnih informacij o podjetju, kot so: produkti, katalogi, informacije o SRGMHWMX QDURĂžLOD VOHGHQMH SRĂŁLOMNDP RFHQH L]GHONRY WHU PQHQMD uporabnikov (Statista, 2017).

253


4 Literatura in viri 1. Duggan, M., Ellison, N.B., Lampe, C., Lenhart, A., in Madden, M. (2015). Social Media Update 2014. Dosegljivo na http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/01/09/social-media-update-2014/ [Dostop: 19.10. 2017]. 2. Eurostat – European Commission. (2017). Individuals using the internet for participating in social networks. Dosegljivo na http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=en &pcode=tin00127&plugin=1 [Dostop: 19.10. 2017]. 3. Fink, I. (2012). Komunikacija z uporabo družbenega omrežja. IBS SRURþHYDOHF, [online] Volume 2(1), p. 1. Dosegljivo na http://porocevalec.ibs.si/sl/component/content/article/44-letnik-2-t-1/145– mag-iris-fink-grubaevi-komunikacija-z-uporabo-drubenega-omreja [Dostop: 2.3. 2017]. 4. Liza. (2017). Najbolj obiskana spletna družabna omrežja. Dosegljivo na https://www.revija-liza.si/aktualno/najbolj-obiskana-spletna-druzabnaomrezja/ [Dostop: 19.10. 2017]. 5. STA - Slovenska tiskovna agencija. (2016). Med družbenimi omrežji v Sloveniji prvi Facebook. Dosegljivo na https://www.sta.si/2277300/meddruzbenimi-omrezji-v-sloveniji-prvi-facebook [Dostop: 2.2. 2017]. 6. Statista. (2017). Social media advertising expenditure as share of digital advertising spending worldwide from 2013 to 2017. Dosegljivo na http://www.statista.com/statistics/271408/share-of-social-media-in-onlineadvertising-spending-worldwide/ [Dostop: 19.10. 2017]. 7. Šinkovec, U. (2017). Tržno komuniciranje na družabnih omrežjih in njegov vpliv na prepoznavnost blagovne znamke. Celje: Mednarodna fakulteta za družbene in poslovne študije.

254


'U7LQD9XNDVRYLĂź Izr. prof., DOBA Fakulteta Maribor, Slovenija in MFDPĹ Celje, Slovenija tina.vukasovic@net.doba.s Igor Ĺ egota Magister poslovnih ved, Ministarstvo financija â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Porezna uprava, Rijeka, Hrvatska, e-mail: segota.igor@gmail.com

Rebrendiranje proizvoda putem nagradne igre na druťtvenoj mreŞi Facebook Povzetek Namen raziskave je prikazati idejni koncept nagradne igre na GUXüDEQHP RPUHüMX )DFHERRN XSRUDEOMHQ Y SURFHVX UH]QDPÞHQMD blagovne znamke Životinjsko carstvo. Idejni koncept nagradne igre na druŞabnem omreŞju Facebook je zasnovan na temelju rezultatov raziskave in dostopnih podatkov podjetja Krať in je sestavljen iz dveh GHORY 9VHELQH QDJUDGQH LJUH VR XVPHUMHQH N GRVHJDQMX ]DÞUWDQLK ciljev blagovne znamke Životinjsko carstvo in sicer v smeri ťiritve ciljnih trgov in v dvig prepoznavnosti in zavedanja blagovne znamke v zavesti potroťnikov. .OMXÞQHEHVHGHmarketing, druŞabna omreŞja, blagovna znamka, UH]QDPÞHQMHQDJUDGQHLJUHQD)DFHERRku. Koda JEL klasifikacije: M31

Product rebranding through a prize game on Facebook Abstract The purpose of this research was to show that Facebook social networking is an effective way of rebranding products. The research presents a prize game concep which could be a means of rebranding for Životinjsko carstvo chovolate. The research was conducted based 255


on KraĹĄ's available data. A two-part prize game was designed to enable the creative marketing staff to expand their target market and brand awareness, and to also involve the users in the brand decision making. The findings of this thesis may find practical application in the concept design of product rebranding with a goal of actively involving its social community and users on rebrand decisions and creation. Keywords: Marketing, Facebook contests

social

networks,

brand,

rebranding,

JEL classification code: M31

1 Marketing na druĹĄtvenim mreĹžama DruĹĄtvene mreĹže su kanal stvaranja kontakata baziran na specijaliziranim platformama, besplatni alati bazirani na upotrebi web-WHKQRORJLMH NRML RPRJXĂźXMX NRULVQLFLPD UD]YLMDQMH RVREQLK profila, komuniciranje s kontaktima i pristup specijaliziranim JUXSDPD %LORĂŁL.HOLĂźVWU 1DMĂžHĂŁĂźHVHMDYOMDMXXREOLNX platforme, prozora ili web-stranica. Postoji viĹĄe od 100 druĹĄtvenih PUHĂĽD NRMH QXGH UD]OLĂžLWH XVOXJH D QMLKRYR JODYQR RELOMHĂĽMH VX XQLYHU]DOQD NRPXQLNDFLMVND VUHGVWYD L WHKQLNH WH ]DMHGQLĂžNL LQWHUHV koji drĹži grupe ljudi zajedno i time im daje popularnost. DruĹĄtvenu mreĹžu se moĹže definirati kao uslugu zasnovanu na webu koja dozvoljava pojedincu da napravi (polu)javni profil i, u okviru RJUDQLĂžHQRJVXVWDYDDUWLNXOLUDOLVWXGUXJLKNRULVQLNDVNRMLPDGLMHOL povezanost te vidi i usporedi svoju listu kontakata s onima koje su napravili drugi korisnici unutar sustava (Weaver i Morrison 2008, str. 98). DruĹĄtvene su mreĹže postale alatima za mnogobrojne marketinĹĄke aktivnosti. Razvojem interneta pojavljuju se servisi za promociju koji VH LVWLĂžX PXOWLPHGLMRP L LQWHUDNWLYQRĂŁĂźX WH VX X] web-stranice, korisne ]D SURYRĂżHQMH PDUNHWLQĂŁNLK NRPXQLNDFLMD 3UDYRP kombinacijom koriĹĄtenja druĹĄtvenih mreĹža i primjenom RGJRYDUDMXĂźH PDUNHWLQĂŁNH VWUDWHJLMH PRJXĂźH MH RVWYDULWL RGJRYDUDMXĂźX SR]LFLMX X VYLMHVWL SRWURĂŁDĂžD QD JOREDOQRP QLYRX %UDNXVVWU 2QHRPRJXĂźavaju da marketinĹĄku poruku vidi velik broj korisnika u vrlo kratkom roku pa su pogodne za direktnu marketinĹĄku komunikaciju. SluĹže za web-promociju i oglaĹĄavanje koje se smatra druĹĄtveno odgovornim i izrazito ekoloĹĄkim jer se ne troĹĄi papir i otpadom ne zDJDĂżXMH SULURGD (Grbavac i Grbavac 2014, str. 207). Poznavanje interneta i novih tehnologija je od suĹĄtinske vaĹžnosti za kompanije koje Ĺžele plasirati svoje robne marke preko druĹĄtvenih mreĹža. DruĹĄtvene mreĹže 256


zahtijevaju stalnu interakciju i mijenjaju dosadašnje poimanje NRPXQLNDFLMHNRPSDQLMDLSRMHGLQDFDVMDYQRãüX Statistika za Hrvatsku pokazuje da (Media Marketing 2014): 1. L]PHÿXLLVSLWDQLNDSRWYUÿXMHGDREMDYHQDGUXãWYHQLP PUHåDPDXWMHþXQDQMLKRYXNXSRYLQX 2. þDN   PDUNHWLQãNLK VWUXþQMDND SRWYUGLOR MH GD NRULVWH društvene mreže u poslovne svrhe 3. skoro polovina kupaca izjavila je da inspiraciju za kupovinu poklona nalazi na Pinterestu, dok 55 % korisnika Twittera komentira ideje o poklonima na Twitteru. SpomenutDVWDWLVWLNDSRWYUÿXMHGDVHRNRMRMJRGGUXãWYHQRMPUHåL se radi, govori i o marketingu i samoj prodaji proizvoda i usluga. Društvene mreže predstavljaju ogroman potencijal jer nisu niti SURVWRUQR QLWL YUHPHQVNL RGUHÿHQH WH VX WLPH SRGORJD ]D predstavljanje robnih marki.

2 Dizajn nagradne igre na Facebooku za rebrendiranje proizvoda Predstavljen je idejni koncept nagradne igre kojom bi se moglo provesti rebrendiranje þRNRODGH UREQH PDUNH äLYRWLQMVNR FDUVWYR SRGX]HüD .UDã ,VWUDÃ¥LYDQMH MH SURYHGHQR na temelju dostupnih SRGDWDNDSRGX]HüD.UDãWHMHGL]DMQLUDQDQDJUDGQDLJUDXGYDGLMHOD NRMD EL RPRJXüLOD prikupljanje kreativnog marketinÅ¡kog kadra i SURãLUHQMHFLOMQRJWUÃ¥LãWDLVYMHVQRVWLRUREQRMPDUFLVXNOMXþLYDQMHP NRULVQLND X RGOXþLYDQMH 'HWDOMQLML Srikaz rezultata istraživanja prikazan je u magistarskom radu (Å egota, 2017). Životinjsko carstvo MHGMHþMDþRNRODGDX]NRMXGROD]HVOLþLFHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; naljepnice kojima se puni album sa životinjama, s tradicijom od preko 70 godina. Popunjeni DOEXPVDVOLþLFDPDPRÃ¥Hse poslati na adresu KraÅ¡a kako bi se dobila nagrada â&#x20AC;&#x201C; slatki paket KraÅ¡evih proizvoda. Uz ispunjavanje albuma VOLþLFDPD SUXÃ¥D VH L HGXNDFLMD R Ã¥LYRWLQMDPD L QMLKRYLP VWDQLãWLPD (KraÅ¡ 1911, 2017a). Ponovno brendiranje robne marke Životinjsko carstvo provelo bi se L] VOMHGHüLK UD]ORJD QDVWDQDN QRYLK PDUNHWLQãNLK WUHQGRYD X YLGX mobilnih aplikacija na pametnim telefonima; prethodno rebrendiranje provedeno je pred 9 godina, a internetska igrica prije 5 godina, pa je potrebno uskladiti novonastale marketinÅ¡ke trendove V FLOMHP SURãLUHQMD FLOMQH VNXSLQH NRULVQLND VYH YHüH NRULãWHQMH druÅ¡tvenih mreža, odnosno Facebooka za promociju proizvoda i GRSLUDQMH GR UD]OLþLWLK FLOMQLK VNXSLQD SRWURãDþD YHOLND DNWLYQRVW obožavatelja i korisnika na nagradnim igrama koje se odvijaju na 257


Facebooku; želja za proÅ¡irenjem ciljne skupine korisnika s djece na WLQHMGÃ¥HUHLPODGHRGUDVOHSRVWRMHüD)DFHERRNVWUDQLFDäLYRWLQMVNRJ FDUVWYD MH VODER SRVMHüHQD L DÃ¥XULUDQD WH MH SRWUHEQR RMDþDWL pojavljivanje robne marke na Facebooku. Iz navedenih razloga slijede ciljevi rebrendiranja: proÅ¡irenje ciljne skupine korisnika s djece i njihovih roditelja na tinejdžere i mlade odrasle; iskoriÅ¡tavanje druÅ¡tvene mreže Facebook kao efikasnog DODWD]DNRPXQLNDFLMXLRGUÃ¥DYDQMHNRQWDNWDPHÿXOMXGLPD]DMDþDQMH svijesti o robnoj marci i poticanja kupnje proizvoda, odnosno DNWLYLUDQMH L YHüD SRVMHüHQRVW )DFHERRN VWUDQLFH äLYRWLQMVNRJ FDUVWYD SRYHüDQMH NRQ]XPDFLMH L NXSQMH SURL]YRGD SURPRFLMRP kupnje unutar mobilne aplikacije; stjecanje inovativnih kadrova u PDUNHWLQãNRP RGMHOX L SUXÃ¥DQMH NUHDWLYQLK UMHãHQMD WH XNOMXþLYDQMH SRWURãDþDXDNWLYQRRGOXþLYDQMHRUREQRMPDUFLNRMXNRULVWH Za ostvarenje navedenih ciljeva, uz redizajn loga robne marke SUHGVWDYLWüHVHLPRELOQDDSOLNDFLMDRGQRVQRLJULFDNRMD üHELWLVOLþQD iznimno popularnoj interaktivnoj mobilnoj aplikaciji Pokémon GO. Pokémon GO je mobilna aplikacija koju je razvila softverska tvrtka Niantic Labs za iOS i Android. Igra je vezana za poziciju u prostoru i SURãLUHQXVWYDUQRVW,JUXRGUHÿXMHJOobalni pozicijski sustav (GPS) i PRELOQR ORFLUDQMH SRGDWDND R ORNDFLML LJUDþD L SR]LFLRQLUD JD QD zemljovid koji se temelji na Google Maps (Pokemon 2017) 2ELþQR se igra na otvorenom gdje su dostupni GPS signali i rabi znamenitosti i upadljive objekte u stvarnom, materijalnom svijetu za oblikovanje virtualnog svijeta igre kojoj je cilj sakupljanje likova iz istoimene animirane serije Pokemon. Mobilna aplikacija Životinjsko carstvo WDNRÿHU EL ELOD ED]LUDQD QD SURãLUHQRM VWYDUQRVWL RGQRVQR SRPRüX PRELOQLK SDPHWQLK XUHÿDMD L *36-D ELOR EL PRJXüH SURQDOD]LWL životinje iz albuma Životinjsko carstvo, na prodajnim mjestima KraÅ¡a LXRVWDOLPGXüDQLPDNRMLVXSRVUHGQLFLXSURGDML.UDãHYLKSURL]YRGD uz police gdje se nudi proizvod. Bila ELRPRJXüHQDNXSQMDSURL]YRGD putem aplikacije uz koriÅ¡tenje kreditnih kartica te direktno SUHX]LPDQMHQDEODJDMQL.XSQMDSXWHPDSOLNDFLMHELODELQDJUDÿLYDQD dodatnim bodovima ili posebnim nagradama unutar igrice. Razlog koriÅ¡tenja mobilne aplikacije u marketinÅ¡kome miksu za rebrendiranje Životinjskog carstva je dosadaÅ¡nja praksa KraÅ¡a da NRULVWLUD]OLþLWHSRSXODUQHPHGLMHSULOLNRPSURPRFLMHVYRMLKSURL]YRGD WHþLQMHQLFDGDVYHYHüLEURMOMXGLNRULVWLSDPHWQHWHOHIRQHDSRVHELFH ciljana skupina ovog rebrendiranja â&#x20AC;&#x201C; PODÿLRGJRGLQDRGNRMLK % koristi pametne telefone te skupina od 25 do 34 godine, od kojih   NRULVWL SDPHWQH WHOHIRQH =ULQXãLü   =D SRWUHEH LVWUDÃ¥LYDQMD VPDWUDW üH VH GD MH QDYHGHQD PRELOQD DSOLNDFLMD YHü UD]YLMHQDWHüHVHQDJUadna igra na Facebooku odvijati u dva dijela. 258


