Page 1

.

DEVELOPMENT OF A PROPOSED PERFORMANCE STANDARD FOR A BATTERY STORAGE SYSTEM CONNECTED TO A DOMESTIC/SMALL COMMERCIAL SOLAR PV SYSTEM:

Gap Analysis of Existing Battery Energy Storage System Standards Prepared for: ARENA & DELWP

Document No.: PP198127-AUME-MS02-TEC-06-R-01-A (PUBLISHED) Date: 21 June 2019 IMPORTANT NOTICE AND DISCLAIMER

Project Partners

Funding Partners


1.

This document is intended for the sole use of the Customer as detailed on the front page of this document to whom the document is addressed and who has entered into a written agreement with the DNV GL entity issuing this document (“DNV GL”). To the extent permitted by law, neither DNV GL nor any group company (the "Group") assumes any responsibility whether in contract, tort including without limitation negligence, or otherwise howsoever, to third parties (being persons other than the Customer), and no company in the Group other than DNV GL shall be liable for any loss or damage whatsoever suffered by virtue of any act, omission or default (whether arising by negligence or otherwise) by DNV GL, the Group or any of its or their servants, subcontractors or agents. This document must be read in its entirety and is subject to any assumptions and qualifications expressed therein as well as in any other relevant communications in connection with it. This document may contain detailed technical data which is intended for use only by persons possessing requisite expertise in its subject matter.

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4.

The views expressed herein are not necessarily the views of the Australian Government, and the Australian Government does not accept responsibility for any information or advice contained herein.

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DNV GL Australia Pty Limited


Project name:

Report title:

Development of a proposed performance

DNV GL Energy

standard for a battery storage system connected

Renewables Advisory

to a domestic/small commercial solar PV system:

Suite 25, Level 8

Gap Analysis of Existing Battery Energy Storage

401 Docklands Drive

System Standards

Victoria, Australia, 3008

Customer:

ARENA & DELWP

Tel: +61 3 9600 1993

Contact person:

Con Himonas, Kerrie Harding (ARENA),

E-PA-P

Campbell Fox (DELWP) Date of issue:

21 June 2019

Project No.:

PP198127

Report No.:

PP198127-AUME-MS02-TEC-06-R-01, Rev. A

Document No.:

PP198127-AUME-MS02-TEC-06-R-01-A (PUBLISHED)

Project Description Task and objective: Development of a proposed performance standard for a battery storage system connected to a domestic/small commercial solar PV system: Stage 1 activity – Gap Analysis of existing battery energy storage system Standards. Prepared by:

Verified by:

Approved by:

DNV GL

DNV GL

DNV GL

CSIRO

CSIRO

SEC

☐ Strictly Confidential

Keywords:

☐ Private and Confidential

Battery, Energy, Storage, Standard, Test protocol

☐ Commercial in Confidence ☐ DNV GL only ☐ Customer’s Discretion ☒ Published Reference to part of this report which may lead to misinterpretation is not permissible. Rev. No. Date

Reason for Issue

Prepared by

A

First issue for public release

DNV GL, CSIRO, SEC DNV GL, CSIRO

2019-06-21

DNV GL Australia Pty Limited

Verified by

Approved by DNV GL


Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................ 7 1.1 Background

7

1.2 The project

8

1.3 Objectives of this report

9

1.4 Scope of Review

9

2 CURRENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS & REPORTING .................................................................. 10 2.1 Local and International Standards

10

2.2 Status of Australian Market Regulation

11

2.3 Performance Reporting Used in Current Battery Datasheets 2.3.1 Energy Capacity 2.3.2 Life Span 2.3.3 Efficiency 2.3.4 Environmental Operating Conditions

12 13 13 14 14

2.4 Project Consortium Approach

15

3 RESIDENTIAL AND SMALL COMMERCIAL BATTERY MARKET .......................................................... 16 3.1 Market Background

16

3.2 Battery Chemistries

18

4 APPLICATIONS RELEVANT FOR STANDARD DEVELOPMENT ........................................................... 19 4.1 BESS Applications

19

4.2 BESS Charge/Discharge Profiles

22

5 STANDARDS DATABASE REVIEW PROCESS ................................................................................ 23 5.1 Review Method

23

5.2 Review Template

23

5.3 List of Standards Reviewed

26

5.4 Performance Categories

28

6 SUMMARY OF STANDARD REVIEWS ........................................................................................... 32 6.1 Detailed Document Reviews

32

6.2 Coverage of Standards Reviewed

32

6.3 Relevance Categorisation of Standards

33

6.4 Relevant Content & Gaps Identified

36

7 CONCLUSIONS ....................................................................................................................... 39 8 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................... 40

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Appendices APPENDIX A

STANDARDS REVIEWED ........................................................................................ 42

APPENDIX B

GAP ANALYSIS SUMMARY ..................................................................................... 44

APPENDIX C

PERFORMANCE CATEGORY MAPPING ...................................................................... 47

APPENDIX D

PROJECT PARTNERS ............................................................................................. 50

APPENDIX E

ABPS STAKEHOLDER REFERENCE GROUP ................................................................ 51

APPENDIX F

ABPS DEVELOPMENT SCOPE SUMMARY................................................................... 52

List of figures Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure

3-1 4-1 6-1 6-2 6-3

-

Chart of battery types present in the Australian market in 2018 - by chemistry ............... 18 Example representation of five base modes of operation of a battery system ................... 22 124 documents reviewed by region of relevance (left) and source (right) ........................ 32 124 documents reviewed by battery chemistry ............................................................ 33 Number of Standards relevant to each review category ................................................. 35

List of tables Table 3-1 - State Government programs for residential, small-scale commercial BESS ....................... 17 Table 3-2 - Snapshot of Virtual Power Plant and microgrid trials and schemes in Australia .................. 17 Table 4-1 - Categorisation of BESS applications in key references .................................................... 19 Table 4-2 - Applications for battery storage in the Australian residential market ................................ 20 Table 5-1 - Template used for Standard reviews ............................................................................ 25 Table 5-2 - Standard categorisation codes .................................................................................... 25 Table 5-3 - Summary of # of Standards drawn from key Standards accreditation bodies .................... 27 Table 5-4 - Key references for development of preliminary performance indicator categories............... 29 Table 5-5 - Performance indicators used in key references .............................................................. 29 Table 5-6 - Preliminary Performance Categories used for Gap Analysis ............................................. 30 Table 5-7 - Additional items reviewed during Gap Analysis .............................................................. 31 Table 6-1 - Documents assigned to have major relevance to the ABPS ............................................. 34 Table 8-1 - Gap Analysis summary – Highlighting value of review items identified within documents assigned major or minor relevance to ABPS .................................................................................. 46

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Table of abbreviations Abbreviation

Meaning

ABPS

Australian Battery Performance Standard

AC

Alternating Current

AEMO

Australian Energy Market Operator

AEP

American Electric Power

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

ANSI/CAN/UL

Joint Canada – United States national standard

ARENA

Australian Renewable Energy Agency

AS

Australian Standard

ASHRAE

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers

BESS

Battery Energy Storage System

BEST

Battery Energy Storage Testcentre

BMS

Battery Management System

CEC

Clean Energy Council

COAG

Council of Australian Governments

C-rate

The rate at which a battery / BESS can be charged / discharge as a function of its nominal capacity

CSIRO

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

CWA

Cenelec Workshop Agreement

DC

Direct Current

DELWP

Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning (representing the State of Victoria)

DER

Distributed Energy Resource

DNV GL

Det Norske Veritas and Germanischer Lloyd

DR

Draft

DoD

Depth of Discharge

EES

Electrical Energy Storage

EMS

Energy Management System

EPRI

Electric Power Research Institute

ES

Energy storage

FCAS

Frequency Control Ancillary Services

GridStor

DNVGL-RP-0043: Recommended Practice for grid-connected energy storage

IEC

International Electrotechnical Commission

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

kW

Kilowatt

kWh

Kilowatt hour

MESA

Modular Energy Storage Architecture

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Abbreviation

Meaning

MW

Megawatt

MWh

Megawatt hour

NEM

National Electricity Market

NEJF

New Energy Jobs Fund

NER

National Electricity Rules

NFPA

National Fire Protection Agency

NSP

Network Service Provider

NZS

New Zealand Standard

PI Category

Performance Indicator Category

PCE

Power Conversion Equipment

PNNL

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

PoC

Point of Connection

Project

The ABPS development project

PV

Photovoltaic

RMS

Root Mean Square

RP

Recommended Practice

SAE

SAE (previously the Society of Automotive Engineers)

Sandia

Sandia National Laboratories

SEC

Smart Energy Council

SoC

State of Charge

SoH

State of Health

SRG

Stakeholder reference group

TS

Technical Specification

UL

Underwriters Laboratories

UPS

Uninterrupted Power Supply System

US

United States

USABC

United States Advanced Battery Consortium

VA, kVA, MVA

volt-ampere (kilovolt-amp, megavolt-amp) – AC rating of (real and reactive) electrical power

VAR, kVAR, MVAR

volt-ampere reactive (kilovolt-amp reactive, megavolt-amp reactive) – AC rating of reactive electrical power

VLA

Vented Lead Acid

VPP

Virtual Power Plant

VRLA

Valve Regulated Lead Acid

Wh

Watt Hour

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Table of definitions The below table includes key definitions used in the body of this report. Note - the definitions of the below terms varies between the Standards/documents reviewed, as such for the precise definition of terms used within specific Standard reviews please refer to the relevant Standard/document.

Term

Definition

Cell

Basic functional unit, capable of storing energy or charge. This may consist of assembly including electrodes, electrolyte, container, terminals and separators (as per DR AS/NZS 5139:2017 [1])

Battery

A unit consisting of one or more energy storage cells connected in series, parallel or series parallel arrangement. (as per DR AS/NZS 5139:2017 [1])

Module (Battery Module) Pack (Battery Bank)

Battery System

One or more batteries linked together. May also have incorporated electronics for monitoring, charge management and/or protection. (as per DR AS/NZS 5139:2017 [1]) Batteries or battery modules connected in series and/or parallel to provide the required voltage, current and storage capacity within a battery system, and meet the requirements of associated power conversion equipment. (as per DR AS/NZS 5139:2017 [1]) A system comprising one or more cells, modules or battery systems. Depending on the type of technology, the battery system may include a battery management system and auxiliary supporting equipment for the system. This does not include the PCE. (as per DR AS/NZS 5139:2017 [1])

System (Battery Energy Storage System BESS)

Consists of PCE, battery systems(s), protection devices and all the necessary additional equipment. (as per DR AS/NZS 5139:2017 [1])

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Acknowledgements The Project Consortium (DNV GL, CSIRO, Smart Energy Council and Deakin University) wishes to acknowledge and thank the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA) and the Victorian Government for funding this work. This Project received funding from ARENA as part of ARENA’s Advancing Renewables Program and the Victorian Government through the New Energy Jobs Fund.

Note to readers This report is the full version of the Gap Analysis report created under stage 1 of this project. A shorter summary version of this report can be found under document number PP198127-AUME-MS02-TEC-01-R01: Gap Analysis of Existing Battery Energy Storage System Standards - Summary Report. This report is prepared solely for the purpose and benefit of this project and therefore, the Standards, codes and best practice guides reviewed, were selected considering their relevance to the project scope.

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1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Australia has one of the highest proportions of households with PV solar systems installed in the world. With increasing retail electricity prices, comparatively low feed-in tariff rates for exported PV energy and the rapid reduction in energy storage costs, the market for behind-the-meter battery systems has the potential to increase dramatically. Two critical aspects of battery systems are safety and performance. At present, there is limited information available to allow consumers to make an informed choice regarding the performance of battery systems in relation to payback period, reliability and lifetime. Even simple metrics such as capacity, power output, and cycle life are not comparable between manufacturers. This can lead to situations where consumers believe that a system is suitable for their intended application only to then find the performance and lifetime are well below expectations. At present, there is no dedicated Standard available underpinning the performance testing and metric reporting of battery systems connected to residential solar PV systems. As a result, there is a level of uncertainty surrounding the expected performance of domestic battery assets. Therefore, it is important to have such a Standard in place without any delay before a large-scale uptake of the technology occurs. Noting a growth in this sector appears imminent, due to falling system costs, possible network benefits, new DER market models, government incentives and consumer interest. The solution which offers the greatest degree of confidence to the Australian market is to have an Australian Standard under which the performance metrics of battery systems are clearly defined, along with the process of measuring and reporting these metrics. This will allow for a like for like comparison between competing battery systems, thus providing consumer and industry confidence. It is essential to develop and implement an appropriate Standard to ensure that the large-scale rollout of solar-battery schemes can proceed throughout Australia on the basis of consistent expectations, thereby minimising the risk of a perception of, or actual, underperformance or failures and supporting consumer confidence and choice.

