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Universidad Latinoamérica de Ciencias y Tecnología

Unit 1. Internet and Other Addictions We were talking about the paragraph essay that consist in 5 paragraph 1 of the idea 1,3,4 supporting ideas and 5 the conclusion Jock, Talking about the internet and other addictions A person in front of a computer say: 1 I’m a computer addict…. A cyberspace junkie…. 2. it’s running my social life, my job, my health 3. I’ve got to do something… I’ve got to get help!! 4. Maybe there’s an on-line support group!

Vocabulary of the unit 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Surf: look for information(on the internet) Engaging in :taking part in or become involved in Turning each other in : identifying each other to the police or an authority Devoting: giving or using something for an activity or purpose Compulsiveness: when someone no have control about himself Therapy: treatment of problems by talking about them Putting together: organizing Support groups: people that is together in a specific problem and share its experience in order to overcome the problems 9. Present with: show sight of an illness by having a particular type of behavior or condition 10. Coming out: becoming publicly known 11. Fulfillment: personal satisfaction

Grammar of the unit WISH STATEMENTS --- EXPRESSING UNREALITY Use the verb wish when you want to express unreality --- a desire for reality to be different or regret that it was not different. The verb tense and structure used in the clause after wish to express future, present or past situation are outlined below. Wish situation Example Present and future wish 1. I know. I wish they’d turn their Use wish + would or could. phone off. They drive me crazy.

Donald Lara Rodríguez


Universidad Latinoamérica de Ciencias y Tecnología WISH STATEMENTS --- EXPRESSING UNREALITY 2. A friend of mine wishes she could get rid of her phone, bur she can’t because she is totally hooked on it. Present wish 1. The problem is out of control. I just Use wish + past from the verb. wish people didn’t feel compelled to answer their phone all the time Present wish (verb to be) 1. In a way, I wish they weren’t so cheap because then people wouldn’t Use past form: wish + were. use them so much. 2. You’ve got it. If they were more expensive, teenagers wouldn’t turn into cell phone junkies. Past wishes 1. It’s like a new culture. The phones Use wish + had + past participle. have their plusses, but I wish they hadn’t because so popular. They can be really annoying. 2. Don’t be ridiculous! I’ll bet you just wish you’d predicted the trend and started a cell phone company. 3. Yeah, I guess so. But more than that, I just wish I hadn’t been so careless and forgot to use my handsfree yesterday. I got ticked for using my phone while driving! Past wishes: could Sorry to hear that. Did you get out of it? Use wish + could have + past participle. No. I wish I could have, but the cop wouldn’t listen. Grammar Tip: The tense of the verb wish does not affect the tense of the verb in the clause following wish. In spoken informal English, we often use short answer phrases with wish statements. (See the phrases exercise 1.)

Examples Present 1. I wish she knew me better 2. She wishes he loved her more Past 1. I wish I had finished my career 2. I wish Juanita had eaten more protein Donald Lara Rodríguez


Universidad Latinoamérica de Ciencias y Tecnología Future 1. I wish Hellen would come and visit me 2. I wish she would tell me the true

Unit 2 Honesty Is the Best Policy Talking about honesty as the best curriculum for someone

Vocabulary of the unit 1. Pervasive: existing or spreading everywhere 2. Trivial: unimportant; of little value 3. Tattling on each other: tell something bad that another person 4. Misleads: make someone believe something that is not true 5. Veneer: a cover that hides the way someone or something really is 6. Relentless: continuing without stopping or losing strength 7. Finely hones: sharpened; perfected 8. Conceal: hide something carefully 9. Preoccupation: the condition of thinking about only one thing 10. Intrusive: affecting someone’s private life in an annoying way 11. Erosion: the gradual reduction or wearing down of something Grammar of the unit MODALS—DEGREES OF CERTAINTY Use modal verbs to express degrees of certainty about the present, the past and the future. The modal you use shows how strongly you believe something is true or not true. Almost certain Present must 1. The student’s papers are identical, although they insist they didn’t cheat. Clearly, one of them must be lying must + have + past Past 1. He claimed to have received a music participle(must’ve) award in high school, but there is not official record of it. He must have (must’ve) lied on his application Almost certain, negative (impossible) can’t/couldn’t Present/future 1. His excuse for missing the exam due to illness can’t possibly be true. I know he is telling a big, fat whopper!