2.1 Prvi dio nagradne igre na druÅ¡tvenoj mreži Facebook za rebrendiranje robne marke Životinjsko carstvo Prvi dio nagradne igre odnosi se na prikupljanje talenata za rad u PDUNHWLQãNRP RGMHOX SRGX]HüD .UDã RGQRVQR LPD FLOM XNOMXþLYDQMD neotkrivenih dizajnerskih/marketinÅ¡kih talenata i njihovo zaposlenje. 1DWMHþDMQD]LYDÃ&#x201E;äLYRWLQMVNRFDUVWYRWHWUHED³ELVHSURYHRXREOLNX QDJUDGQH LJUH NRMRM MH JODYQD QDJUDGD MHGQRJRGLãQMH SODüHQR stažiranje u marketinÅ¡kom odjeOX SRGX]HüD V PRJXüQRãüX VWDOQRJ ]DSRVOHQMD ]D MHGQRJ GR WUL VWUXþQMDND L MHGQRNUDWQD QDJUDGD RG 10.000,00 38 kn po sudioniku projekta. 8YMHWL]DXOD]DNXQDWMHþDMVXGDPRUDELWLRGGRVXGLRQLNDQD ]DMHGQLþNRPSURMHNWXUHEUHQGLUDQMDQLWNRRGVXGLRQLka na projektu nije trenutni ili bivÅ¡i zaposlenik KraÅ¡ grupacije, nitko od sudionika nije zaposlenik u reklamnim agencijama koje su vanjski sudionici SRGX]HüD.UDãVHSUHGQRVWGDMHVWXGHQWLPDLDPDWHULPD Prilikom rebrendiranja Životinjskog carstva mora se: zadržati ime i prepoznatljivost marke te edukacijski aspekt robne marke, redizajnirati logo i omot Životinjskog carstva, ciljna skupina rebrendiranja su tinejdžeri i mladi odrasli (do 35 godina), poželjno je GDVXXSURMHNWXNOMXþHQHLQRYDWLYQHLGHMHX QDþLQLPDRJODãDYDQMDX rebrendiranje VH PRUD XNOMXþLWL NRULãWHQMH SRVWRMHüH PRELOQH DSOLNDFLMH RGQRVQR SRYH]LYDQMH V QMRP L SULYODþHQMH NRULVQLND QD njezino skidanje i koriÅ¡tenje, prezentirati ideju rebrendiranja videouratkom na druÅ¡tvenoj mreži Facebook. 1DYHGHQLQDWMHþDMüHVHREMDYLWLQDweb-stranici grupe KraÅ¡ i stranici Igraoni.ca te se oglaÅ¡avati na televiziji, u tiskanom obliku u novinama L QD GUXãWYHQRM PUHÃ¥L )DFHERRN QD VOXÃ¥EHQRM VWUDQLFL SRGX]HüD L službenoj stranici robne marke Životinjsko carstvo. Linkovi za QDWMHþDM QD )DFHERRNX üH VH SRVWDYLWL L QD RVWDOH GUXãWYHQH PUHÃ¥H SRGX]HüD.UDãLäLYRWLQMVNRJFDUVWYDSRSXW,QVWDJUDPD6QDSFKDWD /LQNHG,QDLWG.ODVLþQLPHGLMLüHSR]LYDWLQDSULGUXÃ¥LYDQMH)DFHERRN VWUDQLFL QD QDþLQ GD üH VH NUHLUDWi teaser s porukom â&#x20AC;&#x17E;Životinjsko carstvo te treba â&#x20AC;&#x201C; na Facebooku provjeri zaÅ¡to!â&#x20AC;&#x153;, s kratkim REMDãQMHQMHPGD.UDãWUDÃ¥LPODGHWDOHQWH1DWMHþDM]DUHEUHQGLUDQMH RGQRVQRSUYLGLRQDJUDGQHLJUHWUDMDWüHPMHVHFLNDNRELVHSULNXSLR dovoljan broj kvalitetnih VXGLRQLND 7DM üH QDWMHþDM ELWL L]YHGHQLFD fRWRYLGHRLOXVWUDFLMDQDWMHþDMDDVXGLRQLFLüHOLQNRYHQDVYRMHXUDWNH slati putem poruka. 1DNRQ WRJD üH PDUNHWLQãNL RGMHO SRGX]HüD RGDEUDWLVXGLRQLNHNRMLVX]DGRYROMLOLXYMHWHWHüHVHQMLKRYUHGL]DMQ

38

Iznos nagrade je proizvoljno odredio autor. 259


logotipa i ambalaže predstaviti korisnicima s ciljem ocjenjivanja i odabira najboljeg. 2.2 Drugi dio nagradne igre na druÅ¡tvenoj mreži Facebook za rebrendiranje robne marke Životinjsko carstvo Drugi dio nagradne igre je odabir glasanjem Facebook publike L]PHÿX SULstiglih prijedloga za rebrendiranje koji udovoljavaju SRVWDYOMHQLP XYMHWLPD RGQRVQR NRULVWLW üH VH NRPELQDFLMD crowdsourcing QDWMHþDMD V GDULYDQMHP 2UJDQL]DWRU QDJUDGQH LJUH SRGX]HüH.UDã üHQD)DFHERRNVWUDQLFLäLYRWLQMVNRJFDUVWYDREMDYLWL odabrane sXGLRQLNH]DþLMXüHLGHMXUHEUHQGLUDQMDRGQRVQRUHGL]DMQD omota i loga glasati korisnici. Na link za nagradnu igru naziva â&#x20AC;&#x17E;2GDEHUL QRYL ORRN äLYRWLQMVNRP FDUVWYX L RVYRML WLVXüX kuna!â&#x20AC;&#x153; SR]LYDWüHVHVDVOXÃ¥EHQH)DFHERRNVWUDQLFHSRGX]HüD.UDã sa službene LQWHUQHWVNH VWUDQLFH SRGX]HüD .UDã V web-stranice i VWUDQLFH ,JUDRQLFD WH V RVWDOLK GUXãWYHQLK PUHÃ¥D SRGX]HüD .UDã L Životinjskog carstva. Stvaranje nagradne igre je jednostavno. Prvo je potrebno odabrati WLSQDJUDGQHLJUHãWRMHXRYRPVOXþDMXQDWMHþDMQLREUD]DFNDNREL se moglo glasati za najbolju ideju rebrendiranja. Ponuda odabira prikazana je na fotografiji 1.

Fotografija 1: Odabir tipa nagradne igre na društvenoj mreži Facebook (Facebook 2017b) Nakon odabira Form contest QDWMHþDMQL REUD]DF) pružaju se PRJXüQRVWL NRQILJXUDFLMH QDJUDGQH LJUH 7X VH RGDELUH QD]LY 260


nagradne igre, jezik nagradne igre, opis, tekst zahvale, tekst koji se prikazuje nakon zavrĹĄetka nagradne igre te tekst koji se prikazuje u podnoĹžju. Fotografija 2. prikazuje stvaranje naziva, jezika i opisa nagradne igre. Opis slijedi: â&#x20AC;&#x17E;PitaĹĄ se kako osvojiti WLVXĂźXNXQD 39 na KraĹĄevoj darovnoj kartici? Jednostavno! Odaberi novi izgled naĹĄe omiljene ĂžRNRODGLFHĹ˝ivotinjsko carstvo LPRĂĽHĂŁRVYRMLWLĂžDNWLVXĂźXNXQDNRMH moĹžeĹĄ potroĹĄiti u KraĹĄevim prodavaonicama i choco-barovima! +RĂźHĂŁOLXĂĽLYDWLVDPLOLVSULMDWHOMLPDRGOXNDMHQDWHEL Âł

Fotografija 2: Konfiguracija naziva, opisa i jezika nagradne igre (izrada autora na Facebook 2017b) Nakon toga stvara se tekst zahvale, tekst zavrĹĄetka nagradne igre i WHNVW SRGQRĂĽMD 8 WHNVW SRGQRĂĽMD GRGDW ĂźH VH GRNXPHQW X 3') IRUPDWXVGHWDOMQLPSUDYLOLPDQDJUDGQRJQDWMHĂžDMD 3RG UXEULNRP $GYDQFHG 2SWLRQV PRJXĂźH MH RGDEUDWL NROLNR SXWD VXGLRQLFL PRJX VXGMHORYDWL X QDWMHĂžDMX ĂŁWR ĂźH X RYRP VOXĂžDMu biti MHGQRPKRĂźHOLUH]XOWDWLELWLMDYQLLOLQHWHWRĂžDQSRĂžHWDNL]DYUĂŁHWDN nagradne igre. Nakon spremanja konfiguracije nagradne igre dodaju se pitanja, odnosno opcije. Odabiru se podaci koje sudionik mora unijeti kako bi sudjelovao u igri, odnosno tRĂžQRLPHLSUH]LPHWHemail adresa. 39

Iznos nagrade je proizvoljno odredio autor. 261


Zatim se nudi opcija dodavanja pitanja odnosno stvaranja svojevrsne DQNHWH]DNRMXVHJODVD7XüHVHGRGDWLIRWRJUDILMHVUHGL]DMQLPD]D NRMHüHVXGLRQLFLJODVDWL6OMHGHüLNRUDN3UHYLHZRPRJXüXMHRGDELU izgleda nagradne igre. Posljednji je korak objava na stranici i time SRNUHWDQMH QDJUDGQH LJUH IRWRJUDILMD   'DMH VH PRJXüQRVW dodavanja poveznice za nagradnu igru direktno na stranicu, objava na vremenskoj crti, pozivanje prijatelja na igranje nagradne igre te postavljanje poveznice na web-VWUDQLFX SRGX]HüDSURL]YRGD Poveznica nagradne igre može se dijeliti na ostalim Facebook stranicama i profilima te društvenim mrežama.

Fotografija 3: Objava nagradne igre (izrada autora na Facebook 2017b) Drugi dio nagradne LJUHüHWUDMDWLWMHGQD.DGDVXGLRQLFLRGDEHUX SREMHGQLþNX LGHMX UHEUHQGLUDQMD LGHMX V QDMYLãH R]QDND Ã&#x201E;6YLÿD PL VH³ OLVWDNRULVQLNDNRMLVXJODVDOL]DSREMHGQLþNXLGHMXELWüHVNLQXWD X 0LFURVRIWRYX ([FHO WDEOLFX WH üH VH SREMHGQLFL NRML üH RVYRMLWL KraÅ¡evu darovnu karticu odabrati putem 'List Randomizer' opcije generatora rezultata Random.org (Random.org 2017). Kako bi se L]EMHJOHVXPQMHXSRãWHQMHQDWMHþDMDREMDYLWüHVHOLVWDUH]XOWDWD L video odabira pobjednika putem Random.org generatora. Objava SREMHGQLND ELW üH X URNX RG  GDQD QDNRQ ]DYUãHWND QDWMHþDMD QD VOXÃ¥EHQLP LQWHUQHWVNLP VWUDQLFDPD SRGX]HüD .UDã L äLYRWLQMVNRJ 262


carstva te na njihovim službenim Facebook stranicama. Pobjednike üH VH NRQWDNWLUDWL R]QDþDYDQMHP QD )DFHERRN REMDYL SREMHGQLND u Facebook inbox te na e-mail adresu. 2.3 Mjerenje uspjeÅ¡nosti nagradne igre na druÅ¡tvenoj mreži Facebook za rebrendiranje robne marke Životinjsko carstvo Kako bi se izmjerila uspjeÅ¡nost cjelokupnog rebrendiranja proizvoda, potrebno je usmjeriti analizu k ostvarenju ciljeva rebrendiranja. To VH PRÃ¥H SRVWLüL mjerenjem prometa na druÅ¡tvenim mrežama (i internetskim stranicama). Ostvarenje ciljeva rebrendiranja poput proÅ¡irenja ciljne skupine korisnika s djece i njihovih roditelja na tinejdžere i mlade odrasle tH SRYHüDQMH NRQ]XPDFLMH L NXSQMH SURL]YRGD SURPRFLMRP NXSQMH XQXWDU PRELOQH DSOLNDFLMH PRJXüH MH izmjeriti tek nakon nekog vremena. ProÅ¡irenje ciljne skupine GMHORPLþQR VH PRÃ¥H PMHULWL L DODWLPD )DFHERRND 3XWHP )DFHERRND mogu se mjeriti: iskoriÅ¡tavanje druÅ¡tvene mreže Facebook kao HILNDVQRJDODWD]DNRPXQLNDFLMXLRGUÃ¥DYDQMHNRQWDNWDPHÿXOMXGLPD ]D MDþDQMH VYLMHVWL R UREQRM PDUFL L SRWLFDQMD NXSQMH SURL]YRGD LDNWLYLUDQMH L YHüD SRVMHüHQRVW )DFHERRN VWUDQLFH äLYRWLQMVNRJ carstva - na Facebook oznaci 'Insights'. Oznaka 'Overview' nudi sažetak stranice za odabrano razdoblje, odnosno ukupan broj DNWLYQRVWL QD VWUDQLFL SRJOHGH VWUDQLFH R]QDNH Ã&#x201E;6YLÿD PL VH³ ]D stranicu, doseg publike, koliko je publika sudjelovala u objavama, koliko je objavljeno videa, koliko stranica ima pratitelja. 6OMHGHüH R]QDNH QXGH GHWDOMQLMH SRGDWNH R VYLP DNWLYQRVWLPD VWUDQLFH V JUDILþNLP SULND]LPD NRML SUDWH UD]YRM SODüHQH NDPSDQMH QD)DFHERRNX)DFHERRNRPRJXüXMHSUDüHQMHGHPRJUDIVNHVNXSLQH koja prati stranicu, bazirano na spolu i dobnoj skupini pa bi se ti podaci trebali provjeriti prije i nakon pokretanja nagradne igre te usporediti je li objava dosegla ciljanu skupinu - na oznaci Insights â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 3HRSOHJGMHMHGHPRJUDIVNDVOLNDUDãþODQMHQDLSR]HPOMDPDXNRMLPD su fanovi stranice (Facebook 2017c). 6OLþQDVWDWLVWLNDSULND]XMHVH]D pratitelje, ljude do kojih je dospio bilo koji dio sadržaja objavljen na VWUDQLFDPD WH OMXGH NRML VX QD ELOR NRML QDþLQ UHDJLUDOL QD VDGUÃ¥DM objavljen na stranici. 'Publishing Tools' R]QDNDRPRJXüXMHSUDüenje statistike, odnosno koliki je doseg pojedine objave i koje su aktivnosti vezane za pojedinu objavu. 3RWUHEQR MH RVOXãNLYDWL L SUDWLWL UHDNFLMX SRWURãDþD L SUDWLWHOMD QD rebrendiranje, na Facebooku, ali i drugim druÅ¡tvenim mrežama SRGX]HüD L UREQH PDUNH 3UDüHQMH PLãOMHQMD L UHDNFLMD WUÃ¥LãWD MH L]QLPQRELWQRMHUQDSRGX]HüHLSURYRGLUHEUHQGLUDQMH kako bi doÅ¡lo GRYHüHJEURMDNRULVQLNDLSREROMãDORSURGDMXWHRVYRMLORQRYHYMHUQH NOLMHQWH1HNROLFLQDMHDODWDNRMLVHPRJXNRULVWLWLSULOLNRPSUDüHQMD 263


spominjanja robne marke, poput (Weinberg 2015): Social Mention, Mention, Talkwalker, Topsy i Hootsuite. Njima se mogu pratiti robne PDUNHQDUD]OLþLWHQDþLQHSULPMHULFHSUDüHQMHPGRVHJDUREQHPDUNH naklonosti publike robnoj marci, analize performanse, spominjanja UREQHPDUNHLVOLþQR

3 =DNOMXþDN 8  VWROMHüX VH ELOMHåL SRUDVW društvenih mreža pa je marketing SURãLULRVYRMHDODWHLSRVWDR]QDþDMQRVUHGVWYRNRPXQLNDFLMHL]PHÿX SRGX]HüD L NXSDFD 2QL RPRJXüDYDMX GRSLUDQMH SRUXNH SURL]YRÿDþDSRGX]HüD GR korisnika u vrlo brzom roku za relativno nizak trošak. Facebook je društvena mreža koja nudi kontinuiran aktivan rast korisnika i time širok spektar ciljnih skupina i tržišta. )DFHERRN VWUDQLFD SUXåD QL] SRJRGQRVWL SRSXW UD]OLþLWLK VWDWLVWLND kojima se mogXSUDWLWLLPMHULWLDNWLYQRVWLNRULVQLNDLGDMHUD]OLþLWH PRJXüQRVWLLREOLNHRJODãDYDQMD-HGQDRGWLKRSFLMDMHQDJUDGQDLJUD koju se u potpunosti može kreirati putem Facebook stranice. 1DJUDGQLPLJUDPDQD)DFHERRNXPRJXVHQD]DQLPOMLYQDþLQSULYXüL noYLNRULVQLFLSRYHüDWLEURMIDQRYDLNRULVQLNDXVSRVWDYLWLLQWHUDNFLMD LSRWDüLLKGDUHNODPLUDMXSRGX]HüHLSURL]YRGH Na primjerima rebrendiranja koje je u prošlosti ostvario Kraš GRND]DQD MH XþLQNRYLWRVW PDUNHWLQãNRJ PLNVD GUXãWYHQLK PUHåD X kombinaciji s drugim oblicima oglašavanja i promocije proizvoda. Ponukano pozitivnim rezultatima prethodnih rebrendiranja, može se ]DNOMXþLWL GD EL L NRULãWHQMH QDJUDGQLK LJDUD QD GUXãWYHQRM PUHåL Facebook u kombinaciji s drugim oblicima marketinške promocije bio QDMXþLQNRYLWLML PDUNHWLQãNL PLNV ]D UHEUHQGLUDQMH Životinjskog carstva. Ako se kampanja za rebrendiranje s naglaskom na nagradnu LJUXSURYRGLLQDGUXJLPGUXãWYHQLPPUHåDPDLPHGLMLPDXþLQDNüH VYDNDNRELWLYHüLGRSULMHWüHVHGRãLUHSXEOLNHDOLüHVHi potvrditi R]ELOMQRVWLSRVYHüHQRVWSRGX]HüDUHEUHQGLUDQMX Uspješnost nagradne igre na društvenoj mreži Facebook za rebrendiranje SURL]YRGDäLYRWLQMVNRFDUVWYR]DELOMHåLWüHVHDNRVH ]QDWQR SRYHüD EURM DNWLYQRVWL NRULVQLND QD VWUDQLFL UREQH PDUNH Životinjsko carstvo; doseg publike bude približan onome SUHGYLÿHQRP ILQDQFLUDQMHP RJODVD YH]DQLK ]D QDJUDGQX LJUX MH ]QDWQRSRYHüDQEURMNRULVQLNDfollowera u ciljnoj skupini kampanje; þRNRODGDäLYRWLQMVNRFDUVWYRRVWYDUL]QDWDQSRUDVWXSURGDMLDOEXP Životinjsko carstvo ostvari znatan porast u prodaji; se ostvari znatan broj skidanja mobilne aplikacije te ako se ostvari porast prodaje þRNRODGHäLYRWLQMVNRFDUVWYRSXWHPDSOLNDFLMH

