Carbon capture and storage
DNV serving the energy industry
| THIS IS DNV | DNV is a global provider of services for managing risk. Established in 1864, DNV is an independent foundation with the purpose of safeguarding life, property and the environment. DNV comprises 300 offices in 100 countries, with 7,000 employees. DNV Energy is one of four business areas in DNV, alongside DNV Maritime, DNV Industry and DNV IT Global Services. Our vision is global impact for a safe and sustainable future.
DNV provides world-class expertise in technology, operations, management and risk. We combine our know-how into a professional service concept designed to safely improve the performance of your business. So you can go strong on all dimensions.
| Contents | CCS u Carbon Capture and Storage – For a Sustainable Future
Services overview Handling new challenges with experience
technology qualification Qualifying the next step forward
Verification u A broad and complete verification service
SHE Risk Management u Managing CCS effects – safely and responsibly
enterprise Risk Management – ERM u Controlling risk to ensure the best solution
DNV SERVICES TO THE ENERGY INDUSTRY Enterprise Risk Management SHE Risk Management u Technology Qualification u Verification u Offshore Classification u Asset Risk Management u Training u IT Risk Management u Certification u u
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target segments Through these services, our teams of highly qualified professionals deliver cutting-edge solutions to customers across the industry: u Deep and ultra-deepwater field development u Floaters u Fixed structures u Offshore and onshore pipelines u Natural Gas/LNG u Refining and petrochemicals u Power generation and transmission u Wind, wave and tidal energy u Arctic operations and technology u Operations excellence u Carbon capture and storage
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Global demand for energy is surging. For the next century, this demand will primarily be met through the use of carbon-rich fossil fuels, which produce the greenhouse gas, CO2. However, climate change is currently one of the most pressing environmental issues globally. Hence, the public is also increasingly concerned about maintaining a sustainable balance in the environment, which creates a challenge for the energy sector. One promising solution to the problem is carbon capture, transport and long term storage (CCS), a bridging technology that systematically and safely reduces CO2 emissions from large scale energy production.
bridge to a carbon-free future DNV is playing a leading role in the development of this nascent technology, bringing our multidisciplinary expertise to the challenge of developing full scale, end-to-end CCS systems. We are brokering the process of creating industry standards and regulations, qualifying new technologies and storage sites, verifying new and retro-fitted CCS installations, and helping companies and authorities manage their increasingly complex risk exposure. By enabling the development of comprehensive CCS solutions, we help the energy sector meet its stateholdersâ€™ expectations of a sustainable, decarbonised future.
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THE BUSINESS LIFE CYCLE
DNV â€“ assisting companies in the energy industry along the entire life cycle to safeguard and improve business performance Project phases:
DNV energy deliveries:
Feasibility & concept selection
project due diligence project risk management SHE risk management reliability assessment technology qualification verification
concept and feasibility studies environmental impact assessment
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installation & commissioning
operation & life extension
quality surveillance and inspection material and corrosion testing operations excellence Maintenance Management
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Carbon Capture and Storage – For a Sustainable Future Global demand for energy is on the rise. Yet the power sector must respond to the worldwide consensus that our energy sources must produce less CO2 in order to maintain the balance of nature.
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one of the promising means of reducing CO2 emissions. The approach is to isolate CO2 from a gas stream and prevent it from emitting into the atmosphere by storing it in a suitable geological reservoir. The main sources of CO2 are fossil-fuel power plants and large-scale process industries. CCS is an emerging technology, with several individual projects already implimented worldwide. And DNV is helping lead the drive towards the first full scale, complete CCS chain, by working to resolve several key challenges.
There are several key challenges which need to be solved in this development: Technical uncertainties Economic feasibility XXLegislation XXEnvironmental impact XX XX
Challenges in the value chain Most CCS technologies are considered to be novel, and need testing and demonstration before they can create an efficient and reliable value chain. Capture
We have experience managing all aspects of project risk.
but large-scale capture of CO2 is new. Current R&D projects are improving existing technologies and based on developing new capture processes. Transportation Transportation of captured CO2 from source to storage site is generally considered to be a straight forward procedure. However, practical experience with concentrated CO2 transportation in large volumes and in dense, high-pressure phase is minimal. Challenges related to corrosion, operational conditions and safety issues need to be identified and solved. Today, there are no industrial standards or recommended practices for CO2 transmission in dense, high-pressure phase via pipelines.