Donald Lara Rodríguez


Universidad Latinoamérica de Ciencias y Tecnología Past

Future

past

Present/future

past

MODALS—DEGREES OF CERTAINTY Can’t/couldn’t + have + 1. I’m shocked. The university’s past participle(couldn’t’ve) president couldn’t have (couldn’r’ve) committed plagiarism in his speech. He is known for his impeccable integrity Quite sure Should/ought to Due to improvements in technology, brain scans should soon be able to help us detect liars and cheaters more accurately. Should + have + past He should’ve read the university’s Honor participle(should’ve) code by now. All first-year students do. Less Certain Could/ may/ might The final grades in the professor’s class look at bit inflated. He might be fudging them to make himself look like a better teacher. Could/ may/ might + Walt has always been so honest, but he might have (might’ve) cheated on the past participle(might’ve) exam because of the intense competition and the pressure from his parents

Unit 3 The Bold and the Bashful We were talking about the people's shyness and how the behavior is on particular way, also how male and female thinking about it

Vocabulary of the unit 1. Reticent: unwilling to talk 2. Phobia: very strong fear 3. Merit: value 4. Extroverted: very sociable 5. Adverse: negative 6. Syndrome: condition 7. Chronic: continual(in a medical sense) 8. Kindred souls: people having similar traits 9. Misattributions: false assumptions 10. Handicap: disadvantage 11. Aloof: distant 12. Condescending: treating others as inferior

Donald Lara Rodríguez


Universidad Latinoamérica de Ciencias y Tecnología One example of that is a man that wrote on a diary dear diary sorry to bother you again, all of that is because of he is very shy and he cannot to talk with a real person

Grammar of the unit ADJECTIVE CLAUSES Adjective clauses are used to add variety, sophistication, and interest to sentences. They are useful in combining sentences to provide more detail and information. They are two kinds of adjective clauses: identifying and nonidentifying Identifying Adjective clauses Example An identifying adjective clause: 1. We are losing the social lubrication that’s essential for people to feel  Has a subject and verb comfortable in the presence of  Modifies specific nouns and pronouns  Can be introduced by who, whom, others. which, that, whose, where, and 2. Consider the division between those when who always see the bright side and those who’d rather wallow in their  Is not set off by commas misery.  Is essential to the meaning of the sentence Nonidentifying adjective clauses A nonidentifying adjective clause: Has a subject and a verb Is used with the relative pronouns who, whom, which, and whose. It is also used with where and when and cannot be used with that Must describe a specific person or thing Is set off by commas Is not essential to the meaning of the sentence and may be omitted.

1. Our research, which we’ve been conducting since 1972. Focuses on adults. 2. Dr. lynn Henderson, who is codirector of the Shyness Clinic, says nearly everyone experience shyness.

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Universidad Latinoamérica de Ciencias y Tecnología Quantifying Expressions Nonidentifying adjective clauses often contain expression of quantity such as many of, most of, some of, none of, two of, several of, half of, all of, each of, and a number of. Use the structure: quantifier + relative pronoun (only who, whom, where, when, or which).

1. Negative personality traits, most of which are totally false, are often applied to shy, attractive people. 2. The participants, all of whom were adults, met with the therapist twice a week to talk about their problems with shyness.

Donald Lara Rodríguez


Universidad Latinoamérica de Ciencias y Tecnología

Unit 4. The Tipping Point Vocabulary of the unit 1. Transmission: passing of something from one person, place, or thing to another 2. Mavens: people who know a lot and talk a lot about a particular subject 3. Word-of-mouth: related to people telling people 4. Epidemic: large number of cases of an infectious disease occurring at the same time 5. Generate: produce or create 6. Got a hold of: contacted; communicated with 7. Consumed by: totally involved in 8. Win over: persuade someone to do something 9. Profiled: described 10. Root: cause; source 11. Goes a long way toward: succeeds in Grammar of the unit ADVERB CLAUSES OF RESULT Adverb clauses of result with such… that and so… that present the result of a situation that is stated in the firs clause. Adverb clauses of result are introduced by: 1. The subways were such a mess that  Such + noun or noun phrase + that + people hated to ride them clause of result 2. The shoe brand become so popular  So + adjective + that + clause of that sales went through the roof in result only a few short months  So + adverb + that + clause of result 3. The flue spread so quickly that 50 percent of Manhattanites were sick on New Year’s Day. So is also used before many, few, much, and little. So + much/little + uncountable noun + that So + many/few + count noun + that

1. Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring brought so much attention to the dangers of pollution that the modern environmental protection movement was born 2. Carson exposed so many environmental danger that the government began to scrutinize the chemical industry.

Donald Lara Rodríguez


Universidad Latinoamérica de Ciencias y Tecnología ADVERB CLAUSES OF RESULT Notes: 1. In spoken English, that is often omitted 2. Placing such or so at the beginning of the sentences results in an inverted word order. This structure is emphatic 3. So sensitive were New York City criminals to the subway environment that they stopped commenting crimes after the graffiti was removed 4. Such enormous impact did Carson’s book have that President John F. Kennedy ordered a special advisory committee to examine the issues the book raised.

Unit 5 Feng Shui: Ancient Wisdom travels West Vocabulary of the unit 1. Frowned upon: disapproved of 2. Hard-bitten: tough, experienced 3. Transcendent: beyond the limits of ordinary experience 4. Digression: idea that is unrelated to the topic 5. Aligning: properly positioning 6. Caught off-guard: surprised 7. Abundance: a large quantity of something 8. Circulates: move, flows 9. Sense: feel and know 10. Quote: repeat what someone else has said or written 11. Skeptically: with doubt 12. Anecdotes: personal stories

Grammar of unit SPOKEN DISCOURSE CONNECTORS Discourse connectors are words and expression that can connect ideas in speaking and writing. They join ideas both within sentences and between sentences. When you express yourself at length or in detail on a topic, then you need to use word to help the reader or listener understand your idea. In written English, we use formal connectors-in contrast, moreover, furthermore, consequently, therefore- to express the meaning of contrast, addition and result. In spoken English, we often use more informal connectors to express the same meaning Contrast

Addition

Result

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Universidad Latinoamérica de Ciencias y Tecnología (unexpected result) Plus So But In addition As a result However On top of that On the other hand Note: In this unit we performed readings using these connectors to apply them in some of the weeks Essay. Some of them were used on a Bruce Lee reading

Example A feng shui master told this story: One client told me that her business was doing very poorly and she needed to take some action. However, she was eager to revive her social life as well. In additions, she hired me and I spent several hours assessing her home. At first glance, I sensed that the ch’i was flowing smoothly throughout the house. However, a few minutes later, I did notice an old armchair in her living room blocking the front door. I asked her where she had bought it. She told me it was from the set of a movie about a dangerous killer. So, she mentioned that she had only had the chair for about four mouths and that this was the time when her business and social life began to fail. It was clear to me that the chair had negative energy, which was related to her bad luck. As a result, we move the chair outside immediately. As soon as we did, the telephone rang. It was a friend asking her on a date. So, one month later, here business took off. As a result, she now understands the importance of bringing objects with only positive ch’I into the house.

Unit 6 Spiritual Renewal We were talking about some religious leaders; one of them was Thomas Merton, some monasteries where they lived and groups that they created

Background and vocabulary 1. Prophets: holy men 2. Ascetic: living without any physical pleasure or comforts, especially for religious reasons 3. Fasting: eating little or no food for a special reason 4. Divine: coming from God or a god 5. Enacted a law: made a new official rule 6. Vibrant: full of energy and life 7. Hectic: very busy; full of activity Donald Lara Rodríguez


Universidad Latinoamérica de Ciencias y Tecnología 8. Replenish: renew and refill 9. Well-being: a feeling of being happy, healthy or satisfied 10. Refrain from: not do something you want to do 11. Will: determination 12. Fosters: develops 13. Gratitude: thankfulness 14. Humility: not being too proud

