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E g y p t

Presented by

General Organization for Physical Planning

Project Consultant

Cube Consultants

June 2010 Š All rights reserved for Cube Consultants



Table of contents

Introduction Historical Background Precedent Studies Aleppo, Syria Hafsia, Tunis Mostar, Bosnia Fez, Morocco Development of Esna Temple Area Urban Studies Environmental & Infra Structure Studies Social Studies Economic Studies Esna Historical Oasis Vision

3 5 11 13 19 23 27 29 32 40 43 44 45


From the past to the future In Upper Egypt, along the west bank of Nile River, where Esna is located at 55 km south of LUXOR city. Esna is a city that demonstrates how archaeological layers build up over time; it is a homeland of treasures of world-renowned Greek – Roman monuments. From ancient Egyptian to Greek – Roman era, followed by Fatimid era, then Ottoman and finally the era of Mohamed Ali pasha. They represent some of the finest examples of mankind’s early civilization and it is ranked among its greatest cultural achievements. This unique cultural heritage continues to attract visitors from all over the world in ever-growing numbers.Nevertheless, Esna today is somehow a trade and farming town, with a weaving industry, it suffers from severe dreadful conditions of the physical environment and basic services for inhabitants. Furthermore, the high level of subterranean water at Esna was caused by the construction of the Esna barrages, which raise water levels behind them. The water has slightly affected the walls and foundation of the khnum temple which belong to the Greek – Roman era.

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Moreover, because of the ground level of the city of Esna which is nine meters higher than the level of the temple, the absence of a drainage system in the city had also added to the rising subterranean water level . . Therefore, it’s worth aiming to develop Esna city via exploiting its special location and create tourists attractions which leads to increasing employment opportunities, initiating to higher rates of quality of life for inhabitants. Taking into consideration that such development procedures will be environment-friendly. In order to respond to these trends, the Ministry of Housing, General Organization of Physical Planning and Luxor Governorate had nominated our firm to participate in such development plan in 2010, for the study of a Comprehensive Development Plan for the City of Esna The Structure Plan, Heritage Plan and Investment Projects produced as components of the project address ways to accommodate the projected growth in population, tourism and agriculture, while preserving and enhancing the antiquities.

Esna Existing Sitiuation

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Esna Historical Oasis

Esna City

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Historical Background FROM GREEK TO ROMAN The Egyptian city of Esna, known to the ancient Egyptians as Ta-senet (from which the Coptic Sne and Arabic Esna derive). It is the site of a major temple was built during the reign of Thutmose III and dedicated to the ram-god Khnum that was worshipped throughout this area and who fashioned mankind from mud of the Nile on his potter’s wheel. Besides Khnum, the temple was dedicated to several other deities, the most prominent of whom were Neith and Heka. All the texts mention that the temple of Esna was built on the site of a temple that may have been constructed as early as the reign of Thutmose III. Some blocks of the earlier 18th Dynasty structure are preserved. The present structure dates to the Greek and Roman periods and is one of the latest temples to have been built by the ancient Egyptians.

The ceiling of the hypostyle shows Egyptian astronomical figures on the northern half and Roman signs of the zodiac on the southern half. The temple façade is constructed in the style of the period with the usual screen walls inset with columns. The reliefs show the Roman Emperors named by their cartouches, before many of the Upper Egyptian deities. There is a frieze of Nile gods along the base of the façade. The hypostyle hall “was excavated by Auguste Mariette” is well preserved, Other remains of the temple lie buried beneath the surrounding buildings of the modern town. The back wall of the hypostyle hall is the oldest part of this construct, having been the facade of the old Ptolemaic (Greek) temple. It has depictions of both Ptolemy VI Philometer and Ptolemy VIII. The remainder of the building was built by the Romans (Claudius through Decius) and some of its decorations date as late as the third century AD.

Temple de Latopolis ou Esnê - Author : Denon, Vivant, 1747-1825

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Esna City

Esna Historical Oasis

Historical Background THE ISLAMIC PERIOD Esna was also famous during the times of Fatimid ruler Al-Mustansir Biallah. According to the historian Al-Maqrizi, it was during this time that a great famine scorched Egypt, and even then Esna was described as having many buildings and green gardens, with waters that didn’t ebb and with rich agriculture which helped the country in facing the crisis. From the Fatimid era, the Emari Minaret had remained as one of the oldest minarets in Egypt which can be traced back to Badreddin El-Gamali, who built the walls of Cairo, and which escaped the mosque’s demolition in 1960.

