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DNV SERVING THE PROCESS INDUSTRY quantified risk assessment

failure frequency guidance PROCESS EQUIPMENT LEAK FREQUENCY DATA FOR USE IN QRA


02 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

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I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 03

CONTENTS 04 05 06 08

1. Introduction 2. Background on HCRD 3. Application of Data 4. Methodology

12 5. Calculating Release Rate 16 6. Leak Frequency Datasheets 38 7. References

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04 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

1. INTRODUCTION Frequency estimates are recognised as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in Quantitative Risk Assessment studies. There are a few sources of data for failure frequency data for process equipment loss of containment: Netherlands and Belgium have issued two different onshore frequency datasets for use in Seveso Directive risk assessments, and some companies and consultants have their own data. In many cases the provenance of these data is uncertain and examples exist of frequencies that are too low and do not match historical accident frequencies. It is detrimental to QRA methodology that such old or inconsistent data is routinely used. DNV is therefore publishing this booklet in order to put best practice process equipment leak frequency data into the public domain. DNV’s data is derived from the Hydrocarbon Release Database (HCRD) which has been compiled by the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) over a 20 year period. The database [2] contains details of over 4000 leak events at oil and gas installations in the UK Continental Shelf. It identifies 78 different types and size categories of process equipment, and records the quantity of the release and the release hole size. This is considered the most extensive dataset of its type and superior to current published datasets which often have much smaller and older data which do not reflect current integrity management programs. DNV has assessed this data for several years on behalf of a major oper-

ator. While the data is ‘noisy’, typical for real data, DNV has applied a smoothing function to cover all leak sizes. Leaks are differentiated for 17 equipment types. This analysis and interpretation is complex: considerable effort is required to obtain generic leak frequency data that are suitable for use in Quantified Risk Assessment (QRA). DNV believes that process industry will benefit from consistent application of these generic leak frequencies in QRA, and is therefore publishing its preferred dataset in order to encourage standardisation across different users. The booklet describes DNV’s methods for interpreting the HCRD and describes its application to offshore, onshore and LNG plant. The booklet also presents tabulations of generic leak frequency data for different equipment types. The booklet compares the DNV dataset against some alternative sources of leak frequency data and describes some important reasons why the DNV interpretation of the HCRD should be preferred. DNV was commissioned by Statoil to define the model presented in this document, involving contractors Scandpower and Safetec in the work.


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 05

2. BACKGROUND ON HCRD The Piper Alpha incident occurred in 1988 and resulted in 167 people losing their lives. As a result of this disaster Lord Cullen conducted an inquiry [1]. The inquiry made 106 recommendations including the requirement to report leaks to the HSE through the reporting of injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences regulations (RIDDOR). The HSE organises this data and makes it publically available through the Hydrocarbon Release Database (HCRD). The database started to be compiled in October 1992 and now contains 20 years of experience in hydrocarbon releases from the UK Continental Shelf. Figure 1 shows the number of recorded leaks per year since 1992. (For each bar in the graph, the reporting period for leaks is between April 1st and March 31st in the following year. The first bar contains data for a six month period 1st of October 1992 and the 31st of March 1993). Figure 2 shows the breakdown of these leaks into three categories as defined by HSE: minor, significant and major. The average number of minor leaks per year between April 1st 1993 and March 31st 1998 is 82, whereas there were an average of 109 minor leaks per year between April 1st 2006 and March 31st 2010. This increase may be due to an actual increase in minor leaks or an improvement in the reporting of these leaks. Detection of smaller leaks may also have improved. The number of significant and major leaks has decreased over the period, particularly major leaks which have decreased by a factor of 12. In 2010 in the UK the oil