Vocabulary of the unit 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Quest: search Trace back: finds the origins of something Took on: started Nation of: idea Pull back: withdraw Draw out: make someone willing to talk Over time: gradually Caught on: became popular Royalties: money paid to a writer

Grammar of the unit COUNT AND NON COUNT NOUNS All nouns in English can be divided into two groups: count nouns and non count nouns. Count nouns are those that can be counted and made plural (monasteries, monks). In contrast, non count nouns can be considered as a mass and cannot be made plural (spiritually, air). Non count nouns may refer to categories made up of different things (money, furniture). Phenomena that occur in nature (darkness, weather). Or abstractions (violence, greed, honesty). Certain expressions of quantity, called quantifier, state the amount of the noun. Some quantifiers are used with count nouns and others are used with non count nouns.

Donald Lara Rodríguez


Universidad Latinoamérica de Ciencias y Tecnología COUNT AND NON COUNT NOUNS Quantifiers before Count Nouns Quantifiers before Non Count Nouns A lot of A lot of Many/ a great many A great deal of Quite a few Quite a big of A bunch of A large amount of A (large) number of Not much Certain Very little(just a little/ only a little) Not many A little/ little Very few(just a few/ only a few) Less A few, few Fever Grammar Tips: Notice the change in meaning when the indefinite article a is placed before few and little Few/ little Negative meaning Similar to not much and not many

A few/ A little Positive meaning Similar to some (when talking about a small quantity)

Compare: Few people can fast more than three days in a row. A few people from our group decided to return to the monastery for another visit.

Unit 7 Workplace Privacy In this case all the student and me were talking about the privacy at work and how the people felt when someone is looking for the personal information of the others and of course, the systems that the companies have

Vocabulary of the unit 1. Employees: people who work for a company or organization 2. Employer: person or organization that you work for 3. Keep an eye on: watch closely and continuously 4. Surveillance: the act of watching carefully 5. Safeguards: protections 6. Eavesdropping: listen to secretly 7. Legitimate: lawful; reasonable 8. A log: an official written record 9. Scope: range 10. Willy-nilly: unpredictably; without our choosing

Donald Lara Rodríguez


Universidad Latinoamérica de Ciencias y Tecnología 11. Dignity: respectability; seriousness 12. Demeaned: insulted 13. Driving: causing 14. Sinister: evil 15. Deter: prevent 16. Racial slurs: insulting comments about a person’s race In some week or units, the professor assigned a topic of three minutes in order to improvise vocabulary

Grammar for the unit VERBS FOLLOWED BY THE GERUND OR INFINITIVE WITH A CHANGE IN MEANING Some verb must always be followed by gerund (base form of the verb + ing). Other verbs must be followed by an infinitive (to + base form of the verb). Others can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive with no change in meaning However, certain verbs that can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive do have a change in meaning. Sometimes the change is subtle; sometimes it is very obvious. Look the verbs forget and stop Verb Meaning 1. Forget + gerund 1. To forget an experience --- usually He will never forget having his calls one that is particularly good or bad monitored. The experience was so demeaning. 2. To forget do something 2. Forget + infinitive The manager was fired because he forgot to write a report about his staff’s phone calls. 3. To stop doing something for an 3. Stop + gerund extended time She stopped calling her friend during office hours. 4. To stop doing something for a 4. Stop + infinitive moment in order to do something When she realized how late she was else working, she stopped to call home Note: some other verbs like this are mean, quit, remember, and try.

Unit 8 Warriors Without Weapons Background and vocabulary 1. Legitimacy: moral and legal acceptability 2. Devastating: completely destructive 3. Volatile: likely to explode; tense Donald Lara Rodríguez


Universidad Latinoamérica de Ciencias y Tecnología 4. Barbarism and savagery: cruel and extremely violent behavior 5. Ratified: signed; officially approved 6. Institutionalize: make generally acceptable; establish 7. Prevailed: existed; lasted 8. Spare: save 9. Subscribe: support and follow 10. Disseminating: communicating widely 11. Counterintuitive: illogical; unexpected 12. Codes: rules 13. Restrain: control 14. Human universal: values shared by all human beings

