Page 1

01–18 MARITIME IMPACT

ISSUE 01–18 THE MAGAZINE FOR CUSTOMERS AND BUSINESS PARTNERS

D I GI TAL DE F EN CE | CUTTING EM ISSIONS | SM A RT SHIPPING

MARITIME

IMPACT SMART SHIPPING

LOOKING BEYOND CUTTING EMISSIONS New technologies and alternative fuels are finding their way into shipping DIGITAL DEFENCE DNV GL helps owners and operators to protect their assets against cybercrime


MODERN CLASS FOR SMARTER OPERATIONS Today’s market needs smarter solutions – and a modern classification partner. Find out how our modern classification solutions can turn possibilities into opportunities – and make your operations safer, smarter and greener. Visit us at

SMM

DNV GL Forum, East Entrance Our experts will provide you with insights on new technology development, cost-efficient operation and in-service experience.

Learn more at dnvgl.com/smm

DNV GL Stand Ground floor, hall B4, no. 221


EDITORIAL 03

Knut Ørbeck-Nilssen CEO of DNV GL – Maritime

As one of the most important marketplaces for maritime technologies in the world, the SMM trade fair in Hamburg never fails to provide new ideas and insights. This year’s motto “SMMart Shipping” mirrors DNV GL’s role of advancing new technologies, giving comprehensive advice, and helping the industry address the current challenges in the smartest way possible. But even the smartest technologies can be undone by a determined cyber­ attack – this is why we have been working with shipowners and managers to fortify their operations. On page 36, we look at some of the new services and notations we offer that can protect control systems, software and procedures, and the cyber professionals at the forefront of this ongoing battle. To be smart you also need to have foresight. In order to reach the ambitious greenhouse gas reduction goals set by the IMO, it is essential for all of us to understand the possible options. On page 10 we report on a new DNV GL white paper that evaluates the cost, availability, regulatory challenges and environmental benefits of alternative fuels and technologies. In addition, our newly launched Alternative Fuels Insight (AFI) platform is designed to provide reliable and comprehensive market and bunkering information for well-informed decisionmaking (page 13). Some of our customers are already operating or planning vessels utilizing new technologies, for example on the first all-electric ferry (page 18), hybrid passenger vessels (page 14) or the world’s first LNG-fuelled Aframax tanker (page 28). We’ll be addressing these crucial topics and many more at our booth and the DNV GL Forum at SMM. I hope to see many of you there. The way a ship is built and operated will change, but the values of our industry – partnership, cooperation, quality, service and trust – will remain.

Knut Ørbeck-Nilssen

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04 BROADER VIEW MARITIME

ALL-ENCOMPASSING Delivered in January 2018, the Very Large Ore Carrier Yuan He Hai isn’t just the world’s largest dry cargo vessel, but meets the newest standards for compliance. She is the industry’s first ship specially constructed or fitted for carrying highmoisture ore as stipulated by IMO’s IMSBC Code.

MARITIME IMPACT 01/2018


MARITIME BROADER VIEW 05

along with the Gas Ready, Clean, Single-pass Loading, Shore Power and HMON (hull monitoring) notations. In this complex project, DNV GL provided comprehensive support to the owner and Shanghai Waigaoqiao Shipyard in integrating all the advanced features, and liaised with the flag state to obtain approval. The highly advanced vessel was delivered three months early.

Photo: China Ore Shipping Pte. Ltd.

Iron ore fines with a high water content may liquefy during transit, shift in the hold and destabilize the vessel. The IMO IMSBC Code therefore defines stability requirements for ore carriers transporting this kind of cargo. Owner China Ore Shipping wanted its next-generation VLOCs to not only have these stability features but also meet the requirements of the DNV GL Liquefaction class notation,

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06 MARITIME

CONTENTS

14

28

Smart shipping 10  ALTERNATIVE FUELS Regulatory challenges, environmental benefits: DNV GL has issued a new white paper assessing a range of alternative fuels and technologies

14  BATTERY POWER Leading the charge: An increasing number of newbuilds rely on batteries ­ to reduce emissions

18  GAME CHANGER Passenger vessel Future of the Fjords sets new standards for a greener transport infrastructure

22  MONITORING DNV GL helps shipowners and operators comply with new EU and IMO requirements for emissions and fuel consumption management

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MARITIME 07

40

44 28  ARCTIC PIONEERS

40  TECHNOLOGY MEETS COMPETENCE

Sovcomflot is pushing the boundaries in the Arctic and boosting LNG as a ship fuel

The personnel make the difference in DNV GL’s new test laboratories in Norway

44  PLASTIC POLLUTION

36 DIGITAL DEFENCE Cybersecurity has become a major issue in the shipping industry

The maritime industry has an important role to play in the fight against the plastic debris in the oceans

Standards 03 Editorial

Knut Ørbeck-Nilssen, CEO of DNV GL – Maritime

04 Broader view

All-encompassing

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08 N  ews ER class notation •

FellowShip project • Aluminium cables • Expedition vessel

26 F  acts & figures

Scrubbers at a glance

34 Training 35 Events 50 Communications 51 Imprint


08 NEWS

IN BRIEF Clear skies ahead: New DNV GL class notation Emission Reduction (ER) is the name of a new DNV GL class notation for exhaust gas cleaning systems (EGCS) published in July 2018. It covers SOX scrubbers as well as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems for NOX removal. “As the 2020 IMO sulphur cap on fuel draws closer, we have been hearing more and more from shipowners and operators who are looking for guidance on the installation and approval of systems which reduce emissions to air,” says Knut Ørbeck-Nilssen, CEO of DNV GL – Maritime. “The ER class notation

Scrubbers are one of the options for shipowners to ensure compliance with the 2020 sulphur cap.

will enhance the transparency of the installation and approval process for owners, the yards and class, and give owners the confidence to invest in these systems.”

Celebrating a fine FellowSHIP: ­ 15 years of maritime battery and fuel cell research Project partners Eidesvik Offshore, Wärtsilä Norway and DNV GL have announced the closure of the FellowSHIP research project. The cooperation has explored the use of battery, hybrid and fuel cell technology in the maritime industry for over 15 years. “FellowSHIP has been a flagship research project,” states Bjørn-Johan Vartdal, Maritime Programme Director for Technology and Research in DNV GL Group. “The results from FellowSHIP have shaped our knowledge of battery and hybrid power on board ships and allowed the industry to implement innovations which will help to enable

the next generation of more efficient and sustainable vessels.” In 2003, the FellowSHIP project partners began laying the groundwork for marine fuel cell technology, developing a proof of concept and the basic implementation principles, all of which culminated in the installation of a prototype fuel cell on board Eidesvik Offshore’s Viking Lady PSV in 2010. Over the life of the project, the focus shifted to demonstrating the applicability of hybrid battery power systems, especially lithium-ion batteries. Now, with class rules established and the technology fully commercialized, the partners have decided that it is time to close the book on the FellowSHIP project. “Looking back over these 15 years, I think we can safely say that the marine battery revolution started with Viking Lady,” said Øystein Alnes, Principal Maritime Engineer at DNV GL – Maritime.

Viking Lady pioneered fuel-cell and battery technology in the maritime industry.

MARITIME IMPACT 01/2018


NEWS 09

First DNV GL type approval for aluminium cables

Photos: DNV GL, Meyer Werft/Ingrid Fiebak-Kremer, Olympic Subsea, Quark Expeditions

As the competitive and economic pressure on the shipping and offshore industries continues to grow, owners, operators and yards are searching for new ways to cut shipbuilding costs. To support its customers, DNV GL has developed the first type approval scheme for the use of aluminium cables and connectors on board vessels. “This type approval represents another first for the DNV GL rule set and demonstrates our commitment to moving classification forward to help our customers,” says Geir Dugstad, Senior Vice President, Director of Ship Classification & Technical Director at DNV GL – Maritime. “Electrification is playing an increasingly important role in ship propulsion and this new type approval can help reduce costs and improve sustainability.” DNV GL’s new type approvals for aluminium cables and connectors allow expensive copper to be replaced with aluminium. The cost savings can be significant, with the price of aluminium in 2018 approximately one third that of copper. “The price of copper has been rising sharply over the last several

Aluminium cables on board the Olympic Artemis being checked with a thermographic camera.

decades,” says Dugstad. ”At the same time, electric propulsion is becoming more widespread in shipping, which will increase the demand and importance of finding more economical power cables.” The use of aluminium cables has been tested successfully for the past three years in a pilot installation on board the Olympic Subsea-owned and managed Olympic Artemis, a multi-purpose offshore support vessel. DNV GL issued the type approvals.

Class contract ­for a polar expedition vessel DNV GL and Brodosplit shipyard, Croatia, have signed a classification contract for the new 200-passenger polar expedition vessel of Quark Expeditions, headquartered in Seattle, USA. The 128-metre cruise ship will be equipped with four main engines and diesel-electric generator sets producing 4,400 kW of power for a top speed of 16 knots. Built to the DNV GL polar class PC(6) standard, the vessel will also be fully compliant with Safe Return to Port requirements and will have lifeboat capacity for all persons on board. Designed by LMG Marin AS and scheduled for delivery in summer 2020, the ship will be one of the most versatile expedition vessels operating in the polar regions. With a 40-day operational capability, she will make remote regions more accessible to tourists. The vessel will be equipped with 20 zodiac

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boats that can be deployed from an internal hangar to facilitate off-ship experiences. Two helicopters and helidecks will enable exploration of areas inaccessible by boat.

Quark Expeditions has a long history of civilian polar exploration of the earth’s most remote places.


10 SMART SHIPPING WHITE PAPER

ALTERNATIVE FUELS: THE OPTIONS DNV GL has issued a new white paper assessing a range of alternative fuels and technologies. Titled “Alternative fuels and technologies for greener shipping”, ­ the paper examines the cost, availability, regulatory challenges and environmental benefits of alternative fuels and technologies.

The IMO decision to limit the sulphur content of ship fuel from 1 January 2020 to 0.5 per cent worldwide, and the recently adopted resolution to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 50 per cent by 2050, will change the future mix of ship fuels dramatically. As shown in Figure 1, the combined amount of heavy fuel oil (HFO) and marine gas oil (MGO) consumed by ships accounts for no more than 25 per cent of total global diesel fuel and petrol produc-

tion (2016 figures). This is roughly equivalent to the amount of energy consumed using liquefied natural gas (LNG), which stands at 24 per cent; however, LNG represents only a small portion (approximately 10 per cent) of the overall gas market. Assuming an installed base of about 4,000 scrubbers in 2020, no more than 11 per cent of ship fuel usage will be high-sulphur fuel, DNV GL calculates. Latest estimates assume that no more

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WHITE PAPER SMART SHIPPING 11

LNG power: The DNV GL-classed RoRo-Ferry Searoad Mersey II, built by the German shipyard Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft (FSG).