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1.2 The project A Project Consortium consisting of DNV GL, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Smart Energy Council and Deakin University was established to develop a proposed performance Standard for battery energy storage systems (BESS) connected to residential and small-scale commercial solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. While under development this Standard is currently referred to as the proposed Australian Battery Performance Standard (ABPS). This project is supported by and has received funding from the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA) through its Advancing Renewables Program and the Victorian Government through its New Energy Jobs Fund (NEJF). An external Stakeholder Reference Group (SRG), consisting of representatives of battery manufacturers, industry associations, government agencies & end-users, has been established to guide the progress of the ABPS Project. Additional stakeholder engagement and advice beyond that of the SRG has and will be sought throughout the project period through a range of public workshops, webinars, conferences, and other stakeholder engagement processes. The project was launched in June 2018 and is expected to take approximately two years to complete. It consists of two key stages for the development of the Standard as detailed here1: Stage 1 -

Undertake a Gap Analysis of existing local and international Standards, codes, best practices, and guidelines related to testing and reporting the performance of battery energy storage systems.

Stage 2 -

Develop a set of test protocols and associated reporting requirements to determine and report the performance of batteries/BESS for Australian conditions.

-

Demonstrate the practicality of the developed test protocols through a series of tests of various battery/BESS chemistries at CSIRO laboratories.

-

Draft a proposed ABPS and submit to Standards Australia for their consideration and finalisation, as deemed appropriate, in order to elevate the proposed ABPS to an Australian Standard.

-

Produce a guideline/Recommended Practice based on the proposed ABPS for use by industry stakeholders in the interim whilst the Standards Australia review process is underway.

-

Further related activities: recommend criteria to select battery management system (BMS), battery capacity estimation methodology, performance related hazard identification process and recommended minimum set of information for material safety data sheet (MSDS) will also be undertaken.

This report details the Standards review and Gap Analysis undertaken as a Stage 1 activity to inform the development of the ABPS. For further information regarding the project partners, Stakeholder Reference Group and ABPS scope, refer to APPENDIX D, APPENDIX E AND APPENDIX F respectively. 1 Note: Several additional work packages are to be undertaken by the Project Consortium within the overall ABPS project scope, in parallel with

the Standard development activities detailed above.

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1.3 Objectives of this report As detailed in this report, the Project Consortium has undertaken a comprehensive review and Gap Analysis of existing local and international battery energy storage system performance Standards, best practice documents, guidelines and codes, with a view to achieve the following outcomes: 1. Understand and communicate the current framework and coverage of existing documents This Gap Analysis helps in understanding the current Standards framework associated with battery energy storage systems. In this report, 124 Standards, codes and best practice guides have been reviewed, covering publications from various global Standards organisations such as IEEE, IEC, UL, AS, etc. The information relevant to the ABPS project within each Standard has been recorded in a tabular form. In addition, the Project Consortium has provided within this report a high-level overview of current BESS market conditions in Australia, in terms of uptake, regulation, current performance reporting criteria and BESS application trends. This provides the relevant background information required both for this Standards review and the subsequent ABPS development. 2. Avoid reproduction of work already completed by others during this project During the second stage of the ABPS project, a series of test protocols enabling the determination of BESS performance will be developed. Therefore, it is important to have an understanding of the methods and protocols currently published within existing Standards and their relation to the proposed ABPS project scope. In this way, the Project Consortium is able to minimise the replication of work already completed or published by others. 3. Identify areas where efforts are needed and should be focused to maximise value for the development of the ABPS The results of this Standards review can be used to determine whether any Standard(s) from other jurisdiction(s) could be adopted or adapted for use in Australia, while the Gap Analysis highlights areas where further development work shall be required to develop the ABPS.

1.4 Scope of Review The scope of the ABPS project is limited to the development of a performance Standard for BESS connected to residential or small-scale commercial PV systems, with a focus on relevancy for the Australian market. As a reference, the maximum BESS size considered in this Standard is limited to 100kW, 200kWh. The Standard shall focus on system performance and will not cover matters related to safety, design, installation, grid connection, recycling, handling and transport requirements associated with a BESS. The primary purpose of the ABPS is to establish a standardised set of performance metrics, test protocols and reporting requirements to enable direct/improved comparison between battery systems sold in the Australian market. As such a review of BESS applications was considered a key part of the scope of this review, together with the establishment of high-level performance indicator categories to guide the analysis undertaken. Development of suitable metrics and measurement protocols is a key project outcome and will continue throughout Stage 2 of the project. Inputs to the process will include the results from this Gap Analysis, feedback from stakeholders, analysis of actual grid/PV system-integrated BESS use data (where available), testing practicalities and further research.

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Some of the documents considered for inclusion in this analysis could not be clearly categorised as focused solely on one topic over another e.g. “performance”, “safety”, “installation”, etc. Rather they covered multiple BESS related matters. Consequently, the Project Consortium applied professional judgment when determining the relevance of Standards, codes and best practices for this review. Moreover, the tabular format used to summarise each Standard review may pose a limitation for capturing all the required information relevant to the project. The Project Consortium endeavoured to include key relevant information to the best of their ability. Further detailed assessment and comparison of applicable information contained in relevant Standards will be undertaken during Stage 2 – development of the ABPS.

2 CURRENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS & REPORTING 2.1 Local and International Standards Energy storage (for residential and small-scale commercial applications) is a nascent market and hence as a result there is a lack of standardisation across the industry at this time. As will be discussed further in this report (Sections 5 & 6) there are currently a significant number of Standards and documents that relate to BESS performance in some way (e.g. how to define, measure, report battery or BESS performance characteristics or use-case profiles). Many standards however are technology or chemistry specific or may not capture the full requirements for how to reflect BESS performance for today’s use-case scenarios. That said, it is noted that significant efforts are being made to achieve global harmonisation. This includes both IEC technical committee TC-120’s (Electrical Energy Storage Systems) current work developing the IEC 62933 Standard series; and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) work developing uniform measurement protocols for energy storage systems. These are just a few of the activities in progress that will support the development of industry wide BESS performance measurement protocols. The need for standardisation to support development of the Australian energy storage market has been recognised in numerous recent publications. Sources available in the public domain that emphasise the importance of performance Standards for battery storage systems include: (a) Roadmap for Energy Storage Standards, February 2017, Standards Australia [2]; (b) Energy Storage Standards Consultation Paper 1, May 2016, Standards Australia [3]; (c) Energy Storage Standards Discussion Paper 2, July 2016, Standards Australia [4]; (d) Energy Market Transformation Bulletin No.2 - Battery Storage, Aug 2016, COAG Energy Council [5]; (e) Victoria’s Renewable Energy Roadmap, Aug 2015, Victorian Government [6]; (f) Australian Energy Storage - Market Analysis, June 2018, Smart Energy Council [7]; and (g) Charging Forward: Policy and regulatory reforms to unlock the potential of energy storage in Australia, May 2017, Clean Energy Council [8]. It is noted that in (a), (b) and (c), implementation of a performance Standard has been considered as mid to high priority. The Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Energy Council has also emphasised the importance of implementing an energy storage performance Standard to aid the ‘Energy Market

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Transformation’. As reported in [6], the Victorian Government has identified that there is currently no energy storage specific framework in place to control the technical and safety components of either storage technologies or how (and by whom) they are installed, maintained and operated. The CEC emphasises in (g) the need for product standards and quality assurance to provide consumer confidence.

2.2 Status of Australian Market Regulation Australia is set to become a leader in the global residential energy storage market, however, a lack of market regulation, Standards, codes and guidelines, required to support Government and consumer confidence & consumer and asset protection, could pose barriers to deployment; or result in inefficient or problematic sector development. As recognised by numerous Australian entities including COAG Energy Council, Standards Australia, and the Smart Energy and Clean Energy Councils, to name but a few, various policy and regulatory reforms will be required to unlock the full potential of the Australian energy storage market. Following a series of public consultation activities, Standards Australia released its Roadmap for Energy Storage Standards in February 2017 [2]. This report set out key actions proposed to address current industry/regulatory gaps for the Australian energy storage market. The report concluded, among other things, that to facilitate the roll-out of electrical energy storage in Australia initial Standards development work should focus on installation, product safety and performance Standards. Ideally, Standards should be technology neutral where possible. Furthermore, the report highlighted the importance of the participation of Australian representatives in international Standards development work underway by IEC Technical Committee TC 120, to ensure alignment and reflection of local requirements where appropriate. Following from, or in parallel with the development of the Standards Australia roadmap, numerous Australian entities have undertaken activities to close these gaps. The lead Australian government and industry bodies actively engaged in related activities include: •

Standards Australia

Council of Australian Governments (COAG)

Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA)

Clean Energy Council (CEC)

Smart Energy Council (SEC)

Australian Energy Market Commission (AEMC)

Australian Industry Group

Energy Networks Australia (ENA)

Energy Consumers Australia

Key recent activities in the sector include development of the following documents, that shall assist in consolidating the regulatory framework for BESS roll-out in Australia: •

Standards Australia developed ‘DR AS/NZS 5139:2017 - Electrical Installations – Safety of battery systems with for use with power conversion equipment (Draft for Public Comment)’, June 2017 [1] – This was the first public release of a draft Australian BESS Safety Standard for public comment. A significant number of comments were received by Standards Australia for the

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first release. Following this, a second version was released, to which public comments closed in April 2019. •

An Industry consortium developed ‘Best Practice Guide: Battery Storage Equipment – Electrical Safety Requirements’, July 2018 [9] – Australian industry developed best practice guide and risk evaluation tool to provide guidance regarding minimum electrical safety criteria for lithiumbased battery energy storage equipment.

Clean Energy Council developed ‘Battery Assurance Program’, 2018 [10] – Program lists CEC approved energy storage devices, when the lithium-based battery systems or BESS products are deemed in compliance with the industry developed Best Practice Guide [9].

Clean Energy Council developed ‘Battery Install Guidelines for Accredited Installers’, Aug 2017 [11] – Mandatory installation guidelines for CEC accredited installers.

Smart Energy Council developed ‘Solar, Energy Storage and Related Services: Provider Code of Conduct (SESRS)’ – a code of conduct for solar and battery service providers [12]

Energy Consumers Australia has been tasked by the COAG Energy Council with developing an industry-wide Behind the Meter Code of Conduct, in conjunction with the Clean Energy Council, Smart Energy Council and consumer groups. The code is intended to cover PV panel and inverter installations, home batteries, behind-the-meter products and retail practices. Energy Consumers Australia reported to the COAG Energy Council in December 2018 and it is anticipated that the Behind the Meter code will be finalised in 2019. [13]

The ABPS project is expected to complement the above listed activities. The Project Consortium engaged widely including with government agencies, Standards Australia and a range of industry stakeholders from the commencement of discussions regarding the potential need for the ABPS project. In principle support was specifically sought from Standards Australia for this project, to ensure that this work would neither overlap nor clash with any other Standards development work currently in progress.

2.3 Performance Reporting Used in Current Battery Datasheets Battery performance information currently reported within product datasheets is variable across technologies and manufacturers, predominantly due to the absence of a standardised methodology to measure, quantify and document battery performance. BESS performance reporting is inherently linked to the measurement method. Hence a lack of standardisation can create significant confusion for consumers without an in-depth technical understanding of battery systems and BESSs. Consumer confidence is required to fully realise the potential of the residential and small-scale commercial battery storage market; one of the key factors limiting this market is the lack of comparable performance information making it difficult for the consumer to choose the optimal technology for the required application. Several companies have published documents which compare the reported performance of battery storage systems which are available in the Australian market, one of the most notable being Battery Finder2, published by the Smart Energy Council and Global Roam. The Battery Finder database is a catalogue of battery storage products currently or previously sold in Australia, containing information on around 200 battery systems at this time.

2 Available at https://www.smartenergy.org.au/batteryfinder

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Consumers can extract information on the performance of a battery storage system from the technical specification/datasheet prepared by the manufacturer. Examples of typical metrics included are cycle life, capacity, useable power, nominal power, etc. The Project Consortium has reviewed the battery storage system technical specification sheets for the technologies available in the Battery Finder catalogue, to uncover the variances in performance reporting across technologies and manufacturer’s. The key areas of confusion are discussed in the following sections.

2.3.1 Energy Capacity The primary performance metric of any battery storage system is the energy capacity; which is defined as the amount of electric charge which can be delivered at a specified state of charge under specified environmental and discharge conditions. In most cases the battery datasheet will specify the ‘nominal’ (total) and the useable energy capacity, commonly quoted as a kWh value. The useable energy capacity for installed systems is typically lower than the nominal capacity due to state of charge restrictions, and system hardware influences amongst other factors. The energy capacity quoted on the datasheet will be dependent on the chosen C-rate (time to discharge/charge the battery) and the temperature. The useable capacity is also strongly affected by the state of charge. Hence for clarity, these conditions should be quoted by the manufacturer, however, this is information is not always provided in the manufacturer’s datasheets for consumers.