The three major components of the CCS approach are capture, transport and storage. First, the CO2 is captured from a point source such as an flue gas, and processed to meet predefined specifications and properties. The treated gas is then piped or shiped to a suitable reservoir, typically a subterranean reservoir, and injected into it.
Energy production and other industrial processes leave behind large amounts of flue and waste gas. The byproduct is often a mixture of gases of which the fraction of CO2 can be as small as 3–4 percent. One of the main challenges is to extract CO2 from the rest of the gas stream in an efficient manner. Today, CO2 capture from small industrial processes is a well-known routine,
Just CatchTM post-combustion co2 capture
Post-combustion is one of three different approaches for capturing CO2 from fossil-fuel power plants. This technology has the advantage of connection to existing and new plants, and the flexibility to capture CO2 from different flue gas sources. Aker Kværner has developed the post-combustion capture technology Just CatchTM together with other leading research communities and partners. Just CatchTM is a development of existing CO2 capture technology from the process industry, but on a much larger scale. By reducing investment costs and increasing efficiency, Aker Kværner will make Just CatchTM a competitive capture plant. By the introduction of the Just Catch
BioTM technology a step change in postcombustion technology has been achieved. DNV is facilitating the qualification management of Just CatchTM and Just Catch BioTM on behalf of Aker Kværner Engineering & Technology (AKET). The objective is to guide the qualification of the Just CatchTM technology in compliance with DNVRP-A203 ‘Qualification Procedures for New Technology’ and issue a ‘DNV Statement of Fitness for Service’. Our work has helped AKET focus on key elements in the further development and ensure stakeholders that there are no present show-stoppers.
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DNV is helping develop a full scale CCS solution.
CCS captures and stores CO2 emissions.
Storage The captured CO2 has to be stored for a very long time, possibly close to 1000 years, in order to prevent a further increase in atmospheric CO2 content. Storing captured CO2 safely for many centuries calls for a thorough assessment and analysis of the storage site. Unexpected leakages and events are not acceptable, and this makes strict demands to both projection and accomplishment. Adequate reservoirs can be located at remote areas, and the lack of experience with injection and storage means that there are critical challenges that must be solved. Capturing and compressing CO2 requires a great deal of energy, significantly increasing the running costs of CCS-equipped power plants. In addition, there are added investment or capital costs. Consistent framework conditions are not fully implemented by national and international authorities, which can make it difficult for industrial companies to plan ahead. Finally, in order for CCS to
gain and maintain environmental and public acceptance, there is zero tolerance of emissions or leakages at all times. A complex risk picture There is a requirement of filling knowledge gaps and investigating concerning issues when developing a fully integrated CCS system. The risk aspect is rather complex, with different views from a number of stakeholders to take into consideration. There are framework requirements from authorities to fulfil, uncertainties when introducing new technology, economic commitments involved in every part of the project and a very strict regime regarding environmental aspects. Add a tight time schedule to the equation and the result is a rather extensive and vulnerable risk picture.
| Critical Issue: Innovations, including potential use of new chemicals, to significantly reduce costs and energy consumption. Solution: Technology assessment procedure, failure mode analysis. Key DeliverABLes: Documentation of risk and qualification activities. Value to client: Stakeholders ensured that the technology qualification is managed. Transparent and structured documentation of the qualification.
DNV has decades of experience dealing with risks and opportunities in the energy sector. We can help you place and attain project milestones, ensure your interests and secure an acceptable return on your investments. This way, you get a hold of the critical details without losing the big picture.
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Handling new challenges with experience
Developing a full CCS value chain requires both experience and courage. Advanced, new technology has to be implemented with existing equipment, and the time schedule to do so may be limited. DNV offers a complete set of services to help you ensure the quality and integrity of your assets.
Compared to conventional oil and gas processing, capturing the CO2 from the flue gas and storing it in a suitable reservoir is a reverse way of thinking. This brings up a number of new and critical challenges that have to be addressed in order to make the sequestration safe and reliable. As an independent provider of a broad service portfolio, DNV has the resources and integrity to play the leading role in the development of an end-to-end CO2 life cycle. Today, we offer our multidisciplinary expertise to a wide range of customers within a number of different business areas. Our competence spans the entire business life cycle – from the very early phases through operation to post-closure care. Ensuring both details and the big picture The main elements of a CCS value chain typically include a CO2 point source with a capturing plant, an extensive transportation infrastructure and a reservoir injection
facility. Separately, all three elements are considered to be somewhat immature and uncertain technologies when dealing with CO2 on a large scale. Technology development and improvement, thorough R&D activities and full-scale testing for each of the value chain parts is necessary to ensure sufficient quality and reliability. There are a number of new challenges to solve and the time available is limited. In addition, integrating these new technologies into a full value chain is a comprehensive and demanding assignment itself. It is essential to make certain that the involved contributors and participants deliver according to schedule and design specifications. When ensuring both details and overall aspects, the use of related experience and suitable tools is crucial for success. DNV has developed a comprehensive service portfolio during decades of close cooperation with the industry. We can contribute with services throughout the entire process of developing a CCS-related project.