Photo: SeaRoad Holdings

than 2,000 scrubber installations will be carried out between now and 2020. This raises the question whether high-sulphur fuel will even be available outside the largest bunkering ports if only 4,000 or even fewer ships will be able to use it. The next question is what the price differential between HFO and compliant fuels will be. New technologies and alternative fossil fuels Among the proposed alternative fuels for shipping, DNV GL has identified LNG, LPG, methanol, biofuel and hydrogen as the most promising solutions. Among new technologies, the classification society believes battery systems, fuel cells and wind-assisted propulsion to offer potential for ship applications. Fuel cell systems for ships are under development but will take time to reach a level of maturity sufficient for substituting main engines. Battery

FIGURE 1: YEARLY ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN RELATION TO DIESEL AND GASOIL CONSUMPTION in per cent; figures represent 2016 statistics. Crude oil

305

HFO (marine) MGO (marine) Biogasoline (ethanol) FAME (biodiesel) LPG

21

Share in consumption

4

Total consumption

4 2 23

Natural gas (total)

243

Gas LNG

219 24 100

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Yearly diesel and gasoil consumption


12 SMART SHIPPING WHITE PAPER

FIGURE 2: CO2 EMISSIONS OF FUEL ALTERNATIVES IN SHIPPING ■ TTP – Tank to propeller

Greenhouse gas performance during production and on board

■ WTT – Well to tank

Oil fuel (HFO) Oil fuel (MGO) LNG (from Qatar used in Europe) LNG (from Qatar used in Qatar) LPG Methanol (from CH4) Methanol (from black liquor) Biodiesel Biogas (97% methane – liquefied) Hydrogen (liquid – from CH4) Hydrogen (liquid – from water) 10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

CO2 emissions; g/MJ

systems are finding their way into shipping; however, on most seagoing ships their role is limited to enhancing efficiency and flexibility. Wind-assisted propulsion, while not a new technology, will require some development work to make a meaningful difference for modern vessels. When it comes to CO2 emissions, LNG is the fossil fuel producing the lowest amounts (see figure 2). However, the release of unburned methane (socalled methane slip) could reduce the benefit over HFO and MGO in certain engine types. Methane (CH4) has 25 to 30 times the greenhouse gas effect of CO2. Nevertheless, engine manufacturers claim that the tank-to-propeller (TTP) CO2-equivalent emissions of Otto-cycle dual-fuel (DF) and pure gas engines are lower than those of oil-fuelled engines. If produced from renewable energy or biomass the carbon footprints of methanol and hydrogen can be significantly lower than those of HFO and MGO. The greenhouse gas challenge The cleanest fuel is hydrogen produced using renewable energy. Liquefied hydrogen could be used in future shipping applications. However, because of its very low energy density it requires large storage volumes, which may prevent hydrogen from being used directly in international deep-sea shipping. In a sustainable energy world where the entire energy demand is covered by renewable, CO2-free sources, hydrogen and CO2 will be the basic ingredients for fuel production, most likely in the form of methane or diesel-like fuels produced in a Sabatier/ Fischer-Tropsch process. The Sabatier process is a reaction between hydrogen and carbon dioxide at elevated temperatures – optimally 300 to 400°C – and pressures in the presence of a nickel catalyst

to produce methane and water. An alternative, the Fischer-Tropsch process converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons in a series of chemical reactions. Looking ahead, LNG has already overcome the hurdles of international legislation, and methanol and biofuels will follow suit very soon. It will be a while before LPG and hydrogen are covered by appropriate new regulations within the IMO IGF Code as well. The existing and upcoming environmental restrictions can be met by all alternative fuels using existing technology. However, the IMO target of reducing GHG emissions by 50 per cent by 2050 is ambitious and will likely require widespread uptake of zero-carbon fuels and further energy efficiency enhancements. Fuel cells can use all available alternative fuels and achieve efficiencies comparable to, or better than, those of current propulsion systems.

Methanol, as used by Westfal-Larsen’s Lindanger, is a viable option.

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WHITE PAPER SMART SHIPPING 13

FIGURE 3: SHIPPING BECOMES GREENER AND MORE COMPLEX ■ Adopted

Selected items from regulatory timeline towards 2030.

■ In the pipeline, or possible

IMO GHG strategy All ports in Chinese area – 0.5% sulphur

Chinese area – 0.5% sulphur

0.5% global sulphur cap

IGF Code in force

EU CO2 monitoring, reporting and verification

Global fuel consumption data collection system

Global fuel consumption data collection system

2017

2018

2019

2020

Key ports in Chinese area – 0.5% sulphur

California sulphur regulations to lapse

?

Download the white paper from dnvgl.com/ alternative-fuel

Photos: DNV GL, Alex Machado on Unsplash, Westfal-Larsen Management AS

However, fuel cell technology for ships is still in its infancy. Promising and advanced projects are, e.g., those running under the umbrella of the e4ships lighthouse project in Germany, with Meyer Werft and ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems heading the projects for seagoing ships. Wind-assisted propulsion could potentially reduce fuel consumption, especially when used for slow ships, but the business case remains difficult. Batteries as a means of storing energy can be

Chinese ECA(s) application

?

Baltic/North Sea NECA

EEDI phase 3

2021–2024

2025+

Short-term GHG reduction measures

?

EU ETS includes shipping

?

?

considered as an alternative fuel source in the widest sense (see page 14). Especially on ships operating on short, regular voyages, they have major potential as a means to boost the efficiency of the propulsion system. In deep-sea shipping, batteries alone are not an adequate substitute for combustible energy sources. Finally, with low-sulphur and alternative fuels becoming more widely available, the wellknown combined-cycle gas and steam turbine technology as used in the PERFECt Ship project represents a viable alternative for high-power ship propulsion systems. GW

DNV GL Expert Dr.-Ing. Gerd Würsig, Business Director Alternative Fuels Phone: +49 40 36149-6757 E-Mail: gerd.wuersig@dnvgl.com

ALTERNATIVE FUELS INSIGHT (AFI) PLATFORM ■■ Interactive map of bunTo encourage the uptake of alternative fuels, DNV GL has developed a kering infrastructure for new online platform that will provide LNG, LPG and methanol reliable and comprehensive market with detailed project and bunkering information. Similar to data ■■ Statistics on ship uptake the successful LNGi site, the Alternative Fuels Insight (AFI) platform gives for LNG, LPG, scrubbers, batteries and detailed, visual insight into existing and methanol ■■ Encyclopaedia with information on alplanned bunkering opportunities along with up-to-date statistics on the uptake ternative fuels needed for well-informed of alternative fuels and fleet status. decision-making ■■ Interactive fuel finder with interfaces for The AFI platform is accessible for free through the Veracity marketplace. Initial sending fuel requests and establishing features include: contact with fuel suppliers

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EEDI phase 4

A world map of current bunkering opportunities for alternative fuels is a key feature of the AF Insight platform: dnvgl.com/AFI


14 SMART SHIPPING BATTERY POWER

LEADING THE CHARGE Batteries are powering a new wave in ship engineering: From all-electric vessels to hybrid solutions, an increasing number of newbuilds rely on batteries to reduce emissions, maintenance and fuel costs, and comply with current and future environmental requirements.

“There are currently around 200 all-electric or hybrid vessels either in operation or under construction, and that figure has grown from zero over the last four years. As a comparison, there are slightly more than 200 LNG ships sailing or on order today, too, but it has taken around 20 years to reach that figure. Is the world waking up to the potential of electric shipping and batteries? Absolutely. And fast.” Narve Mjøs, Director, Battery Services & Projects, DNV GL, is unequivocal in his assessment of the impact of batteries in the maritime sector. “It is a transformational technology,” he states, “in terms of all-electric vessels of course, but also for plug-in hybrid and hybrid ships. I think awareness of the benefits of battery technology is widespread

Oldie but goldie: Ampere, the world’s first fully electric car ferry, was delivered in 2014.

now. To demonstrate that I would say that almost every, if not every, vessel ordered in Norway today either utilizes battery technology or has been assessed for it. The advantages are so compelling that this level of scrutiny is a necessity.” Win-win technology So what are the benefits? In short, batteries are a prime enabler for reducing fuel consumption and costs, maintenance, and air emissions. What is more, electric power minimizes noise and vibrations and enhances vessel responsiveness and safety. Batteries allow on-board generator sets to be optimized on higher utilization with reduced fuel consumption and for average rather than peak loads. They can store energy harvested from waste heat recovery, regenerative braking of cranes and renewable energy (such as wind or solar power). In addition, they can optimize propulsion systems using LNG and other eco-friendly fuels, and enhance the performance of emission abatement technologies.

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BATTERY POWER SMART SHIPPING 15

Photos: By Wikimalte [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-sa/4.0)], from Wikimedia Commons Havyard/BowVision

The long fjords of Hordaland in western Norway will be the home waters of new battery-powered ferries built by Havyard.

The business case for batteries is strong – which is good news considering the high demand for environmental technologies, as Mjøs explains: “There is growing pressure from both authorities and society in general to move towards decarbonization and sustainable transport,” he notes. “This is manifested in an increasing number of local regulations, in addition to international ones, that set clear requirements for pollution, emissions and environmental stewardship, while the UN is committed to promoting and achieving its high-profile Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).” Mjøs is quick to point out that while shipping remains the most environmentally friendly transport mode, the energy consumption of ships and their air emissions are high and public perception is shifting to a “more could be done” attitude. Batteries and electric power can help tackle this issue head on. Mapping progress From a global perspective Norway is an established leader in electric vessels and battery use. This com-

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paratively small nation was the first to produce an all-electric, zero-emission vessel, Norled’s DNV GLclassed car ferry Ampere, in 2014, and now operates close to 40 per cent of the world’s battery-powered ships. A recent DNV GL-supported tender to renew the county of Hordaland’s 20-vessel ferry fleet should help consolidate this position, paving the way for a 900 million euro investment in eco-friendly electric vessels while supporting technology and the charging infrastructure. After Norway, France is a major player with just under 20 per cent of vessels, followed by the US with close to seven per cent. In general, Europe is ahead of other continents in the uptake of battery power. Ferries are the most common vessels to use batteries, ahead of offshore vessels and passenger ships. This fact touches a critical point: The limitations of battery technology. Every owner of an electric car knows that current batteries restrict the travelling distance to a few hundred kilometres at best. The reason is limited energy density.


16 SMART SHIPPING BATTERY POWER

Driving change “The automotive sector, along with consumer electronics, have been key to the development of the battery technology we currently use for marine applications,” explains Benjamin Gully, Senior Engineer, DNV GL. “The lithium-ion chemistry you find, for example, in the battery of a Tesla car or smartphone is similar to that on an electric ferry. This multi-sector engagement is essentially fast-tracking development while driving down the cost of lithium-ion battery cells and making the technology increasingly attractive and accessible. This creates a positive cycle of development and adoption.” Gully says that while price drops on the scale seen in 2016 (when the cost of lithium-ion cells fell by almost 50 per cent) and 2017 may not be sustainable, prices should continue to fall. Car makers have set a goal of 100 US dollars per kWh by 2020 and, given the speed of development, that appears to be realistic. On the other hand, the demands of maritime applications are different from those of the automotive and consumer arenas. “There is no one-size-fits-all solution for batteries,” Gully says. “As with most things in life, you have to compromise. For example, in consumer electronics there is huge demand for optimizing the energy density and capacity, while the focus for ship batteries is often on performance – as a vessel requires enormous amounts of power – and an optimal life cycle, as highly stressing performance requirements

can easily shorten battery lifetime if not properly accounted for. Unfortunately, you can’t have everything and there is a trade-off between capacity, performance and life cycle. Performing well in one respect can diminish capability in another.” Cost is a unifying factor across sectors, Gully adds, with all consumers clamouring for more affordable solutions. However, because of their safety, testing and system integration demands, maritime batteries are unlikely to be seen as a disposable power source. Gully notes that with the right technology and engineering, maritime battery life cycles exceeding ten years should now be possible. Hybrid highlights Both Mjøs and Gully stress that the battery discussion should not focus exclusively on all-electric vessels. The potential for hybrid ships, which charge their batteries during regular operation and use them to enhance engine performance, and plug-in hybrids, which charge batteries on shore and can entirely run on electric power for specific operations, is far-reaching and compelling. “For deep-sea shipping, batteries are not an option as the main power source and won’t be for the foreseeable future,” says Mjøs, with Gully adding that aside from the physical size and technology leaps that would make this possible, the cost of such a solution would be several times the cost of the entire vessel itself.

Hurtigruten’s Roald Amundsen, the first of two new hybrid cruise ships, will commence operations in 2019.

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BATTERY POWER SMART SHIPPING 17

Color Line’s hybrid vessel in a model view (above) and during the assembly ceremony on 16 April 2018 (below).