2.3.2 Life Span 2.3.2.1 Technical Life Span Arguably the most important task for a consumer who is preparing to add a battery energy storage system to a home or business is assessing the life-cycle performance of the battery storage system. It is common for manufacturers to quote the battery lifetime in relation to a number of cycles (where a cycle is defined as a charge and discharge sequence). It is well understood that the cycle-life sequence will dictate and affect the nominal cycle life measured. For example, a sequence with 100% state of charge range may have a shorter cycle life than a sequence with a 10% state of charge range. This issue can be problematic since there is no common definition of a “cycle” sequence across the energy storage industry due to the specific cycling requirements of different applications e.g. a battery performing energy shifting may require lower numbers of full cycles over the lifetime whilst one providing frequency response services will require a higher number of partial cycles. The test protocols used to calculate the number of cycles is also not common across the industry. The following factors could have a significant impact on the number of cycles quoted: •

The defined end of life condition, which would determine the period of time over which the cycles are accounted;

The state of charge range/depth of discharge used to determine the cycling limits;

The C-rate or power during testing;

The testing temperature – e.g. higher temperatures may lead to increased degradation and therefore fewer cycles;

Rest periods between cycles;

After reviewing the Battery Finder database, it was identified that while virtually all BESS suppliers provide a number of cycles (repetitive charge–discharge sequences) as the measure of performance,

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there is considerable variation in both the associated depth of discharge (DoD) and the relevant C-rate used to calculate this number. A clear specification for a number of cycles would require the DoD and the C rate to be defined in addition to the other factors listed above. Some manufacturers: •

Quoted number of cycles without the DoD

Quoted cycle-life to a number of ‘normal’ cycles

Quoted number of cycles without the associated DoD figure and capacity/energy data.

Quantifying the battery performance in terms of Total Energy Throughput, essentially summing the total amount of discharge energy delivered by a battery over its usable life, could be a less complex metric to quote. However, this parameter is not yet a common feature of product specifications.

2.3.2.2 Warranted life span of the BESS In some cases, the technical life span and warranted life span may not be equivalent. The BESS supplier will often quote the warranted lifespan of the product with regards to calendar life and number of allowable complete charge-discharge cycles. The warranty is also typically subject to operational restrictions such as number of daily cycles, state of charge restrictions and environmental conditions. Hence it is common for variances between the technical and warranted life span of a system to exist.

2.3.3 Efficiency Efficiency describes the amount of energy that can be retrieved from the BESS during its operation, compared to the total input energy. For determining efficiency, the environmental conditions, the duty cycle profile and the initial and final state of charge should be specified. It is also good practice to report efficiency with and without auxiliary power consumption. The optimal method of specifying BESS efficiency for the consumer is to quote the round-trip efficiency (AC to AC), which includes all losses up to the point of connection including auxiliary losses. The roundtrip efficiency should be calculated over one charge/discharge cycle in a specified operating mode within continuous environmental conditions. This is not typically the case, the efficiency quoted on various BESS Manufacturer’s datasheets does not specify which components or losses have been included within the calculation, which could lead to confusion for the reader.

2.3.4 Environmental Operating Conditions The manufacturer’s datasheet will typically specify a range of environmental operating conditions under which the battery can be operated in, which may include: -

Temperature

-

Relative humidity

-

Operating altitude

Temperature affects the battery cells and significantly influences a range of performance metrics such as cycle life, capacity, power, etc. Temperature effects on system hardware are typically less influential. Hence good practice would dictate that temperature be measured at a cell level. However, this is not routine practice across all manufacturers.

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A Manufacturer does not typically specify where the temperature is being recorded in relation to the BESS, meaning that cell temperatures could be significantly higher during operation than the recommended range which could lead to accelerated degradation. It is common for the Manufacturer to quote the performance of the system for a single temperature chosen for the test. It is likely that the performance of a system operating at the extreme ends of the operational condition ranges provided by a manufacturer, may be significantly different to that quoted on the datasheet.

2.4 Project Consortium Approach Recognising the need for standardised performance metrics for residential/small-scale commercial BESS, as noted in the above sections of this report, the Project Consortium has proposed an approach comprising both a desktop Standards review & Gap Analysis (Stage 1) and development of a draft Standard including BESS test protocols (Stage 2). The development of theAPBS will be based on defining realistic use cases for a PV connected BESS, identifying key performance metrics and finally defining standardised test protocols which are practical and can be applied to all battery types (where possible). Stakeholder engagement will be undertaken during both project phases to ensure that performance metrics are realistic and in line with consumer/industry expectations. The overall objective is to draft an industry Standard for Australia that defines a set of performance metrics, test protocols and BESS performance reporting requirements, which are application based and applicable to all battery types. This will allow consistency across the industry and benefit manufacturers and consumers during the technologies rapid development For further information regarding the ABPS scope refer to APPENDIX F.

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3 RESIDENTIAL AND SMALL COMMERCIAL BATTERY MARKET 3.1 Market Background The domestic hybrid solar PV-connected battery market is expected to grow exponentially through 2020, predominantly with lithium ion batteries at this time. [14] SunWiz estimates that 20,789 residential energy storage systems were installed in Australia in 2017, consisting of 12% of 172,000 new PV installations, up from 6,750 in 2016. SunWiz forecasts demand to increase further in 2018, with 33,000 new systems expected to be installed. [15] [16] A recent Smart Energy Council report, found that a cumulative number of around 52,500 on-grid and off-grid energy storage systems were installed in Australia up until the end of 2017 [7]. The same report outlined three scenarios for energy storage in Australia up until 2020: •

Under the high growth scenario, around 450,000 systems would be installed by 2020;

Under a medium growth scenario, around 300,000 systems would be installed; and

Under a low growth scenario, around 160,000 systems would be installed by 2020.

The key determinants for growth were considered to be electricity prices; energy storage system prices; Federal, State and Territory policies and programs; industry Standards; perceptions of quality and safety; and the availability of trained installers. Recently the Project Consortium have seen the development of a significant number of Federal and State Government programs that will drive sector growth [14]. The following table outlines current State Government programs & incentives related to residential and small-scale commercial battery storage: State/Territory ACT

Policy The ACT’s Next Generation Battery Storage scheme included three funding rounds, implemented from 2016 to 2018. The scheme
has provided subsidised battery storage to Canberra homes and businesses and supported battery providers establishing offices in Canberra. [17]

Renewable Energy Target 100% by 2020 [18]

NSW

- $50m Smart Energy for Homes & Businesses program, establishing an ~ 200MW Virtual Power Plant, that will enable consumers to be paid for providing demand responses services. - $20m program to provide smart battery systems for key government buildings with rooftop PV. Enabling up to 13MW of demand response support for the network through a Virtual Power Plant. [19] Intention to provide grant scheme to increase uptake of home solar and batteries. [21] Previous schemes, such as the Smart Energy Grant Scheme and Home Improvement Scheme previously offered up to $4,000 vouchers for purchases including solar and batteries. Participants were required to fund at least 50%. [22] Affordable Energy Plan - Interest-free loans and rebates provided in 2018 to drive uptake of solar and/or batteries. [23] $50 incentive for owners who register their storage system with a new State database. [24]

Supports national target. Zero net emissions by 2050, including from the energy sector [20]

NT

Queensland

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50% by 2030 [21]

50% by 2030 [25]

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State/Territory South Australia

Tasmania

Victoria WA

Policy South Australian Home Battery Scheme $200m grants program to facilitate batteries in 40,000 homes. Energy concession holder $600 per kWh. All other households $500 per kWh, up to $6000. [26] Tasmanian Energy Efficiency Scheme (TEELS) provides 3-year interest free loans for installation of approved products, including solar and battery systems. [28] $40 million to support 10,000 homes. Subsidies up to $5,000. [30] No current policy but signalled a likely shift from supporting solar to supporting battery uptake. [32]

Renewable Energy Target No formal target but likely to achieve 75% renewables by 2025 [27] 100% by 2022 [29]

25% by 2020, 40% by 2025 [31] No target

Table 3-1 - State Government programs for residential, small-scale commercial BESS

In addition to the above, there are a variety of microgrid, aggregator and Virtual Power Plant (VPP) trials and commercial schemes underway or in planning in Australia, which aim to harness additional benefits available from aggregated residential energy storage. A brief review was undertaken of current trials and schemes in Australia resulting in a list of 24 trials/schemes, shown below in Table 3-2. State Government or ARENA supported trials/schemes

Commercial schemes

AGL Virtual Power Plant (South Australia)

Reposit Power's GridCredits scheme

South Australia Home Battery Scheme (VPP ready) Tesla / South Australia Virtual Power Plant

Powershop's Grid Impact scheme with Reposit

Simply Energy's South Australia Virtual Power Plant

ShineHub's Sydney Virtual Power Plant

CSIRO Brisbane Virtual Power Plant

ShineHub's Geelong Virtual Power Plant

ACT Virtual Power Plant with Reposit Latrobe Valley Microgrid Program Latrobe Valley Microgrid (LVM) Project Onslow Microgrid, Horizon Power, Western Australia

Sonnen's sonnenFlat VPP Natural Solar / Sonnen Sydney VPP trial

Bruny Island trial with Reposit Yurika Virtual Power Plant with GreenSync, Queensland Ausnet's Mooroolbark mini grid Victorian Government Microgrid Demonstration Program: Ovida - Community Energy Hub Project Euroa Environment Group - Euroa Microgrid Origin Energy - Virtual Power Plant (VPP) SwitchDin - Birchip Cropping Group Microgrid Demonstration Monash University - Microgrid Electricity Market Operator Totally Renewable Yackandandah (TRY) Microgrid Demonstration Table 3-2 - Snapshot of Virtual Power Plant and microgrid trials and schemes in Australia

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Whilst not exhaustive, this list does highlight a significant level of activity, with a mix of State Government and/or ARENA funded projects and commercial schemes. The majority of the trials and schemes listed above aim to manage aggregated residential BESS in order to export energy at times of high market demand and price. The motivations are varied and can include providing benefits to customers, network operators and retailers. Such value stack schemes include, but are not limited to, grid management, demand management and peer-to-peer trading. The wide variety of schemes reflects the nascent stage of the residential energy storage sector and suggests a future consisting of a more dynamic and decentralised energy system. Increased consumer participation in the energy market is likely to be a key feature, enabled by energy storage and emerging mechanisms to realise its benefits. Current regulations impose some limitations on the operation of these schemes and it is noted that the Australian Energy Market Commission (AEMC) made a recommendation in July 2018 that aims to facilitate Virtual Power Plants [33]. Grid connection rules currently allow for access to a customer by only one service provider, usually an electricity retailer. The AEMC proposal would allow homes to access multiple service providers, which would facilitate small generators trading electricity via VPPs.

3.2 Battery Chemistries Lithium ion battery products currently dominate the Australian market offering. Noting a range of lithium ion chemistry variants and geometric product types fall within this category. In addition to lithium-ion batteries, however, there are other types of battery chemistries and technologies, such as lead-acid and flow batteries, available within the current market. These represent a smaller market segment at this time. New battery technology developments currently at the research and development stage may also unlock the market for new battery chemistries in the future. The following chart (Figure 3-1, [34]) outlines the different types of battery technologies available in the Australian market and demonstrates the predominance of lithium-ion technologies. The Smart Energy Council’s Battery Finder website aims to provide information on every battery product currently or previously available on the Australian market, with 184 products listed on the website at the time of writing [34].

Figure 3-1 - Chart of battery types present in the Australian market in 2018 - by chemistry

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4 APPLICATIONS RELEVANT FOR STANDARD DEVELOPMENT 4.1 BESS Applications To develop suitable performance metrics and battery/BESS test protocols, it is critical to understand the applications, or use-cases, which are relevant for such systems in the Australian residential and smallscale commercial market. There is a range of applications that could potentially be adopted by different consumers, including individual consumers or agglomerations of consumers (virtual power stations, VPP) or network providers (including embedded network providers). These applications will lead to a number of different BESS charge/discharge profiles, in particular when combined with a solar PV generation profile. During the Standards review process, the Project Consortium determined that there is very limited information present within existing literature in relation to BESS applications. Furthermore, it is understood that there is very little consistency in the categorisation of BESS applications used within the storage industry, as indicated by a sample of key references shown in Table 4-1 below. DNVGL-RP-0043 (GridStor):2017 [35]

PNNL-22010 Rev 2 / SAND2016-3078 R [36]

IEC 62933-2-1:2017 [37]

Bulk energy services Electrical energy time-shift Power supply capacity Ancillary services Load following Regulation Frequency response Spinning, non-spinning and supplemental reserve Voltage support Black start Transmission infrastructure services Transmission congestion relief Transmission upgrade deferral Distribution infrastructure services Distribution upgrade deferral Customer energy management and microgrid services Power quality Power reliability (grid-connected) Power reliability (microgrid operation) Retail electrical energy time-shift Demand charge management Renewable power consumption maximisation Renewables integration Ramp rate control Generation peak shaving Capacity firming

Peak Shaving (Management) Energy Time Shift (Arbitrage) Electric Supply Capacity Load Following Transmission Congestion Relief Distribution System Upgrade Deferral Transmission System Upgrade Deferral Retail Demand-Charge Management Wind Energy Time Shift (Arbitrage) Photovoltaic Energy Time Shift (Arbitrage) Renewable Capacity Firming Baseload Generation Time Shift Frequency Regulation Islanded Microgrids PV Smoothing Volt/Var Renewables (Solar) Firming Power Quality Frequency Control

Class A: Short duration Frequency regulation Fluctuation reduction Voltage regulation Class B: Long duration Peak shaving/shifting Class C: Back-up power

Table 4-1 - Categorisation of BESS applications in key references

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Categorisation of applications shown above range from 20 applications within 6 categories in the DNV GL GridStor recommended practice, to just three categories in IEC 62933-2-1:2017. Additional sources show a variety of approaches to categorising applications, often influenced by the purpose of the document. That is, if they are either highlighting the sheer number of applications or consolidating applications to simplify testing (e.g. IEC 62933-2-1:2017). The IEC and PNNL / Sandia approach is to categorise all applications based on the performance requirements of the BESS, so that applications which demand the same basic BESS performance characteristics are grouped together. Applications for BESS in the Australian residential and small-scale commercial market are shown in Table 4-2. below, categorised based on similar BESS performance characteristics and consistent with the broad IEC 62933-2-1:2017 categories. It is noted that consumers may well wish to stack applications in order to maximise the return from their BESS installation.