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4 Bibliografija 1. %LORĂŁ$L.HOLĂź,  0DUNHWLQJ$VSHFWVRI6RFLDONetworks,

Economic Research-Ekonomska istraĹživanja, Special Edition 2, str. 153172. 2. Brakus, A. (2015), Mediji i marketing, In Medias Res, 4(7), str. 10961103. 3. %XOLĂź'  *RGLĂŁQMHL]YMHĂŁĂźHRVWDQMXLSRVORYDQMX.UDĂŁJUXSHX 2014. godini. Zagreb: KraĹĄ. Dostupno na: http://www.kras.hr/images/cms_page_text/GODISNJE_IZVJESCE_2014_ file_20_hr.pdf 4. [pristup 1.6.2016.] 5. Facebook (2012). Tortica. Dostupno na: https://www.facebook.com/tortica.kras/posts/299014206791571 [pristup 27.7.2017.] 6. Facebook (2017a). Insights â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Overview. Dostupno na: https://www.facebook.com/insights/?section=navOverview [pristup 13.8.2017.] 7. Facebook (2017b). Contest for Pages. Dostupno na: https://apps.facebook.com/my-contests/ [pristup 7.7.2017.] 8. Facebook (2017c). Insights â&#x20AC;&#x201C; People. Dostupno na: https://www.facebook.com/insights/?section=navPeople [pristup 13.8.2017.] 9. Fraculj, M. (2010). Marketing u KraĹĄu i koriĹĄtenje druĹĄtvenih mreĹža, KraĹĄ prehrambena industrija d.d.: Dostupno na: hr.bestmarketing.com/popFile.php?id=186 [pristup 1.6.2017.] 10.Grbavac, J. i Grbavac, V. (2014). Pojava druĹĄtvenih mreĹža kao globalnog komunikacijskog fenomena, Media, Culture and Public Relations, 5(2) str. 206-219. 11.Janton, M. (2010). Interaktivni marketing, Web strategija. Dostupno na: http://www.webstrategija.com/ws/09/interaktivni_marketing [pristup 29.7.2017.] 12.KraĹĄ d.d. i KraĹĄ Grupa. (2017). GodiĹĄnji financijski izvjeĹĄtaj za poslovnu 2016. godinu (interno gradivo), Zagreb, KraĹĄ d.d. 13.Media Marketing (2014). ,]QHQDĂżXMXĂźDVWDWLVWLNDRGUXĂŁWYHQLPPUHĂĽDPD Dostupno na: http://www.media-marketing.com/vijesti/iznenadjujucestatistika-o-drustvenim-medijima/ [pristup 7.7.2017]. 14.Pokemon (2017). Pokemon Game. Dostupno na: https://www.pokemon.com/us/pokemon-video-games/pokemon-go/ [pristup 13.3.2017.] 15.Random.org (2017.) List Randomizer. Dostupno na: https://www.random.org/lists/ [pristup 13.8.2017.] 16.Ĺ egota, I. (2017). Nagradne igre na druĹĄtvenoj mreĹži Facebook kao alat za UHEUHQGLUDQMHSURL]YRGDQDSULPMHUXSRGX]HĂźD.UDĂŁGGMagistrska naloga. Doba fakulteta Maribor. 17.Weinberg, T. (2015). 6 Social Media Monitoring Tools to Track Your Brand, Social Media Examiner. Dostupno na: http://www.socialmediaexaminer.com/6-social-media-monitoring-tools/ [pristup 13.8.2017.] 18.Weaver, A. C., i Morrison, B. (2008), Social Networking, Computer, 41(2) str. 97-100. 19.Woobox (2017). Features. Dostupno na: https://woobox.com [pristup 13.8.2017.] 265


20.=ULQXĂŁLĂź$  Internet marketing: Digitalno doba marketinga,

Mirakul. Dostupno na: http://www.mirakul.hr/bizdirekt/internetmarketing/ [pristup 13.8.2017.]

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Dr. Vida Sruk Višja predavateljica, Ekonomsko-poslovna fakulteta Univerze v Mariboru, vida.sruk@um.si Pedja Ašanin Gole Višji predavatelj, DOBA Fakulteta Maribor, Slovenija pedja.asanin-gole@net.doba.si

Potvorjene novice, postUHVQLþQRLQSRVWPRGHUQD družba Povzetek 9SRVWPRGHUQLPHGLDWL]LUDQLGUXÃ¥ELþDVXLQWHQ]LYQLKWUDQVIRUPDFLMLQ pretvorb, brezmejne poljubnosti, SUDJPDWLþQRVWLSRKOHSDLQL]JXEH VNRUDMGD YVDNUãQH XWRSLþQH LGHRORãNH SDUDGLJPH VH YHGQR ]QRYD porajajo novi â&#x20AC;&#x17E;post-LVWLþQL SRMPL NL WDNR NRW VWDUL NDÃ¥HMR QD RJURÃ¥HQRVWþHÃ¥HQHQDSUHÃ¥LYHWRVWWHPHOMQLK]DKRGQLKFLYLOL]DFLMVNLK vrednot oz. pridobitev: post-UHVQLþQR SRVW-IDNWLþQR SRVW-moralno, post-GHPRNUDWLþQRLWQ7DQHEU]GDQDKHWHURJHQDSROMXEQRVWQHLãþH UHVQLFH WHPYHþ VL VYRMR SRVW-UHVQLþQR Ã&#x201E;UHVQLFR NUHLUD SR SRWUHEL vsak dan znova kot â&#x20AC;&#x17E;alternativna dejstva", resnice drugih iz pozicije PRþLYpost-GHPRNUDWLþQHPNRQWHNVWXGHNODVLUDNRWÃ&#x201E;ODÃ¥QHQRYLFH na koncu pa vedno na plano pride tudi post-resnica. Avtorja v SULþXMRþHP þODQNX SUHXþXMHWD QDMEROM DNWXDOQH Ã&#x201E;SRVW-izme" in jih VNXãDWD UD]ORÃ¥LWL V SRPRþMR NULWLþQLK SRJOHGRY QD QDMRGPHYQHMãH postmoderniste. Identificirata postmodernizem kot enega od intelektualnih korenin, ki se skriva v ozadju in post-realnega sveta. .OMXþQH EHVHGH: potvorjene novice, post-UHVQLþQR DOWHUQDWLYQD dejstva, postmoderna družba, postmodernizem JEL koda klasifikacije: Z13

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Fake News, Post-truth and Postmodern Society Abstract In a postmodern mediated society, in a time of intense transformations, boundless of arbitrariness, pragmatism and greed, and loss of virtually any utopian ideological paradigm, new â&#x20AC;&#x17E;postistic" concepts are emerging, which, like the old ones, point to the threat for the survival of the fundamental Western civilizational values: post-true, post-factual, post-moral, post-democratic, etc. This unbridled heterogeneous of arbitrariness does not seek truth, but creates its post-true â&#x20AC;&#x17E;truth" as necessary every day as â&#x20AC;&#x17E;alternative facts", denigrating the truths of others from the position of power in a post-democratic context as â&#x20AC;&#x17E;false news", and ultimately always post-truth also comes to plan. In this article, the authors examine the most current â&#x20AC;&#x17E;post-istics" and try to explain them by means of critical views on the most eminent postmodernists. They identify postmodernism as one of the intellectual roots behind the post-real world. Keywords: fake news, post-truth, alterantive facts, postmodern society, postmodernism JEL classification code: Z13

1 Uvod: druĹžba interpretacije

postmoderne

in

mediatizacijske

äLYLPR Y ĂžDVX LQWHQ]LYQLK WUDQVIRUPDFLM â&#x20AC;&#x201C; nenehnih druĹžbenih in tehnoloĹĄkih sprememb, prehitrih preoblikovanj odnosov in preobrazb v njih, v obdobju vsakdanjega spreminjanja druĹžbe, organizacij in UHVQLĂžQRVWLNLMREROMNRWUHVQLFDLQSUHYHUOMLYDGHMVWYDNURMLMRERGLVL potvorjene novice, katerih laĹži se zavemo ĹĄele po razkritju resnice, â&#x20AC;&#x17E;post-UHVQLĂžQR torej, bodisi alternativna dejstva v plehkih SRSXOLVWLĂžQLK]QDNLKDOLĂŁHPDQM(AĹĄanin Gole 2017) 40. Pojav potvorjenih, ponarejenih, laĹžnih novic je star toliko kot tiskani mediji, saj so politiki v javnem diskurzu od nekdaj uporabljali

Fenomen ponarejenih, potvorjenih, laĹžnih novic in alternativnih dejstev ter post-UHVQLĂžQHJD MH ELO ĂŁLURP VYHWD REUDYQDYDQ QD UD]OLĂžQLK ]QDQVWYHQLK LQ VWURNRYQLK VUHĂžDQMLK WXGL QD  6ORYHQVNL NRQIHUHQFL R RGQRVLK ] MDYQRVWPL DSULODRENDWHULMHQDVWDORL]KRGLĂŁĂžQREHVHGLORNLJDVWHPSULVSHYNRP QDGJUDMXMHPRLQUD]ODJDPRVSRVWPRGHUQLVWLĂžQHSHUVSHNWLYH

40

268


ponarejena ali potvorjena dejstva v namen promocije lastnih idej, WRYUVWQDSURSDJDQGDSDMHNOMXþQRRURGMHYVDNHWRWDOLWDUQHREODVWL Kljub temu pa vpraÅ¡anja resnice in dejstev v javnem diskurzu verjHWQR QLNROL QLVR ELOD WDNR SRPHPEQD NRW Y WHP WLVRþOHWMX YVDM QDPWUHQXWQRÃ¥LYHþLPQH =ODVWLYSROLWLþQHPGLVNXU]XVHMHUHVQLFD se sicer venomer prilagajala želenim interpretacijam, potrebnim denimo za legitimizacijo vojne v Iraku s strani Busheve adPLQLVWUDFLMHNLSDMHWHPHOMLODQDQDSDþQLKDOLFHORSRWYRUMHQLKLQ lažnih informacijah o obstoju grožnje jedrskega orožja, ali pa referendumskem zagovoru zakona o drugem tiru. Zdi se, da se je VYHWãHSRVHEHMPRþQRVSUHPHQLOSRILQDQþQHPNRODSVXYOHWX008, s porastom dohodkovne neenakosti in vzponom družbenih medijev. Celotna družba se je mediatizirala, in mi z njo. Vse, kar potrebujemo za to, da postanemo tudi sami medij, je pameten telefon, saj vsakdo med nami lahko postavi sebi lasten medij ter na njem objavi svojo UHVQLFRQRYLFR]JRGERSULþHPHUQLQXMQRUD]OLNRYDQMHPHGGHMVWYL in fikcijo. Racionalno argumentacijo se enostavno nadomesti s NUHLUDQMHPQRYLFNDWHUHQHYHOMDXWHPHOMHYDWLWHPYHþMLKMHWUHED zgolj narediti atraktivne. Le nekaj trditHY Y QDMYHþ  ]QDNLK QD 7ZLWWHUMX LPD RþLWQR HQDNR YHURGRVWRMQRVW NRW L]VOHGNL UD]LVNDYH SUHGVWDYOMHQL Y ]QDQVWYHQHP þODQNX REMDYOMHQHP Y YLVRNR indeksirani reviji. Z vzponom novih medijev â&#x20AC;&#x201C; spletnih družbenih omrežij, blogov in državljanskega novinarstva kot virov novic, in QDUDãþDMRþLP QH]DXSDQMHP Y GHMVWYD LQ UHVQLFH NL MLK SRQXMDMR uradni viri, so ti novi mediji ustvarili fenomen 'moja resnica je vredna YHþNRWGHMVWYD 9VHMHUHODWLYQRÃ&#x201E;=JRGEHVHSULSRYHGXMHMRYHVþDV LQ UHVQLFD  QL UHVQLþQD 3osledice bomo izvedeli post-UHVQLþQR (Coughlan 2017 str. 123). 1.1 Potvorjene in lažne novice ter alternativna dejstva Besedna zveza potvorjene novice je prevod angleÅ¡ke fraze â&#x20AC;&#x17E;fake news'', lažne novice pa prevod fraze â&#x20AC;&#x17E;false news''. Novice so lahko potvorjene ali ponarejene z nehotenim podajanjem pomanjkljivih ali QHFHORYLWLKLQIRUPDFLM QHQDPHUQDL]PHQMDYDQDSDþQLKLQIRUPDFLM DOL z dezinformiranjem (namernim ustvarjanjem in izmenjavo LQIRUPDFLM ]D NDWHUH MH ]QDQR GD VR QHUHVQLþQH  Alternativna dejstva SD QLVR QLþ GUXJHJD NRW ãH HQR LPH ]D SRWYDUMDQMH ponarejanje objektivnih dejstev. 6SOHWQD GUXÃ¥EHQD RPUHÃ¥MD RPRJRþDMR GD PHGLDWL]LUDQR ELWMH 21. stoletja svojo resnico v obliki novic neposredno usmeri na uporabnike, za katere je verjetno, da jih bodo sprejeli in jih delili, Å¡irili naprej, saj gre za â&#x20AC;&#x17E;zaupanja vredenâ&#x20AC;&#x153; krog virtualnih prijateljev, podpornikov in sledilcev. Ko mediatizirani osebek na svojem mediju QH KRWH GHOL ]DYDMDMRþR DOL SRWYRUMHQR QRYLFR MR QMHJRY YLUWXDOQL â&#x20AC;&#x17E;prijatelj" vidi, ji verjame in jo nato deli, Å¡iri naprej tudi sam. Spletni 269


GUXåEHQLPHGLMLWDNRRPRJRþDMRYVDNRPXUGDNDGDUNROLNRPXQLFLUD VãLURNLPREþLQVWYRP V okviru projekta First Draft News (Wardle 2017) so potvorjene novice na spletnih družbenih medijih gradacijsko tipizirali v sedem UD]OLþQLK REOLN RG QDMEROM QHGROåQH VDWLUH LQ SDURGLMH  GR WLVWH NL poPHQL ]DYUDþDQMH DUJXPHQWRY NL WHPHOMLMR QD GHMVWYLK Y SULG þXVWHY LQ ODVWQHJD RVHEQHJD PQHQMD LQ ]DWRUHM QH SRWUHEXMH argumentacije, ker postane post-UHVQLþQRVDPRSRVHEL  satira in parodija (nikomur ne škodita, smešita pa napake pri SRURþDQMXRSRPHPEnih dogodkih, temah in ljudeh);  QDSDþQDSRYH]DYD QDVORYLJUDILþQDRSUHPDDOLSRGQDSLVLQLVRY skladu z vsebino novice);  ]DYDMDMRþD YVHELQD uporaba informacij, s katerimi se okviri, zameji predstavo o temi obravnave ali posamezniku);  QDSDþQD YVHELQD (delitev pristne vsebine z lažnimi kontekstualnimi informacijami);  sleparska impulzivna vsebina ODåQD ]DNULWD QDSDþQD predstavitev izvirnega vira informacij z umetno ustvarjenim virom);  manipulativna vsebina, (izvirna vsebina je tako izkrivljena, da zavaja);  umetno ustvarjena vsebina L]PLãOMHQD DOL SRYVHP QHWRþQD informacija, ustvarjena z namenom zavajanja, hujskaštva, podpihovanja sovražnega govora). Avstralski Macquarieov slovar je letos kot besedo leta 2016 izbral "potvorjene novice" in jih definiral kot "dezinformacije in prevare, REMDYOMHQHQDVSOHWQLKVWUDQHKYSROLWLþQHQDPHQHDOL]DGYLJRYDQMH VSOHWQHJDSURPHWDSULþHPHUQDSDþQHLQIRUPDFLMHSUHQDãDMRVSOHWQL družbeni mediji" (Macquarie Dictionary 2017). Namerno izmišljene zgodbe, ki se pojavljajo kot novinarstvo z namenom manipuliranja bralcev, so postale vse bolj opazen svetovni pojav med predsedniško volilno kampanjo v Združenih državah leta 2016 prav zaradi vse YHþMHXSRUDEHGUXåEHQLKPHGLMHYNRWYLUDQRYLF6WHPNRVRVSOHWQL GUXåEHQL PHGLML SRVWDOL JODYQL QDþLQ GRVWRSD GR QRYLF SRVOHGLþQR XSDGDMRSULKRGNLWUDGLFLRQDOQLKPHGLMHYýHWLåHOLMRYHþSULKRGNRYRG RJODãHYDQMDSRWUHEXMHMRYHþNOLNRYQDVYoje vsebine; pomembno je, GDVRYVHELQHDWUDNWLYQHQHQXMQRUHVQLþQHVDMMHDWUDNWLYQRVWLQQH UHVQLFROMXEQRVW WLVWD NL SRY]URþL NOLNH YãHþNDQMH NRPHQWLUDQMH LQ GHOMHQMHQRYLF1RYRPHULORYUHGQRVWLMHWDNRWXGL]DãWHYLOQHNODVLþQH medije postala viralnost in ne resnica ali kakovost. In tako tudi NODVLþQLPHGLMLVOHGLMR]JOHGXQRYLKVSOHWQLKGUXåEHQLKPHGLMHY Potvorjene in lažne novice na družbenih medijih so postale del sodobnih razprav ob volitvah 45. predsednika ZDA v letu 2016, alternativna dejstva pa ob njegovi inavguraciji. V zadnjih treh 270