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During the Ottoman era the city’s commercial centre was built. Wekalet Al-Gedawi stands north of Esna Temple, and owes its name to its chief merchant and owner Shahbandar Al-Toggar Al-Sayed Hassan Al-Gedawi. Merchants from Sudan, central Africa, Somalia and Kenya were just some of those travelling through the Aswan road to stay in the second floor of the Wekala. They stored their goods in the first floor until they could display them at the market that was regularly held in the Wekala’s courtyard. The Berber sold baskets and other items made of dyed palm leaves. Other star products arriving to Esna by caravan were Arab glue, ostrich feathers and elephant tusks. If the Wekala was the place to find imported goods, the Kaysariya, consisting of shops arranged in a long alley covered with wooden ceiling, was the local city market. During the era of Mohamed Ali, Esna was one of the governorates of Egypt. It ran from Gerga on the north to the Shalalat waterfalls south, including Aswan and other cities. Ali Pasha Mubarak also discussed the beauty of its houses, its antiquity treasures and the growth of its population. There used to be a well famed tarboush factory back then.

Wekalet Al-Gedawi

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NAPOLEON’S EGYPTIAN CAMPAIGN In 1798-99, that Napoleon’s troops and scholars arrived to Esna. In Description de l’Égypte, the city is portrayed as surrounded by low lands with good agriculture to the south, and with gardens kept by expensive irrigation to the north. They described how the city was “on top of an eight to 10 metrehigh hill of ruins.” Napoleon’s expedition also took note of the political intricacies of Esna and of the peaceful coexistence between Muslims and Copts.

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There are many monasteries in Esna “Deir Manaos wa Al-Shuhada, or the Monastery of the Three Thousand Six Hundred Martyrs, is considered a commemoration to these emperors’ persecutions. The 10th century church is said to be one of the most beautiful in Upper Egypt. There is also Deir AlFakhouri, or the Monastery of the Potter, who like the ancient god Khnum in Esna Temple, sits and creates the world out of mud.

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Precedent Studies LIVING THE HERITAGE Historical Towns face the realities of modern life. These exert pressures, sometimes considerable, on old urban cores; overpopulation, decaying infrastructure, tourism excesses, real estate speculation and transportation are only a few of the obstacles, found on all continents, to developing effective preservation policies for historic quarters. Many issues associated in planning historical cities are based on the importance of heritage and the way it could be considered in spatial structure. Spatial planning theory is about space and whatever occurs there. Hence, paying attention to land-building- their use and relations - also some economic and social factors should be considered. So the spatial solution, considering a mixed idea of planning issues must be emphasized. Nowadays, criticizing the efforts for planning urban spatial structure like physical urban land use planning, trying to define a city and it’s spatial structure in both physical & non physical dimensions. On the other hand sustainable development point of view emphasizes on financial and economic issues in historical cities.

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So the spatial solution, considering a mixed idea of planning issues must be emphasized. Nowadays, criticizing the efforts for planning urban spatial structure like physical urban land use planning, trying to define a city and it’s spatial structure in both physical & non physical dimensions. On the other hand sustainable development point of view emphasizes on financial and economic issues in historical cities.

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International Examples Rehabilitation of the Old City of Aleppo, Syria Aleppo is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The enormous treasures of urban history, the unique urban fabric, the large traditional souks, the authentic oriental life as well as the large number of remarkable historical buildings and monuments render the Old City of Aleppo one of the most beautiful and attractive oriental cities. Since the mid-1950s, the historic old city of Aleppo has been gradually falling into decay. It is a World Heritage Site, and was once a flourishing centre of trade under Ottoman rule. After a long period of neglect, it cannot now cope with the constantly changing demands posed by the pressure of modernization. Half the former populations of a good 200,000 people have emigrated; many of the remaining families grow ever poorer and fear that they will lose their homes. The greatest challenge for the inhabitants and the city government is to work together to preserve the historic fabric of the city and the socio-cultural structure developed over the centuries, while at the same time creating a modern living and working world.