and industry committed to reducing its number of hydrocarbon emissions by 50% in 3 years. Two years into the three year programme there has been a 40% reduction in the number of leaks [1]. Determining the number of leaks that have occurred offshore provides only one part of the data that is required to calculate leak frequency. The number of different types of equipment offshore has also been recorded and quantified since 1992, although HSE has recorded no change in the equipment count since 2003 (Regarding system and equipment population data, HSE notes that the responsibility for maintaining the currency of this data rests with duty holders. The population data in HCRD is provided by duty holders on a voluntary database and it is not HSE’s role to update, or verify this particular data. Use of this population data would need to be made with caution). It is questionable that the amount of equipment has remained the same offshore since 2003. Maintaining an accurate equipment count is not straightforward, for example the count of equipment on mobile rigs would require the database operators to keep track of the position of MOUs and their movements. The equipment count on the UKCS is provided by the operators on a voluntary database and it is not part of HSE’s role to monitor or verify the equipment count. Therefore there are uncertainties associated with the equipment count.

250 350

200

300

No. of Leaks

250

150

200

100

150 100

50 50

0

0 1993

1995

1994

1997

1996

1999

1998

2001

2000

2003

2002

Year

Figure 1 Number of Leaks per year

2005

2004

2007

2006

2009

2008

2010

1993

1995

1994

1997

1996

1999

1998 Minor

2001

2000

2003

2002 Significant

2005

2004

Major

Figure 2 Number of leaks per leak category per year

2007

2006

2009

2008

2010


06 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

3. APPLICATION OF DATA 3.1 OFFSHORE The data in this booklet is based upon data from the UK sector of the North Sea which has been collected by the HSE in the hydrocarbon release database (HCRD). The data is based on approximately 4000 recorded leaks recorded between October 1992 and March 2010. This database has been analysed by DNV to produce generic leak frequencies applicable for use with offshore installations that are operated to UK North Sea standards. The methodology of DNVs approach is presented in the 2009 HAZARDS XXI Conference [4].

3.2 ONSHORE DNV normally also use these data for QRA at onshore facilities. In general, the HSE data set gives higher leak frequencies than most of the onshore sources of data. There are several possible explanations for this. Process equipment on offshore installations might experience higher leak frequencies than on onshore plants. Possible reasons might be extra external corrosion from salt-water spray, internal erosion from entrained sand, or impacts resulting from the more compact equipment layouts. However, offshore installations have safety management systems that would be expected to counter such evident hazards. The HSE data set on leak causes shows that corrosion/erosion is a minor contributor, with operational/ procedural faults and mechanical defects being the primary causes. Table 1 indicates the causes of leaks offshore between the 1st October 1992 to the 31st of March 2002.

Another possible explanation could be differences in data quality. The HSE offshore data set is a high-quality database, collected recently, covering a large population, with welldefined hole sizes, comprehensive equipment counts, and open for scrutiny by the operators and their consultants. Most of the available onshore leak frequencies come from small sample sizes. In fact in the case of onshore pipe leak frequencies it is concluded that the most widely accepted data set is of eight leaks in U.S. nuclear plants in 1972, or earlier collections whose size and origin are now unknown. [3]. A third factor affecting the comparison is that the HSE offshore data set includes some leaks that occurred while the equipment was depressurised, and others that were quickly isolated. The onshore frequencies are applicable to holes with process fluid at the full operating pressure. The frequencies based on HCRD data should be used with outflow models that take account of the variation in operating circumstances at the time of the leak. A further complicating factor is that onshore and offshore management systems in the UK must address different regulatory requirements. The Offshore Safety Case requirements are more onerous than those required of onshore refineries (e.g. offshore requirements for identification of safety critical elements, performance standards and written schemes, plus the rigorous leak reporting requirements). Overall, it is considered that the HSE offshore data provides the best available estimate of leak frequencies for both

Category

Causation Factor

Instances

Category Totals

Design fault

–

321

321

Equipment Fault

Corrosion/Erosion

277

Mechanical Defect

920

Material Defect

76

Other

89

Incorrectly fitted

267

Improper Operation

495

Dropped/Impact

36

Left Open/Opened

237

Other

81

Noncompliance

231

Deficient Procedure

323

Other

34

Operational Fault

Procedural Fault

Table 1: Causation factors in HSE offshore data [2]

1362

1116

588


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 07

onshore and offshore process equipment. However, it does require that the outflow model should take account of the possibility of the equipment being depressurised or quickly isolated at the time of the leak.