No.

Application

Description

Aggregated Energy services 1

FCAS

2

Arbitrage

BESS has the ability to help maintain the frequency on the electrical system, at any point in time, close to fifty cycles per second as required by the NEM frequency standards BESS has the ability to offer to supply the market with specific amounts of electricity at particular prices through AEMO centrally-coordinated dispatch process.

Network services 3 4

Peak shaving (network load management) Volt/VAR control

5

Demand response

6

Export management Solar smoothing

7

Ability of a BESS to discharge its energy during the daily on-peak and recharge during the off-peak period as demanded by the NSP BESS are used to provide or absorb the reactive power to maintain the grid voltage as demanded by the NSP. Export or import power at the connection point as demanded by the NSP to maintain the network demand. BESS used to limit export at connection point if NSP sets limits, via VPP. BESS ability to mitigate the rapid fluctuations (i.e. smooth out the high frequency fluctuations) in PV power output due to transient cloud events

Customer services 8

PV Energy time shift

BESS to store the energy generated by solar PV during the day and discharge the stored energy during the peak demand period in the evening.

9

Time of use tariff arbitrage

BESS ability to charge from the grid during off-peak tariff periods and discharge the stored energy during the peak evening tariff period.

10

Demand charge

11

Backup power

Ability of a BESS to keep the demand below the limits set by the tariffs to reduce costs BESS ability to provide continued power supply during blackout events by using stored energy.

12

Microgrid

13

Off-grid

Trading of energy among group of residential / small-scale commercial users with PV and BESS. Use of PV and BESS to cover self-demand of residential / small-scale commercial users.

Table 4-2 - Applications for battery storage in the Australian residential market3

3 Note that definitions for some of these services have been taken from AEMO and PNNL publications, for which the Project Consortium wishes to

reference and thank.

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Large scale uptake of batteries in Australia’s residential and small-scale commercial sectors also has potential benefits for the broader electricity system, as indicated by the many applications shown in Table 4-2, for instance transmission/distribution upgrade deferrals, peak shaving, PV smoothing, ancillary services, etc. Although residential/small-scale commercial consumers are predominantly currently treated as simple demand, mechanisms are being developed and trialled to allow generators/distributors/retailers to incentivise customers to modify their behaviour and use of their distributed energy storage assets. This includes a number of new market incentives, such as variable feed in tariffs for solar PV (Victoria) [38], Virtual power stations (South Australia, ACT, Victoria, etc.) [39], demand tariffs and 3-tier time of use tariffs (Victoria) [40]; and, for commercial customers, demand management trials (ARENA, AEMO) [41]. In addition, as identified in Section 3.1 there are currently many trial schemes in Australia experimenting with how to harness/maximise the capabilities/benefits of such distributed energy resources. Clearly any BESS performance Standard developed must include consideration for fast response services, as this may become of particular importance to system agglomerates such as embedded networks or virtual power plant operators. There has also been some debate around current network rules that disallow network operators from owning battery assets, with them only being able to purchase services from battery owners. It is still unclear how any related rule changes would influence the market for services from residential and smallscale commercial battery storage systems. In addition to regulations and tariff structures, there are also several market factors, building regulations and metering Standards that will influence BESS applications and potential load profiles. One example is, settling time resolution in the National Electricity Market. Currently, the proposed highest resolution time segment within the Australian electricity markets is 5 minutes. This is higher than the current 15-30 minute resolution of the majority of energy meters installed in Australia. These time segments are in general an average power and energy measurement and are governed by “AS 62053.21 Electricity metering equipment (AC) - Particular requirements” and “AS 62052.11 Electricity metering equipment (AC) - General requirements, tests and test conditions - Metering equipment”. From a financial perspective, services that require a time resolution higher than 15 minutes (such as fast frequency response services) currently have no financial gain to individual end users, as the response cannot be measured. There is potential that additional metering could be installed to facilitate payments for services such as FCAS, ramp rate or voltage support which require higher resolution than currently available. It should be noted that currently, fast response mechanisms are mandated via AS 4777 for invertors connected to generators (PV, battery etc.) in fault or abnormal conditions (i.e. large frequency deviations or instances where voltage approaches or exceeds safety limits). These abnormal events are so infrequent that they are unlikely to affect the lifetime or performance of the battery and will not need to be considered for the scope of this project.

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4.2 BESS Charge/Discharge Profiles Despite the ambiguity in the exact nature of what drivers will ultimately determine the dominant applications for battery storage systems in Australia (including any application value stacking), there are different modes in which a battery system can be operated. Simple example representations of the charge/discharge profiles that may be associated with some of these BESS operation modes are depicted in Figure 4-1 – Chart A (as an example, mode 1 represents float / standby, mode 2 constant charge, mode 3 constant discharge, mode 4 variable charge and mode 5 variable discharge). Including additional fast response loading or charging, as would be required to provide voltage support, FCAS or other fast response network support service applications (i.e. short duration services), would result in additional noise factors being imposed on each of the base operating modes. A simple representation of this is depicted in Figure 4-1 – Chart B.

A - Standard profile blocks Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 3

Mode 4

Mode 5

Charge

Discharge

B - Standard profile blocks with "fast" response modification Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 3

Mode 4

Mode 5

Charge

Discharge

Figure 4-1 - Example representation of five base modes of operation of a battery system

As part of the Standards review process, the Project Consortium sought to identify information contained in current Standards related to BESS application profiles. In Stage 2 of the ABPS project, the Project Consortium will undertake further consultation with stakeholders and analysis of actual Australian PV generation and BESS use-case profiles, to further inform attempts to categorise applicable BESS applications in the Australian market and the determination of suitable associated charge/load profiles for inclusion in the ABPS.

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5 STANDARDS DATABASE REVIEW PROCESS 5.1 Review Method The Project Consortium has undertaken a comprehensive review and Gap Analysis of existing local and international BESS performance Standards, best practice documents, guidelines and codes. The following approach was undertaken for this review: 1. A comprehensive database was compiled of local and international Standards, best practices, guidelines and codes, as detailed in Section 5.3 and APPENDIX A. DNV GL’s team members across Australia, Europe and the USA contributed to the preparation of this database, to ensure a global view was captured. 2. The adequacy of the Standards database was reviewed with industry stakeholders and ABPS invitation-only Workshop #1 participants. Feedback has been incorporated into this document and the draft ABPS outline. 3. A list of preliminary performance indicators and review categories was developed, as detailed in Section 5.4, such that each Standard could be reviewed for relevance against specific criteria. Additional review items were included to capture relevant content in each document not directly related to performance indicators, but that may still be relevant to the development of the ABPS or the broader ABPS project scope. 4. Each Standard in the database was reviewed relative to the preliminary performance indicator categories and additional review items list. A review template was developed to enable consistent reviews between team members working in Australia, Europe and the USA, and across different organisations. 5. Quality assurance reviews were undertaken on each Standard review. 6. A detailed report was compiled highlighting the outcomes of the review and next steps for the Project Consortium. This report will be utilised to inform Stage 2 activities of the Project Consortium.

5.2 Review Template The Standards and documents collated in the database, described further in Section 5.3 and APPENDIX A, were reviewed relative to the preliminary performance categories, described further in Section 5.4. The review template utilised to ensure consistent reviews across team members is shown in Table 5-1 below. Additional information derived from the reviews was also incorporated into the Project Consortium’s Standards database.

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Standard Main purpose Country/Region relevance Battery chemistries Focus

Cell

Module

Pack

System e.g. X

Relevance code

e.g. Minor

(Refer to Table 5-2 – rows 1 & 2 for scoring legend) Format is worth considering for ABPS Clarity of content Relevant sections/clauses BESS component requirements, excluding battery Key Performance Indicators/Metrics Performance indicator 1

Relevant clause PI Category: [#- Name]

Test methods / Requirements Applicability

of

present

form

and

adequacy for ABPS Rating: Adequacy for the ABPS -

Format

Definitions

Test

Reporting

Protocols

Rate adequacy for each of the four categories here from 1-5 (1 is low, 5 is high)

-

Then

summarise

overarching

relevancy based on scoring legend defined in Table 5-2 rows 3 & 4 e.g. 2

Performance indicator 2

e.g. 4

e.g. 4

e.g. 0

Relevant clause PI Category: [#- Name]

Test methods / Requirements

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Applicability

of

present

form

and

adequacy for ABPS Rating: Adequacy for the ABPS

Format

Definitions

Test Protocols

Reporting

Special notes:

Table 5-1 - Template used for Standard reviews The categorisation codes shown below in Table 5-2 were used to rate: 1) the overall relevance of the Standard to the ABPS; and 2) the adequacy of each performance indicator category to the ABPS, in each Standard review as seen in the example review above (Table 5-1).

Overall Relevance Code of document for ABPS

None

Minor

Major

Less than 20% content of the Standard seems relevant to the ABPS

More than 50% content of the Standard seems relevant to the ABPS

Medium

High

(i.e. usefulness of the document/Standard to development of the ABPS) Brief description of relevancy level

Relevance of Performance Indicator Category/Review Item details for ABPS

No relevance at all.

Low

(i.e. Adequacy of information contained in document for ABPS development - for the perfomance indicator category or additional review item noted) Brief description of relevancy level4

Relevance < 3 for all categories

Relevance = 3 for any category

Relevance = 4 or 5 for any category

(Format, Definitions, Test Protocols, Reporting)

(Format, Definitions, Test Protocols, Reporting)

(Format, Definitions, Test Protocols, Reporting)

Table 5-2 - Standard categorisation codes

4 Each performance indicator/review item was rated on a scale of 1 to 5 during the review, and the relevancy of that category was then

determined based on the rating.

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5.3 List of Standards Reviewed A comprehensive database was compiled of local and international Standards, best practices, guidelines and codes. Sources reviewed to compile the initial list included: •

Standard accreditation bodies, e.g. Standards Australia, IEC, ISO, IEEE, UL, etc.

National bodies: Smart Energy Council, Energy Storage Alliance, Clean Energy Council

SAI Global

Existing reports relevant to energy storage systems

Input from battery manufacturers, battery data sheets, test reports, utilities, etc.

DNV GL BEST testing center in New York

CSIRO internal information

Other public domain information

The initial database included 258 documents of possible relevance, which was filtered based on initial review and feedback to a final set of 124 documents for review. Most of the reviewed documents were published by the leading national and international Standards bodies. A summary of document sources is provided in Table 5-3, highlighting the most relevant bodies. A complete list of Standards reviewed is included in APPENDIX A.

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Accreditation

Description

Jurisdiction

body

Standards included in review (#)

Standards

Standards

Australia

is

Australia

Standards

development

the

peak

Australia

20

Global

36

Global

1

Global

22

UL LLC is a global safety consulting & certification

North

10

company. UL Standards is accredited as a Standards

America

body

in

non-government Australia

and

is

Australia’s representative to ISO and IEC. IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international Standards organization that prepares & publishes Standards and manages conformity testing for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. The IEC is one of the three organizations (IEC, ISO, ITU) that develop global International Standards.

ISO

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international Standard development and publishing body, composed of representatives from Standards organizations of 168 member countries.

IEEE

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association (the world’s largest), which includes a Standards Association organisation (IEEE-SA) that develops global Standards across a range of electrical and related sectors.