Other vocabulary 1. Drawn to: attracted to 2. Identify with: understand 3. Do without: live without 4. Live by: follow 5. Draft evader: someone who avoids the military 6. Equated: strongly associated 7. Alternative ethic: different moral principle 8. Get at: express 9. Unleash: release 10. Tame: control 11. House-and-garden: common- sense

Grammar of the unit DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH To add variety and interest when you tell a story or report information, use a combination of direct and indirect speech. Direct speech is a quotation of someone’s exact words. When you use indirect speech, try to vary the reporting verbs. Choose expressive verbs such as complain, mention, remark, answer, reply, predict, deny, explain, wonder, add, question, respond, comment, observe and continue. Look at the rules and examples for changing direct speech to indirect speech. Rules Direct Speech Indirect Speech Statements Shift tense back (for Dunant remarked sadly, Dunant reported, with

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Universidad Latinoamérica de Ciencias y Tecnología DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH example, from past to past “yesterday we lost another sadness, that on the perfect). 50 soldiers right here” previous day, they had lost Make appropriate another 50 soldiers in that pronouns and adverb place changes. Questions Yes/ No questions Do not use say. Use if or whether Wh- questions: Do not use say. Use statement word order

Ignatieff asked the ICRC representative. “Can I record my interviews with the volunteers?”

Ignatieff asked the ICRC representative if he could record his interviews with the volunteers

Ignatieff asked the volunteer, “How did you survive the tough Red Cross training?”

Ignatieff asked the volunteer how he had survived the tough Red Cross training.

Dunant warned the soldiers “Don’t shoot!”

Dunant warned the soldier not to shoot.

Commands Use no + infinitive with negative commands or other imperative verb forms

Unit 9 Boosting Brain Power through the Arts We were reading some lectures about the effect of the classical music on the child brain and some experiment, talking about the real experiment made by university of Carolina and we were talking too about the results

Vocabulary of the unit 1. Enhance: improve 2. Proficiency: ability and skill 3. Abstract reasoning: ability to understand general concepts that cannot be immediately seen or felt 4. Seft-esteem: confident 5. Underscoring: emphasizing 6. Neurological: related to nerves 7. Hallmark: outstanding feature 8. Sequential: in a particular order

Donald Lara Rodríguez


Universidad Latinoamérica de Ciencias y Tecnología 9. Interventions: special activities to prevent bad results 10. Curriculum: list of subjects taught 11. Well-rounded: complied and varied 12. Building blocks: parts; pieces

Other Vocabulary 1. Advancing: progressing 2. Boost: increase 3. As a whole: entirely 4. Caught up to: reached 5. Primed: prepared 6. Regardless of: without considering 7. Work in progress: unfinished product 8. Did more for: benefit 9. Had nothing to do with: didn’t involved 10. Reaped benefits: got advantage 11. Found: improves

Grammar of the unit THE PASSIVE VOICE AND THE PASSIVE CAUSATIVE How to for the passive voice The passive voice is formed by using a form of the verb to be plus the past participle of the main verb. The verb to be can be used in any tense, as illustrated below. Subject

Past participle

Complement

The student

Form of the verb to be Are

Given

His self-esteem

Was

Enhanced

Intervention

Will be

Needed

The curriculum

Is going to be

Improved

A well- rounded education. By the new arts curriculum. If thing don’t improve. Before the performance.

The pieces The neurons Special reasoning

Must be Might have been Is being

Improved Stimulated Improved

Donald Lara Rodríguez


Universidad Latinoamérica de Ciencias y Tecnología THE PASSIVE VOICE AND THE PASSIVE CAUSATIVE When to use the passive voice The passive voice is used when you:  Want to emphasize the object of the action, not the actor  Do not know the actor  Want to avoid mentioning who performed the action or not avoid blaming anyone  Want to report and idea or fact Passive causative The passive causative is used to speak about services arranged. It is formed by the verb get or have and the past participle of the main verb. Ms. Dias is organizing an art exhibition of her student’s work. With special funds collected for this purpose, she had the painting mounted on special paper. She also had the works framed. Finally, she got the school lobby cleaned and set up.

Donald Lara Rodríguez


Elglish IV