mesecih ameriÅ¡ke predsedniÅ¡ke kampanje 2016 so najuspeÅ¡nejÅ¡e SRWYRUMHQH QRYLFH QD )DFHERRNX XVWYDULOH YHþMR DQJDÃ¥LUDQRVW bralstva kot najpomembnejÅ¡e novice glavnih ameriÅ¡kih spletnih medijev, kot so New York Times, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, Los Angeles Times, The Guardian, NBC News in drugih (skupaj 19), je ugotovila analiza BuzzFeed News (Silverman 2016). Konkretneje, 20 najuspeÅ¡nejÅ¡ih potvorjenih volilnih zgodb je v ]DGQMLKWUHKPHVHFLKSUHGVHGQLãNHYROLOQHNDPSDQMHSRY]URþLORYHþ kot 8,7 milijonov delitev, reakcij in komentarjev na Facebooku, v LVWHP þDVX SD MH  QDMXVSHãQHMãLK Qovic o istih volitvah na 19 QRYLþDUVNLK VSOHWQLK VWUDQHK XVWYDULOR VNXSDM VNRUDM  PLOLMRQD delitev, reakcij in komentarjev na Faceeboku. Potvorjene in tudi ODÃ¥QH QRYLFH VR Y JODYQHP L]KDMDOH L] ODÃ¥QLK QRYLþDUVNLK VSOHWQLK strani, ki so jih ustvarili makedonski najstniki. 1.2 Post-UHVQLþQRYMDYQHPGLVNXU]X Tudi javna razprava o referendumu v Združenem kraljestvu o izstopu iz EU je postregla s slabimi, neskladnimi, nekvalificiranimi in v QHNDWHULK SULPHULK ]DYDMDMRþLPL WUGLWYDPL LQ SURWL-trditvami, z izkrivljanji dejstev, pol-resnicami in popolnimi lažmi (Jackson, Thorsen in Wring 2016). Vodilni britanski akademiki v istem viru ugotavljajo, da je bila stopnja dezinformacij v referendumski NDPSDQMLWDNRYHOLNDGDELELODODKNRYSUDãOMLYDFHORGHPRNUDWLþQD legitimnost izidov referendumskega glasovanja. Že ob objavi prvih UH]XOWDWRYUHIHUHQGXPVNHJDL]LGDVHMHQDPUHþ]JRGLORpost-UHVQLþQR (angl. post-truth): vodilni zagovorniki odhoda Združenega kraljestva iz Evropske unije so sproti izjavljali, da pri njihovih predUHIHUHQGXPVNLKÃ&#x201E;DUJXPHQWLK³QLãOR]DGHMVWYDWHPYHþ]DÃ&#x201E;þXVWYHQR povezovanjeâ&#x20AC;&#x153; z volivci. V svetu post-UHVQLþQHJDÃ¥LYLPRWRUHMYGUXÃ¥EL v kateri je, kot pravi Jelen Sanchez â&#x20AC;&#x17E;lahko proizvajalec zobne paste ND]QRYDQþHQDHPEDODÃ¥LQDYHGHQDSDþQRVestavino, medtem ko se politikom, ki zdravstvu obljubijo lažnih 350 milijonov funtov na teden (ki naj bi se po odhodu Združenega kraljestva iz Evropske unije vrnili EULWDQVNLPGDYNRSODþHYDOFHPRSDY QH]JRGLQLþ -HOHQ6DQFKH] v Jakomin 2017, str. 13). 'Post-UHVQLþQR je izraz, ki zajema izkrivljanje in ponarejanje dejstev, NL VR ELO ERGLVL YHþNUDW SRYHGDQL DOL YHþNUDW GHOMHQL QD VSOHWQLK družbenih medijih. Kot besedo leta 2016 je Oxfordski slovar opredelil â&#x20AC;&#x17E;post-UHVQLþQR NRW SULGHYQLN NL VH QDQDãa na â&#x20AC;&#x17E;povezovanje z ali R]QDþHYDQMHRNROLãþLQYNDWHULKVRREMHNWLYQDGHMVWYDPDQMYSOLYQD SULREOLNRYDQMXSROLWLþQHUD]SUDYHDOLMDYQHJDPQHQMDNRWSULYODþQRVW þXVWHY LQ RVHEQHJD SUHSULþDQMD (Oxford English Dictionary 2017). Tisto torej, kar se pojavi po razkritju resnice, oz. posledica razkritja UHVQLFH NL SD QL ND]QLYD VDM JUH YHQGDUOH ]D RVHEQD þXVWYD LQ SUHSULþDQMD. 271


=GL VH GD SROLWLþQR ODJDQMH SUHWLUDYDQMH LQ ]DYDMDQMH Y MDYQHP GLVNXU]XSRVWDMDSRSROQRPDVSUHMHPOMLYDFHORSULþDNRYDQDNXOWXUQRSROLWLþQDSUDNVDYSRVWPRGHUQLGUXåEL9VHWRQHNDWHUHDYWRUMHFHOR QDYGLKXMH N DSRNDOLSWLþQHPX ]DNOMXþNX GD VR VHGDQMH SROLWLþQH GUXåEHQH LQ JRVSRGDUVNH XUHGLWYH QD WRþNL SRSROQHJD SURSDGD (Graham, 2017 str. 17), s tem pa se pod vprašaj postavlja tudi nadaljnji razvoj postmoderne družbe in demokracije.

2 Postmoderni beg pred interpretacijo Postmoderna (družba) oz. postmodernizem je bolj raznorodna PHWDIRUD NRW GRUHþHQ SRMHP ýHWXGL WD WHUPLQ Ã¥H GHVHWOHWMD obvladuje intelektualni diskurz ra]OLþQLK XPHWQRVWQLK VPHUL znanstvenih ved in drugih praks, je neulovljivost in diverznost opazovane pojavnosti, ki jo poskuÅ¡ajo njeni interpreti s tem izrazom ]DREVHþL LQ R]QDþLWL SUDY WDNR SUHGPHW GUXJLK ]QDQVWYHQLK poimenovalnih prizadevanj. Tako prihaja do vsebinskih in razlagalnih SUHNULYDQM ] QDMUD]OLþQHMãLPL VNRYDQNDPL R] NRQFHSWL NL VR MLK etablirali vplivni sociologi v svojih delih. V tem kontekstu velja omeniti predvsem postindustrijsko družbo 41 Daniela Bella (1979;   LQ UL]LþQR GUXÃ¥ER R] družbo tveganja Ulricha Becka 42. 3RPHQVNR PRþQR YDULLUDMRþ SRMHP Ã&#x201E;SRVWPRGHUQL]PD VH MH L] HVWHWVNH LQ ILOR]RIVNH UD]SUDYH L] NDWHUH MH L]ãHO OH SRþDVL SUHVHOLO tudi v domeno družboslovja. Tedaj se je teorija družbe, predvsem zavoljo svojega znanstvenega samorazumevanja, znaÅ¡la pred novimi izzivi. *HQHDORJLMDWHUPLQDSRVWPRGHUQDLPDGROJR]JRGRYLQR3RVDPLþQR so ga uporabljali nekateri avtorji (slikarji, zgodovinarji, literarni teoretiki) že od sredine druge polovice 19., pa vse do 50. let 20. stoletja, vendar na vsebinsko povsem neenoten in nezadostno DUWLNXOLUDQ QDþLQ :HOVFK   9HVWHU   7H UDEH Nekateri avtorji, kot npr. Wolfgang Welsch (1987), v socioloÅ¡ki diskurz postmoderne vpeljujejo tudi koncepte postindustrijske družbe (denimo Alain Touraine, David Riesman ali Daniel Bell), medtem ko drugi, npr. Albert Scherr (1990) in Rolf Eickelpasch (2000, str. 17), smatrajo, da imajo ti družbeni modeli s postmoderno družbo skupno le predpono â&#x20AC;&#x17E;post" in da gre za â&#x20AC;&#x17E;neustrezno ex-post-stilizacijo". 42 Beck je predpono â&#x20AC;&#x17E;post-³R]QDþLONRWÃ&#x201E;NOMXþQREHVHGRQDãHJDþDVD³ %HFN 1986, str. 12). Skupaj z drugimi â&#x20AC;&#x17E;post-istLþQLPL³ HWLNHWDPL NRW VR SRVWKLVWRULþQR SRVW-VWUXNWXUDOLVWLþQR SRVW-industrijsko, post-PDWHULDOLVWLþQR LWG izraža globinsko krizno izkuÅ¡njo difuzne družbene zavesti na pragu v novo epoho, v kateri se zdi trenutno stanje zastarelo in preživeto, novega pa Å¡e ni PRJRþH SRLPHQRYDWL GRUHþL Ã&#x201E;3UHWHNORVW SOXV SRVW  MH WHPHOMQL UHFHSW V NDWHULPQDMELVHQHERJOMHQRSRVNXãDOLVRRþLWL]UHDOQRVWMR]DNDWHURVH]GLGD MHSRSROQRPDL]WLULODýHWXGLMH%HFNSULVSHYDONSRVWPRGHUQLVRFLRORãNLGHEDWL Å¡tevilne centralne pojme in interpretacije, pa sam govori o refleksivni moderni. 41

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metafore imajo komaj kaj skupnega z danaÅ¡njim diskurzom o postmoderni. 'HMDQVNDGLVNXVLMDSRVWPRGHUQL]PDVHMHSULþHODUD]YLMDWLYDPHULãNL literarni debati 60. let, ko sta literarna kritika Susan Sontag in Leslie )LHGOHU ]DYUJOD YVDNUãQD PHULOD NODVLþQH PRGHUQH LQ QDYGXãHQR SR]GUDYLODRþLWHQ]ORPWUDGLFLRQDOQLKYUHGQRWYNQMLÃ¥HYQRVWLNLMHELO pred tem pojmovan negativno. Postmoderno književnost naj bi sedaj RGOLNRYDOL Ã&#x201E;EHJ SUHG LQWHUSUHWDFLMR ]DYUDþDQMH YVDNUãQLK SRPHQRY ter slavljenje neposrednih, ne-intelektualnih izkuÅ¡enj. PriÅ¡lo naj bi do EOLÃ¥DQMDHOLWQHLQPQRÃ¥LþQHNXOWXUH Prav takÅ¡no â&#x20AC;&#x17E;demokratizacijoâ&#x20AC;&#x153; ima v mislih tudi ameriÅ¡ki arhitekt Charles Jencks, ko terja, da naj nova arhitektura v enaki meri QDJRYDUMDWDNRHOLWHNRWWXGLQDYDGQHJDþORYHNDVFHVWH/HWD je pojem postmodernizma prenesel v domeno arhitekture, ki velja za QDMEROM RþLWQR GHPRQVWUDFLMR MHGUD WHJD IHQRPHQD Y SUDNVL VDj se ravno tu eksplicitno kaže nasprotje med moderno in postmoderno. Transparentnosti jekleno-stekleno-betonskih zgradb, poenotenim VWROSLþDVWLP VWDYEDP NRW MLK MH SURSDJLUDO /H &RUEXVLHU WRUHM IXQNFLRQDOLVWLþQL XQLIRUPQRVWL SRVWDYL QDVSURWL SRVWPRGHUQL princip SOXUDOQHJDNUHLUDQMDHNOHNWLþQHLJUH]REOLNDPLLQVWLOQLPLHOHPHQWL Vsi slogi in mode so dovoljeni. 43 Med seboj tekmujejo, se združujejo, vzajemno dopolnjujejo, komentirajo, negirajo in reinterpretirajo. Vlada pluralnost kodov in kultur okusa, tDNR UHNRþ Ã&#x201E;GYRMQD kodiranost". Nastaja â&#x20AC;&#x17E;dialog jezika brez meta-jezika" (Welsch 1987, str. 119). V 70. in 80. letih 20. stoletja je ameriÅ¡ki literarni teoretik HJLSþDQVNHJD URGX ,KDE +DVVDQ L]KDMDMRþ L] GRPHQH NQMLÃ¥HYQRVWL pojem postmodernizma razÅ¡iril v sploÅ¡no-kulturni, Å¡iroko razvejani koncept â&#x20AC;&#x17E;postmoderne episteme". V svojevrstni spoznavni teoriji je DUWLNXOLUDO L]WRþQLFH NL GR GDQHV GRORþDMR SRVWPRGHUQL GLVNXU] tendenca k pluralizaciji, decentriranju in izoblikovanju diferenc. Te tendence naj bi bile v resnici sestavljene iz subtendenc, katere je PRJRþH DVRFLLUDWL V SRMPL NRW VR RGSUWRVW KHWHURGRNVLMD pluralnost, eklekticizem, neusmerjenost, nenaravnanost, revolta, deformacija. Že samo slednji naj bi vseboval ducat uporabljanih

=QDQVWYHQ LQ LGHDOLVWLþHQ SULVWRS PRGHUQL]PD NL MH XVPHUMDO SRJOHG N visokim tehnologijam prihodnosti, nadomesti postmoderni pogled, ki si izposoja iz preteklosti. Po D. Harveyu (1  YNOMXþXMHMR SULPHUL SRVWPRGHUQH DUKLWHNWXUHÃ&#x201E;LPLWDFLMRVUHGQMHYHãNLKWUJRYLQULELãNLKYDVLRELþDMQLKDOLOMXGVNLK KLã REQRYOMHQH WRYDUQH LQ VNODGLãþD WHU YUQLWHY N NUDMLQDP YVHK YUVW (Haralambos in Holborn, 1999, str. 915).

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pojmov anulacije: GHNUHDFLMR GH]LQWHJUDFLMR SUHQRV WHÃ¥LãþD diferenciacijo, diskontinuitetoâ&#x20AC;¦ (Hassan 1983) 44. 2.1 -H]LNRYQHLJUHLQREMHNWLYQDUHVQL FD þQRVW V francoski filozofiji se postmodernizem zrcali v idejah postVWUXNWXUDOLVWLþQLK PLVOHFHY -HDQ-François Lyotarda in Jeana %DXGULOODUGDLQWLÃ&#x201E;DQRQLPQLKSRVWPRGHUQLVWRYNRWMLKR]QDþXMH Eickelpasch (2000), ker se sami nikoli niso postavljali v kontekst obravnavane terminologije: Michaela Foucaulta, Gillesa Deleuzeja, Jacquesa Derridaja. Za Lyotarda je postmoderna prej stanje razpoloženja ali duha kot epoha (Welsch 1987). Totalnost in enotne programe moderne sedaj zamenja ireducibilnost mnoÅ¡tva lokalnih in heterogenih jezikovnih LJHU REOLN GHORYDQMD LQ QDþLQRY Ã¥LYOMHQMD $IHNW VH ]RSHUVWDYL sploÅ¡nemu. Lyotard (1988) ugotavlja, da postmodernizem spodkopava meta-]JRGEH þORYHãNH RVYRERGLWYH VDPRL]SROQLWYH LQ družbenega napredka. V spisu La condition postmoderne (1979) ugotavlja â&#x20AC;&#x17E;konec meta-pripovedi". Razvoj postindustrijske družbe in postmoderne kulture v 50. letih dvajsetega stoletja povezuje s tehnologijo, znanostjo in nekaterimi družbenimi dogajanji, predvsem pa s spremembami v jeziku. Eden centralnih pojmov njegove analize MH Ã&#x201E;MH]LNRYQD LJUD NL VOXÃ¥L XSUDYLþHYDQMX DOL OHJLWLPLUDQMX YHGHQMD ljudi v družbi. UdeleženHFGLVNXU]DVNR]LVYRMHL]MDYHSRVNXãDGRVHþL GDELELODVSUHMHWDQMHJRYDLQGLYLGXDOQDUD]OLþLFDWHJDNDUQDMELELOR UHVQLþQRDOLSUDYLOQRýHSUDYVRELOHRGþDVDUD]VYHWOMHQVWYDQDSUHM MH]LNRYQH LJUH Y YHOLNL PHUL QDGRPHãþHQH ] ]QDQVWYHQLPL R]QDþHYDOQLPLLJUDPLNMHUQLYHþSRPHPEQRNGRJRYRULPDUYHþOH REMHNWLYQDUHVQLþQRVWL]MDYHNLMHYHULILFLUDQD]GRND]LLQUDFLRQDOQLPL argumenti, Lyotard sklepa, da zgodbeno znanje vzporedno obstaja Å¡e naprej, znanost pa se poskuÅ¡a do njega distancirati. Znanost temelji na meta-zgodbah, ki so skupaj z njo etablirale tudi vero v QDSUHGHN LQ VDPRDNWXDOL]DFLMR SRVDPH]QLND WHU QDMUD]OLþQHMãH totalne ideologije. V postmoderni dobi postane vse to zastarelo. =D]QDPXMHMRGYRMHSRHQLVWUDQLRSXãþDQMHLVNDQMDUHVQLFHsaj so R]QDþHYDOQH MH]LNRYQH LJUH GLVNUHGLWLUDQH ]QDQMH SD MH IUDJPHQWLUDQR GR WDNH PHUH GD UD]QRYUVWQRVW RQHPRJRþD LVNDQMH ene velike resnice, ki bi zaobjemala in legitimirala celokupno YHGQRVW3RGUXJLVWUDQLSDVHXYHOMDYOMDMRWHKQLþQHMH]LNRYQHLJUH, ki WUGLWHY QH SUHVRMDMR YHþ JOHGH QD QMLKRYR SUDYLOQRVW PDUYHþ JOHGH QD QMLKRYR XþLQNRYLWRVW LQ NRULVWQRVW NDWHULK HGLQL FLOM MH ]JROM uporabnost znanj v smislu njegovega trženja (Haralambos in Holborn V okviru svoje epistemologije je oblikoval tabelo razlik med moderno in postmoderno, ki nazorno postavljajo v opozicijo centralne pojme obeh paradigem (glej Hassan, 1987).