“Color Line has ordered a ship that has the ability to sail from and into port under battery power alone, for up to 30 minutes of operation, with absolutely zero emissions and zero noise.” Narve Mjøs, Director, Battery Services & Projects at DNV GL

Photos: Color Line, Kasia Kulik, Oclin/Hurtigruten

But while all-electric vessels are confined to short-sea operations at present, hybrid solutions can provide flexibility across the board. Gully cites two examples: Offshore vessels and passenger ships, two very different ship types, can both enhance their performance while cutting emissions and costs by using hybrid technology. This is borne out by two recent DNV GL projects, one with SolstadFarstad and the other with Hurtigruten. SolstadFarstad is converting two PSVs, Normand Server  and Normand Supporter, to hybrids in accordance with DNV GL’s Battery Power notation. The 5,300 dwt ships will install 560 kWh batteries to replace a diesel generator, resulting in a 15–20 per cent reduction in emissions. Hurtigruten ordered two 140 m hybrid cruise vessels with battery power supplementing the auxiliary engines for spinning reserve and peak shaving, thereby cutting fuel consumption by 20 per cent. The first vessel, Roald Amundsen, will start operating in 2019. Positive action Mjøs is keen to highlight another landmark project: Color Hybrid, due for delivery in 2019 as well. This 160 m, 2,000 pax, 500 vehicle capacity ship is set to be the largest plug-in hybrid ferry in the world once construction is complete at Ulstein Verft. “Here we have a vessel that is being produced as a direct result of environmental pressure and local action,” explains Mjøs. “The people of the city of Sandefjord in Norway, the home port for the ship, are concerned about unhealthy local air emissions and their impact on the community. So the city’s criteria for new sailing times on the ferry route to

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Strømstad in Sweden focused on minimizing pollution. As a result the shipowner, Color Line, has ordered a ship that has the ability to sail from and into port under battery power alone, for up to 30 minutes of operation, with absolutely zero emissions and zero noise. This is good for the local population, good for passengers, good for the environment and good for business – w ­ hich, in a nutshell, sums up the argument for battery technology.” Mjøs believes the environmental argument will win over an increasing number of decision-makers in the maritime sector, especially as environmental awareness, pressure and regulations spread. “At the moment there is still a misconception that batteries are only applicable for vessels sailing short, regular routes, such as ferries,” he concludes. “However, as more hybrid solutions are adopted, the industry is beginning to understand the possible applications, opportunities and benefits for vessels across multiple segments and operational parameters. “Batteries reduce fuel consumption and maintenance costs, cut pollution and, with increasing environmental regulations and requirements that will incur costs for air emissions, provide a very compelling business case. As more and more shipowners wake up to this we expect to see uptake accelerating across the board. The industry is just getting to grips with the power of batteries.” AJ

DNV GL Expert Narve Mjøs, Director Battery Services & Projects Phone: +47 92 20 09 00 E-Mail: narve.mjos@dnvgl.com


18 SMART SHIPPING GAME CHANGER

BRINGING THE ­FUTURE TO LIFE

Future of The Fjords sets new standards in both environmentally responsible transport and passenger experience.

A bold new step towards a greener transport infrastructure, Future of The Fjords is the result of a brilliant new concept combined with proven expertise and a can-do mindset. A voyage on board Future of The Fjords is like no other. As the ship’s catamaran hull slices through the crystal waters of Sognefjord, towering rock walls with 1,000 m peaks seemingly close in to embrace the vessel, nearly blocking out the sun. The only sound is the collective gasps of passengers marvelling at the pristine UNESCO World Heritage-listed landscape as this striking, 42 m long carbon fibre ship brings them closer to nature than ever before – with zero noise, zero emissions and the ultimate fjord experience. Realizing ambitions Launched in May this year, Future of The Fjords is a game changer for the passenger vessel segment. Sharing the zigzag design of her sister ship Vision

of The Fjords, which mirrors the twisting mountain paths they sail alongside, Future replaces her sibling’s dual-fuel solution with all-electric propulsion to ensure efficient, silent and environmentally responsible operation on the itinerary between Flåm and Gudvangen. An innovative charging solution enables her to gently bleed power from the local grid network, while also, uniquely, taking on sewage to ensure zero emissions to water. It is, says Rolf A. Sandvik, CEO of shipowner The Fjords, a complete package that both serves and preserves the fragile beauty around the small hamlet of Flåm in West Norway. “It has long been my ambition, and the ambition of our company’s progressive owners, Flåm AS and

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GAME CHANGER SMART SHIPPING 19

Breathtaking view of Nærøyfjord, one of Norway’s most beautiful fjords, from the public area of Future of The Fjords.

MAIN PARTICULARS – FUTURE OF THE FJORDS ■■ Length: 42 m ■■ Width: 15 m ■■ Materials: Carbon fibre sandwich ■■ Seats: 400 ■■ Class: DNV GL light craft

■■ Propulsion: 2×450 kW ■■ Propeller: CPP propeller ■■ Battery pack: 1,800 kWh ■■ Speed: 16 kn

Photos: Brødrene Aa, DNV GL, The Fjords

One of the two 450 kW electric motors enabling Future of The Fjords to cruise at up to 16 knots.

Norway’s largest ferry operator Fjord1, to launch a new breed of vessel that creates a blueprint for truly sustainable, responsible and memorable passenger transport,” explains the former cruise ship captain from the deck of his sparkling new craft. “Vision of The Fjords marked the start of that journey, with its dieselelectric propulsion system and a hull designed to minimize wake-induced shoreline erosion. But Future of The Fjords symbolizes the fulfilment of a dream. She offers an experience that immerses our passengers into the sensations of the fjord without impacting upon the natural beauty that brings them here. In that respect this craft is almost a portal, or a platform, to access the landscape, rather than a traditional ’ship‘. She is, quite simply, the Future.” A new paradigm The DNV GL-classed light craft, designed and built by Norway’s Brødrene Aa, has the capacity to take 400 passengers on the 90-minute trip from Flåm to

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“It has long been my ambition, and the ambition of our company’s progressive owners, Flåm AS and Norway’s largest ferry operator Fjord1, to launch a new breed of vessel that creates a blueprint for truly sustainable, responsible and memorable passenger transport.” Rolf A. Sandvik, CEO of The Fjords


20 SMART SHIPPING GAME CHANGER

Gudvangen, passing through the spectacular World Heritage-listed Nærøyfjord. Future and Vision are the only ships serving the area that operate year round, with nearly 700 round trips per annum, exposing tourists from all over the world to the serenity of autumn and winter as well as spring and summer’s dazzling array of colours. The design of these ships allows passengers of all mobility to literally climb over their hulls as if they were pathways, while those inside can get almost as close to nature thanks to comfortable panoramic lounges. An unforgettable experience, but that is only half the story, Sandvik is keen to stress. “In terms of operation we want this to be a new paradigm for the industry,” he states. “A demonstration of what can be achieved with the determination, investment and ambition to operate responsibly and sustainably. Not to mention the expertise of DNV GL and the technical ability of the yard and suppliers: This project shows how owners can pool unique competencies to tailor solutions that deliver optimal results for all stakeholders.” Certifying excellence DNV GL has been working with The Fjords since 2015, initially collaborating on the Vision of The Fjords project before moving on to Future of The Fjords in 2017. Principal Engineer Sverre Eriksen was a central member of a DNV GL team that oversaw all aspects of vessel verification, certifying everything from the original design drawings through to construction and all elements of on-board machinery. Eriksen, a battery expert and an architect of DNV GL’s class rules for battery-driven vessels, was charged with a key responsibility. “My focus was electrical,” he explains. “There are hundreds, if not thousands, of diesel-electric vessels in operation, but very few all-electric, so this is an emerging area that

Tor Øyvin Aa, CEO of Brødrene Aa, regards the emissionfree vessel concept as a milestone for his shipyard.

Batteries on board enable the ship to operate without compromising its pristine marine environment.

demands proven expertise. All project stakeholders have to know that the batteries are installed correctly, safely and will operate as expected. For example, battery capacity and monitoring are key. The vessel can’t afford to “black out” in the middle of the fjord, so we need to have a system in place to collect capacity and charging data to ensure the captain can see exactly how many nautical miles he can travel. If you think about your laptop, as it ages it may say the battery is 100 per cent charged but then only lasts an hour. We can’t have this situation with a vessel, so safeguards and systems have to be in place to ensure reliable, safe and efficient operation.” He continues: “As a leader in the field of verifying this increasingly in-demand vessel type, we are here to offer expertise, hands-on assistance and operational peace of mind. It’s been a really exciting journey, with a client who is genuinely breaking the mould within their niche segment.” Charging innovation Future of The Fjords electric propulsion is delivered by two 450 kW motors enabling cruising speeds of 16 knots, which require a charging capacity of 2.4 MWh when the ship docks in Gudvangen. However, as Sandvik explains, initial conversations with local energy supplier Aurland Energiverk were far from promising in this regard. “We had a meeting with Brødrene Aa and Aurland in which they explained they could only offer a charging capacity of 1.2 MWh through the grid, half what the vessel requires. So we needed a completely

MARITIME IMPACT 01/2018


GAME CHANGER SMART SHIPPING 21

The Powerdock in Gudvangen provides the required charging capacity of 2.4 MWh with the help of batteries.

new, innovative approach to bring the electric concept to life.” “It was then that the yard suggested that Westcon, the battery supplier, could provide a battery bank that could be sited shore-side and charge slowly throughout the day. This would allow it to top up energy capacity without any disruptive, and expensive, power surges. I then asked if it would be possible to somehow float the unit. My thinking here was both flexibility and cost, as it would negate the need for expensive land-based infrastructure while giving us the freedom to move the vessel, and the charging solution, when required,” says Sandvik. At this point the next trailblazing idea emerged. The floating “Powerdock” concept, as it would be christened, was innovative enough, but what if it could solve another pressing environmental problem? “At present every other vessel operating on these stunning waterways simply dumps its sewage into the water,” Sandvik laments. “There are currently no regulations governing this for domestic trade. But we wanted to do things differently. That made me think: ‘could this charging solution also operate as a storage unit for black water?’ So I suggested it.” Electrifying ideas The designers at Brødrene Aa got to work. What they came up with was a 40 m long, 5 m wide floating dock containing battery packs capable of charging the vessel in just 20 minutes. Constructed from carbon fibre composite, and designed to complement the ship’s style, the dock also features storage room

01/2018 MARITIME IMPACT

for on-board consumables, a diesel tank for Vision and a 20 m3 tank for receiving grey and black water, which is then taken to the on-shore sewage treatment plant. “Thus, the sewage problem is solved,” Sandvik smiles with satisfaction, “giving us the greenest passenger vessel in Norway and helping us preserve the integrity of our beautiful fjords.” But it doesn’t stop there. Sandvik believes the Powerdock has the potential to unlock green transport on land as well as on the water in any remote area where there is a need for electric ferries but no grid infrastructure to support them. “Why stop at using the Powerdock for vessels?” he muses. “Here we have a solution that any form of electric transport can simply plug into without exerting strain on the grid. For example, electric cars, motorbikes or buses could utilize it – it can literally become a local green transport hub, one that is cost effective, efficient and easy to install. In this way, together with the new benchmark it sets for responsible maritime operations, we see the potential impact of Future of The Fjords extending far beyond this beautiful landscape around us.” The Fjords are now planning for the next stage of their fleet renewal programme. DNV GL is on board to help Sandvik continue this breathtaking voyage. AJ

DNV GL Expert Sverre Eriksen, Principal Engineer Phone: +47 91 84 54 61 E-Mail: sverre.eriksen@dnvgl.com


22 SMART SHIPPING MONITORING

MRV AND DCS: ON TRACK

Monitoring fuel consumption and CO2 emissions is the first step towards significantly reducing g ­ reenhouse gas emissions from ships. DNV GL helps shipowners and operators comply with new EU and IMO requirements for energy efficiency management.