UL

development body by American National Standards Institute (ANSI) & Standards Council of Canada (SCC). ANSI

The

American

National

Standards

Institute

(ANSI)

oversees and accredits Standards that are developed by

North

4

America

representatives of other organizations. It also accredits the

Standards

designate

developing

specific

organizations

and

can

Standards as American National

Standards (ANS). The Institute is the U.S. representative to ISO and IEC. SAE

SAE (previously Society of Automotive Engineers) is a

Global

4

Global

2

Various

25

U.S. based, globally active professional association & Standards

development

organization

focused

on

automotive, aerospace, & commercial vehicles sectors. DNV GL

DNV GL is a global accredited certification body, classification

society

and

provider

of

independent

advisory services. DNV GL develops Standards and Recommended Practices across a range of sectors. Other

Standards,

guidelines

and

other

documents

were

reviewed from a range of other organisations. Table 5-3 - Summary of # of Standards drawn from key Standards accreditation bodies

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5.4 Performance Categories The primary purpose of the ABPS is to establish a standardised set of performance metrics and test protocols to enable direct/improved comparison between battery systems sold in the Australian market. Development of suitable metrics is a key project outcome and will continue throughout the project phases. Inputs to the process will include feedback from stakeholders, results from this Gap Analysis, analysis of real BESS use data (where available), testing practicalities and further research. While there is currently no standard approach to categorising battery performance (hence the need for this project), to provide structure to the Gap Analysis a set of preliminary Performance Categories, to review each Standard against, was agreed upon by the Project Constortium. In the course of reviewing the Standards, a small number of documents were identified initially which appeared to be closest to the broad scope identified for the ABPS, or summarised key performance metrics and application type information. For this reason, these documents were considered in more detail to provide the initial subset of performance indicators/metrics. A summary of a few of these key references and comments on their approach is shown in Table 5-4 below, with the performance categories used in each source shown in Table 5-5. Note that different performance terminology is used in each reference: Performance Information by PNNL/Sandia, Unit Parameters by the IEC and Performance Indicators listed in GridStor. PNNL-22010 Rev 2 / SAND2016-3078 R: PNNL / Sandia National Laboratories, Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage Systems, April 2016. Approach: PNNL / Sandia’s Protocol is focused on defining performance metrics and test methods for BESS systems. The Protocol distinguishes between reference performance information, which applies to all battery systems regardless of intended application, and duty-cycle performance information which applies for specific applications. In total 19 items are defined with associated test methods. Applications are grouped into eight categories for the purpose of defining the duty cycles. The duty cycles are then used to test the relevant performance information for each specific application. IEC 62933-2-1:2017: Electrical energy storage (EES) systems Part 2-1: Unit parameters and testing methods, General specification, December 2017. Approach: IEC 62933-2-1, i.e. Part 2-1 of the IEC 62933 series prepared by IEC/TC 120, specifies Unit Parameters as the common basic parameters to define EES system performance. The IEC consolidates performance information into nine Unit Parameters and defines just three BESS application categories: short duration, long duration and back-up power. Test methods are provided for each Unit Parameter, with an additional three application-specific Performance Tests. The Unit Parameter tests are well defined, except for Expected Service Life which is not standardised. The application-specific Performance Tests, however, leave the determination of duty cycle to agreement between the user and system supplier. This is a key difference between IEC approach and the PNNL/Sandia Protocol.

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DNVGL-RP-0043 (GridStor): Recommended Practice, Safety, operation and performance of grid connected energy storage systems, September 2017. Approach: DNV GL provides 16 performance indicators under 5 categories. The objective is to define the main performance indicators for qualifying or comparing storage systems for a certain application, including performance indicators for economic analyses. GridStor is focused on commercial/utility scale grid-connected systems and explicitly excludes residential storage systems from the scope, however the performance indicators are still considered relevant for baseline comparison purposes. GridStor does not provide test methodologies (unlike the previous two references), the purpose is primarily to define a general set of Performance Indicators and develop a common language around battery performance. Table 5-4 - Key references for development of preliminary performance indicator categories

PNNL-22010 Rev 2 / SAND2016-3078 R

IEC 62933-2-1:2017

DNVGL-RP-0043 (GridStor): 2017

Reference performance information

Unit parameters

Performance Indicators

Stored Energy

Nominal energy capacity

Power

Round-Trip Energy Efficiency

Input and output power rating

Maximum continuous power

Response Time

Roundtrip efficiency

Peak power

Ramp Rate

Expected service life

Energy

Reactive Power Response Time

Response time and ramp rate

Actual energy capacity

Reactive Power Ramp Rate

Auxiliary power consumption

Installed capacity

Internal Resistance

Self-discharge of EESS

Deep discharge

Standby Energy Loss Rate

Voltage range

Dynamics

Self-Discharge Rate Duty-cycle performance information Duty-Cycle Round-Trip Efficiency

Frequency range

Ramp rate Response time in operation Response time in stand-by

Reference Signal Tracking

Turn-on time

State-of-Charge Excursions

Efficiency

Energy Capacity Stability

Efficiency map

SOC_volt/var

Round-trip efficiency

SOC_active standby Wh_discharge Wh_charge Wh_net Peak Power Table 5-5 - Performance indicators used in key references Additional references were also considered when determining the preliminary performance categories to utilise for this review, including performance information typically presented in battery manufacturer’s data sheets, the Australian Smart Energy Council’s BatteryFinder website and other Standards, which are not repeated here.

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An initial set of performance categories including additional review items was established early on, based on initial documentation reviews. (Refer to APPENDIX C - PERFORMANCE CATEGORY MAPPING). Each Standard was then reviewed with reference to these categories, see APPENDIX B for the summary of the reviews completed. This consolidated approach enabled the results of each review to be compiled in a database to allow comparison within review categories of standardised requirements and test methods. During the Standards review process however it was decided to further consolidate and refine this performance categorisation list. The final set of preliminary Performance Categories and consolidated additional review items, are shown in Table 5-6 and Table 5-7 below (refer again to APPENDIX C PERFORMANCE CATEGORY MAPPING, which also includes mapping of initial review categories to final categories). The final Standard review categories have been used to summarise all Standards review and Gap Analysis results in this report (see Section 6). An effort has been made to maintain some consistency with the key references above, where possible. Note: the Additional Items for Review shown in Table 5-7, were included to capture relevant content in the Standards which is not directly related to any specific Performance Category, but may still be relevant to the development of the ABPS project more broadly.

No.

Performance Categories

Description

1

Energy

Includes all criteria related to energy capacity, including rated (nameplate), installed and actual.

2

Power

Includes all criteria related to active, reactive and apparent power capacity, including rated (nameplate), installed and actual.

3

Charge/discharge rates

Includes charge/discharge current, C-rates and limits. Also includes self-discharge rate.

4

Efficiency

Includes roundtrip efficiency, losses (e.g. standby, charging/discharging) and auxiliary power consumption associated with BESS components.

5

Battery life

Includes criteria related to calendar life, cycle life, throughput, degradation and endurance.

6

State of Charge/State of Health

Includes depth of discharge, depth of charge, average State of Charge, State of Charge swing, State-of-Health.

7

Voltage and frequency range AC

Includes criteria related to operational AC voltage and frequency range at BESS point of connection.

8

Voltage range – DC

DC battery, cell, pack, module or terminal level DC voltage.

Table 5-6 - Preliminary Performance Categories used for Gap Analysis

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No. 9

Additional Items for Review

Description

Environmental conditions

Includes any information related to environmental conditions including for operational envelopes or testing of BESS. Any definitions for use cases/applications of BESS and/or duty cycles. Includes the control response time in normal operation and stand-by. Operational limitations of auxiliary systems (e.g. environmental control system), Power Electronic Control Systems (e.g. Inverter DC voltage limitations) and any electrical protection requirements that may impact BESS performance. Any test methods to characterise the performance of aspects of the battery energy storage system.

10

Use cases / duty cycles

11

Communications and controls

12

Operational limitations due to auxiliary equipment

13

Testing protocols

14

Other

Any other information captured within the document relevant to the ABPS project. Table 5-7 - Additional items reviewed during Gap Analysis

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6 SUMMARY OF STANDARD REVIEWS 6.1 Detailed Document Reviews Following the approach detailed in Section 5, a comprehensive database of documents for review was compiled from local and international Standards, best practice documents, guidelines and codes. A full list of Standards reviewed, including those assigned to have minor or no significance, is provided in APPENDIX A. A summary of all documents reviewed is provided in APPENDIX B, while APPENDIX C provides the performance metrics that the Standards were reviewed against.

6.2 Coverage of Standards Reviewed Documents specific to Australia were sourced from Standards Australia, the Clean Energy Council and other local industry associations and collaborations. All other documents were either international or with a North American focus. A breakdown of documents reviewed by region of relevance and by their source is shown in Figure 6-1 below. Europe 1%

Standards Australia 16%

Other 18%

North America 22%

PNNL 3% SAE 5% ANSI 3%

Australian / New Zealand 18%

IEC 29%

UL 8% International 59%

IEEE 18%

Figure 6-1 - 124 documents reviewed by region of relevance (left) and source (right) With regards to battery chemistry, many of the documents reviewed (48%) were technology agnostic. Other Standards focused on one or more specific chemistries, as shown in Figure 6-2 below.

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Multiple Chemistries 8%

Other 4%

Lithium-Ion 10%

Agnostic 48%

Nickel-Based 6%

Lead acid 24% Figure 6-2 - 124 documents reviewed by battery chemistry The most commonly represented chemistry of all docuemnts reviewed after ‘Technology agnostic’ was Lead-Acid, followed by Lithium-Ion and then Nickel-Based chemistries. The ‘Other’ category included flow batteries, molten-salt thermal batteries and electrochemical capacitors. The ‘Multiple Chemistries’ category represented documents which were applicable to multiple battery chemistries e.g. Lead-acid and Nickel-Cadmium. This chart highlights the past focus on the development of documents relevant to lead acid batteries.

6.3 Relevance Categorisation of Standards As outlined in section 5, the review process involved mapping of the relevance of each Standard to a set of performance categories and other review items. In addition, an overall relevance code to the development of the ABPS was assigned to each Standard. Of the Standards reviewed, 10 were considered to have major relevance to the development of the ABPS, 69 had minor relevance and 45 had no relevance. Additionally, 35 Standards were considered to have a format worth considering for the ABPS (refer table 5.1 and table 5.2). The Standards assessed to have major relevance for the ABPS are shown in Table 6-1 below and include two of the key references initially identified in Section 5.4. A full list of Standards reviewed, including those assigned to have minor or no significance, is provided in APPENDIX A. Source

Standard No.

Standard Title Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes – Large format secondary Li-ion cells and batteries for use in industrial applications

IEC

IEC 62620

IEC

IEC 62933-1

IEC

IEC 62933-2-1

Electrical Energy Storage (EES) systems – Part 2-1: Unit parameters and testing methods – General specification

IEC

IEC 62933-3-1

Electrical Energy Storage (EES) systems – Part 3-1: Planning and installation – General specification

Electrical energy storage (EES) systems – Part 1: Terminology

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IEC

IEC 61427-2

Secondary cells and batteries for renewable energy storage – General requirements and methods of test – Part 2: on-grid applications

IEEE

IEEE P2030.3

Standard for Test Procedures for Electric Energy Storage Equipment and Systems for Electric Power Systems Applications

IEEE

IEEE 1679

Other

CWA 50611

Flow batteries – Guidance on the specification, installation and operation, CENELEC Workshop Agreement, CWA 50611, April 2013

PNNL

PNNL-22010

PNNL 22010-rev 2: Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing Performance of Energy Storage Systems

PNNL

PNNL-27314-1

Determination of Duty Cycles for Energy Storage Systems Providing Frequency Regulation and Peak Shaving Services with var Support

IEEE Recommended Practice for the Characterization and Evaluation of Emerging Energy Storage Technologies in Stationary Applications

Table 6-1 - Documents assigned to have major relevance to the ABPS Mapping of all Standards reviewed to the performance categories found that 97 individual Standards were relevant to at least one performance category or review item. A summary of the number of Standards considered relevant to each of the performance categories & additional review items (as defined in Table 5-6 & Table 5-7) is shown in Figure 6-3 below.

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45 40

No. of standards

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Figure 6-3 - Number of Standards relevant to each review category As can be seen above, the most well represented review categories were ‘Energy’, ‘Charge/discharge rates’, ‘Environmental Conditions’, ‘Operational Limitations due to Auxiliary Equipment’ and ‘Other’, each included within 35 or more documents. The least well represented items include ‘Power’, ‘Voltage and frequency range – AC’, which are covered in 13 or fewer documents. Unsurprisingly, performance metrics which are commonly considered a priority, (i.e. energy capacity, charge/discharge rates) or those details most relevant to specifying performance characteristics (i.e. environmental conditions) are well covered by existing Standards. It is noted that the above is purely a statistical summary of the results and does not consider the thoroughness, adequacy or quality of the existing Standards related to each review item, with respect to the ABPS scope. A complete overview of this is provided in APPENDIX B. This appendix is a matrix that displays the ABPS review items covered within Standards considered most relevant to ABPS development. I.e. Only Standards assessed to have either major or minor relevance to development of the ABPS are included here. Note, that while several Standards included below were assessed to contain only low adequacy information for the specific performance categories or additional review items identified within them, these Standards were nevertheless considered to contain sufficient useful background or other information to warrant assignment of an overall relevance code of minor, for them to support development of the ABPS.