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Aleppo, Syria Rehabilitation of the Old Aleppo Since 1993, the City of Aleppo and the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) are joining efforts to rehabilitate the Old City and to improve living conditions there. Over the time, various other international institutions have joined the project, which is considered to take 30 to 40 years for a first cycle of renewal: the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFSED), the Aga Khan Network for Development (AKDN), the Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC). The project aims at strengthening the urban management capacities in Aleppo, in order to pursue a balanced and careful policy in rehabilitating the old city, to take measures for revitalization, and to secure additional sources of financing. It supports the development, the financing and the implementation of a comprehensive package of interventions such as strategic development instruments, technical and social infrastructure renewal, improvement of environmental conditions and social services, urban design and development, monuments restoration, traffic management, financial aids for housing rehabilitation, local economic development, tourism development, community and cultural development, and tries to induce synergies between relevant measures undertaken by public and/or private stakeholders.

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International Examples Rehabilitation of the Old City of Aleppo Tourism & Urban heritage preservation in Aleppo The treasures of urban and civilization history, the traditional urban fabric and oriental life styles, the extensive traditional souqs (bazaars) as well as the large number of remarkable historical buildings and monuments render Aleppo’s Old City amongst the most original and beautiful oriental cities. Numerous archaeological and historical sites which can be reached from Aleppo are adding to the city’s potential for cultural tourism. Apart from the various general urban rehabilitation measures which certainly contribute to make the Old City more attractive and comfortable for visitors, a number of measures specifically contribute to promote and to guide tourism in Aleppo:

1. Land use & urban design: Tourism activities may sometimes conflict with other land uses, in particular in residential areas. The land use concept adopted for Old Aleppo allows for residential areas, business areas (with the main souk), open/green space, tourism areas, as well as mixed areas. Hotels and restaurants are therefore to be concentrated in the touristic areas around the Citadel. Public spaces which can be used by both the visitors and the residents for commercial, cultural or recreational activities are being rehabilitated. They display a high quality of urban design which is adequate for a world cultural heritage site but also for the specific function of the public space. As an example a public square which has been rehabilitated is now greatly adopted by the residents as a centre for social life, and tourists can be seen ‘taking a bath’ in that lively and authentic sociocultural scenery.

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Aleppo, Syria 2. Community action projects and cultural events: Rehabilitation measures which are concentrated in action areas and organized as action projects or as immediate action measures to meet the very needs of residents; they are planned and implemented in close cooperation with the neighborhoods. Thus they contribute to a self-assured „Old City awareness“. Recently, school-children have been invited to draw their vision about living in the Old City. The drawings which are amazingly witnessing the children’s love to their home are exhibited in the Shibani-building, a former catholic convent near the main bazaar which is under rehabilitation. A specific cultural program undertaken together with various local and international cultural institutions (the Goethe Institute, the French Cultural Centre, the British Council, various local institutions and NGOs) further fosters resident’s identification with „their“ Old City. These events are usually frequented by tourists, too.

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Aleppo, Syria

International Examples Rehabilitation of the Old City of Aleppo, Syria

3. Direct tourism promotion measures & public private partnerships (ppp): In co-operation with Governmental institutions, the local Directorate for Tourism Development and local investors, some historic monuments have been restored under a public-private partnership (ppp), and are now used as hamams (public baths), restaurants and/or hotels, excellently bringing traditional building styles into harmony with modern economic activities, displaying tourist facilities and the historic and archaeological sites, as well as providing short information concerning the history of the monuments and other interesting points throughout the Old City. Printing cost had been born by the business community. Also a signing system of international standard for cultural heritage sites has been developed and partly been implemented.

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Urban development and monuments restoration: The Citadel of Aleppo is one of the most impressive cultural heritage sites in the Near East. It is both a recreation area for Alepinians and one of the most significant tourist attractions in the country. It is presently being developed for tourism through a joint effort undertaken by the National Department of Antiquities and the Aga Khan Trust for Culture (AKTC). A comprehensive “Master plan� for the touristic development of the Citadel integrates strategies and measures concerning architectural preservation, structural safety, archaeological excavations, tourism facilities and locations for cultural events and maintenance.