3.3 LNG FACILITIES The main risk drivers on an LNG site are events that are unlikely to be within the direct experience of individual plants and terminals. Establishing the frequency of such events is difficult, precisely because of their rarity. It requires systematic data collection, for leaks and the exposed equipment population, over many plants for many years. Such data collection is time-consuming and hence unusual. Alternative methods such as fault tree analysis are possible for plant-specific applications, but have not yet delivered generic leak frequencies suitable for routine use in QRA studies. Data sets exist that attempt to provide failure rates for cryogenic pipework, or for LNG-specific operating experience in general, but these are not considered to be sufficiently robust to justify any modification to the generic data derived from the HCRD. That is, any argument that offshore data such as the HCRD is not relevant to LNG facilities is considered to be compensated for by the weight of statistical data supporting the derived failure rates for specific equipment items, compared to the very limited data supporting any specific cryogenic / LNG failures that have occurred. Given the perceived risks associated with LNG it is often the case that fully welded pipelines and connections are employed, at least for the cryogenic part of the facility. Hence, where QRA of a ‘typical’ facility would assume that all valves are flanged (even where not shown on the P&IDs) this may not be the case for LNG facilities. It is important to confirm the extent to which this applies for any given facility – the default should be to assume flanged connections. A common aspect of uncertainty in QRA is associated with the frequency of inter-unit pipework / pipeline releases. It is widely accepted that the application of process pipework failure data will tend to give overly conservative values with respect to longer inter-unit pipe segments. This can be of particular relevance to LNG facilities, where the loading lines are often several kilometers long. In the course of conducting a large number of QRA studies, DNV has had the opportunity to draw on the experience of a range of operators. On the basis of these discussions, it is considered appropriate to apply a factor of 10 reductions in the pipework failure frequency for inter-unit piping. It should be

recognised that this is an engineering judgement assumption, based on acknowledging operational experience that inter-unit pipework fails very rarely (in comparison to the process pipework within the main process areas). This revised basis can be of particular relevance to loading lines, although should not substitute for consideration of all potential loads (and hence potential frequency modification factors) that may apply to a particular facility, or particular loading line. In summary: ■■

■■

■■

■■

The DNV analysis of HCRD is recommended as the basis for the process and pipework failure data – as per all QRA studies. There is no statistically sound basis for modifying the source failure data to account for cryogenic or LNGspecific application. It is considered justifiable – albeit by engineering judgement – to reduce the process pipework failure rates by a factor of 10 for inter-unit piping. It should not be assumed that valves are flanged but this is an area where LNG applications may have the opportunity to reduce the parts count and hence the calculated leak frequency.


08 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

4. METHODOLOGY 4.1 GENERAL This booklet provides hole size frequency data for use in Quantified Risks Assessment (QRA) of process facilities. The methodology shown in this document was developed as in conjunction with Statoil and was presented in the 2009 HAZARDS XXI conference. The frequency data highlighted in this document uses the same methodology but uses data up to 2010 from the database. The booklet contains generic leak frequencies for each of the following process equipment types: 1. Compressors • Centrifugal compressors • Reciprocating compressors 2. Filters 3. Flanges 4. Heat Exchangers (Including Coolers, Heaters and condensers) • Air Cooled Heat Exchangers • Plate heat exchangers • Shell side heat exchangers • Tube side heat exchangers

DNV equipment type

HCRD equipment types

Steel pipes

Piping, steel (3 sizes)

Flanged joints

Flanges (3 sizes)

Manual valves

Valve, manual (10 types & sizes)

Actuated valves

Valve, actuated (18 types & sizes)

Instruments

Instruments (including connecting tubing, valves and flanges)

Process vessels

Pressure vessel (14 types)

Atmospheric vessels

Vessels at atmospheric pressure

Centrifugal pumps

Pumps, centrifugal (2 seal types)

Reciprocating pumps

Pumps, reciprocating (2 seal types)