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6.4 Relevant Content & Gaps Identified A comprehensive review of applicable local and international Standards, best practice documents, guidelines and codes specifically focussing on BESS performance has been conducted. The Gap Analysis matrix included as Table 8-1 of APPENDIX B of this report highlights the current documents the Project Consortium considers most relevant to development of the ABPS. Furthermore, this matrix highlights where there appears to be valuable information to draw from during preparation of sections of the ABPS, and conversely where current documents appear to lack information with respect to the ABPS project scope (i.e. there are gaps in current Standards). This Gap Analysis matrix shall form the basis for further document reviews under Stage 2 of this project. As summarised, this review process has identified a number of relevant existing Standards / guidelines. APPENDIX Bidentifies where information relevant to a performance indicator category has been identified in the Standard or document. It also highlights which Standards have additional information that could be utilised for ABPS development. The review process has identified that there are a number of different approaches currently defined to identify battery performance. These approaches either focus on generic measurement methods, or are application specific, typically related to small portable electronics markets, back-up/UPS requirements or automotive applications. Only a limited number of Standards or documents refer to the specific application of grid connected BESS. A key finding of this review has been identification of industry accepted measurement protocols, battery and BESSS limits and tolerance levels for measurement methods. These industry accepted practices should be considered for inclusion in the ABPS, where relevant, during the Standard development process. Crucially, the review has identified that cycle sequences specifically related to grid connected PV applications in the residential/small-scale commercial space are lacking nationally and internationally. Thus, ABPS project Stage 2 activities should focus on development of these specific cycles. Performance metrics related to these cycles may then be able to be extracted utilising existing measurement protocols, battery limits and measurement tolerances. The review has also identified that the majority of current chemistry specific Standards relate to lithiumion, lead-acid and nickel-based chemistries. Hence existing protocols may need to be further developed for emerging chemistries such as flow batteries, etc. Of the small number of application specific documents, the application-based duty-cycles have a focus on the United States of America (USA) . The methodology employed, which thus far appears to have been accepted by international industry, utilises real-life data to develop simulated or averaged application cycles. From these cycles, the key performance metrics are identified and measured. The Project Consortium notes that the US grid operates at a nominal voltage of 120V (Âą5%) and 60Hz frequency, whereas, the Australian grid is at 230V (+10%/-6%) and 50Hz (as per AS 60038). Hence direct applicability of the US application cycles needs further evaluation to identify if they may be suitable to modify for Australian usage or if a similar protocol should be followed to develop Australian specific application cycles. The Project Consortium also notes that the available application duty-cycles identified have thus far focussed on large (MWh size) grid-scale applications, while small-scale application duty-cycles (less than 200kWh) are substantially lacking in current Standards on a global scale. The review has also identified a number of Standards and documents which will need to be considered during development of the ABPS, even though they do not specifically contain performance metrics.

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Examples include DR AS/NZS 5139:2017 (the draft AS/NZS Standard: Electrical Installations – Safety of battery systems for use with power conversion equipment), AS 4777 (Grid connection of energy systems via inverters) and AS 4755 (Framework for demand response capabilities and supporting technologies for electrical products) which may affect limits on BESS performance due to imposed safety limitations. Furthermore, there is a range of key local (e.g. DR AS/NZS 5139:2017 & the associated Best Practice Guide) and international documents for which alignment with key performance metric definitions and BESS subsystem boundaries will be a focus, in an to attempt to maintain local and international consistency. Overall, the review identified a number of commonalities across all the Standards which will be utilised during the ABPS development. Examples of these are definitions of capacity, voltage limits for batteries, power definitions, application cycle definitions, etc. The Project Consortium will aim to utilise these commonalities as part of its development activities, and since they are industry accepted, this should aid the market acceptance of the ABPS. Crucially, most current Standards where specific performance measurements are described are defined at lower system components (i.e. batteries, modules or pack). There is a critical gap in current standards in defining system level performance, which would need to be addressed in the ABPS. As part of this Gap Analysis activity the Project Consortium also reviewed how manufacturers are currently reporting product performance in the marketplace. Based on our review, it is apparent that due to a lack of guidelines or regulations, each manufacturer is generally reporting performance in a means determined by them. Hence, the review has discovered that although manufacturers may be attempting to adhere to any perceived relevant Standards, the lack of a unified Standard for market relevant applications, means they may be reporting against non-application specific Standards. Furthermore, each manufacturer is choosing its own version to report against, due to a lack of guidance or regulation. Reporting also often appears to contain insufficient information to document the conditions for which a product’s performance is being reported. This is the root cause of current marketplace confusion. Based on this review of local and international Standards and documents, information related to the following items may be available in these documents for consideration, consolidation or enhancement for inclusion in the ABPS (in no specific order): •

System design and configuration boundary definitions

Battery operating ranges and limits unique to each individual chemistry

Definitions of terms (e.g. only Energy, Power, Cycle life, Capacity, Capacitance)

Grid connected BESS applications

Conversion of real-life data into simulated or averaged application cycles

Maintenance cycles (for some chemistries such as lead and nickel)

Measurement tolerances

Measurement instrumentation tolerances

Testing protocol definitions and structure, including environmental conditions

Manufacturer specification reporting recommendations

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Further detailed review and consolidation of information related to the above items identified during Stage 1, will be a key Stage 2 activity for the Project Consortium, to assist with ABPS development. This review has also identified some critical gaps in current documentation, which ABPS development Stage 2 activities should focus on: •

Application specific cycle sequences

Review of the suitability of US grid application sequences for Australian conditions

Development of Australian residential/small-scale commercial application cycle sequences

Identification of Australian specific environmental operating ranges and limits

Accounting for imposed limitations to ABPS from existing non-performance related Standards (e.g. AS/NZS 4777, AS/NZS 4755.3.5, DR AS/NZS 5139, etc.)

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7 CONCLUSIONS As previously stated the Project Consortium consisting of DNV GL, CSIRO, Smart Energy Council and Deakin University was established to develop a proposed performance Standard for battery energy storage systems connected to residential and small-scale commercial solar photovoltaic systems. This report details the Standards review & Gap Analysis undertaken as a Stage 1 activity to inform development of the ABPS The focus of this review was to provide a snapshot of the regulatory and Standards framework relevant to the ABPS; identify coverage and relevancy of current local and international performance standards; and identify gaps where further work is needed to establish appropriate performance testing or reporting Standards to enable improved product comparisons for consumers. In addition, the Project Consortium has provided within this report a high-level overview of current BESS market conditions in Australia, in terms of uptake, regulation, current performance reporting criteria and BESS application trends, in order to provide the relevant background required both for this Standards review and the subsequent ABPS development To begin this Gap Analysis, the Project Consortium initially compiled a list of 258 documents for review. This was subsequently, through broad consultation, reduced to a list of 124. Documents were drawn from various local and global Standards organisations such as IEEE, IEC, UL, AS, etc. Each document was reviewed using a proforma template, for relevancy and adequacy with reference to the scope of the ABPS. Standards were reviewed against a pre-determined set of performance categories and additional review items. This was to ensure consistency of reviews and enable comparison and consolidation of results, in preparation for development of the ABPS. During Stage 2 of the ABPS project, a series of test protocols enabling the determination of BESS performance will be developed. Therefore, it was important to have an understanding of the methods and protocols currently published within existing Standards and their relation to the proposed ABPS project scope. In this way, the Project Consortium is able to minimise the replication of work already completed or published by others. The Project Consortium notes that on the basis of this comprehensive review, no international or local Standard was found which could be directly utilised in the Australian market to fulfil the defined scope of the ABPS. A number of gaps have been identified in the existing Standards coverage, which will need to be addressed during the ABPS development process. However, a limited number of Standards were identified to have major relevance to the ABPS scope and intent. In addition, a significant number of Standards were found to contain information, which following further detailed review (during Stage 2), may prove valuable for aspects of the ABPS. In parallel with this Gap Analysis activity the Project Consortium has developed a high-level framework for the proposed ABPS. To facilitate the next phase of this project, the relevance of key Standards and perceived gaps identified through this document review process have been considered with reference to the proposed ABPS framework. The detailed Gap Analysis outlined in this report will form the basis for the next steps to be undertaken by the Project Consortium during Stage 2 of this project, ultimately leading to the development of a proposed Australian Battery Performance Standard for submission to Standards Australia for their consideration for implementation. As a part of this process, the Project Consortium expects to consult the Industry Stakeholder Reference Group and other external stakeholders with respect to the conclusions drawn in this report.

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8 REFERENCES [1] Standards Australia, “DR AS/NZS 5139:2017 - Electrical Installations – Safety of battery systems with for use with power conversion equipment (Draft for Public Comment),” 5 June 2017. [2] Standards Australia, “Roadmap for Energy Storage Standards,” Feb 2017. [3] Standards Australia, “Energy Storage Standards Consultation Paper 1,” 19 May 2016. [4] Standards Australia, “Energy Storage Standards Discussion Paper 2,” 19 July 2017. [5] COAG Energy Council, “Energy Market Transformation Bulletin No 02 – PUBLIC CONSULTATION: RELEASE OF BATTERY STORAGE; STAND - ALONE SYSTEMS; AND CONSUMER PROTECTIONS ISSUES PAPERS,” 19 August 2016. [6] Victorian Government, Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport & Resources, “Victoria's Renewable Energy Roadmap,” August 2015. [7] Smart Energy Council, “Australian Energy Storage - Market Analysis,” June 2018. [8] Clean Energy Council, “Charging Forward: Policy and regulatory reforms to unlock the potential of energy storage in Australia,” May 2017. [9] Consortium: AIG, CESA, CEC, SEC, CSIRO,ENA, “Best Practice Guide: Battery Storage Equipment – Electrical Safety Requirements, v1.0,” 06 July 2018. [10] Clean Energy Council, “http://www.solaraccreditation.com.au/products/energy-storagedevices.html,” 2018. [11] Clean Energy Council, “Battery Install Guidelines for Accredited Installers,” 15 August 2017. [12] Smart Energy Council, [Online]. Available: https://www.sesrs.org.au/. [13] Energy Matters, [Online]. Available: https://www.energymatters.com.au/renewablenews/approved-solar-retailers-code-consumer/. [14] A. E. M. O. (AEMO). [Online]. Available: http://energylive.aemo.com.au/Energy-Explained/Batterystorage-charges-ahead-in-2018. [15] SunWiz, “2018 Battery Market Report,” March 2018. [16] Clean Energy Council, “Clean Energy Australia - Report 2018,” 2018. [17] ACT Government, “Environment, Planning and Sustainable Development Directorate,” [Online]. Available: https://www.environment.act.gov.au/energy/cleaner-energy/next-generationrenewables?_ga=2.47532199.1288561619.1542847585-1068836981.1539216949. [18] ACT Government - Environment, Planning and Sustainable Development Directorate Environment, “https://www.environment.act.gov.au/energy/cleaner-energy/renewable-energytarget-legislation-reporting,” 2018. [19] Energy NSW, “https://energy.nsw.gov.au/renewables/emerging-energy/clean-energy-initiatives,” 2018. [20] NSW Government, [Online]. Available: https://www.environment.nsw.gov.au//media/OEH/Corporate-Site/Documents/Climate-change/nsw-climate-change-policy-framework160618.pdf. [21] Northern Territory Government, “https://roadmaptorenewables.nt.gov.au/,” 2018. [22] Energy Matters, [Online]. Available: https://www.energymatters.com.au/renewable-news/nt-solarincentive-em5892/. [23] Queensland Government, [Online]. Available: https://www.qld.gov.au/community/cost-of-livingsupport/concessions/energy-concessions/solar-battery-rebate/about-the-program. [24] Australian Government, “Department of Environment and Energy,” [Online]. Available: https://www.energy.gov.au/rebates/battery-storage-registration-incentive-energex. [25] Queensland Government - Department of Natural Resources, Mines and Energy, “https://www.dnrme.qld.gov.au/energy/initiatives/powering-queensland,” 2018. [26] South Australian Government, [Online]. Available: https://homebatteryscheme.sa.gov.au/. [27] The Guardian, [Online]. Available: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jul/25/southaustralia-to-hit-75-renewables-target-by-2025-liberal-energy-minister-says. [28] Aurora Energy, [Online]. Available: https://www.auroraenergy.com.au/teels.