Just a few days before the landmark International Maritime Organization (IMO) London conference, the chances of an agreement to control shipping’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions looked unlikely. But then, ironically on Friday 13 April, the mem­bers of the Maritime Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) reached a consensus: by 2050 shipping would cut its GHG emissions by at least 50 per cent from 2008 levels. This was the first time emission targets were set for global ocean shipping. Commercial shipping is getting greener. Both the EU and the IMO are committed to reducing noxious maritime emissions. However, to get a reliable data basis about climate-affecting exhaust gases, a legally binding framework must be established to collect and evaluate relevant information. To that end the EU, and shortly thereafter the IMO, implemented two similar albeit separate regimes: the EU’s Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of CO2 Emissions regulation ((EU) 2015/757), and the IMO’s Data collecting system on fuel consumption of ships (DCS). The primary goal of both regulatory frameworks is to monitor maritime fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The aggregated information may eventu-

ally be used to cut emissions through a fee scheme, such as emission certificate trading. The EU MRV focuses on ships entering or leaving European ports, whereas the IMO system covers emissions from global shipping. Service open to all classes Implementing these regulations is technically complex. DNV GL stands ready to support owners and operators as a reliable and competent partner in both roles: as an accredited verifier for the EU MRV system or as a Recognized Organization (RO) authorized to verify compliance with the IMO DCS on behalf of several flag states. As Sven Dudszus, Head of Section EU Product Certification at DNV GL – Maritime, points out: “DNV GL offers its verification service independently from a ship’s classification society to make the process as smooth as possible. For practical purposes we recommend using the same verifier for EU MRV and IMO DCS. If a customer uses another class society for statutory certificates, the flag must accept that another RO is used for DCS.” In effect since 31 August of last year, the MRV regulation requires shipowners to submit a Monitor-

MARITIME IMPACT 01/2018


MONITORING SMART SHIPPING 23

FOR GREENER SHIPPING 1 January – 31 December 2018 First reporting period

30 April 2019 Verified annual emission report

30 June 2019 Publication of data by EC

EU MRV

IMO DCS

2019

1 March 2018 Reg 22A of MARPOL Annex VI enters into force

31 December 2018 SEEMP, Part II assessed for compliance by flag state or RO and CoC (Certificate of Compliance) issued

ing Plan, a complete and transparent description of the method used to determine the CO2 emissions of each vessel from 5,000 GT upwards, similar to the IMO scheme. “All in all some 10,000 ships with continuous EU trades are subject to the EU MRV,” says Dudszus. DNV GL has prepared roughly 50 per cent of these documents to date. “This is a great mark of confidence on the part of our customers who benefit from the fact that we are the only verifier in the market to offer the plan review and the emission report for a specified time period as a single-package solution.”

DNV GL SUPPORTS ITS CUSTOMERS BY: ■■

■■

■■

■■

Combining verification of MRV and DCS – same verifier makes sense Digital reporting to minimize efforts for the ship operator Providing online tools to: g  enerate the SEEMP, Part II c ontinuously verify the completeness of reported data A dedicated interface manager to support implementation of effective reporting

■■

■■

■■

01/2018 MARITIME IMPACT

Providing reporting ­ formats to cover the necessary information for verification Minimizing the need for site visits and requests for more information Offering a flexible and cost-efficient solution to ensure compliance with IMO DCS at all times – ­ or EU MRV if applicable (depends on trading patterns; but DCS always applies)

2020

1 January – 31 December 2019 First reporting period 31 January 2020* (and yearly) Companies to create annual fuel oil consumption (FOC) reports and submit them to flag state or RO

31 May 2020 (and yearly) The flag state or RO to issue a Statement of Compliance (SoC) as part of the FOC report

The first MRV reporting period started at the beginning of this year. The aggregated ship emission and efficiency data will be published by the EC every year, starting on 30 June 2019. The IMO DCS process will be launched in January 2019. By that time every ship must present proof of the applied method; the IMO stipulates an updated SEEMP, Part II. The RO or flag state will issue annual DCS statements of compliance to shipowners by 31 May. New online tool available Since June, DNV GL provides an electronic reporting form through the My Services customer portal in Veracity. Customers can submit the completed form to DNV GL for approval of SEEMP, Part II. „The web application is ready for use, the first customers have submitted their plans for approval,“ says expert Dudszus. DNV GL expects a total of around 8,000 plan verifications in the coming months. Therefore shipowners and operators should not lose any time preparing for the IMO DCS to make sure the required documents are available on board the vessels by 1 January 2019. To minimize the effort involved in the reporting process for shipowners and operators, DNV GL covers both the EU MRV and the IMO DCS processes in one tool. Single-source data verification for both annual emission reports is the most common-sense approach, especially for vessels operating on both European and non-European global trades,

Photo: yaniv - stock.adobe.com

2018


24 SMART SHIPPING MONITORING

F

The first IMO DCS reporting period starts 1 January 2019. Deadline for submission of SEEMP II is 31 December 2018. Find out more at: www.dnvgl.com/ maritime/imo-dcs

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

E

Data quality check Defining an interface is all that needs to be done to enable transfer of the data. “We have appointed an Interface Manager who will assist customers in implementing an effective reporting system upon request,” says Dudszus. The choice is between automated system-to-system data uploads or manual transmission of fuel consumption data. DNV GL customers subscribing to the ECO Insight service are already covered for their MRV and DCS reporting duties. DNV GL recommends customers to report their data throughout the year instead of filing a cumulative report at year’s end. This will allow DNV GL to perform continuous data quality checks so that by the end of the year all data have been screened for completeness and plausibility. „DNV GL’s digital verification approach offers us a streamlined and efficient workflow. The automatic data flow reduces the

“DNV GL’s digital verification approach offers us a streamlined and efficient workflow.” John Drakogiannopoulos, RS&Q Manager at Costamare

amount of time and resources we have to invest in managing and handling the data. The early verification comments allow us to easily perform periodic checks and proactively and achieve compliance easily and proactively,” says Capt. John Drakogiannopoulos, RS&Q Manager at Costamare. Continuous improvement Operators can upload the annual emission report to the EMSA THETIS database stipulated by the EU, which will be verified by DNV GL. The DCS data will be uploaded to the IMO database either by DNV GL as a designated RO or by the flag state. DNV GL verifies the data received, whether overall fuel consumption data, log abstracts or fuel balance details (e.g. bunker delivery notes), in an automated process, avoiding time-consuming visits at the ship manager’s office for verification or physical documentation. “Our processes will be optimized continuously. Working closely with our customers we will provide the smartest solution in the market,” says Dudszus. PL

DNV GL Expert Sven Dudszus, Head of Business & Production Management Phone: +49 40 36149-2755 E-Mail: sven.dudszus@dnvgl.com

MARITIME IMPACT 01/2018

Photo: yaniv - stock.adobe.com

or changing their region of deployment. Ships can use existing infrastructure on board to capture some of the required information, such as fuel consumption data which is routinely collected anyway. ‘’Compliance with MRV and the IMO DCS is very simple – all the data can be captured on board easily, and evaluated without requiring any training,’’ says Marios Theodoropoulos, engineer at Primebulk Shipmanagement. Data plausibility is checked in a fully digitalized process, making sure the content and reporting parameters comply with the EU and IMO rules and requirements. Data integrity is of the essence. Since many performance and status data points cannot be read electronically but must be logged manually, errors can occur. DNV GL provides specialized tools to help customers check the information prior to transmission.


ALWAYS AT THE HELM WITH DNV GL DNV GL’s digital services are now available on Veracity, our open industry platform. Sign in to access a wealth of maritime applications and analytic services that can help you make better use of your data. So no matter where you are, or what you need to do, you are always in control. Visit Veracity.com

SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER


26 FACTS & FIGURES EGCS

SCRUBBERS AT A GLANCE

Growing demand

Closed-loop systems add chemicals, such as caustic soda, to the wash water to boost its alkalinity. The wash water is then recirculated through the system and partially purged. Scrubber Freshwater

Time is pressing; the 2020 sulphur cap forces shipowners and operators to act. There are currently almost 1,300 ships with confirmed scrubber projects.

Holding tank (optional for zero discharge – no bleed-off) Water treatment

36 1

Process tank

1, 20 7

DNV GL Expert Stine Mundal, Head of Section, Environmental Certification Phone: +49 40 36149 7138 E-Mail: stine.mundal@dnvgl.com

Closed-loop scrubbers

Exhaust gas out

1, 28 5 1, 28 9

Hybrid scrubber systems can operate either in closed-loop or in open-loop mode, offering more flexibility. A multi-inlet scrubber can treat the exhaust gas from several engines, whereas a single-inlet scrubber serves one engine only. It is important to weigh all options for a given ship and trading pattern carefully to ensure the economic sustainability of the chosen solution. AK

63 2

Exhaust gas cleaning systems (EGCS), or scrubbers, are becoming a more frequently used technology for ships to achieve compliance with the 2020 sulphur cap. A scrubber sprays seawater or fresh water mixed with a caustic chemical into the exhaust gas stream in several stages. The pollutant – mainly sulphur dioxide – reacts with the alkaline water, forming sulphuric acid. In the case of an open-loop system, the resulting wash water is discharged back into the sea. In areas and ports where open-loop scrubbing is prohibited, ships can use closed-loop systems and collect the accumulated sludge on board for subsequent disposal at a suitable in-port facility.

1, 29 0

Sixteen months before the 2020 sulphur cap takes effect, time for choosing a compliance strategy is running out. A quick overview of scrubber technology.

Alkali tank

Treated wash water

Data as of 1 August 2018

Heat exchanger

Sludge tank

29 5

Exhaust gas in

21 9

Closed-loop wash water

18

10

6

5

34

91

Sea water

Before 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2010 MARITIME IMPACT 01/2018


EGCS FACTS & FIGURES 27 Ro-pax Car/passenger ferries

General cargo ships

Ro-ro

3%

3%

2% 2%

The current

31%

7%

market The majority of the recently signed projects are for bulk and oil/chemical vessels. Open-loop scrubbers are the most popular. But for the vessels operating inside areas where wash water discharge to sea is restricted, closed-loop or hybrid ­systems are required.

Bulk carriers

11%

Cruise ships

15%

Container ships

26%

Oil/chemical tankers

Data as of 1 August 2018

Gas carriers

64%

Open-loop scrubbers

28%

4% 4%

Hybrid scrubbers

Closedloop scrubbers Unknown

62% Retrofits

38%

Photos: MEYER WERFT/Michael Wessels, Norwegian Cruise Lines/ ­ 2015 Michel Verdure - www.verdurephoto.com ©

The world’s largest exhaust gas cleaning system at its time was installed on board Norwegian Escape, delivered in November 2015. Five in-line scrubbers clean the exhaust gases from the five main engines. The system is hybrid-ready.

01/2018 MARITIME IMPACT

Exhaust gas out

Newbuilds

Open-loop scrubbers Open-loop systems use seawater, which is alkaline by nature, to wash the SOX out of the exhaust. The resulting discharge water must meet MARPOL requirements before being discharged.

Scrubber

Water treatment (optional)

Open-loop wash water Treated wash water

Exhaust gas in Sludge tank Sea water


28 ARCTIC PIONEERS SOVCOMFLOT

Aframax crude oil tanker Gagarin Prospect was completed in July 2018. The SCF vessel is using LNG as a fuel.

THE COSMONAUTS OF THE SEAS How the leading oil and gas shipper Sovcomflot is building on Russia’s seafaring heritage to push the boundaries in the Arctic and boost LNG as a fuel. On 12 April 1961 Yuri Gagarin ventured into unknown territory to become the first man in space. His 108-minute flight around the Earth made him an international hero and when the CEO of Russia’s leading shipping company Sovcomflot (SCF) draws parallels between the pioneers in space and his captains in the Arctic, he is persuasive on how

seafarers navigating the far North also deserve their place in the history books. “The Artic is every bit as challenging as the exploration of Space. Today, there are probably fewer Arctic captains in the world than cosmonauts,” Sergey Frank says, sitting in a boardroom at Sovcomflot’s Moscow office.

MARITIME IMPACT 01/2018


SOVCOMFLOT ARCTIC PIONEERS 29

Photos: Sovcomflot

FACTS & FIGURES: GAGARIN PROSPECT ■■ Shipyard: Hyundai COMF(C-2) CSR E0 Samho Heavy IndusECA(SOx-A) ESP Gas tries, Korea fuelled Ice(1B) LCS ■■ Delivery: July 2018 NAUT(AW) Recyclable ■■ Flag: Liberia SPM TMON(oil lubri■■ Classification: Dual cated) VCS(2) ■■ Hull number: S919 class DNV GL and RS ■■ Class notation: ■■ Length overall: 250 m ■■ Breadth: 44 m 1A Tanker for oil BIS ■■ Deadweight: 114,000 t BMON BWM(T) CCO ■■ Draught (loading): Clean(Design, Tier III) COAT-PSPC(B, C) 15 m ■■ Speed: 14.6 kn ■■ Technical management: SCF Management ­Services (Dubai) Ltd.