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International Examples Rehabilitation of Hafsia Quarter, Tunis The preservation and rehabilitation of historical cities has become a priority concern of national governments and international organizations. Rapid urban growth since the 1950s has transformed the social mix and physical appearance of older districts through interurban population movements as well as waves of rural migrants. The subdivision of the traditional housing stock into low-rent one- and two-room dwellings with shared sanitary facilities resulted in its progressive deterioration through lack of maintenance and overcrowding. Reversing these trends pose serious challenges as interventions need resolve complex property tenure patterns, face often heavy relocation loads, and are characterized by high investments and difficult cost recovery. The rehabilitation of the Hafsia is an example of an innovative effort to meet these challenges. The Hafsia quarter project is an attempt to rehabilitate a run-down and largely derelict area in the medina (old town) of Tunis. The project’s goals include providing housing for the poor, greatly raising the standard of living of the inhabitants, and recapturing the diversity and life of an urban center. By maintaining the traditional urban fabric of the medina, this project recreates the lost physical continuity of the area, thus enabling social and cultural continuity. It promotes the conservation and progression of tradition through new buildings rather than the adaptation of old structures to an altered cultural setting.

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Hafsia, Tunis Historical background The Hafsia, or Hara, had been the Jewish quarter of Tunis since the 10th century. As wealthy families began moving to the newer European areas after 1860, the Hafsia was left to be one of the poorest areas of the medina. In 1928 the French authorities declared the Hafsia quarter a health hazard, and many of the buildings were demolished between 1933 and 1939. Their plan for rebuilding the area used a grid design and was comprised of large housing blocks typical of European cities rather than the traditional urban fabric of the medina. However, World War II interrupted this work and bombing resulted in further destruction of the area. Throughout most of its history the Hafsia was inhabited by a mixed population, including foreign Arabs, Italians, Maltese, and Greeks as well as Jews. As the affluent Jews left the rundown and overpopulated Hara only the poorest remained and migrants from rural areas moved in, attracted by rooms for rent and the proximity to employment. Houses were divided into one-room dwellings. After independence population densities rose, making the Hafsia a socially undesirable living area before the reconstruction. Large proportions of the land were owned by the Municipality as a result of expropriations in the 1930s for renewal projects that never materialized.

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International Examples Rehabilitation of Hafsia Quarter, Tunis Project Overview “Hafsia doesn’t merely stabilize the old but transforms the existing texture into a contemporary condition. People who are interested in restoration are seen to be standing in the way of progress the Hafsia model is an attempt to be progressive while holding on to the existing fabric.” The reconstruction of the Hafsia quarter was the first large-scale renovation project of its kind to be undertaken in an Islamic country. Courtyard houses, narrow winding alleys and cul-de-sacs traditionally characterize the Hafsia, although the architecture is not of the aesthetic and historic value of other parts of the medina. The 1930s additions of 5-story apartment blocks and the large-scale buildings from the 1960s break this continuity of dense urban fabric. The Suq-el-Hout, a former pedestrian route running north to south, had been broken by a road from the modern quarters of Tunis, attracting modern high-rise apartment blocks west of the suq. The area east and south of the suq was largely derelict. Three to four story European-style tenement buildings from the late 19th and early 20th century line the east edge of the Hafsia, built on land cleared when the city wall was demolished in 1893.

1. Improving the condition of life of Hafsia’s 4,100 inhabitants, some of whom are squatters living in vacant decayed buildings through.