We help the industry improve environmental performance.
A complete set of services DNV can offer services related to different phases throughout concept implementation, contribute to specific technology parts of a CCS value chain or provide project management assistance. Some of the key services we offer within this segment are: Concept and feasibility studies EIA – Environmental impact assessment XXSHE risk management XXSafety and risk analysis XXTechnology qualification XXIntegrated risk management XXProject risk management XXRisk assessment XXRisk-based verification XXReliability and availability studies XXLife cycle assessments XX XX
Based on our long experience within the maritime and oil & gas sector, we have become a leader in the evaluation of new technologies. Ensuring that new methodologies and knowledge are available to the industry
Johansen and Utsira formations Long-term geological storage of CO2
CO2 captured from the planned power plants at Kårstø and Mongstad may be injected into suitable geological sub-seabed formations below the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The two most likely alternatives are the costal aquifer below the Troll field (the Johansen formation) and the northern Utsira aquifer formation.
As part of the feasibility study, DNV organised and facilitated a two-day workshop with a selected panel of experts. The approach chosen for the workshop was a semi-quantitative risk assessment, with a coarse risk ranking of the candidate formations. The main risk assessment tools used were:
Structured What-If Technique (SWIFT) – hazard identification XXQuintessa’s Feature, Events and Processes (FEP) database XXCoarse risk ranking, using the Delphi method XXLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Screening and Ranking Tool XXSCR verification Most of the risks identified were due to uncertainty about features of the formation and processes within them when injecting and storing CO2. Risks associated with unforeseen events were less dominant.
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Our competence spans the entire CCS project life cycle.
is an important part of DNVâ€™s overall strategy. Together with the industry, DNV will develop adequate guidelines and procedures for critical parts of the CCS value chain. The aim is to create a consistent foundation so that CO2 capture, transport and storage can be carried out in a safe and reliable way. The future Today, industry and governments make significant investments in CCS-related systems, and further expansion in this area is expected in the years to come. Directing and evaluating this development along the way is a necessity, and DNV is ready to step into this demanding role. Our vision is to make a global impact for a safe and sustainable future. By developing new methodologies, understanding the new risk agenda and working hard to manage risk and improve safety and environmental performance, we are taking steps in the right direction.
Guiding the industry Proper standards and best practices for capture, transmission and storage of CO2, as well as adequate qualification procedures do not currently exist in the oil and gas industry. In order to develop these important guidelines and standards, DNV is therefore inviting international industry leaders and key stakeholders to join three significant Joint Industry Projects. The Joint Industry Projects will deal with: Qualification of technologies for power generation with capture of CO2 XXTransmission of CO in pipelines 2 XXQualification of Sites and Projects for Geological Storage of CO2 XX
These three joint projects aim to provide a path forward for the industrial opportunity on CCS. The outcome from the projects will provide international standards, methodologies, and guidelines that will form the basis for industrial agreements, and become valuable input to
| Critical Issue: Functionality of the Johansen and the Utsira formations for the long-term storage of CO2. Assessment and ranking of the storage sites. Discussion of general criteria for the long-term storage of CO2. Solution: Facilitated a workshop with an expert panel. Key DeliverABLes: A coarse risk assessment of the formations. Value to client: Independent assessment of the long-term storage functionality of the Johansen and Utsira formations.
DNV is developing CCS guidelines and procedures.
implementation of national requirements. The new standards aim to facilitate and speed up CCS project development, decision processes and ongoing regulatory development, both in Europe and worldwide. The key challenges the projects will address include how to store CO2 in sub-seabed formations in a safe manner, how to qualify CO2 storage projects and new CO2 capture technology, and what should be the industrial standard for transmission of CO2 in pipelines. Industrial standards and best practices addressing these challenges do not currently exist.
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Qualifying the next step forward Qualification promotes technological breakthroughs.
Developing and implementation of new technology is a prerequisite for progress in managing CO2 emissions. DNV can guide you through this demanding and challenging process.