To underline his point, Frank talks about the amount of data handled by the SCF navigational and training centre in St Petersburg to guide captains through the Arctic, where winter temperatures may average minus 40 degrees and vessels need to break through ice thicker than two metres. “That can certainly be compared to a mission control room in the space industry,” the CEO says. “With one difference: shipping is about harder substance, such as ice ridges, changing currents and winds. When wind speeds accelerate to 18 metres per second or more,

01/2018 MARITIME IMPACT

“We plan to develop the use of LNG fuel across our whole fleet, a move that I believe will ­be replicated across the industry.” Sergey Frank, CEO of Sovcomflot


30 ARCTIC PIONEERS SOVCOMFLOT

even the mightiest ships are tested to their full potential.” The winds were favourable on 16 August 2017, when the Sovcomflot-owned icebreaking LNG carrier Christophe­de Margerie successfully completed her first commercial voyage, transporting liquefied natural gas (LNG) through the Northern Sea Route (NSR) from Norway to South Korea. During this voyage, the vessel set a new time record for an NSR transit of just 6 days, 12 hours and 15 minutes. More­over, Christophe de Margerie has also become the world’s first merchant vessel to travel the full length of the NSR without any icebreaker escort. “It’s really a matter of great skill to navigate there,” says Frank. Change of times While Christophe de Margerie set a record in the Arctic, Sovcomflot also opened a new chapter in Baltic Sea shipping. Russia’s largest shipping company this July took delivery of what Frank calls “the ship of the future,” the world’s first LNG-fuelled Aframax oil tanker. As Gagarin showed the world what mankind is capable of in space, SCF is actively promoting the increased use of LNG as a fuel as the industry is preparing for stricter emission rules imposed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) from 2020. “The shift away from fossil fuels is a reality,” Frank says. To send that pioneering message, the first of the six 114,000 dwt tankers of

the series constructed at the Hyundai Samho Heavy Industries shipyard in South Korea honours the first man in space. Royal Dutch Shell, SCF’s industry partner in this green initiative, chartered the recently launched Gagarin Prospect, classed by DNV GL and RS. Shell will also provide the LNG to power all six tankers as they will initially be carrying crude oil and petroleum products across the Baltic Sea from Ust-Luga and Murmansk to Rotterdam and Bremerhaven. Under a plan to localize production, the Zvezda shipyard in Russia’s Far East is looking to build more LNG-powered tankers from 2020. But that’s just the beginning: “We plan to develop the use of LNG fuel across our whole fleet, a move that I believe will be replicated throughout the industry, as more bunkering options become available,” Frank says. Founded in the Soviet era, Sovcomflot in the last 30 years has grown from a mid-sized shipping company into a global leader in energy shipping, generating revenue of 1.4 billion US dollars in 2017. Established in 1988 as a joint stock company, Sovcomflot’s initial task was to modernize the country’s merchant fleet and boost Russian exports. From 2004, when Sergey Frank took over command on Sovcomflot’s navigating bridge, the state-owned company started to focus its business on high-value industrial oil and gas projects. Since then, SCF has tripled the size of its fleet to nearly 150 vessels with a capacity of 12.7

MARITIME IMPACT 01/2018

Photos: Sovcomflot

Thanks to its ability to sail through up to 2.1 metres of ice, Christophe de Margerie became the world’s­ first merchant vessel to travel the full length of the Northern Sea Route without icebreaker escort.


SOVCOMFLOT ARCTIC PIONEERS 31

Safety comes first: Sovcomflot’s safety practice is based on augmenting Russian maritime traditions.

million tonnes (dwt). “Much of our business involves vessels on long-term charters, in some instances for a period of 25 years,” Frank says. Back to the roots Frank’s obsession with the maritime world, which took him from being a cadet to a CEO, began on the banks of the Ob River, where he was born 58 years ago in the Siberian city of Novosibirsk. The Ob River feeds the Arctic, so Frank’s career seems somehow predetermined. After school, Frank earned degrees in maritime navigation and law at universities in Vladivostok in Russia’s Far East to then fill several academic and public posts, which culminated in

Photos: Sovcomflot

Sovcomflot’s tanker Yuri Senkevich loading oil produced at the Sakhalin oil fields.

01/2018 MARITIME IMPACT


32 ARCTIC PIONEERS SOVCOMFLOT

Working in Arctic regions is very demanding and requires extremely well-trained captains and crews.

Shturman Albanov is the lead ship in a series of Arctic shuttle tankers ordered by Sovcomflot Group under a long-term contract with Gazprom Neft.

effectively combining two ships into one. Thanks to an engine powered by 45 megawatts – which is comparable to the capacity of a modern nuclearpowered icebreaker – and a reinforced steel hull, the vessel can traverse the Northern Sea Route through ice as thick as 2.1 metres without icebreaker support. The amount of gas carried on board Christophe de Margerie is enough to provide heating for a country like Sweden for four weeks. Named after the former chief executive of French energy company Total, it took SCF about ten years to develop Christophe de Margerie in cooperation with Novatek, Russia’s largest non-state gas producer and majority owner of Yamal LNG, Frank says. While Frank is proud of SCF’s role as a technology leader, he underlines that safety is always a prerequisite. “It’s not about vanity, it’s all about taking a rational approach,” Frank says. “With partners such as Shell, we’re preparing every single project meticulously before we take any risks.” Internal procedures including an innovation committee on the board help to ensure that safety standards are met, he says. “It’s no coincidence that our initials SCF echo the slogan ’Safety Comes First‘.” Successful partnership Classification societies such as DNV GL also play a crucial role in facilitating compliance and raising industry standards as technology advances, Igor Tonkovidov, Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer and Chief Technical Officer at Sovcomflot, adds. Almost 100 of Sovcomflot’s vessels have DNV GL classification. “DNV GL is a safe haven for us due to their depth of knowledge and research power on harsh environments and the Polar Code,” says Tonkovidov. “As new technologies, higher safety standards and regulatory changes are introduced in the industry, we believe that classification societies

MARITIME IMPACT 01/2018

Photos: Sovcomflot

a six-year tenure as Minister of Transport under Presidents Boris Yeltsin and Vladimir Putin. In 2004, he returned to his maritime roots to head SCF, focusing the enterprise’s business on solving the logistical challenges resulting from oil majors rushing to the Arctic to explore its energy sources. While the Arctic Circle covers merely six per cent of the world’s surface, it is thought to contain as much as a fifth of the planet’s undiscovered oil and gas. In recent years, a decline in freight markets and fuel costs as well as the uncertainty surrounding international sanctions against Russia have cut the number of ships traversing the complete Northern Sea Route. But destination traffic in the area nearly quadrupled between 2013 and 2017, according to the Norwegian Polar Institute, with the main driver being the shipment of LNG. Sovcomflot is building upon centuries of experience by merchants and explorers and is expanding its fleet of vessels equipped for the harsh environment of the northernmost region of the world. Today, more than half of its fleet have an ice class. At the end of 2017, the total amount of contracts exceeded eight billion US dollars, with half of SCF’s ships on time charters. This includes multi-year contracts with the Exxon­Mobil-led Sakhalin-1 project in the North Pacific Ocean as well as Gazprom’s Prirazlomnaya platform, the first commercial offshore oil drilling in the Arctic. One of the newest Arctic energy projects, the 27 billion US dollar Yamal LNG plant in northwestern Siberia, has also boosted demand to link the remote exploration fields with the economic growth centres further south. This has encouraged SCF to design the record-breaking Christophe de Margerie,


SOVCOMFLOT ARCTIC PIONEERS 33

can be of significant help for shipping companies,” adds CEO Frank. “We are very proud to have been a long-standing partner of Sovcomflot, helping them to constantly push the boundaries,” says Knut Ørbeck-Nilssen, CEO, DNV GL – Maritime. “Be it shipping in harsh environments such as the Arctic, or applying LNG as a ship fuel – Sovcomflot has for decades shown great pioneering spirit that we share at DNV GL.” Search for the best crew While Frank stresses that a state-of-the-art vessel is one thing, he is keen to emphasize the human factor: “The success of operating these highly complex ships in extreme environments hugely relies on the individual skills and knowledge of our crew,” he says. That’s why Sovcomflot hires “the best talents” from Russia’s maritime academies and makes great efforts to train them in navigating in icy waters. A special assessment awaits captains before they are allowed to take on responsibility for a vessel and cargo worth hundreds of millions of dollars, as well as two dozen crew members: “They literally join us in the boardroom and we bombard them with ques-

Photos: Sovcomflot

Sovcomflot has unique experience of operating ships in the Arctic. SCF Baltica became the first heavy-tonnage vessel to make the high-latitude journey from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific.

01/2018 MARITIME IMPACT

tions; we want to get to know every single captain,” the CEO says. Once captains are in command and performing well, they can also benefit from incentive payments similar to the management. “I don’t know any other shipping company that does that.“ And Frank himself, whose opinion does he rely on after 14 years at the helm of Sovcomflot? “I treasure the views of our Russian Arctic veterans and long-standing captains more than everything else,“ Frank says. “Their opinions still carry a lot of weight.“ So, whether or not Frank and his “Gagarins of the Seas” will eventually join the first man in space in the history books, there’s one key message that Sovcomflot is sending out: cherish your past when you strive for progress. While Sovcomflot will keep pushing the technological boundaries in the energy shipping world, it will always keep in mind that it is experience and people that make the difference. NIS

DNV GL Expert Kirill Musteykis, Country Manager Maritime Russia Phone: +78 123 26 90 30 E-Mail: kirill.musteykis@dnvgl.com


34 TRAINING SERVICE

TRAINING AT DNV GL For the complete range of training courses offered by the Maritime Academy please visit: dnvgl.com/maritime-academy 24. – 26.09.18

09.10.18

18.10.18

01.11.18

Train the Trainer for ­Shipping Companies Høvik, NO

Cybersecurity in the ­Maritime Industry – General Awareness Training Istanbul, TR

Preparing for the EU MRV Regulation Piraeus, GR

Introduction to the Offshore Industry and Dynamic Positioning Rotterdam, NL

24. – 25.09.18

HAZOP Leader Course Rotterdam, NL

25. – 26.09.18

10. – 12.10.18

22. – 23.10.18

Planning & Management of Effective Dry-Docking Piraeus, GR

Internal Auditor of an ­Integrated Management System acc. to ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and ISO 45001 for Shipping Companies Genoa, IT

25.09.18

Behaviour-Based Safety Istanbul, TR 29. – 30.09.18

Marine Insurance and Claims Male, IN 01. – 05.10.18

Superintendent Workshop – Managing Day-to-Day Operations Manchester, GB 01. – 02.10.18

Crewing Management Singapore, SG

10. – 12.10.18

15. – 16.10.18

Handling and Transport ­ of Dangerous Goods (IMDG Code Training) Hamburg, DE 16. – 17.10.18

Hacker Detection & Emergency Response Training for IT Adminis­ trators Dubai, AE 18.10.18

Training for Assessors Piraeus, GR

CSO/SSO Refresher ­Training Hamburg, DE

03.10.18

18.10.18

Ballast Water ­Management Singapore, SG

Media Handling ­Awareness Course Hamburg, DE

02. – 03.10.18 Photo: Rido – Fotolia

19.10.18

Internal Inspection and Auditing of MLC Requirements Singapore, SG

Maritime Risk ­Management and Incident ­Investigation Bangkok, TH

Internal Auditor ISM-ISPS-MLC for Shipping Companies Chennai, IN 22. – 25.10.18

Port Facility Security Officer (PFSO) Training Course Dubai, AE 23. – 26.10.18

Approved HazMat Expert Rotterdam, NL 23.10.18

Navigational Audits Genoa, IT 23. – 25.10.18

Statutory Inspections – SOLAS, Load Line, MARPOL – Survey Simulator Practice Dubai, AE 26.10.18

LNG as Ship Fuel Genoa, IT 30. – 31.10.18

Vetting Inspections Hamburg, DE

01.11.18

Complying with the MLC 2006 Hamburg, DE 05.11.18

Cybersecurity in the Maritime Industry – General Awareness Training Hamburg, DE 06.11.18

Optimizing Waste Management on Board Operational and Technical Management Issues Piraeus, GR 06. – 07.11.18

Planning and Managing ­ a Dry-Docking for ­Superintendents Jakarta, ID 06. – 07.11.18

Designated Person Ashore (DPA) Training Course Madrid, ES 08.11.18

Leadership and Teamwork in Shipping Hamburg, DE


EVENTS SERVICE 35

EVENTS & EXHIBITIONS Please also visit: dnvgl.com/events for a constantly updated list of events, conferences and exhibitions. 17. – 21.09.18

Portugal Shipping Week Lisbon, PT 17. – 20.09.18

Gastech Exhibition & Conference 2018 Barcelona, ES 19. – 20.09.18

Seatrade Cruise Med Lisbon, PT 24. – 26.09.2018

Global Liner Shipping Asia Singapore, SG 24. – 26.09.18

Shipping 2030 Asia Singapore, SG 25. – 27.09.18

BWM Tech North America Fort Lauderdale, US 26. – 27.09.18

Asian Offshore Support Journal Conference Singapore, SG 26. – 29.09.18

Monaco Yacht Show

The 43rd Interferry’s Annual Conference includes a programme of informative speakers, a Technical Tour and several evening functions enabling excellent networking.