Centrifugal compressors

Compressors, centrifugal

Reciprocating compressors

Compressors, reciprocating

Shell side heat exchangers

Heat exchangers, HC in shell

Tube side heat exchangers

Heat exchangers, HC in tube

Plate heat exchangers

Heat exchangers, plate

Air cooled heat exchangers

Fin fan coolers

Filters

Filters

Pig traps

Pig launchers & pig receivers (4 sizes)

Table 2: Equipment Type Groups

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Pig traps Process Pipes Pumps • Centrifugal pumps • Reciprocating pumps Instruments Valves • Actuated valves • Manual valves Pressurized process vessels Atmospheric storage tanks

This analysis represents the leak size distribution by an analytical frequency function, which ensures non-zero leak frequencies for all holes size ranges between 1 mm and the diameter of the inlet pipe to the equipment. In the following paragraphs a short presentation of the analysis is given. The methodology for obtaining leak frequencies from HCRD consists of three main steps: ■■

■■

■■

Grouping data for different types and sizes of equipment, where there is insufficient experience to show significant differences between them. Fitting analytical leak frequency functions to the data, in order to obtain a smooth variation of leak frequency with equipment and hole size. Splitting the leak frequencies into different leak scenarios, in order to promote compatibility with different approaches to outflow modelling in the QRA.

Grouping data The DNV analysis covers 17 different types of process equipment. Wellhead equipment, drilling equipment, pipelines and risers are all excluded from the analysis, since other more extensive data sources are available for these types of equipment. The remaining types of equipment are characterized as “process equipment”. The HCRD and the Statistics Report [2] allow 78 separate types and sizes of process equipment to be distinguished. In some cases, there is relatively little leak experience, and differences in leak frequencies between certain types and sizes of process equipment have no statistical significance. Analysis of results where there are only few reported results may be misleading. To avoid this, it is desirable to combine equipment types and sizes with relatively little leak experience.


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 09

Most HCRD equipment types have been used as defined by HSE, but some, with relatively little leak experience, have been combined into the following groups: ■■ All types of manual valves (bleed, block, check and choke). ■■ All other types of non-pipeline actuated valves (block, blowdown, choke, control, ESDV and relief, but not pipeline ESDV and SSIV). ■■ All types of pressure vessel (horizontal/vertical adsorber, KO drum, other, reboiler, scrubber, stabiliser, separator and stabiliser).

F(D) = f(D) Dm + Frup

Eqn 3

For pipes, flanges, valves and pig traps, HCRD provides data for different equipment size groups. Analysis of these showed significant variations in leak frequency with equipment size for pipes, flanges valves, whereas the population was too small to show any significant variation of leak frequency with equipment size for pig traps. Size dependence is represented in the leak frequency function using the following general form: f(D) = C(1 + aDn)

Eqn 4

Leak frequency function HCRD data, being real data, is very noisy as can be seen in Figure 3. DNV overlays a realistic distribution function that fits the data to obtain average leak frequencies. In raw data there are gaps (e.g. a particular equipment dimension may have zero leak events, but we would not predict zero for its actual leak likelihood) forcing a distribution of results in realistic predictions.

The HCRD provides sufficient data to determine estimates for the a and n parameters for f(D) for pipes, flanges, manual valves and actuated valves. For the other equipment types, f(D) is equal to the constant C.

A feature of the distribution function is that it allows any hole size distribution to be employed without biasing the result. In early coarse risk assessments we may only choose two hole sizes – small and large, whereas in detailed studies we may choose to employ 5 hole sizes for greater resolution. The equations allow any number of hole sizes to be selected and the total release frequency will always stay the same. The actual hole size feeds the consequence modeling and the more sizes used the greater the computational effort.

It is important to be aware that the leak frequency form is imposed on the data and that this is a mathematical representation of historical data. The data itself does not directly support a separate frequency for ruptures. The historical data related to releases from large hole sizes is very limited and the uncertainty related to estimation of such leaks is therefore considerable The additional rupture frequency Frup and the slope parameter m are assumed to be constants, i.e. not to be dependent on equipment size, for any equipment type.