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1999, str. 916-917). Lyotard ugotavlja, da so bile velike metapripovedi razsvetljenstva o napredku in emancipaciji, o avtonomiji VXEMHNWD WHU R VPLVOX ]JRGRYLQH YHQRPHU QHORþOMLYR SRYH]DQH V terorjem. Pravi, da smo hrepenenje po enotnem in enem, po SRPLULWYLSRMPRYQHJDLQþXWQHJDSRL]NXãQMLNLMHWUDnsparentna in NLMRMHPRJRþHVNRPXQLFLUDWLGUDJRSODþDOL%RMQLNOLFSRVWPRGHUQH VHJODVLÃ&#x201E;9RMQRFHORVWQHPXSULþDMPR]DQHXSRGREOMLYRDNWLYLUDMPR QDVSURWRYDQMHUHãLPRþDVWLPHQD /\RWDUGVWU  9 SRVWPRGHUQL PHGLDWL]LUDQL GUXÃ¥EL þDVX EUHzmejne poljubnosti, SUDJPDWLþQRVWL SRKOHSD LQ L]JXEH VNRUDMGD YVDNUãQH XWRSLþQH LGHRORãNHSDUDGLJPHVHVSULþRVRGREQLKGRJDMDQMYVYHWXPHGLMHYLQ politike, vedno znova porajajo novi â&#x20AC;&#x17E;post-LVWLþQLSRMPL NLWDNRNRW VWDUL NDÃ¥HMR QD RJURÃ¥HQRVW þH Ã¥H QH na preživetost temeljnih zahodnih civilizacijskih vrednot oz. pridobitev): post-UHVQLþQRSRVWIDNWLþQR SRVW-moralno, post-GHPRNUDWLþQR LWQ 9VH VH L]JXEOMD Y QHEU]GDQLKHWHURJHQLSROMXEQRVWLNLYHþQHLãþHUHVQLFHYVHNDNRUQH ene enotne, pa tudi delne QH PDUYHþ VOHGL OH EUH]YHVWQHPX insceniranju in profiterstvu, ki si svojo post-IDNWLþQRÃ&#x201E;UHVQLFR³NUHLUD po potrebi vsak dan znova kot â&#x20AC;&#x17E;alternativna dejstvaâ&#x20AC;&#x153;, resnice drugih SD L] SR]LFLMH PRþL Y SRVW-GHPRNUDWLþQHP NRQWHNVWX GHNODVLUD NRW ponarejene ali lažne novice; ob koncu pa se vselej pojavi postUHVQLþQR Mehanizmi globalnih gospodarskih tokov sodobne družbe generirajo brezvestno razvrednotenje življenjskih (simbolnih oz. pravih) vrednot ali pa jih neusmiljeno pretvarjajo v tržne (Varufakis, 2015) in tako spodkopavajo zadnje branike individualne VDPRRGORþEHLQGUXÃ¥EHQHVROLGDUQRVWL Post-strukturalisti zanikajo možnost, da bi nad-individualno strukturo QHNHJD NRPXQLNDFLMVNHJD NRQWHNVWD ODKNR UD]XPHOL NRW WHRUHWLþQR SUHJOHGHQ LQ ]DNOMXþHQ VLVWHP WHU JD SRVOHGLþQR WXGL REYODGRYDOL 2GORþQRRGNODQMDMRQRYRGREQRILOR]RILMRVXEMHNWDNRWWXGLYVDNUãQR PLãOMHQMH ]DYH]DQR UD]XPX LQ UHGX Y KXPDQLVWLþQLK ]QDQRVWLK ]D katerega poslednji branik velja strukturalizem. Potemtakem ni þXGQR GD MH RJURÃ¥HQRVW NODVLþQH znanstvene paradigme KXPDQLVWLþQLK LQ GUXÃ¥ERVORYQLK YHG PHãþDQVNH GUXÃ¥EH L]]YDOD KXG napad Jürgena Habermasa na Foucaultov in Derridajev postVWUXNWXUDOLVWLþQLGLVNXU]9GHOXPhilosophischer Diskurs der Moderne   MH QMXQD Ã&#x201E;SRVWPRGHUQD³ WHRUHWLþQD L]KRGLãþD RÃ¥LJRVDO ]D QHRNRQ]HUYDWLYQDLQLUDFLRQDOLVWLþQD Michael Foucault se s svojo â&#x20AC;&#x17E;arheoloÅ¡ko" diskurzivno teorijo zoperstavi tradicionalnemu zgodovinopisju in filozofiji zgodovine ter njunima iluzijama o evolucijski kontinuiteti in smislu zgodovine. NDPHVWR GD EL VH ]DQLPDOD ]D V SRPHQL ]DVLþHQH RG DYWRUMHY ustvarjene in v interpretacijskih kontekstih posredovane dokumente, se â&#x20AC;&#x17E;arheologija" ukvarja s heterogenim mnoÅ¡tvom in raznolikostjo raztresenih in brezpomenskih dogodkov, katere velja izkopati izpod 275


povrÅ¡ja aktualno doživetih smiselnih povezav. Tako kot ne obstaja QREHQVUHGLãþQLVPLVHOQHNHJDEHVHGLODWXGLQHREVWDMDQHND]DYVH þDVH LQ VDPD SR VHEL YHOMDYQD LQWHUSUHWDFLMD Ã¥LYOMHQMD LQ VYHWD = izjavo: â&#x20AC;&#x17E;Vsak smisel in vsak pomen in vsak svetovni nazor so v toku, QLþVHQHL]PDNQHLJULGLIHUHQF )UDQNVWU RNDUDNWHUL]LUD nemÅ¡ki filozof Manfred Frank post-VWUXNXUDOL]HP V þLPHU L]ND]XMH duhovno sorodstvo z Lyotardovim deklariranim postmodernizmom, ki slavi mnoÅ¡tvo in diference. Omeniti velja Å¡e ameriÅ¡kega neopragmatista Richarda Rortyja, ki ga lahko tudi Å¡tejemo k â&#x20AC;&#x17E;anonimnimâ&#x20AC;&#x153; postmodernistom. Izhaja iz odklanjanja vsakrÅ¡nega univerzalizma, naj si bo resnice, razuma ali morale, in terja priznanje radikalne kontingence, se pravi odvisnost VSR]QDQMD LQ PRUDOH RG MH]LNRYQLK LJHU 5RUW\ SURSDJLUD SRHWLþQR NXOWXUR QRYHJD VDPRLURQLþQHJD OLEHUDOL]PD NL UDFLRQDOQR argumentacijo nadomesti s kreiranjem novih opisov, katere ne velja XWHPHOMHYDWL PDUYHþ MLK QDUHGLWL DWUDNWLYQH Ã&#x201E;7HEH SRMHP â&#x20AC;&#x201C; demokracija" (Rorty 1989). Utopija poetizirane kulture temelji na enem centralnih motivov postmoderne, na odpravi meja med znanostjo, umetnostjo in politiko. 2.2 Individualizem, tveganje in ogroženost namesto enotnosti postmoderne družbe Kot reakcija na postmoderno kritiko je postavljeno pod vpraÅ¡aj SDUDGLJPDWLþQR MHGUR NODVLþQH WHRULMH GUXÃ¥EH ,]SRVWDYLWL YHOMD predvsem Å¡tiri aspekte. Samoumevnost domneve totalnosti in objektivnosti družbe (na kateri temeljita npr. funkcionalizem in marksizem) ter ideja o družbenem FHQWUX SRVWDQHWD V VWDOLãþD SRVWPRGHUQHJD GHNRQVWUXNWLYL]PD nevzdržni in se umakneta konceptu â&#x20AC;&#x17E;razstvarjenja družbenega", kot pravi Giesen (1991). Postmoderna filozofija, ki se je odrekla predstavi o na veke vekomaj veljavnih temeljih, negira tudi pojem individualnega subjekta in koncept â&#x20AC;&#x17E;subjektivno miÅ¡ljenega smisla" (Weber). Kultura in družba VHVWRMLWD V SRVWPRGHUQHJD VWDOLãþD L] PQRãWYD SURVWR OHEGHþLK GLIHUHQF EUH] VUHGLãþD LQ EUH] PHMD SUHGYVHP SD EUH] SRYH]DYH ] nekim subjektivnim smislom delovanja ali z nadrejenim razumom. ,GHMDSURVWROHEGHþHJDXQLYHU]XPDNRGRYVSRPLQMDQDÃ&#x201E;DXWRSRLHVLV Niklasa Luhmanna (1984; 1988; 1992). V tem kontekstu bi bilo NRQFHSW QMHJRYH VLVWHPVNH WHRULMH PRJRþH LQWHUSUHWLUDWL WXGL NRW transformacijo modernega miÅ¡ljenja v postmoderno miÅ¡ljenje (Vester 1993). Postmoderna kritika miÅ¡ljenja kontinuitete in napredka, kakrÅ¡no YODGD Y ILOR]RILML ]JRGRYLQH SULYHGH GR UDGLNDOQHJD Ã&#x201E;RGþDUDQMD SULKRGQRVWL³ LQ L]QLþL XWRSLþQR MHGUR NODVLþQH GUXÃ¥EHQH WHRULMH 276


Prihodnost kot svobodno polje napredka in emancipacije se prelevi v prihodnost tveganja in ogroĹženosti. 7XGL SRGRED VRFLRORĂŁNH NULWLNH VH VSULĂžR L]JXEH XWRSLĂžQLK fundamentov druĹžbene teorije spremeni. Z multi-perspektivnostjo in multikulturnostjo postmoderne postane dosedanja predpostavka $UKLPHGRYH WRĂžNH NL RPRJRĂžD NULWLĂžQR GLVWDQFR GR GUXĂĽEHQLK struktur in procesov, vpraĹĄljiva. Giesen ugotavlja, da socioloĹĄke NULWLNHYSRVWPRGHUQLQH]DQLPDWDYHĂžĂ&#x201E;QDSUHGHNLQHQRWQRVWGUXĂĽEH ampak spodbujanje diferenc, ohranjanje raznolikosti in prestopanje zakonov" (Giesen 1991, str. 777-779). Razgrajevanje enotnosti nato ustvari prostor za ruĹĄenje meja med realnostjo in fikcijo. 2.3 Postmoderno ruĹĄenje meja med realnostjo in fikcijo Eickenpasch (2000) ugotavlja, da se je sociologija zavoljo SRVWDYOMDQMDSRGYSUDĂŁDMXQLYHU]DOLVWLĂžQHVSRVREQRVWLXWHPHOMHYDQMD pojma znanstvene racionalnosti s strani postmodernizma, kar je v MHGUXRJUR]LORQMHQRGLVFLSOLQDUQRLGHQWLWHWROHSRĂžDVLLQVĂžDVRYQLP ]DPLNRP WHU SUHFHM UH]HUYLUDQR SULĂžHOD YNOMXĂžHvati v debato o postmoderni druĹžbi, da ne bi povsem izgubila stika z interdisciplinarnim diskurzom. Znotraj sociologije ugotavlja dve ravni recepcije: po eni strani se diskusija o postmoderni razume kot SURGXNWLYHQĂ&#x201E;L]]LYNODVLĂžQLWHRULMLGUXĂĽEH *LHVHQ991, str. 776) in NRW Ă&#x201E;SURYRNDFLMD ]D WHPHOMQR WHRUHWLĂžQR SRMPRYQRVW VRFLRORJLMH (Joas 1992, str. 359). Tukaj se zahteva radikalna samorefleksija socioloĹĄke teorije glede na njene kategorialne temeljne predpostavke in glede na v njih vpete predpostavke o racionalnosti in normativnosti. Druga raven recepcije pa uvaĹža posamezne jedrne pojme in razlagalne modele iz postmoderne debate, da bi zadostila potrebi po razlagi, ki je nastala zavoljo radikalnih in kriznih tendenc spreminjanja zahodnih industrijskih druĹžb, za analizo katerih so koncepti socioloĹĄke ortodoksije le omejeno uporabni. Naloga naj bi torej bila, na osnovi razvojnih tendenc nekaterih opazovanih druĹžbenih fenomenov, ugotavljati posledice za razumevanje sodobnih druĹžbenih struktur in Ĺživljenjski stilov kulture vsakdana, ki izhajajo iz koncepta postmoderne (Eickenpasch 2000, str. 18). Vsebinska polja, na katerih teoretiki druĹžbe zaznavajo interesantne premike v druĹžbenem Ĺživljenju so npr. domene druĹžine, razredne strukture in â&#x20AC;&#x17E;kulturizacije vsakdana" v smislu oblikovanja domnevno postmodernega Ĺživljenjskega stila 45. =GLVHGDSOXUDOL]DFLMDLQGLYHU]LILNDFLMDĂ&#x201E;SRVWPRGHUQHGLDJQR]HĂžDVDQH napredujeta le na makro rDYQL GUXĂĽEHQH UD]VORMHQRVWL PDUYHĂž WXGL QD PLNUR

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Spreminjanje pomena druĹžbenih neenakosti je poleg pluralizacija ĂĽLYOMHQMVNLK REOLN SRVWDOR HQD NOMXĂžQLK WHPDWVNLK SROM QRYHMĂŁH VRFLRORJLMHNLNRWDQDOLWLĂžQRSHUVSHNWLYRWHUMDMRXSRĂŁWHvanje pojma â&#x20AC;&#x17E;postmoderneâ&#x20AC;&#x153;. Ĺ tudije avtorjev, kot so Mooser, Beck in Berger, so navrgle vpraĹĄanje, ali so pojmi kot razred, sloj in stan ĹĄe ustrezni izrazi za opisovanje druĹžbene diferenciacije v danaĹĄnjih industrijskih GUXĂĽEDK%HFNMHRĂžHĂ&#x201E;QRYHVWDUHÂłWH]e individualizacije. Od 50. let  VWRO GDOMH QDM EL VH ]DYROMR SRWUHE PRELOQRVWL NRQNXUHQĂžQRVWL odnosov in medsebojnih odvisnosti v izobraĹževanju, kontinuirano razkrajale tradicionalne diferenciacije in â&#x20AC;&#x17E;socialno-moralni miljeji" (Mooser 1984, str. 227). V venomer novih valovih so bili ljudje iztrgani iz tradicionalnih, druĹžinskih, sosedskih, poklicnih in kulturnih vezi ter premetani v svojih Ĺživljenjskih poloĹžajih in poteh. Sicer neenakosti ĹĄe vedno obstajajo, vendar zbledi realnost razredov do nazadnjHOHQRPLQDOQLKVWDWLVWLĂžQLKJUXSDFLMNLYYVDNGDQXQLVRYHĂž evidentne. Beck ugotavlja, da v â&#x20AC;&#x17E;post-razredni druĹžbiâ&#x20AC;&#x153; stanovskorazredno zaznamovane miljeje nadomestijo â&#x20AC;&#x17E;vedno bolj drobnozrnati Ĺživljenjski svetovi" v katerih je posameznik do take mere prepuĂŁĂžHQ sebi, da nastane â&#x20AC;&#x17E;nova neposrednost med posameznikom in druĹžbo", v smislu, â&#x20AC;&#x17E;da se druĹžbene krize kaĹžejo kot individualne in MLKYHĂžQHGRMHPDPRYQMLKRYLGUXĂĽEHQRVWLDOLSDOHĂŁH]HORSRVUHGQR (Beck 1986, str. 159). Eickenpasch ugotavlja, da lahko Beckovo DPELYDOHQWQR LQ YHĂžSODVWQR WH]R SOXUDOL]DFLMH GLIHUHQFLDFLMH LQ LQGLYLGXDOL]DFLMH GUXĂĽEHQLK UD]PHU UD]XPHPR QD GYD QDĂžLQD ĂŁLEND varianta predpostavlja nadaljnji obstoj razredne druĹžbe; â&#x20AC;&#x17E;evidence Ĺživljenjskega sveta" razrednih struktur (â&#x20AC;&#x17E;stanovski element razredov") erodirajo, razredna struktura kot taka (â&#x20AC;&#x17E;razredni poloĹžaj") SDRVWDQHRKUDQMHQD0RĂžQDYDULDQWDUHFHSFLMHSDSUHGYLGHYDYLVRNR GLIHUHQFLUDQR LQ LQGLYLGXDOL]LUDQR Ă&#x201E;UL]LĂžQR GUXĂĽER UDGLNDOQL SURFHV erozije v tem primeru ne razgradi le pojavnosti tradicionalnih UD]UHGQLKPLOMHMHYPDUYHĂžWXGLUD]UHGQRVWUXNWXURVDPRQD]DGQMH celo druĹžbeno nasploh. V tem primeru pomeni individualizacija L]OXĂŁĂžHQMHELRJUDILMHSRVDPH]QLNDL]YQDSUHMGDQLKILNVDFLM NRWQSU razrednih kultur), kar vodi v â&#x20AC;&#x17E;kolHNWLYQR LQGLYLGXDOL]LUDQ QDĂžLQ eksistenceâ&#x20AC;&#x153; ljudi, nazadnje pa pripelje do konca druĹžbenega nasploh.

