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POSITION PAPER 2016-03

POWER CYBERNETICS The future of validation

SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER


02 ENERGY Power cybernetics

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The integration of distributed energy resources (DER) into distribution and transmission grids - mainly performed by power electronics with active controls - will have an increasingly more profound impact on the quality, reliability and availability of supply, as the level of DER penetration increases. The intrinsic grid characteristic will in fact at a given penetration level become completely governed by these distributed, active controls of the power electronics devices as opposed to the centralised controls today. This calls for a drastically new approach to testing and validation of equipment on grid compliance. Testing and validation of individual components in isolation will no longer suffice on its own, since it’s response is greatly dependent on the interaction with the system it is (inter)connected to. Therefore, for the purpose of de-risking such equipment in complex grids under dynamic situations also the testing should incorporate the dynamic system interaction. Stress testing such equipment in the field, or re-creating a substantial part of the entire target system in a laboratory environment, is greatly impractical, expensive and above all extremely risky. It therefore is inevitable that the combination of simulation - under real-time constraints - together with hardware experimentation, as promised by hardware in the loop techniques, will become essential in the validation of any integrated system solution. This at the required complexity and including the highly dynamic and transient power system behaviour. This position paper introduces Power Cybernetics as a comprehensive, closed-loop, real-time, test and validation method as part of a risk management & mitigation service into a diverse range of actively-controlled power systems. It encompasses laboratory-based, (power) hardware-in-the-loop testing to enhance active component’s type test results with a fit-for-purpose validation for application in its intended complex, realistic power system application. Such testing techniques are seen as front-runners for future, independent, third-party, certification regimes. Besides the state-of-the art, challenges and prospects of this method, a number of application cases for active (control) systems for electrical power grids on land and maritime environments.

Contact details: Erik de Jong, Arnhem, the Netherlands erik.dejong@dnvgl.com


Power cybernetics ENERGY 03

CONTENT. INTRODUCTION __________________________________________________________________4 The business of risk reduction/management through validation and testing ................................. 5 Evolution towards complex systems ..................................................................................................... 6 (Energy) from passive components to active systems .................................................................. 6 (Maritime) from analogue to digital control systems .................................................................... 8 The future needs of validation and testing ...................................................................................9

CLOSED-LOOP TESTING AND VALIDATION TECHNIQUES ___________________________10

The major benefits of closed-loop testing ...................................................................................... 12 The state of the art of closed-loop testing .............................................................................................. 12 Application in other disciplines .............................................................................................................16

CHALLENGES & PROSPECTS _____________________________________________________17

The interface issue .................................................................................................................................18 The time-scale and tearing issues ....................................................................................................... 19

NEXT GENERATION VALIDATION @DNV GL - ENERGY: POWER CYBERNETICS ________ 20

The concept .......................................................................................................................................... 20 International initiatives and networks ................................................................................................ 22

APPLICATION CASES ____________________________________________________________24

Case: PV-inverters, advanced inverter functions .............................................................................. 24 Case: Maritime dynamic positioning system (DPS) ...........................................................................25 Hardware in the loop testing of wind turbine control software ....................................................... 26

CONCLUSIONS ________________________________________________________________________28 REFERENCES ___________________________________________________________________________29


SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER

DNV GL - Energy Utrechtseweg 310-B50 6812 AR Arnhem The Netherlands Tel: +31 26 356 9111 Email: contact.energy@dnvgl.com www.dnvgl.com

DNV GL Driven by our purpose of safeguarding life, property and the environment, DNV GL enables organizations to advance the safety and sustainability of their business. We provide classification and technical assurance along with software and independent expert advisory services to the maritime, oil and gas, and energy industries. We also provide certification services to customers across a wide range of industries. Combining leading technical and operational expertise, risk methodology and in-depth industry knowledge, we empower our customers’ decisions and actions with trust and confidence. We continuously invest in research and collaborative innovation to provide customers and society with operational and technological foresight. With our origins stretching back to 1864, our reach today is global. Operating in more than 100 countries, our 16,000 professionals are dedicated to helping customers make the world safer, smarter and greener. In the energy industry DNV GL delivers world-renowned testing and advisory services to the energy value chain including renewables and energy efficiency. Our expertise spans onshore and offshore wind power, solar, conventional generation, transmission and distribution, smart grids, and sustainable energy use, as well as energy markets and regulations. Our 2,500 energy experts support clients around the globe in delivering a safe, reliable, efficient, and sustainable energy supply. DNV GL Strategic Research & Innovation The objective of strategic research is through new knowledge and services to enable long term innovation and business growth in support of the overall strategy of DNV GL. Such research is carried out in selected areas that are believed to be of particular significance for DNV GL in the future. A position paper from DNV GL Strategic Research & Innovation is intended to highlight findings from our research programmes.

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Power Cybernetics position paper  
Power Cybernetics position paper  

Position Paper 2016-03. The future of validation.