2. Economic objectives. 3. Cultural objectives. 4. Renovate historical structures as cultural and tourist facilities.

The renovated areas of Hafsia I were surrounded to the north and south by still rundown or derelict areas, which caused an acceleration of decline in adjacent unrenovated areas and a lack of continuity. 21 Esna Historical Oasis | Cube Consultants

Hafsia, Tunis These problems were addressed in the Hafsia II project. As well as building new housing and commercial and office spaces, the project included the installation and improvement of utilities, provision of facilities, maintenance and repair of infrastructure and streets, provision of car parking, reorganization of space for economic activity, restoration and attribution of new functions to historic monuments, and provision of public or semi-public spaces. As much of the old quarter as possible was incorporated into the new scheme and old buildings of suitable condition or architectural value were renovated. Traditional vocabulary and typologies were used for the new buildings - facades are white, with projecting or recessed blocks and deep openings, and arched entrances and arcades are included where appropriate. Other traditional elements such as woodwork cantilevers, angle furnishings, and ceramic framing were simplified to suit new construction methods and the limited budget. Decorative detailing is used to emphasize openings, projecting elements, and as is traditional, in places where the building is touched. Most of the on-site labor was unskilled and local, and the construction low-technology. The housing units were built using post and beam construction because of the water table, with hollow concrete or cored terracotta brick walls. The floors were constructed of brick filler blocks covered with concrete and paved with terrazzo tiles. Exterior walls were of painted render. Units were standardized to facilitate design and implementation. The suq was designed with a concrete frame supporting concrete vaults, its structural frame allowing for flexibility in the position and size of the shops. In situ concrete was used for structural members, the exterior walls and internal partitions. In the Hafsia II project wide bands of glazed ceramic tiling were used to articulate doorways, and decorate facades. The technical assessor for the 1995 Aga Khan Awards drew attention to the way that the Hafsia II project still used low-technology construction methods by local unskilled labor. The restoration of old buildings depended on their original structural system, but most required reinforcement with new concrete members. The historical restoration work was carried out by skilled artisans. Esna Historical Oasis | Cube Consultants 22



International Examples

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Resurgence of Mostar’s Historic City Centre Mostar is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. The unofficial capital of Herzegovina. Mostar is situated on the Neretva river and is the fifth-largest city in the country. Mostar was named after its Old Bridge (Stari most) and the towers on its sides, “the bridge keepers” (natively: mostari). The future of the historic core and the central area cannot be separated from Mostar’s peripheral areas and the development of the city as a whole. Future development trends at the city level will inevitably have repercussions on the central area, and indeed will determine its function and role within greater Mostar. The city’s population, following a sharp decline during and after the war, has been stable for quite some time at around 105,000 inhabitants. However, over the past several years, there has been substantial and disorderly urban expansion taking place on the hills overlooking the city and in the surrounding countryside. This should be reason for concern: the agricultural land around the city is being swallowed by unregulated suburban development, precluding a wiser utilisation of precious land assets and imposing on future administrations ever-greater infrastructure costs in new roads and public utilities. Moreover, the clearing of the vegetation and subsequent construction on the surrounding hills is compromising the very stability of the slopes that lie above the central area of the city.

Mostar, Bosnia “ Conservation of the historic area � The AKTC/WMF planning efforts responded to the urgent need for a framework for the reconstruction of the historic core in order to put a halt to the hasty and unregulated developments that took place in the aftermath of the war. They also became the occasion for an in-depth investigation of the physical fabric and the establishment of coherent, long-term planning tools to better manage and coordinate action throughout the central area of the city, comprising its Ottoman core and the Austro-Hungarian extensions, as defined by the city’s historic 1918 boundary. The principal tenets of the AKTC/WMF proposals are based on the conviction that planning and architecture are integral parts of a single process of urban rehabilitation, and that economic growth and development are not incompatible with the historic fabric. On the contrary, the central area of Mostar constitutes an irreplaceable resource for the entire city. Its special qualities must be carefully protected and wisely managed in order that they may survive and extend their legacy into the future. Esna Historical Oasis | Cube Consultants 24



International Examples Resurgence of Mostar’s Historic City Centre The proposals for the central area grow out of a few key ideas which have shaped the different components of the plan and gradually coalesced into the first concrete interventions realized by AKTC and its partners. These can be summarized as follows:


. Reinforce the complementarily between the Old Bridge and the adjacent bazaar and historic neighborhood areas. The bridge and the surrounding urban fabric must be considered part of a single system that should be protected and managed in its entirety through consistent, unequivocal and well-coordinated planning and building measures.


. Recognize the centrality of the Neretva River in shaping the image and identity of the city and aim at preserving its natural landscape qualities for the future. The natural features must not be compromised by too many access points or by the proliferation of buildings, terraces and other makeshift structures along the riverbanks.