ravni individualnega vodenja Ĺživljenja in kreiranja biografij. Biografije naj bi postajale v teku druĹžbenih procesov individualizacije in detradicionalizacije â&#x20AC;&#x17E;samorefleksivne". DruĹžbeno dodeljen Ĺživljenjepis se transformira v samonarejenega. Beck pravi, da se v prehodu od normalne k izbirni biografiji izoblikuje konflikten in zgodovinsko neizkuĹĄen tip konstruirane biografije. 7DNĂŁQLSRJRMLWHUMDMRĂ&#x201E;DNWLYHQPRGHOYVDNGDQDNDWHUHJDVUHGLĂŁĂžHMHMD]2GQRV jaza in druĹžbe je v â&#x20AC;&#x17E;jaz-centriranem svetovnem nazoru" postmoderne postavljen na glavo: druĹžba postane vir gradbenih elementov biografskih kombinacijskih moĹžnosti potrebnih za izdelavo samokonstruiranega ĂĽLYOMHQMHSLVDLQGLYLGXDOQRQDĂžUWRYDQHJDĂĽLYOMHQMD %HFk 1986, str. 217). 278


Å ibka varianta naj ne bi bila kaj prida inovativna, saj je Adorno že leta 1942 govoril o â&#x20AC;&#x17E;nevidnosti razredov" znotraj njihove realne â&#x20AC;&#x17E;okamenelostiâ&#x20AC;&#x153; (Adorno  VWU   0RþQD YDULDQWD SD QDM EL ELODHPSLULþQRQHY]GUÃ¥QDLQWHRUHWLþQRDEVXUGQD (LFNHQSDVFK str. 23). 1D WHK UD]LVNRYDQLK SUHGPHWQLK SRGURþMLK VH MDVQR RGUDÃ¥D VSUHPHPED SHUVSHNWLYH Y VRFLRORãNL GUXÃ¥EHQL DQDOL]L ,]KDMDMRþ L] sploÅ¡ne postmRGHUQLVWLþQH SUHGSRVWDYNH UDGLNDOQH SOXUDOQRVWL MH RSD]QDVSUHPHPEDVRFLRORãNHGUXÃ¥EHQHDQDOL]H9VUHGLãþHLQWHUHVD se znajdejo družbeni procesi pluralizacije ter diverzifikacije življenjskih oblik, stilov in življenjepisov, medtem ko so strukture poenotenja in povezanosti odrinjene na rob interesa. S tem, ko postmoderna vednost usmerja pozornost na posebno, lokalno in heterogeno ter upoÅ¡teva mnogoterost divergentnih pojavnih oblik Ã¥LYOMHQMD LQ ]QDQMD RSR]DUMD QD SRPDQMNOMLYRVWL NODVLþQHJD instrumentarija socioloÅ¡ke družbene analize, ter tako â&#x20AC;&#x17E;ostri naÅ¡o VHQ]LELOQRVW ]D UD]OLNH LQ MDþD QDãR VSRVREQRVW GD SUHQDãDPR inkomenzurabilno" (Lyotard 1986, str. 16). Gre za stalno igro DPELYDOHQWQRVWLSROLVHPLMHLQYHþ]QDþQRVWL Postmoderni diskurz s tendenco k ruÅ¡enju meja med teorijo in ideologijo, realnostjo in fikcijo ter k enostranskemu obsojanju SRMPRYQHJD PLãOMHQMD RE VRþDVQHP QHEU]GDQHP SRXGDUMDQMX PLWLþQHJDVOLNRYQHJDLQUHWRULþQHJDXVWYDUMDSUHFHMSUREOHPDWLþQR proti-razsvetljensko razpoloženje. Z ukiniWYLMRNULWLþQHGLVWDQFHPHG VHERMLQVYRMLPUD]LVNRYDOQLPSUHGPHWRPQHSRVHGXMHYHþQREHQLK PRÃ¥QRVWLNULWLþQHDQDOL]HLQVHL]JXEOMDYSROMXEQRVWLK3RVWPRGHUQD kontingenca družbene realnosti in njena odvisnost od subjektivnih definicij, diskurzivnih kontekstov, etnometod in kulturnih kodov VSRPLQMD QHNROLNR QD UD]OLþLFH LQWHUSUHWDWLYQH VRFLRORJLMH (Eickelpasch 2000). Družba se tukaj kaže kot â&#x20AC;&#x17E;razlage potreben rezultat družbenega delovanja in kot stranski produkt družbene rutine in lokalnih procesov konstruiranja" (Giesen 1991, str. 775). Postmoderno znanost lahko opiÅ¡emo tudi kot stanje, ki ga odlikuje SRSROQUD]NURMNDNRUNROLÃ¥HPHGVHERMSRYH]DQLKVWUXNWXUSULþHPHU WXGLVRFLRORJLMDVDPDNRWSUHGPHWWHJDSURFHVDQLL]Y]HWD$QDOLWLþQL SRMPL VH RSXãþDMR Y NRULVW LJUH ] PHWDIRUDPL LQ QHWRþQHJD MH]LNRYQHJD L]UDÃ¥DQMD ORJLþQR-diskurzivno argumentacijo nadomestijo ironija, metajezikovne igre in maÅ¡karade. Pred QHNULWLþQLP LUDFLRQDOL]PRP LQ SURWL-razsvetljenskim umikom v PLWLþQRVW NRW MX SURSDJLUDMR GRORþHQL tokovi postmodernizma, sta svarila že Habermas (1985) in Honneth (1986). Smisel in namen tako pojmovane postmoderne socioloÅ¡ke znanosti postaneta v kontekstu SUHY]HPDQMD WHK UDGLNDOQLK LGHM YSUDãOMLYD ýH EL VRFLRORJLMD NRW teorija družbe dejansko sledila tej paradigmi, bi izgubila prav vsa obeležja znanstvenosti, s tem pa tudi samo sebe. 279


3 Sklep ,]YLUQLPRWLYUD]VYHWOMHQVWYDMHELORPRJRþLWLDQDOL]RVYHWDVWHPGD MH ORþLO UHVQLþQRVW RG ERÃ¥DQVNH DYWRULWHWH .HU MH ]QDQRVW SUHY]HOD interpretacijo realnosti in resnice, je filozofija postala bolj DQWLUHDOLVWLþQDGDELRKUDQLODSURVWRUYNDWHUHPELODKNRãHYHGQR igrala pomembno vlogo. Tudi postmodernizem se je najprej SR]LFLRQLUDO NRW HPDQFLSDWRUQL QDþLQ NDNR RVYRERGLWL OMXGL L] zatiralskih pripovedi in zORUDE PRþL þHPXU VPR QHQHKQR izpostavljeni. V poznem dvajsetem stoletju so postmodernisti Å¡li NRUDNQDSUHMLQWUGLOLGDÃ&#x201E;QLQLþHVDUL]YHQEHVHGLODLQGDYVHQDãH LGHMH R VYHWX L]KDMDMR L] PRGHORY PRþL NL VR QDV QDG]RURYDOL = interpretacijo, da je znanMH UHSUHVLYQD  PRþ MH SRVWPRGHUQL]HP VHELVDPHPXRGY]HOWODQDNDWHUDELODKNRQDVSURWRYDOPRþL7RGD ravno pojav medijskega populizma v obliki ponarejenih, lažnih novic, alternativnih dejstev in post-UHVQLþQHJD MH SULPHU SRVORYLWYH RG UHVQLþQRVWLNL sploh ni emancipatorna. Pozni postmodernizem se je v zadnjih tridesetih letih z akademskega sveta preselil v medije in nato povsod drugod. Ponarejene, lažne novice, alternativna dejstva in post-UHVQLþQRVWQHKRWHVSRPLQMDMRQD Lyotardovo jezikovno igro, ki VOXÃ¥L XSUDYLþHYDQMX DOL OHJLWLPLUDQMX vedênja ljudi v družbi in pomeni, da poskuÅ¡a vsak udeleženec MDYQHJD GLVNXU]D VNR]L VYRMH L]MDYH GRVHþL GD EL ELOD VSUHMHWD QMHJRYD LQGLYLGXDOQD UD]OLþLFD WHJD NDU QDM EL ELOR UHVQLþQR DOL pravilno; njegova interpreWDFLMD GHMVWHY LQ UHVQLþQHJD VYHWD 7R /\RWDUGRYR LJUR ]D]QDPXMH GYRMH SR HQL VWUDQL RSXãþDQMH LVNDQMD UHVQLFHVDMVRR]QDþHYDOQHMH]LNRYQHLJUHGLVNUHGLWLUDQH]QDQMHSD MHIUDJPHQWLUDQRGRWDNHPHUHGDUD]QRYUVWQRVWRQHPRJRþDLVNDQMH ene velike resnice, ki bi zaobjemala in legitimirala celokupno vednost. Javni diskurz ob Brexitu (referenduma od odcepitvi Združenega kraljestva od Evropske unije junija 2016), ob volitvah 45. predsednika ZDA v letu 2016, ni nedolžen, kot tudi ne denimo moralni in denarni neuspehi Mednarodnega denarnega sklada v *UþLML 9HGQR YHþ GUÃ¥DYOMDQRY (8 VSUHPOMD QRYLFH SUHN VSOHWQLK družbenih medijev â&#x20AC;&#x201C;  Y SRYSUHþMX OHWD  (Newman idr. 2017); Å¡est od desetih objavljenih novic pa se prenese naprej, ne da bi jih prenaÅ¡alec najprej prebral (DeMers 2016),QUD]OLþQHLQVWLWXFLMH SR VYHWX VH YHQGDUOH RG]LYDMR QD WRYUVWHQ QHGHPRNUDWLþHQ MDYQL disNXU] þHWXGL SUHFHM QHVLVWHPDWLþQR (YURSVND NRPLVLMD   MH tako denimo lansirala blog Evromiti, na katerem se neposredno RG]LYDQDQDSDþQRQHNRUHNWQRLQ]DYDMDMRþHSRURþDQMHPHGLMHY9 post-IDNWLþQHP VYHWX DOWHUQDWLYQLK GHMVWHY MH 7KH 1HZ <RUN 7LPHV lansiral oglasno kampanjo o tem, kaj je resnica in kakÅ¡en je njen pomen v svetu, v katerem vse bolj prevladujejo zgolj â&#x20AC;&#x17E;mnenjaâ&#x20AC;&#x153;, 280


usmerjena na hujskaÅ¡tvo in podpihovanje sovražnega govora. =DNOMXþHNRJODVDMHÃ&#x201E;5HVQLFDEROL5HVQLFRMHWHÃ¥NRQDMWL5HVQRMH težko prepoznati. Resnica je danes pomembnejÅ¡a kot kadarkoli prejâ&#x20AC;&#x153; (KoÅ¡ir 2017). Tudi Washington Post je kot poseben blog uvedel â&#x20AC;&#x17E;preverjevalca dejstevâ&#x20AC;&#x153; (angl. fact checker), v okviru katerega UD]NULYDMRUHVQLþQRVWQRYLFLQXJRWDYOMDMRGDVRãWLri od Å¡estih novic, NDWHULKUHVQLþQRVWVRSUHYHUMDOLODÃ¥QH .HVVOHU  äLYLPR RþLWQR Y SRVW-realnem svetu, v družbi post-dejstev, lažnih novic, obdobju po resnici in post-IDNWLþQHP VYHWX SULP 3RPHUDQWVHY  &RXJKODQ   ýH VH VSULMD]QLPR V WHP, prevzemamo na sebe Nietzschejevo maksimo, da â&#x20AC;&#x17E;dejstev ni, so samo interpretacijeâ&#x20AC;&#x153; (Nietzsche 2004, 481. paragraf), da je vsaka UD]OLþLFD UHVQLFH DOL GHMVWYD OH ãH HQD SULSRYHG NMHU VH ODÃ¥ ODKNR RSUDYLþLNRWDOWHUQDWLYQLYLGLNDOLPQHQMHNHUMHYVHUHODtivno in ima vsakdo svojo resnico. Postmodernisti to znamenito Nietzschejevo maksimo radi uporabljajo za oslabitev interpretacije, ki je zavezana UHVQLFL YVDND LQWHUSUHWDFLMD MH SDþ ]JROM HQ SRJOHG QD VYHW VDM obstajajo in celo morajo obstajati tudi drugL SRJOHGL ýHSUDY MH postmodernizem zagotovo eden od intelektualnih korenin postUHDOQHJDVYHWDSDELYVYHWXNRWHÃ¥NRUD]ORþLPRNDMMHUHVQLFDLQ kaj lažna novica, znanost morala ostati zvesta iskanju resnice.

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izr. prof. dr. Vito Bobek Univerza uporabnih znanosti FH Joanneum, Graz, Avstrija EPF UM, Maribor, Slovenija

Recenzija monografije DOBA Fakultete

»Dajmo prostor novemu znanju« Ocena celotnega pristopa Celotna monografija potrjuje, GDåLYLPRYþDVXKLWULKJRVSRGDUVNLK SROLWLþQLKLQNXOWXUQLKVSUHPHPE+LWURVWWHKVSUHPHPELQSRVOHGLFH YVHYHþMHJOREDOL]DFLMHVHRGUDåDMRYRNROMXYNDWHUHJDMHSRWUHEQR umestiti vsa razmišljanja o ciljih za prihodnost v izobraževanju in usposabljanju. Znanje postaja vse bolj pomemben dejavnik VSRGEXMDQMD SURL]YRGQMH LQ NRQNXUHQþQRVWL QDFLRQDOQHJD gospodarstva. ,]REUDåHYDQMH LQ SRVORYRGHQMH VH VUHþXMHWD ] PQRJLPL spremembami, ki jih prinašata globalizacija in nova ekonomija. V ospredju je nova razvojna paradigma, ki odpravlja problem redkosti ekonomskih virov kot glavnega nosilca razvoja in ga preusmerja k XþLQNRYLWL LQ XVSHãQL XSRUDEL UD]SRORåOMLYH REQRYOMLYH EODJLQMH =D doseganje trajnostne gospodarske rasti je potreben dober sistem izobraževanja in usposabljanja. Kot posledica globalizacije se SRMDYOMD LQWHUQDFLRQDOL]DFLMD QD YVHK SRGURþMLK NDU MH QD UD]OLþQH QDþLQHUD]YLGQRL]ãWHYLOQLKSULVSHYNRYPRQRJUDILMH 6SUHPHPEH NL VH WUHQXWQR SRUDMDMR Y GUXåEL ]DKWHYDMR GUXJDþH usposobljeno delovno siOR 1D ]QDQMX WHPHOMHþD GUXåED SRWUHEXMH visoko izobraženo, fleksibilno in ustvarjalno delovno silo, ki bo želela svoje znanje nenehno nadgrajevati. Pojavlja se potreba po bolj odprtih sistemih izobraževanja povezanih z okoljem in s potrebami družbe, že na primarni in sekundarni ravni. Iz vsebine monografije je prav tako jasno razvidno, da predstavlja DOBA Fakulteta poslovno fakulteto s sodobno vizijo, z v prakso usmerjenimi javno veljavnimi programi in fleksibilnim študijskim VLVWHPRPNLRPRJRþDSULGRbivanje potrebnih znanj na uporabniku SULODJRMHQQDþLQ

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Iz prispevkov izhaja, da se avtorji zavedajo, da so spremembe na SRGURþMXJRVSRGDUVWYDLQGUXåEHVSORKYVHKLWUHMãH=DWRMLKXþLWHOML VNXãDMRSUDYRþDVQRUD]XPHWLVHMLPSULODJRGLWLLQþHMHOHPRJRþH sodelovati tudi kot njihovi sooblikovalci. Za doseganje kakovostnega izobraževanja je potrebno nenehno spremljanje izvajanja študijskega procesa, usposobljenost izvajalcev, zagotavljanje pogojev za izvajanje programov, notranja organiziranost, mednarodna primerljivost študijskih dosežkov, aktivno sodelovanje z okoljem in stalno uvajanje izboljšav z YNOMXþHYDQMHPãWXGHQWRY,]SULVSHYNRYPRQRJUDILMHMDVQRL]KDMDGD je DOBA fakulteta edina nepedagoška fakulteta v Sloveniji, ki UD]LVNXMHWXGLSRGURþMe svojega delovanja, to je pedagogiko, online študij, celostno podporo študentom itd.