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[29] Tasmanian Liberals, [Online]. Available: https://www.tas.liberal.org.au/sites/default/files/Tasmanian%20First%20Energy.pdf. [30] Victorian Labor Party, [Online]. Available: https://www.premier.vic.gov.au/cheaper-electricitywith-solar-batteries-for-10000-homes/. [31] Victorian Government - Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, “https://www.energy.vic.gov.au/renewable-energy/victorias-renewable-energy-targets,” 2018. [32] Renew Economy, [Online]. Available: https://reneweconomy.com.au/wa-govt-considers-homebattery-incentives-solar-tariff-review-36744/. [33] Australian Energy Market Commission, “Final Report - Reliability Frameworks Review,” 26 July 2018. [34] Smart Energy Council, “BatteryFinder,” [Online]. Available: https://www.smartenergy.org.au/batteryfinder. [35] DNV GL, “DNVGL-RP-0043: Recommended Practice: Safety, operation and performance of gridconnected energy storage system,” September 2017. [36] PNNL, “PNNL-22010 Rev 2 / SAND2016-3078 R - Protocol for uniformly measuring and expressing the performance of energy storage systems,” April 2016. [37] IEC, “IEC 62933-2-1: Electrical energy storage (EES) systems – Part 2-1: Unit parameters and testing methods - General Specification, Edition 1.0.,” December 2017. [38] Essential Services Commission, “Minimum feed-in tariff,” [Online]. Available: https://www.esc.vic.gov.au/electricity-and-gas/electricity-and-gas-tariffs-andbenchmarks/minimum-feed-tariff. [Accessed November 2018]. [39] ACT Government, “Canberra trials worlds largest residential 'virtual' power plant,” [Online]. Available: https://www.cmtedd.act.gov.au/open_government/inform/act_government_media_releases/ratten bury/2017/canberra-trials-worlds-largest-residential-virtual-power-plant. [Accessed November 2018]. [40] Australian Energy Regulator, “Final decision tariff structure statement proposals Victorian electricity distribution network service providers - Citipower, Powercor, AusNet services, Jemena electricity networks and United Energy,” August 2016. [41] ARENA, “Advancing renewables program - demand-response,” [Online]. Available: https://arena.gov.au/funding/programs/advancing-renewables-program/demand-response/. [Accessed November 2018].

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APPENDIX A

STANDARDS REVIEWED

The following list provides an overview of all the Standards/documents reviewed in alphabetical order. 2018 International Building

CEC Battery Install Guidelines

Code:2017

for Accredited Installers:2017

2018 International Fire

CWA 50611:2013

Code:2017 2018 International Residential Code:2017 ANSI C84.1:2016 ANSI Z535:2017 ANSI/PGMA G300:2018 AS 2548.1:1998 AS 3731.1:1995 AS 3731.2:1995 AS 4029.1:1994 AS 4029.3:1993 AS 4044:1992 AS 4086.1:1993 AS 4086.2:1997 AS 62040.1.1:2003 AS 62040.1.2:2003 AS IEC 62040.3:2012 AS/NZS 2401.1:1994 AS/NZS 2401.2:1995 AS/NZS 2676.1:1992 AS/NZS 2676.2:1992 AS/NZS 4029.2:2000 AS/NZS 4509.1:2009 AS/NZS 4509.2:2010 AS/NZS 4777.1:2016 Best Practice Guide for battery storage equipment – electrical safety requirements:2018

DNV GL Rules for Classification of Ships:2018 DNVGL-RP-0043:2017 DR AS/NZS 5139:2017 EN 50438:2013 EPRI 1022544:2011 Functional Specification For Community Energy Storage (CES) Unit:2009 ICOA/IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations:2013 IEC 60254-1:2005 IEC 60622:2002 IEC 60623:2017 IEC 60896-11:2002 IEC 60896-21:2004 IEC 60896-22:2004 IEC 61427-1:2013 IEC 61427-2:2015 IEC 61660-1:1997 IEC 61660-2:1997 IEC 61660-3:2002 IEC 62040-1:2017 IEC 62040-2:2016 IEC 62109-1:2010 IEC 62109-2:2011 IEC 62133-1:2017 IEC 62133-2:2017 IEC 62257-2:2015

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IEC 62257-9-1:2016 IEC 62281:2016 IEC 62485-1:2015 IEC 62485-2:2018 IEC 62485-3:2014 IEC 62619:2017 IEC 62620:2014 IEC 62660-1:2011 IEC 62660-2:2011 IEC 62660-3:2016 IEC 62675:2014 IEC 62813:2015 IEC 62933-1:2018 IEC 62933-2-1:2017 IEC 62933-3-1:2018 IEC 62933-5-1:2017 IEC TS 62257-8-1:2018 IEC TS 62257-9-2:2016 IEC TS 62933-4-1:2017 IEEE 1106:2015 IEEE 1184:2006 IEEE 1361:2014 IEEE 1375:1998 IEEE 1491:2012 IEEE 1547:2018 IEEE 1657:2018 IEEE 1660:2008 IEEE 1661:2007 IEEE 1679:2010 IEEE 2030.3:2016

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IEEE 484:2002

NFPA 110:2019

SAE J2464:2009

IEEE 519:2014

NFPA 111:2019

SAE J2929:2013

IEEE 937:2007

NFPA 70:2017

TES-1-201X:2017

IEEE C37.90.1:2012

NFPA 855:2017

UL 1642:2012

IEEE C37.90.2:2004

NIST Framework and

UL 1741:2010

IEEE 1145:1999

Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability

UL 1778:2017

IEEE 1187:2013

Standards:2014

UL 1973:2013

IEEE 1188:2005

PNNL 23618:2014

UL 2054:2011

IEEE 450:2010

PNNL-22010:2016

UL 2580:2016

IEEE 485:2010

PNNL-23578:2014

UL 263:2011

IEEE/ASHRAE 1635:2012

PNNL-27314-1:2018

UL 810A:2017

IMDG (IMO): International

SAE J1495:2018

UL 9540:2016

SAE J2185:2018

UL 9741:2014

SAE J2288:1997

USABC Electric vehicles

Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code:2018 ISO 12405-3:2017 MESA-ESS Specification:2016

SAE J240:2012

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APPENDIX B

GAP ANALYSIS SUMMARY

AS 2548

Lead-acid

Minor

AS 2676.1

Vented Lead-acid/alkaline cells

Minor

AS 2676.2

Sealed Lead-acid/alkaline cells

Minor

2 3 3

3

3

2

2

2

AS 3731.1

Ni-Cd vented

Minor

AS 3731.2

Ni-Cd valve regulated

Minor

AS 4029.1

Vented Lead-acid

Minor

AS 4029.3

Pure lead positive pasted plate

Minor

AS 4044-1992

Lead-acid, Ni-Cd

Minor

AS 4086.1

Technology Agnostic

Minor

AS 4086.2

Technology Agnostic

Minor

AS 62040.3

Lead-acid, Ni-Cd, and other type

Minor

AS/NZS 4029.2

VRLA

Minor

AS/NZS 4509.1

Technology Agnostic

Minor

AS/NZS 4509.2

Lead-acid, Ni-Cd

Minor

AS/NZS 4777.1

n/a

Minor

CEC Battery Install Guidelines for Accredited Installers

Lead-acid, nickel alkaline, lithium, flow, hybrid ion

Minor

CWA 50611

Flow Batteries

Major

DNVGL-RP-0043

Technology Agnostic

Minor

EPRI- 1022544

Chemistry Agnostic

Minor

IEC 60254-1

Lead-acid

Minor

IEC 60622

Secondary cell batteries

Minor

DNV GL – Report No. PP198127-AUME-R-01, Rev. A – www.dnvgl.com

Other

Minor

Testing Protocols

Lead-acid

Operational limitations due to auxiliary equipment

AS 2401.2

Communications and controls

Minor

Use cases / duty cycles

Lead-acid

Environmental Conditions

AS 2401.1

Voltage Range – DC

Minor

State of Charge/State of Health

ANSI/CAN/UL9540

Electrochemical (including all battery chemistries), chemical, mechanical, and thermal energy storage technologies.

Voltage and frequency range - AC

Minor

Battery Life

Technology Agnostic

Efficiency

Minor

AEP Functional Specification

Charge/discharge rates

Relevance Code (for development of the ABPS)

All (Lead acid, nickel cadmium, flow, hybrid ion and lithium)

Power

Battery chemistry(s)

AS/NZS 5139

Energy

Standard

Gap Analysis summary – Highlighting review items (i.e. Performance indicator/review categories) identified within documents assigned major or minor relevance to development of the ABPS.

2 2 3 3

2 2 3 3 1

2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2

2

2

2

1

2 2 2 3 3 3 3

2

2 2

2 2 2 2

2 2 3 2 3 1 3 3 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 3 3 3 3 2 2

2 3

2 2

2 1 1

3 3 1 2 2

1 2 2

2 2

2 3 3 2 2

Page 44


Minor

IEC 61427-2

Technology Agnostic

Major

IEC 62109-2 Ed. 1.0

n/a

Minor

IEC 62133-2

Lithium

Minor

IEC 62281

Li-ion

Minor

IEC 62485 -1

Predominantly Lead-acid and Ni-Cd

Minor

IEC 62619

Li-ion

Minor

IEC 62620

Li-ion (Lithium, alkaline, non-acid electrolytes)

Major

IEC 62660-1

Li-ion

Minor

IEC 62660-2

Li-ion

Minor

IEC 62675

Nickel-metal hydride

Minor

2

IEC 62813

Capacitors (Lithium Ion)

Minor

IEC 62933-1

Technology Agnostic

Major

IEC 62933-2-1

Technology Agnostic

Major

1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2

IEC 62933-3-1

Technology Agnostic

Major

IEC TS 62933-5-1

Technology Agnostic

Minor

IEEE 1106

Ni-Cd

Minor

IEEE 1184

Ni-Cd, VRLA, VLA

Minor

IEEE 1187

VRLA

Minor

IEEE 1188

VRLA

Minor

IEEE 1361

Lead-acid

Minor

IEEE 1491

Lead-acid (some references to NiCd)

Minor

IEEE 1547

Technology Agnostic

Minor

IEEE 1660

All but focussed on lead-acid

Minor

IEEE 1661

Lead-acid

Minor

IEEE 1679

Technology Agnostic

Major

IEEE 450

Vented Lead-acid

Minor

IEEE 484

Vented Lead-acid

Minor

DNV GL – Report No. PP198127-AUME-R-01, Rev. A – www.dnvgl.com

3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3

3 3 3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2 2

1 3 3

1

Other

Technology Agnostic

Testing Protocols

IEC 61427 -1

1 2 2 2

Communications and controls

Minor

Use cases / duty cycles

Lead-acid

Environmental Conditions

IEC 60896-22

Voltage Range – DC

Minor

3 3 3 2 2 2 2

Operational limitations due to auxiliary equipment

State of Charge/State of Health

Voltage and frequency range - AC

Minor

VRLA

Battery Life

Vented lead-acid

IEC 60896-21

Efficiency

IEC 60896-11

1 2 2 2 2 3 3

Charge/discharge rates

Relevance Code (for development of the ABPS) Minor

Power

Battery chemistry(s) Ni-Cd

Energy

Standard IEC 60623

1 2 2 2

2

2 2 2

3 3 3 2 2 2 2

2 2 2

2 2

3 2

2

2 2 1

2 2 1 2

3 2

2 1 3

2

2 2 2

2

2

2

3 2

2 2 3 3

2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2

3 3 2

2

2 3 3 3 2

3 3 3 3 1

3

3 2 Page 45


IEEE 937

Lead-Acid

Minor

IEEE P2030.3

Technology Agnostic

Major

Lead-acid, Ni-Cd

Minor

Li-ion

Minor

Technology Agnostic

Minor

IEEE/ASHRAE 1635 ISO 12405-3 (under development) MESA-ESS Specification NFPA 70-2017

Technology Agnostic

Minor

PNNL-22010Rev2

Technology Agnostic

Major

PNNL-27314-1

Technology Agnostic

Major

QLD Best Practice Guide

Li-ion

Minor

SAE J2288

Technology Agnostic

Minor

SAE J240

Lead-acid (flooded)

Minor

SAE J2929

Li-ion

Minor

UL 1642

Li-ion

Minor

UL 1741

Technology Agnostic

Minor

UL 1973

Technology Agnostic

Minor

UL 2054

Technology Agnostic

Minor

UL 2580

Technology Agnostic

Minor

UL 62109-1

Technology Agnostic

Minor

UL 810A

Electrochemical Capacitor

Minor

USABC Electric Vehicle Battery Test Procedure

Technology Agnostic

Minor

1

2

3

2 2

Other

Testing Protocols

2

1

2

3 3 3

2 2 2

3 2

3

2 2

2

Operational limitations due to auxiliary equipment

Communications and controls

Use cases / duty cycles

Voltage Range – DC

Environmental Conditions

3 1 3

3 3

2 2

State of Charge/State of Health

2 1 3 3

1

Voltage and frequency range - AC

Battery Life

Energy

2

Efficiency

Relevance Code (for development of the ABPS) Minor

Charge/discharge rates

Battery chemistry(s) Lead-acid

Power

Standard IEEE 485

3 3 3 3 2 2

3 3 3 2

2 2

1 2 1

3

2

3 3 3 2 1 2 2 2

2 2

3 2

1 1 2

2

1

1 2 2 2

2 3

2

2

2 2

Table 8-1 - Gap Analysis summary – Highlighting value of review items identified within documents assigned major or minor relevance to ABPS Note 1: Blue highlighted rows indicate documents considered to have major relevance to the ABPS. Note 2: Colour coding of cells represents assessed adequacy of Performance Category/additional review item details contained within Standard to support development of the ABPS (as per the Gap Analysis legend in Table 5-2 - Standard categorisation codes).