Technology qualification can be described as the process of providing evidence that technology or technical solutions will function reliably within specific limits. Developing new technologies and solutions is necessary in order to complete an end-toend value chain for CO2 sequestration. In addition, existing technologies have to be modified for this area of application. New solutions are often accompanied by significant cost implications. DNV helps test, qualify and develop new ideas, and to promote technological breakthroughs, innovative solutions and substantial savings. Our approach DNV developed the first industry-recommended practice for qualifying new technology (DNV-RP-A203 â€˜Qualification Procedure for New Technologyâ€™), and has extensive experience in assisting our clients in qualifying their technologies according to this procedure. We combine our risk management expertise with
our extensive knowledge of the technologies within the energy industry. Since we are an independent company working with both operators and technology vendors, we have a great insight into most of the failure modes and mechanisms that have been experienced in the industry. This knowledge base makes us a unique partner for qualifying technologies and improving their reliability and performance. A strong development of CCS technology is needed to mitigate climate effects. The energy sector has historically been slow in employing new technology. Thus, there is the need to develop and qualify technical solutions that can assure the industry that CCS technology is reliable. Our solution DNV provides a number of services to assist in technology qualification: Qualification management â€“ Manage the qualification process according to the principles in RP-A203 with certificates
Facilitate threat identification sessions (FMECA, HAZID, HAZOP, design reviews, etc.) XXTechnical analyses and studies XXModelling of failure mechanisms XXReliability analyses XXLaboratory testing XXMetallurgical evaluations XX
Key benefits The main benefits of technology qualification are: Improves end-user confidence in the system XXAllows more efficient use of resources XXSystematically identifies failure modes XXIncreases the likelihood of qualifying the technology on time XXReduces the risk cost during operation by reducing uncertainties and increasing reliability XXShorten time from R&D to use XXAssure compliance with regulations, codes and standards XX
R&D CO2 capture and storage in geological formations
DNV has carried out own R&D projects specifically addressing CCS for years. The objectives are to create knowledge and scientific basis for methods, tools and services as well as to contribute to technical solutions and to the development of sound regulations and industry standards.
Second, formal regulatory regimes have been slow in including CCS as approved strategy for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. Important factors are gaps in knowledge, procedures and criteria for approval and for management of risks and liabilities. Thirdly, an important challenge for CCS is to gain stakeholder confidence in storage projects lasting 1000 years into the future. R&D efforts are aimed at developing insight in the physical and geological performance of storage sites as well as developing fit-for-purpose risk management processes and tools for long-term storage integrity. DNV have key roles in several such R&D projects with external partners both in Europe and North America.
Several challenges must be met for CCS to be applied responsibly. First, new technologies for capturing and storing CO2 must reach a level of reliability and maturity that investors, operators and authorities can be comfortable with. The number and scale of CCS installations are several orders of magnitude larger than seen so far both in pilot and commercial projects.
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A broad and complete verification service Ensure a successful project by focusing on the most important and critical areas through a consistent verification approach. DNV has the tools and experience to safeguard all project phases.
Traditionally, verification activity has focused on safety. We have now broadened the scope to include factors such as functionality, availability and schedule. We have also adopted a risk-based approach, which provides the opportunity to focus on the most important areas and to prioritise the factors that are critical to success. Before a project starts, it is crucial that the verification tasks are identified and prioritised. DNV can help you carry this out and ensure that follow-up verification activities go according to plan during project execution. We have carried out various certification work for customers all over the world and have extensive knowledge of many countries’ regulations. Our verification services cover the design phase as well as fabrication and installation.
first-hand experience, secures an independent and respectable verification. Our activities DNV’s activities are connected to satisfying the expectations or requirements of owners, authorities and other stakeholders with regards to safety, environmental protection and functionality. They includes services throughout the entire CCS value chain, such as: Verification to rules/standards/regulations XXRisk-based plant and product verification XXSupplier quality surveillance XXManufacturing and production quality assurance XXMarine verification and warranty services XX
Our approach Through a consistent verification approach, DNV seeks to establish trust and long-term relationships with our customers. Our multidisciplinary competence, gained by years of
| Critical Issue: There is a need for further knowledge and technology in order to implement long term geological storage of CO2 in a safely manner. Solution: Extensive R&D efforts in collaboration with other stakeholders and expertise. Key DeliverABLes: Create knowledge and scientific basis for methods, tools and services. Value to client: Improved knowledge and technical solutions for CO2 capture and storage.
Our verification process prioritises critical risks.