09. – 11.10.18

07. – 08.11.18

26.-27.11.18

Transtec

Offshore B2B 2018

St. Petersburg, RU

Aalborg, DK

Maritime Information Warfare

15. – 18.10.18

14. – 16.11.18

CWC World LNG & Gas Series: 10th Asia Pacific Summit Singapore, SG

Monaco, MC 24. – 25.10.18 02. – 05.10.18

Singapore International Bunkering Conference and Exhibition Singapore, SG 06. – 10.10.18 Photo: Interferry

Interferry Conference

Asian Sulphur Cap 2020 Conference Singapore, SG 29. – 31.10.18

Seatrade Maritime Middle East Dubai, AE

Cancun, MX 30. – 31.10.18

Sustainable Ocean Summit Hong Kong, CN 15. – 16.11.18

Petrochemical Supply Chain & Logistics Conference & Exhibition Houston, US 20. – 21.11.18

Tanker Shipping & Trade Conference, Awards & Exhibition London, GB 22. – 23.11.18

London, GB 27. – 30.11.18

CWC World LNG Summit & Awards Evening Lisbon, PT 28. – 30.11.2018

International Workboat Show New Orleans, US 04. – 07.12.18

Expo Naval Valparadiso, CL 05. – 07.12.18

Oil & Gas Conference

Ocean Energy Europe Conference & Exhibition

LNG Ship/Shore Interface Conference

INMEX China

Bilbao, ES

Edinburgh, GB

London, GB

Guangzhou, CN

08. – 09.10.18

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36 CYBERSECURITY SAFETY MANAGEMENT

DIGITAL DEFENCE As owners act to fortify their ships and shore-side operations against cyberrisk in the face of evolving threats and imminent regulation, DNV GL has expanded its services to cover control systems, software, procedures and human factors.

an integral part of overall safety management in Although the notion of a ship in the middle of the shipping and offshore operations. ocean being disabled by a software malfunction or by hackers was initially greeted with considerable Regulatory response scepticism and denial, a spate of incidents, including Fortunately industry policymakers have not been most notably an attack that disrupted operations at asleep at the wheel. Last year saw two particularly Cosco, has transformed attitudes. Today the marisignificant milestones in the regulatory environtime industry acknowledges the potential dangers ment. A section dedicated to maritime and is taking steps to address cyberrisk security – including cyberrisk – was at various levels. introduced in the third edition of the Cybersecurity is a moving target. Cybersecurity was considered a Tanker Management Self Assessment Threats continue to grow in reach minor issue by the (TMSA), which came into effect in and complexity, with new vulnershipping industry January 2018, as well as in the sevabilities discovered on a seemingly for a long time. enth edition of the Vessel inspection daily basis. In the space of a few Recent events have changed questionnaire (VIQ7) from the Ship years, hacks and security breaches that. Inspection Report Programme (SIRE), have jumped from being an excepeffective from September this year. tional event confined to a special breed Because TMSA and SIRE are imperative to of technology companies to becoming a gaining charters, tanker operators now have fact of life impacting everyone. No industry is a commercial incentive to demonstrate they have immune. given systematic consideration to potential vulnerWhile in earlier decades office IT systems were the abilities and implemented appropriate mitigations predominant target, these days more incidents are and safeguards to address them. affecting operational technology (OT) – the programShortly after, IMO’s Maritime Safety Committee mable control systems responsible for operating inserted Maritime Cyber Risk Management into the machinery. The trend reflects the growing complexity of such systems and a general increase in connectivity, list of ISM Code requirements. Strongly encouraged to start on 1 January 2021, the amendment leaves which in turn increases the attack surface of a vessel. non-tanker vessel owners with little more than two This increase is borne out in the statistics: The years to achieve a similar level of preparedness as number of attacks on OT in 2016 was double that of their tanker-owning colleagues. the preceding year and quadruple the 2013 level. So whereas before it was mostly a company’s finances Risky job and reputation that were at risk, now the threat has Managing cyber risk is ultimately no different to escalated to confront the safety of life, property and managing any other risk, remarks Patrick Rossi, the environment. The stakes are much higher. For DNV GL’s Maritime Cyber Security Service Manager. this reason cybersecurity must now be considered

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SAFETY MANAGEMENT CYBERSECURITY 37

“Most advice coming from industry bodies at the time, while produced with noble intentions, was very high-level. Our idea was to close the gap between theoretical concepts and the real world.” Patrick Rossi, Maritime Cyber Security Service Manager at DNV GL

“The equipment and terminology may be unfamiliar and somewhat daunting but the approach is fundamentally the same as, say, preparing for and carrying out hot work modifying a vessel’s structure.” Software changes, for example, should not be done on a whim, which can often happen on ships. Because IT engineers don’t frequently visit vessels, when they do come aboard to update the ECDIS or set up the latest version of a maintenance management application, the temptation is to be helpful. They click to install a new service pack and a backlog of other app updates. Nine times out of ten, this is fine. But occasionally it can disrupt settings elsewhere on the system. Moreover, the consequences won’t become apparent until long after the engineer has left and the ship has set sail. Instead updates should be carefully planned, tested, approved and recorded. They should be

categorized as minor or major to ensure personnel with the appropriate authority can approve them. This, Rossi says, is virtually identical to the process for gaining approval prior to carrying out welding. Lessons learned from NotPetya If there was one positive outcome of the NotPetya ransomware attack on Maersk last year, reasons Rossi, it was awakening owners and operators to the fact that cyberthreats are not hypothetical. “Today there is much greater awareness of the real-world implications and acceptance that cyberrisk has to be tackled.” However, shipowners and operators are at different stages on the learning curve in formulating a response, he observes. “Some are bewildered by the scale of the problem and don’t know where to begin; others have introduced some countermeasures

Photos: DamienGeso - stock.adobe.com, DNV GL

Today’s complex networks and interlinked applications have increased exposure to cyberthreats considerably.

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38 CYBERSECURITY SAFETY MANAGEMENT

Software installations and updates should be left to an IT expert, following thorough testing.

but are uncertain whether they’ve covered everything they need to cover.” In its role as a classification society DNV GL has adapted and expanded its cybersecurity services to assist owners and operators in protecting their assets against evolving threats and ensuring their safeguards satisfy new industry rules and regulations. DNV GL now provides services for educating and raising the awareness of all stakeholders both on shore and at sea; assessing and implementing defensive and reactive countermeasures; and monitoring and reviewing the effectiveness and robustness of barriers with an emphasis on continuous improvement. These services are purposely designed to be non-system specific so as to work equally for conventional IT and industry-specific operational technology, which is important when systems are interlinked. This also avoids obsolescence. While the consequences of an OT outage are likely to be more serious, they can often be traced back to a weakness in IT systems, particularly if they originate from an external source. Practical advice In September 2016, DNV GL published a Recommended Practice (RP) to educate shipowners and operators on how to deal with cyberrisk. “It was designed to demystify a subject the industry was still getting to grips with. We took care to write it in a maritime language and context.”

The focus was on practical steps, stresses Rossi. “Most advice coming from industry bodies at the time, while produced with noble intentions, was very high-level. Our idea was to close the gap between theoretical concepts and the real world.” For example, DNV GL’s RP accounts for common constraints such as limited budget and resource availability. The core approach is to identify weaknesses, assess their severity, then prioritize the most serious ones. The RP has been released as a free resource. The next step for vessel operators would be to carry out a cybersecurity assessment. DNV GL can support this by sending interdisciplinary teams to help onshore and offshore personnel identify and address specific business risks. “While operators typically understand the written guidance, translating those principles into action is sometimes more challenging,” notes Rossi. This collaboration results in a highly methodical approach to developing effective risk mitigation procedures that mesh neatly with the operator’s structure and working practices. Apart from closing cybersecurity gaps by technical means, this appraisal also considers system management and the human factor. Once countermeasures and a new risk management regime have been implemented, they can be followed up and qualified by penetration testing. “Testing the robustness of barriers is essential to ensure that assets are secure and nothing has been overlooked,” explains Rossi. In this process, authorized “white-hat” hackers do their best to compromise the IT and OT defences to validate that safeguards work as they should and risks have been eliminated. Life cycle management DNV GL also provides third-party verification of cybersecurity requirements throughout the newbuild project life cycle. “Our cybersecurity team recently worked with a major cruise line on devising a process for embedding cyber resilience from the very beginning of the vessel design phase,” reports Rossi. This was accomplished by introducing defined risk handling and accommodating procedures to all stakeholders in the project – not only the owner and yard but also the vendors. Incorporating technology and systems from third-party suppliers unavoidably adds complexity to a project and, from a cybersecurity perspective, increases potential exposure to

MARITIME IMPACT 01/2018


SAFETY MANAGEMENT CYBERSECURITY 39

COUNTERING CYBERRISKS The ship management industry already addresses risks throughout the dimensions of people, process and technology. Cybersecurity risks are also managed through these:

PROCESSES ■ M  anagement

systems procedures  andling of vendor/third parties H  rills & audit regimes D

■ P  olicies, ■ ■

TECHNOLOGY PEOPLE

Photos: DamienGeso – stock.adobe.com, DNV GL, Icons made by Freepik/Pixel perfect/Roundicons from www.flaticon.com

Cyberhygiene Training & awareness Professional skills & qualifications Written procedures Authorization control Physical security

■ F  irewalls

■ I ntrusion

■ S  oftware

detection systems updates, patches

■ T  ests ■ ■ ■

malevolent actors. Meanwhile, shipyards are as much on the learning curve as vessel owners. “For a large, sophisticated vessel like a cruise ship, which is dependent on technology for both operational and hotel needs, collaboration is absolutely critical,” Rossi stresses. “Cyberrisks are multifaceted. The response has to mirror that. Everyone has to be involved in the conversation, because, as the saying goes, a chain is only as strong as its weakest link.” The feedback from the project, he notes, was overwhelmingly positive. “Tackling cybersecurity right from the beginning of a vessel’s life cycle enables stakeholders to take a proactive, rather than reactive, approach to the problem. It provides more opportunities to insert barriers.” Based on these advisory services, DNV GL has developed its first class notations covering cyber resilience. The Cyber Secure notations have three qualifiers: Basic, Advanced and “+”. Basic is primarily intended for ships in operation; Advanced is designed to be applied throughout the newbuilding process. The ‘+’ qualifier is available for systems not covered by the scopes of Basic and Advanced. The human element Of course, cybersecurity is not just a matter of firewalls and antivirus software. Up to 90 per cent of incidents are attributed to human behaviour. Phishing and social engineering, unintentional downloads of malware etc. remain common issues. At the same

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■ A  ntivirus

 unctional testing F  ulnerability scanning V  enetration test P

time, most crews and onshore staff are not taught how to respond to cyberattacks or major technology failure and consequently fail to contain the damage. DNV GL has therefore expanded its options for training through its Maritime Academy. Courses cover cybersecurity from both management and technical angles and even include lessons in hacking to give participants an insight into how cyber­ attackers operate. Additional new tools incorporate friendly phishing campaigns and simulations of other social engineering techniques as well as features for assessing staff alertness so customers can fine-tune the level and frequency of cyber awareness training. DNV GL can help vessel operators combine traditional IT security best-practices with an in-depth understanding of maritime operations and industrial automated control systems. DNV GL understands the importance of tackling and integrating the human factor when devising and implementing a cyberrisk management strategy because ultimately, it is people who drive our industry. KT More information: dnvgl.com/cs

DNV GL Expert Svante Einarsson, Senior Cyber Security Advisor Phone: +49 40 36149-3610 E-Mail: svante.einarsson@dnvgl.com


40 APPLIED RESEARCH SCIENCE CENTRES

WHERE TECHNOLOGY MEETS COMPETENCE DNV GL’s new technology centres in Bergen, Norway, are equipped with state-of-the-art equipment, but it is the expertise of DNV GL personnel that makes the difference. Located in a modern science park in Bergen, Norway, DNV GL’s Materials and Corrosion Technology Centre and its sister facility, the Technology Centre for Offshore Mooring and Lifting, are only two years old. But both facilities are staffed by personnel with decades of experience working to improve safety performance, system reliability and ways to reduce costs for companies operating in the shipping and offshore industries. “We are proud of our new home but recognize that what sets us apart from other, similar testing facilities is the combination of our people, our global network and state-of-the-art equipment,” says Business Development Leader Hans-Erik Berge. Opened in 2016, the new facilities provide a broad range of services. “The Materials and Corrosion Technology Centre is dedicated to investigating failures

and testing material characteristics and performance with respect to corrosion resistance,” Berge explains. “The Technology Centre for Offshore Mooring and Lifting performs large-scale testing of fibre ropes, mooring chains, steel wires and other components such as lifting accessories and oilfield risers. Together, these centres offer a unique combination of independent testing, analysis and theoretical expertise.” Good timing Berge notes that the opening of the new technology centres comes at a good time, especially for the oil and gas industry. “As existing subsea infrastructure ages and exploration and production in deepwater continues, corrosion risk has become a growing concern,” explains Berge. “At the same time, tighter

MARITIME IMPACT 01/2018


SCIENCE CENTRES APPLIED RESEARCH 41

A global network of scientific experts, symbolized by the facade of the building, is dedicated to improving safety and system reliability and reducing costs.