. Streamline and improve circulation in the central area by establishing a clear hierarchy of motorized roads and a separate pedestrian network in which traffic and parking are regulated. Reinforce and extend car-parking points around the central area within easy pedestrian access to the historic core.

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Mostar, Bosnia 4

. Identify key “action areas” and “streetscapes” as priority zones, which should be the object of special planning efforts and public and private investment. These links and urban nodes should re-connect the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian parts of the central area, and try to mend the scars and gaps inflicted on the traditional cityscape by the modernist development of the seventies and eighties, as well as the destruction of the war and the unregulated development that ensued.


. Revitalize the many ruined, empty or underused historic buildings within the central area. These structures reflect Mostar’s multi-cultural past and should be reclaimed to meaningful use in order to spur economic growth, revitalize neighborhoods and enhance community pride and identity.

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Fez, Morocco

International Examples Rehabilitation of Fez, Morocco

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The Meedina of Fez was designated a Heritage of Mankind city by UNESCO in 1980. It has a population of about 181,000 in two separate districts-Fez Bali (population146,000) and Fez J’did (population 35,000). Changing lifestyles, the deterioration of the infrastructure and the transformation of traditional handicraft activities into partially mechanized small-scale manufacturing have contributed to the degradation of the urban environment. Today, the Medina, which encompasses 13,500 parcels with approximately 31,600 separate dwelling units and close to 10,000 businesses, offers a striking contrast between areas of thriving economic activity and over-densified residential quarters whose buildings are deteriorating steadily. The rehabilitation strategy defined by the Project is based on an exhaustive series of field studies documenting existing conditions, the socioeconomic characteristics of the population. and the dynamics of private investments. In spite of the presence of a significant number of low-income households, the analysis revealed a willingness to invest in housing improvement on the part of both owners and tenants. The most serious impediments include complex property ownership and occupancy patterns, rent regulations, lack of accessibility, and environmental pollution.

The overall rehabilitation strategy for the Fez Medina will alleviate these constraints through the following action programs and projects:

1. Improvements to the existing circulation network, including the creation of parking

structures on the city’s periphery.

2. The creation of an emergency vehicular network. 3. Selected environmental improvements, including the relocation of polluting industries

to an industrial area outside the Medina, the regrouping of specific traditional activities to facilitate deliveries, the creation of public spaces to relieve the density of residential neighborhoods, and improvement of the solid waste management system.


. The expansion of existing programs to improve the built environment, consisting of consolidation of dilapidated structures, demolition of ruins, construction of community facilities, and urban landscaping.


. The creation of an incentive program to encourage private investment in improvements to the built environment and engage residents in the rehabilitation process.

6. The creation of thematic tourist circulation routes & the restoration of monuments. 7. Poverty alleviation through the generation of employment opportunities. Taken together, these interventions will improve the quality of life in the Medina and reverse the sustained disinvestment in the building stock that is the main cause for its physical deterioration. They will create an estimated 10,000 jobs over 15 years, mainly in lower-skill occupations. The public investment required to launch the process is estimated at Dh 240 million; World Bank financing of US $14.0 million is sought for this. Other funding sources have been secured for the relocation of polluting industries and will be solicited for the rehabilitation of selected monuments and pilot projects. The project tried to establish a flexible planning framework that would lend itself to a variety of architectural layouts. Esna Historical Oasis | Cube Consultants 28

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The development of

Esna Temple

Esna Historical Oasis The revival of the old city

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Esna City

Esna City

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Esna Historical Oasis


Urban studies

Urban studies is considered to be the mirror of all activities social ,economic ,services ,population and recreation in the city ,so the analytical of Urban Structure for study Area (Esna Temple Area) considered to be one of most important studies which give real reflection for problem which is suffering from it whether it was economic or social or infra structure ,and observation of this problem and Understand the reasons allow to Develop appropriate solutions and make sound decisions to solve this problem.

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Esna City

Esna City

Esna Historical Oasis

ANALYTICAL STUDIES A- Land uses Generally land uses play important role on Clarification The economic base and social level for population and It was clear from the study that residential use is the most uses by 38.5% of the total area Followed by the use of commercial use by 7.8% of the total area and we noted that the most of residential buildings is Dilapidated and Uninhabited which it will be clear later in the study of buildings.