Our strategy Our strategy is to be recognised by our customers and regulators as having the best industry practice in terms of technical standards, service specifications, tools and resources. DNV’s verification services shall be risk based, transparent and recognised as best industry practice. The aim of our verification services is to create confidence in a cost-efficient way XXWe will add value by verifying high-risk elements at an early phase and provide an effective and customer-oriented service throughout the development and operational phases XXWe will be valued for our technically competent and independent assessments XX
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SHE RisK Management
Managing CCS effects â€“ safely and responsibly
Together with the industry and other stakeholders, DNV is developing a CCS value chain that protects both human and environmental capital. We provide support to assess the continuing effectiveness of management systems, and help achieve cultural and behavioural change wherever needed.
Stakeholders undoubtedly expect clear management of safety, health and the environment. A new risk agenda is emerging, bringing with it new demands on your business and how it is managed. Mere compliance with legal requirements for SHE performance is no longer sufficient for forward-thinking organisations. We can help you safely and responsibly improve your business performance. DNV applies risk-based methods and advanced software tools to ensure that hazards are identified and understood throughout the life cycle of projects and operations. We adapt our approach to your ongoing CCS challenges, applying the full range of DNV capabilities and experience. Safety risk management
We help increase safety and environmental performance.
Expertise and commitment
We combine technical expertise and advanced risk methodologies with management consulting skills to offer a new and different type of consulting service. Our vision is to make a global impact for a safe and sustainable future by understanding the new risk agenda and working hard to improve safety and environmental performance.
Consequence assessment Risk assessment XXManagement systems and performance standards XXEmergency planning Environmental risk management We provide many interrelated services in the area of environmental risk management, including: Dispersion and fate modelling Environmental impact and risk assessment XXImpact and risk management planning XXSpill preparedness and response analysis and planning XXEnvironmental monitoring XX XX
Key benefits Our customised and integrated solutions can help to: Increase safety and environmental performance XXEnsure sustainable development XXImprove financial performance XXEnhance reputation XX
Our services will ensure that you make the appropriate strategic and operational decisions related to health and safety issues:
The DNV environmental process methodology is based on international guidelines combined with best practice experience gained through extensive projects.
Mongstad and MelkĂ¸ya Risk evaluation of CO2 transport, storage and injection
Identifying the risks related to the handling of CO2 is of utmost importance when introducing CO2 capture and storage facilities at existing oil and gas processing plants. Decision makers need to understand the increased risk to personnel when introducing a CO2 facility on site, and engineers and designers need to identify the main risk drivers and efficient risk-reducing measures.
and injected for final deposit offshore. The CO2 facility will be located within the LNG plant, so the risk to personnel must be identified, quantified and managed. DNV delivered a safety risk assessment to Statoil where the risk contribution from the CO2 facility where identified, and the consequences where modelled using DNV software tools. The risk contribution where analysed and assessed in the context of the existing activities at the LNG Plant. Based on the knowledge of the risk contributors, a set of risk reducing measures where communicated to Statoil and the contractor.
Statoil is planning to transport 100,000 tons/year of liquid CO2 by ship from the Mongstad refinery test centre to the Hammerfest LNG plant on the island of MelkĂ¸ya. Here the CO2 is imported, stored
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Enterprise Risk Management â€“ ERM
Controlling risk to ensure the best solution Through an integrated approach model, the dependencies between technical and economic matters and the risks involved are managed. Enterprise Risk Management gives you a more complete basis for decision.
The development of a CCS value chain involves business case assessments of possible concepts. Critical, strategic CCS decisions that need to be addressed early could include the choice of capture technology, the assessment of different transport solutions and organising logistics in reservoir injection. However, these decisions are complex because of the large technological risks as well as uncertain market conditions. New technology has to be developed and qualified, the effect of injection on reservoirs in production is uncertain, market prices have not been concluded, etc. Therefore, a technical-economic evaluation to support a development decision has to take into account the full risk picture. Utilising our ERM experience early in the development of your CCS project can be the key to success.
DNV applies an integrated approach to ensure that both technical and economic issues are properly accounted for when assessing the attractiveness of the various concepts. Using integrated risk management and project risk management helps identify risks, the opportunities and capabilities of each concept, and assessment of the total risk in a life cycle perspective.
The DNV approach does not replace detailed analyses, but provides a means of aggregating data from different disciplines into a more complete basis for decision. Since the integrated model allows all relevant uncertainties and their dependencies to be included, the total risk can be described more comprehensively. Furthermore, the major risk drivers and their underlying causes and knock-out effects can be analysed.