Photos: DNV GL, Holger Martens

budgets have encouraged offshore companies to develop innovative ways to reduce costs, keeping our personnel in both centres busy.” Berge says that the technology centres are state-of-the art, but DNV GL draws on decades of expertise in helping companies active in the shipping, aquaculture and oil and gas industries manage a broad range of challenges. “Apart from having operated labs here in Bergen for decades, DNV GL has a global network of laboratories and test sites that share knowledge and best practices,” he says. “The quality of our personnel has helped us secure the trust of key industry players who rely on timely, accurate and independent research and analysis. Our new technology centres enable us not only to do more but also to work more efficiently.” Understanding corrosion The Materials and Corrosion Technology Centre, ­located close to University of Bergen, is equipped with advanced metallographic facilities to cut, mount, grind and polish equipment for integrity testing. Analytical tools include a new scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) and physical testing equipment to measure hardness, grain size and the effects of longterm exposure to the corrosive properties of hydro-

01/2018 MARITIME IMPACT

gen sulphide. These tools enable lab engineers to analyse general and localized corrosion, coating degradation, material compatibility, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, thermal fatigue, hightemperature corrosion, microbiologically influenced corrosion and fracture mechanics. Erik Sverre, Technical Manager — Laboratories, says DNV GL performs failure investigations, customizes test set-ups for evaluating the performance of different coatings solutions and works to manage specialized corrosion protection projects. “Access to the SEM and EDS is certainly an advantage, but we mostly rely on physical testing,” he says. “For example, by simulating different conditions in the lab,

CERTIFICATIONS The Materials and Corrosion Technology Centre is certified to the following standards: ■■ Performance Standard for Protective Coatings for Cargo Oil Tanks of Crude Oil Tankers in accordance with IMO resolution MSC.288(87) ■■ Performance Standard for Protective Coatings for Dedicated Seawater Ballast Tanks in accordance with IMO MSC.215(82) ■■ The Materials and Corrosion Technology Centre is working to achieve ISO17025 certification.


42 APPLIED RESEARCH SCIENCE CENTRES

“The competence of our personnel has helped us secure the trust of key industry players who rely on timely, accurate and independent research ­ and analysis. Our new technology centres enable us not only to do more ­ but also to work more efficiently.” Hans-Erik Berge, Business Development Leader, DNV GL

such as water temperature, salinity, wave action and physical stress, we can measure and analyse how coatings protect assets over time. And to ensure the testing is as accurate as possible, the facility is equipped with a two-kilometre pipeline that pumps natural sea water from a 100-metre depth outside of Bergen directly into the lab.” DNV GL also provides independent, third-party root cause analysis to help settle claims. “Often these projects involve multiple stakeholders with different views on what went wrong,” he says. “In the case of a coating failure, the owner may blame the yard, the yard may blame the product and the supplier may blame the application process. Our role is to reach an unbiased conclusion so the matter can be settled, and hopefully, be avoided in the future.” Finding success in failure analysis In addition to failure analyses, DNV GL performs risk mitigation, verification testing and quality assurance during production, among other projects. “Failure of the smallest component can represent a significant risk to worker safety and the environment, to say nothing of financial losses in the event an asset must be shut down for unscheduled maintenance,” says Øystein Bjaanes, Principal Engineer. “By performing root cause analysis, we are not only helping custom-

ers improve safety and environmental performance but also provide solid data that helps them understand critical business risks.” In addition to a decade of lab work with DNV GL, Bjaanes has experience working as an engineer for a multinational subsea contractor. “During my time working offshore, I became familiar with the complexities of supply chain logistics on big projects, how oil majors work with different manufacturers and what priorities drive their approach to project management,” he says. “In the oil and gas industry, understanding what is at stake for different actors helps us get to the right answers faster.” Sharing knowledge Bjaanes says that while the team is engaged in a broad range of projects, much of his work is related to failure investigation. “While each case is different, many material failures can be traced back to errors in the manufacturing process, e.g. bad welds or unsuccessful heat treatment, or gaps in design, operations and maintenance,” he says. “We have created a database where we can track each project and when we see the same issue come up over and over again, we offer recommendations to fabrication yards, project owners and manufacturers to help them avoid repeating mistakes. We are making a real effort to be proactive, not reactive.”

GLOBAL NETWORK OF TESTING FACILITIES The Materials and Corrosion Technology Centre and its sister facility, the Technology Centre for Offshore Mooring and Lifting in Bergen, are part of DNV GL’s global network of laboratories and test sites. Additional laboratories are located in Høvik, the Netherlands, the UK, the USA (Columbus, Ohio) and Singapore.

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SCIENCE CENTRES APPLIED RESEARCH 43

OPTIMIZING DEEPWATER MOORING DESIGN In 2015, Shell International Exploration and Production (Shell) approached DNV GL’s Technology Centre for Mooring and Lifting to conduct testing for a technical pre-qualification programme for polyester ropes made by several manufacturers. The project, driven by Shell’s efforts to reduce overall costs, required DNV GL’s engineers to test the tension-elongation characteristics of different polyester ropes as well as their permanent nonrecoverable elongation. DNV GL was able to verify which ropes would fit within tight constraints specific to Shell’s deepwater projects and meet the performance criteria required for installation and in-service conditions. One project helped Shell save an estimated 1.5 million US dollars in steel chain costs and one million US dollars worth of mooring system installation time.

Photos: DNV GL, Holger Martens

In one case, DNV GL conducted a number of failure analyses caused by hydrogen induced stress cracking (HISC). Based on material research and root cause analysis of these failures, DNV GL established a joint industry project to derive a guideline for safe use of duplex materials. As a result, a Recommended Practice (DNVGL-RP-F112, Duplex stainless steel – design against hydrogen induced stress cracking) for duplex stainless steel subsea equipment exposed to cathodic protection was created, which has become the global industry standard for preventing HISC. Similar outcomes have resulted for instance from failure analysis of fasteners, thruster gears, hydraulic piston rods and anchor damage to pipelines. 600 elephants DNV GL’s investment in Bergen also includes the Technology Centre for Offshore Mooring and Lifting. Located in a separate building with more than 2,000 m2 floor space, the centre is equipped with three testing machines for fibre ropes, mooring chains, steel wires and other components, supported by two 10-tonne cranes to lift test specimens. Principal Engineer Kurt Eide says the site houses one of the largest tensile testing machines in the world. “It has a 2,900-tonne-load capacity, roughly equivalent to the weight of 600 elephants,” he says. “And the extended 20-metre test bed is ideal for both static and dynamic tests.” Eide says that while the load capacity is important, the real value of both machines is in the control system, also enabling programming of test sequences. “DNV GL has been testing fibre ropes for decades, but now we have larger machines equipped with multiple sensors so we can measure data with greater accuracy,” he says. “We can also calibrate

01/2018 MARITIME IMPACT

systems to achieve specific load variables to simulate different conditions. For example, we recently set up a test rig for analysing how ropes behave when running over a sheave to calculate heave compensation during a subsea lift.” Most of the work done in the Technology Centre for Offshore Mooring and Lifting revolves around qualification of new systems. “The accuracy and flexibility of the test facilities is used by some operators during the front-end engineering and design (FEED) phase to optimize mooring systems. Others use the facilities to provide third-party testing of systems developed by competing suppliers,” he says. “Customers can witness tests from a viewing area protected by bulletproof glass and review tests in slow motion, thanks to an array of high-speed cameras.” Safer, smarter, greener Hans-Erik Berge notes that there is growing demand for services at the Bergen technology centres both in Norway and internationally, and with each new case, the organization builds competence. “As a test facility, we collect a lot of data on corrosion, coatings and mooring lines,” he says. “At any given time we are engaged in different JIPs with relevant industry stakeholders and regularly participate in industry meetings, seminars and workshops. While the technology centres do operate as a business, our work is aligned with DNV GL’s core mission: safeguarding life, property and the environment.” AW

DNV GL Expert Mads Arild Eidem, Head of Section, Materials Bergen Phone: +47 92 05 48 12 E-Mail: mads.arild.eidem@dnvgl.com


44 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION MARINE DEBRIS

TIME FOR ACTION ON PLASTIC POLLUTION Growing public awareness of marine plastic debris has put pressure on governments to act, but some in the maritime industry are already moving ahead to manage the crisis. Plastic pollution is washing up on the shores of the Hawaiian Islands, settling onto seabeds in the Arctic Ocean, and rising through the food chain onto our dinner tables. By one estimate published by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), there will be more plastic than fish in the world’s oceans by 2050 unless action is taken. According to Arnstein Eknes, who is responsible for DNV GL’s marine plastic awareness initiatives, managing the crisis is a shared responsibility, but he believes the maritime industry has an important role to play in finding a solution. “Plastic lost in nature is the challenge. By encouraging the public to stop using single-use plastic items, we can all reduce waste,” he says. “And by leveraging different maritime technologies to remove existing waste, we can reverse the direct and indirect impacts of industrial and human activity. Proper recycling systems and good waste management solutions bringing plastic into circular economies are essential. For the maritime industry, sitting on the sidelines is not an option.” Eknes notes that DNV GL has studied the issue and in 2013 launched Plastic Aquatic, an extraordinary innovation project in cooperation with World Wildlife Fund Norway to gain deeper insight into the extent of global marine debris. In addition to assessing the impact of marine plastic debris and microplastics in our oceans, the project recommended solutions.

“While the past decade has given a clearer understanding into how plastic debris impacts marine and coastal biodiversity, the future challenge lies in closing significant knowledge gaps within management, mitigation and debris collection technology,” says Eknes. “Plastic debris is a transboundary concern. Global collaborative action is needed to develop and deploy technology that maps, monitors and minimizes the overall environmental footprint of plastic products.” Understanding the challenge In 2016, the global plastics production totalled around 335 million metric tons. Each year, eight million tons of mishandled waste washes into the world’s oceans, further adding to the total ocean plastic debris aggregate, approximately 150 million tons. The end results are alarming. For example, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch (GPGP), a floating gyre of marine debris in

MARITIME IMPACT 01/2018


MARINE DEBRIS ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 45

THE COMPLEX WORLD OF MARINE DEBRIS

8

Marine debris includes both biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials. While it takes approximately 50 years for leather to decompose, it takes about 500 years for plastic fishing lines and bottles to do the same. With the ever-growing accumulation of marine plastic debris, this time frame is unacceptable.

million tons

Banana peel 1 week

of mishandled waste washes into the world’s oceans each year.