DNV GL – Report No. PP198127-AUME-R-01, Rev. A – www.dnvgl.com

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APPENDIX C

PERFORMANCE CATEGORY MAPPING

Original Standard Review Categories No.

Performance Indicator Category (Original)

Description

1

Environmental conditions

Information relating to the ambient or operational temperature, humidity, altitude etc.

2

Charge/discharge

charge rate, discharge rate. This may be given as an indicator of "C" rate.

3

State of Charge

the degree to which a battery system has been charged relative to a reference point (SoC=100%).

4

Depth of Discharge

the energy discharged from the battery during a cycle (discharge phase) expressed as a percentage of the nominal energy capacity.

5

Losses

Loss of energy due to energy production within the battery, PCS, wiring losses, BMS, EMS etc. Losses may include charging and discharging, standby losses, AC losses, DC losses.

6

Battery capacity

Includes all criteria related to energy capacity, including rated (nameplate), installed and actual.

7

State of Health (SoH)

Battery actual capacity relative to the rated capacity given as a %.

8

Calendar life

Theoretical expected lifetime if the battery is not cycled, the battery degradation over time.

9

Duty cycle

Includes the charge and discharge pattern of battery system (full cycle, partial cycle).

10

Power

Includes all criteria related to active, reactive apparent power including rated, nameplate, installed and actual.

11

Energy

Includes all criteria related to energy capacity including rated, nameplate, installed and actual.

12

Ramp rate

The rate of change of power of the battery system (kW/s) during charging or discharging period.

13

Response time

The time that the energy storage system requires to ramp up and settle in pre-defined power level.

14

Efficiency

Includes efficiency of the BESS, round trip, DC to DC. DC to AC.

15

AC voltage, frequency, power factor

Includes the AC voltage, power factor or frequency at the inverter AC terminal or PoC.

16

Inverter DC voltage

Includes DC inverter voltage in an AC coupled system.

17

Battery voltage

Cell voltage, module, pack DC voltage, battery DC voltage or and battery DC voltage related measurement quantity.

18

Impedance/internal resistance

Internal resistance of the battery as specified by the manufacturer.

19

Use case

The intended operation of the battery based on application, demand or market: PV smoothing, Volt/Var, PV firming, Power Quality, frequency regulation, etc.

20

Cost

Any cost related metrics e.g. life cycle costing or levelised cost of energy.

21

Degradation

Any metrics related to the reduced performance of the battery over time.

22

Availability

Includes the availability of the battery to provide intended services.

23

BMS/EMS/Inverter

BESS operational restrictions resulting from battery management system, energy management system or inverter limitations.

24

Communication

Any communication requirements relating to the BMS, PCS, EMS etc.

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No.

Performance Indicator Category (Original)

Description

25

Protection requirements

Any protection requirements or limitations that affect the battery performance e.g. ESS DC disconnect switch/breaker, requirements.

26

Testing protocols

Any test methods to characterise the performance or safety of the battery system.

27

Endurance

Any test methods which confirms the ability of the battery to withstand a chosen application/duty cycle etc.

28

Other

Any other performance indicators or ABPS relevant content not listed above.

Final Standard Review Categories No.

Performance Indicator Category (Final)

Description

1

Energy

Includes all criteria related to energy capacity, including rated (nameplate), installed and actual.

2

Power

Includes all criteria related to active, reactive and apparent power capacity, including rated (nameplate), installed and actual.

3

Charge/discharge rates

Includes charge/discharge current, C-rates and limits. Also includes self-discharge rate.

4

Efficiency

Includes roundtrip efficiency, losses (e.g. standby, charging/discharging) and auxiliary power consumption associated with BESS components.

5

Battery life

Includes criteria related to calendar life, cycle life, throughput, degradation and endurance.

6

State of Charge/State of Health

Includes depth of discharge, depth of charge, average State of Charge, State of Charge swing, State-of-Health.

7

Voltage and frequency range - AC

Includes criteria related to operational AC voltage and frequency range at BESS point of connection.

8

Voltage range – DC

DC battery, cell, pack, module or terminal level DC voltage.

Additional Items for Review (Final) Environmental conditions

Includes any information related to environmental conditions including for operational envelopes or testing of BESS.

10

Use cases / duty cycles

Any definitions for use cases/applications of BESS and/or duty cycles.

11

Communications and controls

Includes the control response time in normal operation and stand-by.

12

Operational limitations due to auxiliary equipment

Operational limitations of auxiliary systems (e.g. environmental control system), Power Electronic Control Systems (e.g. Inverter DC voltage limitations) and any electrical protection requirements that may impact BESS performance.

13

Testing protocols

Any test methods to characterise the performance of aspects of the battery energy storage system.

14

Other

Any other information captured within the document relevant to the ABPS project.

9

DNV GL – Report No. PP198127-AUME-R-01, Rev. A – www.dnvgl.com

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Mapping of Original Categories to Final Categories No.

Performance Indicator Category (Final)

Original PI Categories contained

1

Energy

6 – Battery capacity, 11 - Energy

2

Power

10 - Power

3

Charge/discharge rates

2 - Charge/discharge, 12 – Ramp rate

4

Efficiency

5 - Losses, 14 - Efficiency

5

Battery life

8 – Calendar Life, 21 – Degradation, 27 - Endurance

6

State of Charge/State of Health

3 – State of Charge, 4 – Depth of Discharge, 7 – State of Health

7

Voltage and frequency range AC

15 - AC voltage, frequency, power factor

8

Voltage range – DC

17 - Battery voltage

Additional Items for Review (Final) 9

Environmental conditions

1 - Environmental Conditions

10

Use cases / duty cycles

9 – Duty cycle, 19 – Use case

11

Communications and controls

13 – Response time, 24 - Communication

12

Operational limitations due to auxiliary equipment

16 – Inverter DC voltage, 23 – BMS/EMS/Inverter, 25 – Protection requirements

13

Testing protocols

26 – Testing protocols

14

Other

18 - Impedance/internal resistance, 20 - Cost, 22 - Availability, 28 Other

DNV GL – Report No. PP198127-AUME-R-01, Rev. A – www.dnvgl.com

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APPENDIX D

PROJECT PARTNERS

The ABPS project scope of work was proposed by a consortium of interested industry stakeholders, who bring a unique and complementary combination of skills to the task. The Project Consortium consists of:

DNV GL (Project Lead) DNV GL is one of the world’s leading companies providing classification, technical assurance, software and independent advisory services, in addition to certification services to customers across a wide range of industries, including in energy storage. DNV GL representatives are active in IEC global standardisation activities (IEC TC-120) as well as national standardisation in many jurisdictions (E.g. US, UK and Europe). DNV GL also runs the BEST Test and Commercialisation Centre in the USA, a leading battery test facility with extensive battery performance test experience. CSIRO CSIRO (the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) has a 30-year history in developing and evaluating battery and energy storage systems. CSIRO’s success in this field are commercialised Fuel cell technology, UltraBattery and Supercapacitors and novel electrolytes for next generation lithium batteries. CSIRO is actively engaged in renewable energy applications for Australia and successes involve demonstration of wind and energy storage, solar PV technology development and evaluation and grid connection and testing. CSIRO has extensive battery testing capability and knowhow. New state-of-the-art laboratories designed and dedicated specifically to investigate solar PV/renewable generation and energy storage technologies will be devoted to this project. Smart Energy Council (SEC) The Australian Smart Energy Council seeks to advance the uptake and development of energy storage solutions in Australia. The SEC is a national member based not-for-profit organisation and is governed by a volunteer board. The SEC represents companies including technology manufacturers, equipment providers, project developers, consultants, utilities and other energy industry leaders. The SEC provides an independent forum for networking and information sharing and connects local and global industry partners in this growing industry. Deakin University Deakin University has a strong research focus in renewable energy and battery energy storage systems. The university has made significant investment in infrastructure and lab facilities for power and energy system research, including renewables and energy storage systems. The power and energy system research group has developed a strong reputation in national and international communities through innovative research in areas of renewable energy, battery energy storage and associated control/grid integration. Their main research strength includes design, modelling, control and implementation of grid integrated renewable energy systems.

DNV GL – Report No. PP198127-AUME-R-01, Rev. A – www.dnvgl.com

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APPENDIX E

ABPS STAKEHOLDER REFERENCE GROUP

An external Stakeholder Reference Group (SRG), consisting of representatives of battery manufacturers, industry associations, government agencies & end-users, has been established to guide progress of the ABPS Project. Current SRG members:

ABB AGL Alpha ESS ARENA Century Yuasa Clean Energy Council Clean Energy Regulator CSIRO Deakin University DNV GL Ecoult Energy Consumers Australia Huawei ITP Renewables Jemena LG Chem Master Electricians Australia Redback Technologies Redflow Smart Energy Council Smart Energy Training Centre Solar Quip Sonnen Standards Australia Tesla University of Wollongong Victorian Government – Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning

DNV GL – Report No. PP198127-AUME-R-01, Rev. A – www.dnvgl.com

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APPENDIX F

ABPS DEVELOPMENT SCOPE SUMMARY

The following provides a high-level statement of the aims and objectives of the ABPS development activity within the ABPS project. The Project: Development of a Proposed Performance Standard for a Battery Storage System connected to a Domestic/Small Commercial Solar PV System Working Project Title: Australian Battery Performance Standard (ABPS) Project

1. Aim: To produce a draft Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) Performance Standard, for BESS connected to domestic/small commercial PV systems. The draft standard shall comprise a series of performance testing protocols & performance-metric reporting methods for manufacturers, such that end users are better informed regarding the expected performance of a BESS for specific use-cases, and therefore can compare systems on a consistent basis. The conclusion of this project will be the submission of the draft Standard to the Standards Australia process. Standards Australia will undertake its review and industry engagement in establishing a Battery Performance Standard. In the interim the ABPS Project work will provide a guideline for industry to follow.

2. Audience: •

Primary - Manufacturers - of batteries and battery energy storage systems. To provide recommended practices for the testing of battery energy storage system components and the associated reporting requirements to be provided to end users.

Secondary – End users (consumers) – To enable end users to make informed choices regarding the performance of different BESS available in the market, in view of the intended application. Also, to provide confidence that performance metrics reported are relevant and are comparable between different manufacturer’s systems.

3. Scope: The standard will apply only to battery energy storage systems connected to domestic/small commercial photovoltaic systems. As a reference the maximum BESS size considered is: 100kW, 200kWh The standard will reference and incorporate relevant global best practices where available, enhance where needed, and address gaps. A comprehensive review of existing related Standards will be conducted and where appropriate, protocols which are already adopted by industry, will be utilised through appropriate modifications. Where protocols do not exist, new protocols will be recommended. Key performance testing protocols will be supported by a range of experimental evidence to demonstrate their validity for inclusion and provide confidence to the audience.

DNV GL – Report No. PP198127-AUME-R-01, Rev. A – www.dnvgl.com

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All testing protocols recommended will be technology agnostic. When required, appropriate allowances for specific technologies will be made as part of the protocols. Scope limitation: The standard shall focus on system performance and will not cover matters related to safety of installation, grid connection, recycling, handling and transport requirements associated with BESS.

5. Output: A proposed Standard that will be submitted to Standards Australia to initiate the formal standard development process. A guideline based on the proposed Standard for use by industry stakeholders in the interim prior to the proposed Standard being finalised by Standards Australia will also be produced. The proposed Performance Standard (ABPS) for BESS connected to Domestic/Small Commercial Solar PV Systems shall include, but is not limited to: 1) the test methods to be utilised by battery manufacturers to characterise a battery energy storage systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s performance; and 2) BESS performance criteria reporting obligations. (e.g. datasheet specification requirements)

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ABOUT DNV GL Driven by our purpose of safeguarding life, property and the environment, DNV GL enables organizations to advance the safety and sustainability of their business. We provide classification and technical assurance along with software and independent expert advisory services to the maritime, oil and gas, and energy industries. We also provide certification services to customers across a wide range of industries. Operating in more than 100 countries, our 16,000 professionals are dedicated to helping our customers make the world safer, smarter and greener.

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Gap analysis of existing battery energy storage system standards - full report  

Development of a proposed performance standard for a battery storage system connected to a domestic/small commercial solar PV system

Gap analysis of existing battery energy storage system standards - full report  

Development of a proposed performance standard for a battery storage system connected to a domestic/small commercial solar PV system

Profile for dnvgl