The integrated model includes the various risks and uncertainties that impact CCS development, such as: Uncertainties in in-place volumes and recovery factors XXAvailability and risks related to technical performance XXFrequency of component failures, duration of repairs, and waiting time and cost of repair resources XXUncertainty in CAPEX, OPEX, tariffs, etc XXUncertainty in product prices XXUncertainty in timing XX
| Critical issue: Identify risks related to CO2 handling at existing gas processing plant. Solution: Quantitative risk evaluation of the impact of accidental CO2 releases. Key DeliverABLes: Risk assessment with identification of main risk drivers and risk-reducing measures. Value to client: Increased knowledge of risk related to CO2 handling and decision and design support.
ERM uncovers tecnological and economic risks.
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DNV locations DNV serves the energy industry from more than 40 primary locations worldwide. In addition, we draw on DNVâ€™s entire worldwide network of 300 offices in 100 countries.
Trondheim Bergen Stavanger Oslo Sandefjord Aberdeen Esbjerg Copenhagen Manchester Moscow Antwerp London Essen Paris
Abu Dhabi Muscat Mumbai Ho Chi Minh City
Kuala Lumpur Singapore Jakarta Luanda
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Calgary St. John’s Halifax Columbus Houston
Salvador Rio de Janeiro
São Paulo Porto Alegre Buenos Aires
DNV ENERGY main offices: Aberdeen Cromarty House 67-72 Regent Quay Aberdeen AB11 5AR United Kingdom Tel: +44 1224 335000
Calgary Bay 123 2340 Pegasus Way NE Calgary AB Canada T2E 8M5 Tel: +403 250 9041
Antwerp Duboisstraat 39 b1 2060 Antwerp Belgium Tel: +32 3 206 65 40
Columbus 5777 Frantz Road Dublin, Ohio 43017-1386 USA Tel: +1 614 761 1214
Abu Dhabi The Towers Abu Dhabi Trade Centre Near Beach Rotana Hotel East Wing – E 108 Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates Tel: +971 2 6457580
Copenhagen Tuborg Parkvej 8, 2nd Floor DK2900 Hellerup Copenhagen Denmark Tel: +45 39 45 48 00
Bergen Johan Berentsensvei 109-111 NO-5020 Laksevåg, Bergen Norway Tel: +47 55 94 36 00
Houston 16340 Park Ten Place Suite 100 Houston, TX 77084, USA Tel: +1 281 721 6600
Kuala Lumpur 24th Floor, Menara Weld 76, Jalan Raja Chulan 50200 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Tel: +603 2050 2888
Paris Centre BFI, Tour AREVA, 92084 Paris La Defense Cedex Paris France Tel: +33 1 47 96 46 36
London Palace House 3 Cathedral Street London SE1 9DE United Kingdom Tel: +44 207 357 6080
Moscow Business-Center “Country Park” 3rd Floor, Panfilova 19 141407 Moscow Region Khimki, Moscow Russian Federation Tel: +7 495 739 4833
Luanda Edificio Monumental Rua Major Kanhangulo, nº 290 2º Andar Luanda Angola Tel: +244 222 391 631 Oslo Veritasveien 1 NO-1322 Høvik Norway Tel: +47 67 57 99 00
Mumbai Emgeen Chambers, 10, C.S.T. Road, Vidyanagari, Kalina Santacruz East Mumbai 400098 India Tel: +91 22 26650909
Rio de Janeiro Rua Sete de Setembro, 111 – 12o andar CEP 20050-006 Rio de Janeiro, R.J Brazil Tel: +55 21 3722 7232 Shanghai House No. 9, 1591 Hong Qiao Road Shanghai 200336 China Tel: +86 21 3208 4518 Singapore DNV Technology Centre 10 Science Park Drive Singapore 118224 Singapore Tel: +65 6779 1266 Stavanger Bjergstedveien 1 NO-4007 Stavanger Norway Tel: +47 51 50 60 00
DNV Veritasveien 1 NO-1322 Høvik, Norway Tel: +47 67 57 99 00 Fax: +47 67 57 99 11 www.dnv.com/energy
Concept and design: CREUNA Images: Front cover DNV, p2 DNV, p6 copyright StatoilHydro, p7 DNV, copyright Aker Kværner, DNV, p8 DNV, p9 DNV, p10 DNV, p11 DNV, copyright StatoilHydro, p12 DNV, p13 DNV. Production: Ressurs