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Waxed milk carton 3 months

Plastic bag 10 to 20 years Cigarette butt 1 to 5 years

Leather 50 years Foamed plastic cup 50 years

Aluminium can 80 to 200 years

Plastic beverage bottle 450 years Photo: rangizzz - stock.adobe.com

the central North Pacific Ocean first discovered in 1997, now holds sixteen times more plastic than previously estimated, according to a study released by an international team of scientists affiliated with The Ocean Cleanup Foundation. Three times the size of France with over 1.8 trillion pieces of plastic weighing some 80,000 metric tons, the GPGP is the largest accumulation zone for ocean plastics on earth. If left to fragment, the amount of hazardous microplastics will increase more than tenfold. Microplastics are choking oceans, strangling underwater creatures and playing havoc with aquatic systems. When scientists and researchers from New York’s Cornell University concluded a recent four-year survey of 159 reefs in Australia, Thailand, Indonesia and Myanmar, their findings were alarming. Over eleven billion microplastic particles are entangled in corals across the Asia-Pacific region causing severe damage to pristine coral reef ecosystems.

Newspaper 6 weeks

Fishing net and fishing line 600 years

Disposable diaper 450 years

Glass bottle 1 million years


46 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION MARINE DEBRIS

Plastics block sunlight and abrade reef-building corals, creating sores that become conduits for infection and disease that eats away at coral tissue. When corals are in contact with plastic, the likelihood of coral disease increases 20-fold, from four per cent to 89 per cent, study reports reveal. “Once coral tissue loss occurs, it’s not coming back,” says Drew Harvell, senior author of the study at Cornell University. “It’s like getting gangrene on your foot. There is nothing you can do to stop it from affecting your whole body.” No quick fix DNV GL sees a tremendous need to scale up research and innovation initiatives to meet the global marine plastics challenge. And despite the world’s oceans filling up with more and more plastic waste and microplastics, Eknes is optimistic. He sees growing international awareness, a greater interest to create solutions, and a global desire to collaborate. “While there seems to be slow progress towards short and long-term approaches to solve the ocean plastics problem, there are many global initiatives bubbling under the surface,” he explains, pointing to recent initiatives launched by IMO and the European Commission. Last year when IMO placed marine plastics on its high-level Marine Environment Protection agenda, it sent the 150 MARPOL Annex V countries a clear message: The industry must do more to fight against plastic pollution. “IMO legislation has and will continue to play a leading role in shipping’s responsibility to minimize the entry of destructive marine plastics into our oceans,” says Eknes. Ramping up its quest for healthier oceans and the protection of global marine ecosystems, in May 2018 European Commission proposed new EU-wide rules to target the ten single-use plastic products most often found on Europe’s beaches and seas, as well as lost and abandoned fishing gear. Together, these constitute 70 per cent of all marine litter items. The UN Environment’s #CleanSeas campaign, launched in February 2017, has significantly raised

“The future challenge lies in closing significant knowledge gaps within management, mitigation and debris collection technology.” Arnstein Eknes, Business/Segment Director for Special Ships at DNV GL

global awareness of what plastic waste is doing to our oceans. Since its launch, 50 governments – accounting for more than half the world’s coastline – have signed up to the #CleanSeas campaign, with many making specific commitments to protect oceans, encourage recycling and cut back on singleuse plastics.

WHAT IS THE EXTENT OF THIS PLASTIC INVASION? In extensive joint investigations by Orb Media, a non-profit journalism organization based in Washington, D.C., and a leading researcher from the University of Minnesota School of Public Health, 83 per cent of tap water samples collected from five continents tested positive for microplastic. “Microscopic plastic particles are flowing out of taps from New York to New Delhi. These tiny plastic fibres and fragments aren’t just choking the ocean, they are infesting the world’s drinking water,” says Orb Media.

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MARINE DEBRIS ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 47

Photos: REV Ocean, rangizzz/yanadjan - stock.adobe.com

Research Exploration Vessel (REV) is a project now under development in Norway. The ship is scheduled for delivery in 2020.

Leveraging maritime technology So, what can the industry do to mitigate the plastic debris crisis? “First, as individuals, we should be aware of everyday plastic choices – just use less plastic,” says Eknes. “Second, we need better technology to remove and keep plastics out of the oceans. Fortunately there are some exciting developments within the industry that can be used to collect plastics and microplastics before and after they have reached the oceans.” One such development has been spearheaded by Boyan Slat, a Dutch inventor and founder of The Ocean Cleanup, who intends to clean up half the Great Pacific Garbage Patch in five years’ time with the world’s first ocean plastic-cleaning machine. The one-kilometre V-shaped boom moves naturally with the waves, scooping and channelling floating plastics towards the centre of the V for monthly collec-

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tion and recycling. Slat, the 2017 winner of the Heyerdahl Award for exceptional technical innovation and environmental work, has raised over 31 million US dollars to develop the technology, which is currently being tested 50 nautical miles outside of San Francisco’s Golden Gate Strait. In 2013, DNV GL in cooperation with WWF Norway introduced a concept for a specialized research and marine debris collection vessel (Spindrift). Elements of this concept vessel will be included in the Research Exploration Vessel (REV), as part of the REV Ocean project, now being developed by Norwegian entrepreneur Kjell Inge Røkke and former WWF leader Nina Jensen. WWF Norway is a partner in the project. When completed in 2020, the REV will be the largest research and expedition vessel in the world. The REV will be equipped with state-of-the-art marine surveying equipment, laboratories, auditorium, classrooms, two helipads and an underwater ROV. The ship’s mission control room will monitor satellite images of eddies and convergence


Photos: rangizzz - stock.adobe.com, The Ocean Cleanup

48 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION MARINE DEBRIS

fronts on the ocean surface and deploy UAV’s and helicopters to detect marine plastic debris. In addition to being a platform for developing and testing microplastic removal technology, the ship will also have the capacity to convert tons of end-oflife plastics into on-board heat and power energy through specialized collection and sustainable waste incineration processes. Seismic technology Another promising development is the use of seismic technology to identify and remove marine plastics. PGS, which operates a fleet of specialized seismic vessels for the oil industry, has developed a large-scale concept for plastic collection at sea. Its system releases massive amounts of bubbles at depths of 50 metres which push microplastics upwards into the booms towed by the support vessel. Here, a processing unit removes organic materials before compressing, packaging and sending the plastic debris to process facilities for recycling. “There’s no limit to innovation,” says Eknes. “Instead of cold-stacking offshore vessels during

Towing boom in a successful test in July 2018 (top). Boyan Slat (right), the founder of The Ocean Cleanup.

low market cycles, the owners could use their high propulsion power and large towing spread capability for global plastic collection. The key challenge is of course the associated cost.” Greater collaboration: global action While encouraged by these developments, Eknes believes more can be done. “As an industry, we can achieve more by developing a structured approach for increased collaboration between various industry stakeholders,” he says. “The collaboration between NGOs, governments and private businesses will be critical to achieve more effective solutions for the recapture, recovery and reuse of marine plastic. Without global collaboration, we will be unable to fully identify and craft a suite of globally relevant marine debris solutions that make sense for business and the oceans.”

MARITIME IMPACT 01/2018


MARINE DEBRIS ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 49

GREAT PACIFIC GARBAGE PATCH (GPGP) IN NUMBERS

Meanwhile, the rise of localized marine debris networks, such as the Indonesian Waste Platform, the African Marine Waste Network, the Portuguese Marine Litter Association, the Australian Marine Debris Initiative and the German Round Table Against Marine Litter, are bringing hundreds of stakeholders together. “The impact of hub-connecting networks and collaborations across the globe will create major long-term improvements for greater upstream focus and waste management initiatives,” says Eknes.

Consisting primarily of fine, suspended particles in the upper water column, the GPGP has been gathered by ocean currents, concentrating in the North Pacific Gyre. Much of it is the result of plastics disposed of improperly, then ground into fine debris by wind and waves. CONCENTRATION The GPGP has ocean plastic concentrations ranging from 10s to 100s kg per km² San Francisco ~ 0.1kg/km2

~100 kg/km2 ~1–10 kg/km2

Hawaii

EXTENT

1.6

million km²

the size of France

1,800,000,000,000 pieces float in the GPGP – equivalent to

250 pieces of debris for every human in the world

01/2018 MARITIME IMPACT

Source: The Ocean Cleanup

MASS & COUNT

Looking ahead What is the perfect five-year plastics scenario? According to Eknes, it would include prototype collection technologies in the largest 20 rivers of the world, novel innovative management systems for land-based plastic waste treatment, disposal and recycling, the ability to remotely detect and monitor marine debris at par with that of oil spills, and the growth of a circular plastics economy. “We need a broader rethink and a new approach to capturing value in a new plastics economy. While waiting for industrialized countries to take immediate action by reducing waste and curbing the growth of single-use plastic, we need to extract the maximum value from its use, then recover and regenerate products and materials at the end of their service life,” says Eknes. “At DNV GL, safeguarding the environment is close to our hearts,” he adds. “We are passionate about contributing to smart and better decisions. The world needs solutions, guidance and improved future outlooks. We want to take part in building a road map to help the world tackle the marine debris challenge.” MF

DNV GL Expert Arnstein Eknes, Business/Segment Director – Special Ships Phone: +47 94 86 68 83 E-Mail: arnstein.eknes@dnvgl.com


50 MARITIME COMMUNICATIONS

THE POWER OF INFORMATION The maritime world is constantly in motion. New approaches to ship design, operation and management are being developed, tested, implemented and superseded. At DNV GL, too, we are always working to provide you with services and information that can help your business adapt to changing markets, regulations and advancements.

VERACITY PLATFORM

STUDIES AND PAPERS

DNV GL’s digital services are now available on Veracity, our open industry platform. Anybody can sign in to access a wealth of maritime applications and analytic services that can help customers make better use of data and successfully advance their business.

Our research studies and white papers demonstrate insights into the maritime industry with long-term impact. They provide you with a broader view of our services and current maritime topics.

veracity.com

dnvgl.com/sp

TECHNICAL AND REGULATORY NEWS Whether it is about incident causality information, new requirements released by the IMO/ILO or other authorities and bodies, guidance and advice on specific issues or Port State Control results: DNV GL keeps customers and business partners up to date.

UPDATE – A NEW SIDE OF YOUR SHIP TYPE Sharing our knowledge and experience to benefit our customers and the industry – our Updates offer an in-depth focused look at the issues, news and technologies of a specific ship type. dnvgl.com/mm

dnvgl.com/tecreg

ALTERNATIVE FUELS INSIGHT (AFI) PLATFORM AFI is a free platform providing a 360-degree view on the uptake, infrastructure and development of alternative

fuels in shipping that lets you assess their feasibility for vessels ordered today and in coming years.

dnvgl.com/AFI

MARITIME IMPACT 01/2018


DNV GL DNV GL is a global quality assurance and risk management company. Driven by our purpose of safeguarding life, property and the environment, we enable our customers to advance the safety and sustainability of their business. We provide classification, technical assurance, software and independent expert advisory services to the maritime, oil & gas, power and renewables industries. We also provide certification, supply chain and data management services to customers across a wide range of industries. Combining technical, digital and operational expertise, risk methodology and in-depth industry knowledge, we empower our customers’ decisions and actions with trust and confidence. We continuously invest in research and collaborative innovation to provide customers and society with operational and technological foresight. With origins stretching back to 1864 and operations in more than 100 countries, our experts are dedicated to helping customers make the world safer, smarter and greener. The trademarks DNV GL and the Horizon Graphic are the property of DNV GL AS. All rights reserved. ©DNV GL 09/2018

IMPRINT MARITIME IMPACT, issue 01/2018; Publisher: DNV GL – Maritime, Communications, Hamburg; Editorial directors: Andreas Bodmann, Nikos Späth; Managing editor: Nikos Späth (NIS); Authors: Mark Fuhrmann (MF), Alan Johnstone (AJ), Andreas Kühner (AK), Peter Lindemann (PL), Kevin Tester (KT), Alexander Wardwell (AW), Gerd Würsig (GW); Design and production: printprojekt, Hamburg; Translations: Andreas Kühner; Layout and prepress: Lohrengel Mediendesign, Hamburg; Print: Media Cologne, Cologne; Cover photo: Eberhard Petzold – www.foto-dock.com; Disclaimer: All information is correct to the best of our knowledge. Contributions by external authors do not necessarily reflect the views of the editors and DNV GL. Subscription: If you would like to subscribe or unsubscribe this publication, please write us an email: maritime.impact@dnvgl.com


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Maritime Impact 01-2018  

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Maritime Impact 01-2018  

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