Komentar profila raziskav V vseh prispevkih je zaslediti raziskovalni pristop k razjasnitvi SUREOHPRY NL MLK SRVDPH]QLNL QD L]YLUHQ QDþLQ RSLVXMHMR Y VYRMLK prispevkih in jih ob ustrezni raziskovalni metodologiji in korektnemu FLWLUDQMX YLURY LQ NRQþQH OLWHUDWXUH SRYH]XMHMR Y VPLVHOQR FHORWR 1DVORY PRQRJUDILMH WXGL MDVQR SRY]HPD UGHþR QLW SUHGVWDYOMHQLK tematik, ki posegajo tako na edukacijsko polje, kot tudi na druga, DNWXDOQDSRVORYQDSRGURþMD9PRQRJUDILMLDYWRUMLVYRMD]QDQVWYHQR - SURXþHYDOQD GRJQDQMD VPLVHOQR ]DRNURåLMR Y MDVQR FHORWR LQ ] gradivom ponudijo sprejemljivo sintezo uporabnosti rezultatov svojih GRJQDQMWHUUD]LVNDYGRPDþLKLQWXMLKUD]LVNRYDOFHY tega segmenta. âHSRVHEHMSDSULþXMRþRPRQRJUDILMRGREUR]DRNURåXMHMRSRVDPH]QL primeri dobrih praks, ki prezentirajo raziskovalne rezultate tudi v realnem okolju. Monografija je razdeljena v tri vsebinske sklope in sicer: Menedžment v izobraževanju in didaktika visokošolskega online študija 9WHPVNORSXQHNDWHULSULVSHYNLRGUDåDMRGHMVWYRGD]DUDGLSRYHþDQH hitrosti tehnoloških sprememb družba postaja vedno bolj na znanju WHPHOMHþD  Y NDWHUL LJUD L]REUDåHYDQMH YORJR NOMXþQHJD GHMDYQLND kulturnega, družbenoekonomskega in sonaravnega razvoja posameznikov, skupnosti in narodov. Znanje (izobrazba) postalo WHPHOMQLYLUNRQNXUHQþQRVWLJRVSRGDUVWYD 9 WHM OXþL MH Y QHNDWHULK SULVSHYNLK REUDYQDYDQD WXGL NYDOLWHWD izobraževalnih procesov, ki je lahko definirana v relaciji vrednosti in 286


idealov, ki so osnova izobraĹževalnih institucij, to je posredovanje resnice in znanja. Kvaliteto pa lahko definiramo tudi v relaciji prilagajanja potrebam druĹžbe. Kvaliteta izobraĹževanja je YHĂžGLPHQ]LRQDOHQ NRQFHSW NL QDM Ei obsegal vse funkcije in GHMDYQRVWL L]REUDĂĽHYDQMD SRXĂžHYDQMH LQ SURJUDPH UD]LVNRYDQMH RVHEMH SURVWRUH LQ RSUHPR VRGHORYDQMH ] RNROMHP LQ XĂžLWHOMVNR okolje. Kar dva prispevka sta namenjena MOOC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; PQRĂĽLĂžQLP prirejeno ravno za mnoĹžico znanja Ĺželjnih SRVDPH]QLNRY RE LVWHP ĂžDVX QD istem mestu), dostopnim FHORWQRXĂžQRJUDGLYRMHGRVWRSQRYVHP LQ MH Y YHĂžLQL SULPHURY EUH]SODĂžQR  spletnim (celotna vsebina predmeta je dostopna na spletu), XĂžQLPSUHGPHWRP XĂžQDYVHELQD je strukturirana v obliki predmetov). Za DOBA fakulteto je to zelo pomembna tematika, saj je online ĹĄtudij predpogoj, da se RPRJRĂžL dostop do visokoĹĄolske izobrazbe ĹĄirĹĄi mnoĹžici ljudi. Kakovosten online ĹĄtudij pa je moĹžen samo ob ustrezni uporabo elektronskih orodij, ki RPRJRĂžDMR interakcijo med ĹĄtudenti, ĹĄtudenti in XĂžLWHOML ter mentorji in dostopnimi ĹĄtudijskimi viri. Razvoj informacijskih in telekomunikacijskih tehnologij vodi k bistvenim spremembam v ĹĄolskem izobraĹževanju. Informacijska in komunikacijska tehnologija, multimedia in druge nove tehnologije so uporabljene Ĺže v osnovnoĹĄolskih organizacijah. Nova tehnologija tako povezuje institucije izobraĹževanja in raziskovanja in ĹĄirĹĄo GUXĂĽER RPRJRĂžD QRYH QDĂžLQH SRXĂžHYDQMD WHU SULVSHYD N LVNDQMX primernih reĹĄitev za organizacijo nadaljnjega in vseĹživljenjskega XĂžHQMDNDUMHWXGLSUHGPHWQHNDWHULKSULVSHYNRY Uporaba informacijsko in telekomunikacijskih tehnologij kot orodja ni omejena samo na tradicionalno izobraĹževanje. Vloga nove tehnologije in novih oblik izobraĹževanja je ĹĄe posebej poudarjena pri nadaljnjem izobraĹževanju in pri izobraĹževanju odraslih. Informacijska in komunikacijska tehnologija je tudi pomembna gonilna sila internacionalizacije izobraĹževanja. MenedĹžment pametnih mest, upravljanje v turizmu, inovativni menedĹžment in poslovanje Pametna mesta so eden izmed odgovorov na reĹĄitev pritiskov na GDQDĂŁQMD PHVWD 8SRUDED QDSUHGQH WHKQRORJLMH VH MH QDPUHĂž SRND]DODNRWNOMXĂžQLVWHEHUSULQDGDOMHYDQMXWUDMQRVWQHUDVWLPHVWLQ zagotavljanju kvalitete Ĺživljenja prebivalcev. Moderne metropole v WXMLQL VR ĂĽH SUHG ĂžDVRP XVSHĂŁQR SRGSUOH SURFHVH V SDPHWQLPL SRGDWNL V NDWHULPL MH XSUDYOMDQMH PHVW XĂžLQNRYLWHMĂŁH ELYDQMH SD kvalitetnejĹĄe. V Sloveniji smo na ÂťpametnoÂŤ pot resneje stopili ĹĄele 287


leta 2015 (izdana Strategija pametne specializacije), koristi poti pa VR VH RWLSOMLYHMH Ã¥H ]DþHOH ND]DWL WXGL SUL QDV ýHSUDY VPR QD QHNDWHULK SRGURþMLK RE SULPHUMDYL ] GUXJLPL ]HOR YLVRNR SD QDV ]D ]DÃ¥LYLWHYLGHMHYFHORWL QSUQHSRYH]DQHUHJLMHPDQMãHREþLQH þDND Å¡e veliko dela. Zanimive so tudi vsebine iz monografije, kjer so obravnavani in SULPHUMDQL GRVWRSQL VWDWLVWLþQL SRGDWNL R WXUL]PX L] QDFLRQDOQLK VWDWLVWLþQLK XUDGRY WHU PHGQDURGQLK RUJDQL]DFLM 3RGDWNL ]DWR GRYROMXMHMR SULPHUMDYH R SULKRGLK QH SD WXGL R QRþLWYDK Obravnavane države si laKNRREHWDMRYHþMLWUHQGUDVWLNRWMHQDSRYHG UDVWLNLWDMVNHJDL]KRGQHJDWXUL]PD7RSDELPRUDORGDWLRGORþHYDOFHY LQ WXULVWLþQLP SRQXGQLNRP GRGDWHQ ]DJRQ GD VH QD WH WXULVWH pripravijo in oblikujejo ponudbo, ki bo bolj oblikovana na njihove potrebe. Na NLWDMVNRJRYRUHþHPWUJXSDELPRUDOLQDVWRSDWLVNXSDM Uporaba socialnih medijev je zelo prisotna tudi pri planiranju WXULVWLþQLK SRWRYDQM .R WXULVWL YUHGQRWLMR GHVWLQDFLMR NDPRU VH QDSRWXMHMR QD SRWRYDQMH Ã¥HOLMR SULGRELWL þLP YHþ XSRUDEQLK informacij. V enem izmed prispevkov so predstavljene ugotovitve o potovalnih navadah kitajskih turistov, ki jih je zajela leta 2015 L]YHGHQDUD]LVNDYDPHGNLWDMVNLPLWXULVWLY6ORYHQLMLLQýUQL*RUL =HOR DNWXDOQH VR WXGL YVHELQH NL REUDYQDYDMR VRGREQH REODþQH sisteme za skupno rabo dokumentov in komunikacijo z vidika vodje EU projektov, ki vodi multidisciplinarne in mednarodne time. V raziskavi so ugotavljali, kakÅ¡ni uporabniki uporabljajo omenjena RURGMDLQNDWHULPRWLYDFLMVNLIDNWRUMLYSOLYDMRQDQMLKRYHRGORþLtve za uporabo le-teh. 9VHELQVNR]HOR]DQLPLYSULVSHYHNYWHPVNORSXWHPHOMLQD]DYUDþDQMX SULVORYLþQHJD SRGUHMHQHJD SRORÃ¥DMD 6ORYHQLMH Y ]JRGRYLQL QDVSURWL velikim gospodarstvom in državam. Prikazuje nekaj izkuÅ¡enj, ki govorijo o tem, da je tudi Slovenija izkoristila nekaj priložnosti, kjer je uveljavila svoje koristi. Na takÅ¡nih temeljih je bil pripravljen tudi mednarodni projekt, kjer je slovensko druÅ¡tvo avtomobilskih entuziastov s konsistentnim pristopom uspelo uveljaviti in pripraviti projekt spremHQMHQLK YUHGQRW 3ULPHU MH PRJRþH ODKNR WXGL ]JOHG NDNR QDþUWRYDWL VRGHORYDQMH ] PRþQLP WXMLP SULQFLSDORP â&#x20AC;&#x201C; eno od QDMYSOLYQHMãLKJOREDOQLKGUXÃ¥EVSRGURþMDDYWRPRELOVNHLQGXVWULMH Marketing in prodaja, družbeni mediji in odnosi z javnostmi Pomemben deMDYQLNNLORþXMHXVSHãQDSRGMHWMDRGPDQMXVSHãQLK QL OH VSRVREQRVW REOLNRYDQMD RGOLþQLK WUÃ¥QLK VWUDWHJLM DPSDN ]PRÃ¥QRVWSRGMHWLMGDMLKXþLQNRYLWRXUHVQLþLMR=DSRVOHQLYSURGDML 288


ki imajo s kupci neposreden stik, k temu s svojim delom najbolj RGORþLOQR SULVSHYDMR .OMXþQR MH GD YUKQML PDQDJHUML V SROLWLNDPL upravljanja poskrbijo za takÅ¡en kontrolni sistem, ki bo vedenje prodajnih kadrov usmerjal v želeno strateÅ¡ko smer. ýHWXGLY6ORYHQLMLãHQL]DGRVWQHSRGSRUHYYODGQLKSROLWLNDK]DUD]YRM družbene odgovornosti, le-WRNRWNRQNXUHQþQRSUHGQRVWXSRUDEOMDMR mnoga podjetja, zlasti tista, ki delujejo na tujih trgih ali pa tuja, ki prihajajo k nam. Tako se med seboj vse bolj primerjajo in kreirajo VYRMH ODVWQH VWUDWHJLMH GUXÃ¥EHQH RGJRYRUQRVWL N þHPXU MLK QHQD]DGQMH XVPHUMD WXGL SROLWLND (8 QD SRGURþMX GUXÃ¥EHQH odgovornosti. Vsa evropska podjetja, torej tudi slovenska, so z letom 2017 primorana (to zaenkrat velja predvsem za velika podjetja) SRURþDWL R QHHNRQRPVNLK YLGLNLK SRVORYDQMD Y VNODGX ] GLUHNWLYR R QHILQDQþQHPSRURþDQMX0RUGDERWXGLREYH]QRSRURþDQMHRGUXÃ¥EHQL odgovornosti dodatni korak k temu, da bo družbena odgovornost v 6ORYHQLML SRþDVL UD]XPOMHQD ãLUãH NRW SROLWLþQL NRQFHSW QH OH SURVWRYROMQDSUDNVDNLMHL]NOMXþQRYGRPHQLSRVORYDQMDSRGMetij. 9SRVWPRGHUQLPHGLDWL]LUDQLGUXÃ¥ELþDVXLQWHQ]LYQLKWUDQVIRUPDFLMLQ SUHWYRUEEUH]PHMQHSROMXEQRVWLSUDJPDWLþQRVWLSRKOHSDLQL]JXEH VNRUDMGD YVDNUãQH XWRSLþQH LGHRORãNH SDUDGLJPH VH YHGQR ]QRYD porajajo novi â&#x20AC;&#x17E;post-LVWLþQL SRMPL NL WDNR NRW Vtari kažejo na RJURÃ¥HQRVWþHÃ¥HQHQDSUHÃ¥LYHWRVWWHPHOMQLK]DKRGQLKFLYLOL]DFLMVNLK vrednot oz. pridobitev: post-UHVQLþQR SRVW-IDNWLþQR SRVW-moralno, post-GHPRNUDWLþQRLWQ$YWRUMDYHQHPL]PHGSULVSHYNRYSUHXþXMHWD najbolj aktualne â&#x20AC;&#x17E;post-izme" in jih VNXãDWD UD]ORÃ¥LWL V SRPRþMR NULWLþQLK SRJOHGRY QD QDMRGPHYQHMãH SRVWPRGHUQLVWH ,GHQWLILFLUDWD postmodernizem kot enega od intelektualnih korenin, ki se skriva v ozadju in post-realnega sveta. S tem prispevkom monografija odraža tudi profil izdajatelja kot fakultete za družbene Å¡tudije. Ena izmed vsebin v tem sklopu predstavlja tržno komuniciranje na družabnih omrežjih in raziskuje, kakÅ¡en vpliv ima na prepoznavnost EODJRYQH ]QDPNH 3R]RUQRVW MH QDPHQMHQD UD]OLþQLP YUVWDP družabnih omrežij, ki jih uporabljajo v organizaciji, in merjenju SUHSR]QDYQRVWL EODJRYQH ]QDPNH Y UD]OLþQLK VWDURVWQLK VNXSLQDK Ugotovljeno je, da se prepoznavnost blagovne znamke na družabnih omrežjih ne razlikuje glede na spol in da komunikacija na družabnih omrežjih nikoli ne vpliva na nakup storitve. Dogajanja na prehrambenem trgu zaznamujejo v zadnjih nekaj letih hitre, presenetljive in kompleksne spremembe. Prehrambena LQGXVWULMD GHOXMH Y GLQDPLþQHP RNROMX NL ]DKWHYD QHQHKQR prilagajanje in ukrepanje. Dobro poznavanje potroÅ¡nikov, njihovih QDYDGLQÃ¥HOMDWHUPRWLYRY]DQDNXSGRORþHQHJDL]GHONDMHþHGDOMH 289


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6WUXNWXUDVRGHOXMRþLKDYWRUMHY Pohvalno je, da v monografiji sodelujejo tako na DOBA fakulteti ]DSRVOHQLXþLWHOML 2YLQ9XNDVRYLü$ãDQLQ*ROH3XKHN'LYMDN NRW WXGLXþLWHOMLSRSRJRGEL DYWRUMHY DYWRUMLLQVRDYWRUMLSDSULKDMDMR z drugih institucij, tudi tujih (6 avtorjev oz. soavtorjev). Prav tako je pohvalno, da s prispevki sodelujejo tudi študenti oz. diplomanti (oba VRDYWRUMD SUL SULVSHYNX 9XNDVRYLüHYH  NDNRU WXGL SUHGVWDYQLNL YRGVWYDIDNXOWHWHLQVWURNRYQLKVOXåE 'RPLQNR%DORK$PLþ5DYQLN Ritonija).