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Land use

Area (m2)

Area (f)






Residential - Commercial




Residential - Handcrafts




Residential - Stores








Commercial - Handcrafts




Historical Buildings




































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Esna City

Esna City

Esna Historical Oasis


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B- Building Conditions Building conditions is reflecting the deterioration of buildings and needing to developing and Upgrading Where the percentage of bad buildings 65% of the total number of buildings in the study area which is very high, which requires rapid intervention to upgrade Esna Temple area, Especially The presence historical value and archaeological distinct in this region.

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Esna City

Esna Historical Oasis

C- Buildings Heights The most of Buildings heights in study Area is one or two floors ( exceed their percentage more than 91% of the total number of buildings ), which reflect the bad structure of the buildings in the study area.

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Esna City

Esna Historical Oasis

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2) Environmental & Infra Structure Studies A- Roads The internal roads in the study area (primitive,zigzag and unpaved) .the average of the width of this roads from 4 meter to 8 meter which Making it difficult to access for emergency vehicles for Most areas.

B- underground water The study of Remote Sensing ( March 2010 ) explained the problem of high level of ground water in Esna City, A general problem in the city as a result of bridging canals and drains without taking into account the water sources that are providing these canals and drains, so The bridge leads to the formation of subsurface sites of entry into force of these canals and drains or other pathways depends on the geological structure of the soil and the differentials of the current levels of water sources.

Internal Roads in study Area

The conclusion of study : To remedy that banks should be done perpendicular to the tracks trends of water under the surface.

Network of canals and streams (1937) Esna Historical Oasis | Cube Consultants 40

Esna City

Esna Historical Oasis

It is necessary to conduct detailed studies to identify and address the problems of groundwater and geotechnical studies carefully the locations of treatment plants, sewage and water treatment plants and filling the canals and banks , So do not affect the sources of these water negatively on land and other projects may suffer from problems of groundwater indirectly.

satellite image 2001 1984

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satellite image 2009

satellite image 1984

C- Sewer Projects Most of the region suffers from the lack of sanitary sewage and electricity which will be view in the following figure shows the sewerage works carried out and non-implemented until March 2010 .

sewerage works carried


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Esna City

Esna Historical Oasis

3) Social Studies Field survey, using data for the Fund of development of slums we can go out the following analysis : »» »» »» »» »»

Average number of family members 4.6 ( Total 3400 people ) . 76% of the population want to stay in the region . 62% of the population live in the area for more than 20 years . 19% illiteracy rate in the study area ( 25% in Esna, 30% in Egypt ) . The Buildings in the study area serviced by water network, as well as the electricity network ( the sanitary sewage service not yet provided ) . »» There is a shortage in the required services ( especially health service ) .

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4) Economic Studies The region suffers from the problem of unemployment because most of those living area and their employees rely heavily on tourism as a source of livelihood for them and because of the non-inclusion of Esna Temple on the tourist map, resulting in the lack of visits to the temple, which in turn affects businesses into recession in the region. Range of activities in the temple area of service activities and tourism activities (bazaars) and the activities of professional : • 75% Of household income of less than 500 pounds / month • 39% Of households below the poverty line.

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Esna City 45 Esna Historical Oasis | Cube Consultants

Esna Historical Oasis


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Esna Historical Oasis The revival of the old city

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Esna Temple Surrounding Area

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Esna Historical Oasis The revival of the old city

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Residential Area

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Esna City

Esna Historical Oasis The revival of the old city

Master Plan

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In Upper Egypt, along the west bank of Nile River, where Esna is located at 55 km south of LUXOR city. Esna is a city that demonstrates how archaeological layers build up over time; it is a homeland of treasures of world-renowned Greek – Roman monuments. From ancient Egyptian to Greek – Roman era, followed by Fatimid era, then Ottoman and finally the era of Mohamed Ali pasha. They represent some of the finest examples of mankind’s early civilization and it is ranked among its greatest cultural achievements.

Esna Historical Oasis  

Esna Developed City