Sklep 3ULVSHYNL Y PRQRJUDILML SUHXþXMHMR SRVORYQR-družbene pojave, vsi skupaj pa nagovarjajo skupno temo, to so izzivi, s katerimi se v tem WUHQXWNX VRRþD QDãD LQ ãLUãD GUXåED Prispevki v monografiji so pomembni vsak zase kot samostojen doprinos k razvoju znanosti VYRMHJDSRGURþMDVNXSDMSDYSULþXMRþHPGHOX]DRNURåDMRFHORWRNL XþLQNRYLWR QDJRYDUMD ãWHYLOQH med seboj kompleksno soodvisne poslovno-družbene pojave in procese. Monografija bo zagotovo ]DQLPLYR EUDQMH UD]OLþQLP ]QDQVWYHQLNRP LQ SUHGVWDYQLNRP strokovnih krogov kot vir znanstveno utemeljenih raziskav in iz njih izpeljanih sklepov ter predlogov za ukrepe, lahko pa tudi nudi ideje za nadaljnje raziskave. 9VHELQH Y PRQRJUDILML YVHNDNRU ]DGRVWLMR NULWHULMX GLGDNWLþQH LQ UD]LVNRYDOQH XVWUH]QRVWL SUL þHPHU MH SRWUHEQR SRXGDULWL GD MH WHPDWLNDDNWXDOQDLQYVHNDNRU]DVOXåLãHYHþSR]RUQRVWLYWUHQXWQHP þasu in okolju. Vsi prispevki v znanstveni monografiji so pomembni vsak zase kot VDPRVWRMHQGRSULQRVNUD]YRMX]QDQRVWLVYRMHJDSRGURþMDVNXSDMSD YSULþXMRþHPGHOX]DRNURåDMRFHORWRNLXþLQNRYLWRQDJRYDUMDãWHYLOQH med seboj kompleksno soodvisne družbene pojave in procese. 0RQRJUDILMDER]DJRWRYR]DQLPLYREUDQMHUD]OLþQLP]QDQVWYHQLNRPLQ predstavnikom strokovnih krogov kot vir znanstveno utemeljenih raziskav in iz njih izpeljanih sklepov ter predlogov za ukrepe, lahko pa tudi nudi ideje za nadaljnje raziskave. Zanimivo jo je brati danes, YþDVXQMHQHJDL]LGD]DQLPLYRSDMRERSUHELUDWLWXGLNDVQHMHPRUGD 290


v kontekstu sledenja sprememb aktualnosti druĹžbenih izzivov skozi ĂžDV Prispevki v monografiji zelo dobro odraĹžajo spremembe v okolju na lokalni, rHJLRQDOQL LQ JOREDOQL UDYQL ]ODVWL JOHGH SRYHĂžHYDQMD kompleksnosti procesov, ki zahtevajo multi- in interdisciplinarni pristop v izobraĹževanju in poslovodenju. 1HNDWHULSULVSHYNLRGUDĂĽDMRWXGLGHMVWYRGD]DUDGLSRYHĂžDQHKLWURVWL tehnoloĹĄki sprememb druĹžba postaja vedno bolj na znanju WHPHOMHĂžD  Y NDWHUL LJUD L]REUDĂĽHYDQMH YORJR NOMXĂžQHJD GHMDYQLND kulturnega, druĹžbenoekonomskega in sonaravnega razvoja posameznikov, skupnosti in narodov. Znanje (izobrazba) je postalo WHPHOMQLYLUNRQNXUHQĂžQRVWLJRVSRGDUstva. izr. prof. dr. Vito Bobek

Maribor, 16.10.2017

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Izr. prof. dr. Peter Stanovnik Inštitut za ekonomska raziskovanja, Ljubljana

Recenzija monografije DOBA Fakultete

»Dajmo prostor novemu znanju« 1 Ocena celotnega pristopa Slovenija se kot majhna in RGSUWDGUXåEDVRRþDVKLWULPLGUXåEHQRekonomskimi, tehnološkimi, socialnimi in kulturnimi spremembami. 6SUHPHPEH NL MLK SRY]URþD JOREDOL]DFLMD LQ LQWHUQDFLRQDOL]DFLMD VR postale stalnica tudi v izobraževalnih in raziskovalnih procesih. Dejstvo je, da nove tehnologije (internet stvari, robotizacija, umetna inteligenca, inteligentni materiali, digitalizacija storitev, block chains, ]HOHQHWHKQRORJLMH« ãHQLNROLGRVOHMQLVRWDNRPRþQRLQWDNRKLWUR vplivale na razvoj družbenih sprememb. Nedvomno te tehnologije vodijo v digitalizacijo in individualizacijo procesa izobraževanja na YHþ UDYQHK ]ODVWL SD VH WR NDåH QD XQLYHU]LWHWQL UDYQL 1HJDWLYQLK posledic globalizacije in nujnosti prehoda v 4. industrijsko revolucijo se v svojih prispevkih zavedajo tudi avtorji monografije »Spoznanja iz poslovnih in družbenih ved«. Posamezni sklopi monografije RGUDåDMR VRGREQH VYHWRYQH LQ HYURSVNH WUHQGH QD SRGURþMX gospodarstva, izobraževanja in kulture po eni strani, po drugi strani pa je monografija usmerjena v krepitev NRQNXUHQþQRVWL LQ inovativnosti zasebnih podjetij in javnega sektorja. Poudarek je na ustvarjanju in prenosu znanja. Vsebina prispevkov je interdisciplinarna in presega ozke poslovne vidike. Monografijo sestavljajo trije vsebinsko zaokroženi sklopi, ki posegajo QD UD]OLþQD GUXåERVORYQD UD]LVNRYDOQD SRGURþMD LQ VH RVUHGRWRþDMR predvsem na makroekonomske in mikroekonomske poslovne discipline. Ni presenetljivo, da fakulteta DOBA kot vodilna fakulteta Y6ORYHQLMLQDSRGURþMXãWXGLMDQDGDOMDYRLQNRWHGLQDQHSHdagoška IDNXOWHWDUHIOHNVLYQRUD]LVNXMHWXGLSRGURþMHVYRMHJDGHORYDQMDWRMH pedagogiko. Sem sodi tudi problematika kvalitete visokošolskega študija. V tej monografiji so predstavljeni rezultati opravljenih UD]LVNRYDQM ]DSRVOHQLK XþLWHOMHY LQ ]XQDQMLK VRdelavcev fakultete DOBA. 9PRQRJUDILMRMHYNOMXþHQLK]QDQVWYHQLKLQVWURNRYQLKþODQNRYRG NDWHULK MH  SULSUDYOMHQLK Y DQJOHãNHP MH]LNX LQ HGHQ Y KUYDãþLQL 3URXþHYDQD WHPDWLND YVHK WUHK VNORSRY MH ]D 6ORYHQLMR DNWXDOQD ] vidika odprtih vprašanj in prREOHPRY QD SRGURþMX UD]LVNDY Y GUXåEHQLKLQSRVORYQLKYHGDK QDSULPHUPHQHGåPHQWQDSRGURþMX 293


izobraževanja in menedžment v družinskih malih in srednje velikih podjetjih). Po drugi strani pa nekateri prispevki obravnavajo vsebine prisotne v razvojnih dokumHQWLKNRWMHYL]LMD6ORYHQLMHVUHGQMHURþQD razvojna strategijo do leta 2030, in še posebej strategija pametne VSHFLDOL]DFLMHNLMHYL]YDMDQMXRGOHWD7DVWUDWHJLMDYNOMXþXMH NRW SULRULWHWR XVWYDUMDQMH þORYHãNLK YLURY NL ERGR ] XVWUH]QLPL kompetencami zadovoljevali potrebe gospodarstva in družbe v celoti. 3ULþXMRþL þODQNL LPDMR WHRUHWLþQR LQ SUDNWLþQR NRPSRQHQWR LQ YNOMXþXMHMR YUVWR QRYLK VSR]QDQM L] SRGURþMD PHQHGåPHQWD izobraževanja v širšem smislu ter podjetniškega menedžmenta. Dva prispevka temeljita na rezultatih sodelovanja v evropskih raziskovalnih projektih (ERASMUS in DESTINY - razvijanje ]DSRVOLWYHQLK YHãþLQ ] LQRYDWLYQLP L]REUDåHYDQMHP  .DU VH WLþH XSRUDEH PHWRGRORJLM Y SUHGVWDYOMHQLK þODQNLK WHPHOMHþLK QD izvedenih raziskovalnih projekWLK ODKNR UHþHPR GD WHPHOMLMR QD splošno priznanih in uveljavljenih raziskovalnih pristopih in DQDOLWLþQLKRURGMLK NULWLþQDREUDYQDYDVRGREQHVYHWRYQHOLWHUDWXUH uporaba deduktivnih in induktivnih metod, izvedbe anket in intervjujev, uporaba študij primerov, benchmarking pristopov, SWOT analize itd.). Pri raziskovalnih temah ni vselej poudarek na ozkih, DNWXDOQLK LQ WLSLþQR VORYHQVNLK WHPDK WHPYHþ VH DYWRUML ]DYHGDMR WXGL QXMQRVWL YNOMXþHYDQMD Y VRVHGQMH UHJLMH SURVWRU -XJRY]KRGQH Evrope (države nekdaQMH -XJRVODYLMH  QD (8 QD SRGURþMX WXUL]PD SD ]DUDGL KLWUH UDVWL FHOR QD D]LMVNR WUåLãþH NMHU MH .LWDMVND najpomembnejši igralec.

2 Profili raziskav a) Menedžement v izobraževanju in didaktika visokoÅ¡olskega online Å¡tudija 3UYL VNORS SURXþXMH SRPHQ Felostne podpore Å¡tudiju na daljavo, virtualno mobilnost v visokem Å¡olstvu, analizo stanja raziskav visokega Å¡olstva v svetu in pri nas. 3RVHEHQ SRXGDUHN MH QD SURXþHYDQMX SRYVHP QRYHJD QDþLQD visokoÅ¡olskega izobraževanja, pri tako imenovanih masivnih odprtih internetnih predmetih (MOOCs â&#x20AC;&#x201C;Massive Open Online Courses). Ti pristopi v visokoÅ¡olskih zavodih kot odprte, proste in prilagodljive oblike izobraževanja predstavljajo pomembno in koristno orodje za QRY QDþLQ RQOLQH ãWXGLMD QD XQLYHU]LWHWQL UDYQL 2GPHYHQ ]DþHWHN SUHGVWDYOMDMR WULMH SUHGPHWL XPHWQD LQWHOLJHQFD VWURMQR XþHQMH LQ uvod v podatkovne baze. Po drugi strani pa se kažejo nekatere VODERVWL WDNHJD QDþLQD ãWXGLMD NRW MH L]SRVWDYOMHQRVW QL]NL VWRSQML interakcije med ponudniki in Å¡tudenti pri virtXDOQLK VUHþDQMLK LQ SRVOHGLþQR YLãML VWRSQML RVLSD ãWXGHQWRY 3RPHPEQR MH GD VR Y 294


]DNOMXĂžNLKSRGDQDSULSRURĂžLODRQDGDOMQMHPUD]YRMXLQL]YHGEL022&V z vidika manjĹĄih visokoĹĄolskih inĹĄtitucij kot je fakulteta DOBA. Zelo zanimiva je analiza stanja raziskav univerzitetnega ĹĄtudija v svetu in pri nas. Medtem ko se tovrstne raziskave v razvitem svetu izvajajo vsako leto, je pri nas z ukinitvijo Centra za razvoj univerze nastala vrzel, ki traja Ĺže celotno poosamosvojitveno obdobje. b) MenedĹžment pametnih mest, upravljanje v turizmu, inovativni menedĹžment Drugi sklop prispevkov obravnava zelo ĹĄiroko tematiko, od menedĹžmenta v podjetjih v drĹžavni lasti, menedĹžmenta pametnih mest, odnosov med podjetniĹĄkimi kompetencami in inovativnostjo v druĹžinskih podjetjih, elektronsko podprtega dokumentnega menedĹžmenta do trajnostnega razvoja turizma in uporabe druĹžbenih PHGLMHYYWXULVWLĂžQLGHMDYQRVWL 'YDĂžODQNDYWHPVNORSXREUDYQDYDWDSUREOHPDWLNRWXUL]PDNRWHQH najbolj perspektivnih gospodarskih panog v Sloveniji. Ta panoga, ki GRVHJDY]DGQMLKOHWLKQDGSRYSUHĂžQHVWRSQMHUDVWLSRWUHEXMH]DVYRM nadaljnji razvoj tudi ustrezno raziskovalno in promocijsko podporo. 3RVHEHQ ĂžODQHN REUDYQDYD SUREOHPDWLNR VRGHORYDQMD VORYHQVNLK poslovnih partnerjev s tujim principalom. V nasprotju s dosedanjo prakso, ko so bila naĹĄa podjetja pri neposrednih naloĹžbah in skupnih vlaganjih pogosto v podrejenem poloĹžaju, analizirana ĹĄtudija primera kaĹže na povsem enakopravno sodelovanje med slovenskim in nemĹĄkim partnerjem. c) Marketing in prodaja, druĹžbeni mediji in odnosi z javnostmi Tretji sklop obravnava aktualne podjetniĹĄke vsebine, od vpliva vrhnjega menedĹžmenta na vedenje zaposlenih, razvoja druĹžbeno odgovornega podjetniĹĄtva, ustvarjanja in posodabljanja blagovnih znamk, obnaĹĄanja potroĹĄnikov pri potroĹĄnji prehrambenega proizvoda do trĹžnega komuniciranja preko druĹžbenih omreĹžij. V slovenskem podjetniĹĄkem menedĹžmentu predstavlja prodaja R]LURPD FHORWHQ WUĂĽHQMVNL VSOHW HQR RG ĂŁLENHMĂŁLK SRGURĂžLM .RPSHWHQFH ]DSRVOHQLK QD SRGURĂžMX PDUNHtinga v slovenskih SRGMHWMLK]DRVWDMDMRYSULPHUMDYLVNRQNXUHQĂžQLPLWXMLPLSRGMHWML7H pomanjkljivosti, ki ovira nadaljnjo rast slovenskega izvoza, se ]DYHGDMR DYWRUML  ĂžODQNRY Y NDWHULK REUDYQDYDMR L]EROMĂŁDYH QD SRGURĂžMXPDUNHWLQJD

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3 StrukturDVRGHOXMRþLKDYWRUMHY $YWRUML PRQRJUDILMH VR QD '2%, ]DSRVOHQL IDNXOWHWQL XþLWHOML 2YLQ 9XNDVRYLü$ãDQLQ*ROH3XKHN.ROHQF3RWRþQLN'LYMDN VRDYWRUMLL] GUXJLKSHGDJRãNLKLQUD]LVNRYDOQLKLQãWLWXFLM 5DVSRU0DþHN3HFHQ\ /DFPDQRYLü3LYHF/HWRQMD'RERYLãHN5R]PDQâWHYDQþHF.RFMDQ 6WMHSDQRYLü+UDVW*ROREâLQNRYHF SUHGVWDYQLNLYRGVWYDIDNXOWHWH LQVWURNRYQLKVOXåE 'RPLQNR%DORK$PLþ5DYQLN5LWRQLMD WHUGYD diplomanta.

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Sklepne ugotovitve

V monografiji obravnavana tematika temelji na novi razvojni GUXåEHQL SDUDGLJPL NL WHPHOML  QD ]QDQMX 9HþLQD þODQNRY SRGDMD rezultate poglobljenih raziskav, v katerih se povezuje teorija s poslovno gospodarsko prakso. Monografija daje odgovore na QHNDWHUHNOMXþQHL]]LYHNRWVRXSRUDEDQRYLKGLGDNWLþQLKPHWRGSUL online študiju, uvajanje »pametnih« tehnologij v mestna in regionalna okolja, razvoj družbeno odgovornega podjetništva ter QDUDãþDMRþD XSRUDED GUXåEHQLK RPUHåLM SUL UD]YLMDQMX NOMXþQLK podjetniških funkcij. Branje monografije je koriVWQRLQSULSRURþOMLYR predvsem za znanstvenike družboslovce, za ekonomske VWURNRYQMDNH WHU ]D RGORþHYDOFH QD QDFLRQDOQL UHJLRQDOQL LQ podjetniški ravni. izr. prof, dr. Peter Stanovnik Ljubljana, 21.10.2017

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DAJMO PROSTOR NOVEMU ZNANJU Monografija DOBA Fakultete

Monografija DOBA Fakultete

PreĹĄernova ulica 1, 2000 Maribor telefon: 02 228 38 90 fakulteta.doba.si fakulteta@doba.si

Monografija doba fakultete  
Monografija doba fakultete