The analysis represents the variation of leak frequency with equipment and hole size by the following general leak frequency function:

The function is used to calculate separate hole size frequencies for three types of leak scenario: ■■ Total leak frequency ■■ Full pressure leak frequency ■■ Zero pressure leak frequency

F(d) = f(D)dm + Frup

for d = 1 mm to D

Eqn 1

where: F(d) = frequency (per year) of holes exceeding size d f(D) = function representing the variation of leak frequency with D D = equipment diameter (mm) d = hole diameter (mm) m = slope parameter = additional rupture frequency (per year) Frup Hence the frequency of holes within any range d1 to d2 is: F(d1) – F(d2) = f(D)(d1m – d2m)

for d = 1 mm to D

Eqn 2

The frequency of full-bore ruptures, i.e. holes with diameter D, is:

where: C, a, n = constants for each equipment type

using separate parameters for C, a, n, m and Frup. These variables are used in DNVs software LEAK to produce the leak frequencies that are presented in the datasheets of this report.

4.2 LEAK SCENARIOS Analysis of the HCRD reveals a large number of scenarios with a significant difference between the recorded released mass and the mass that would be estimated by using a standard QRA methodology based on the recorded incident data. The HCRD includes many leaks that have occurred at very low system pressures. In order to account for this the analysis divides the leaks in HCRD into 2 main scenario categories: “full pressure leaks” and “zero pressure leaks”.


10 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

Full pressure leaks This scenario category is intended to be consistent with QRA models that assume a leak through the defined hole, beginning at the normal operating pressure, until controlled by isolation and blowdown, with a probability of isolation/blowdown failure. This is subdivided as follows: ■■

Full leaks which are intended to be consistent with QRA models that assume a leak through the defined hole, beginning at the normal operating pressure, until controlled by ESD1 and blowdown, with a small probability of ESD/blowdown failure. These are subdivided as follows – ESD isolated leaks, which are defined as cases where the outflow quantity is comparable with that predicted for a leak at the operational pressure. – Late isolated leaks, presumed to be cases where there is no effective ESD of the leaking system, resulting in a greater outflow quantity. Late isolated leaks are defined as cases where the outflow is greater than predicted for a leak at the operational pressure controlled by the slowest credible ESD and no blowdown.

■■

Limited leaks, presumed to be cases where the outflow quantity is significantly less than from a leak at the operational pressure controlled by the quickest credible ESD (after 30 seconds) and blowdown (according to API) initiated 60 seconds later. This is presumed to be cases where there exist restrictions in the flow from the system inventory, as a result of local isolation valves initiated by human intervention or process safety systems other that ESD and blowdown.

Normally a quantitative risk assessment will assume that all leaks are full leaks because these have the potential of developing into serious events endangering personnel and critical safety functions. From these leak frequencies the analyst can use a standard event tree approach for the subsequent consequence assessment. This includes probabilities for ESD and BD failure.

Limited leaks may be of as much concern for personnel risk as full leaks in the period immediately following the start of the release, but they will have a shorter duration. Hence the potential for them developing into any major concern for other safety functions, such as structural integrity, evacuation means, escalation, etc. Any consequence calculations should be modelled as for ESD and late isolated leaks, but

1

reflect that these events involve reduced release mass and durations.

Zero pressure leaks This scenario includes all leaks where the pressure inside the leaking equipment is virtually zero (0.01 barg or less). This may be because the equipment has a normal operating pressure of zero (e.g. open drains), or because the equipment has been depressurised for maintenance, but not de-inventoried. These leaks may typically be very small gas releases, short lasting oil spills, or liquid releases from atmospheric tanks. Most likely they represent a significantly reduced major accident risk potential relative to a pressurised release through the same hole size (although they do pose occupational safety issues) and the contribution to the overall risk level as predicted in QRA studies is considered negligible.

4.3 UNCERTAINTIES There are several significant uncertainties in fitting a curve to the available leak data. Some uncertainties are due to the way that leak data is reported to the HSE and the lack of data for larger events. Other sources of uncertainty include issues about an accurate population count and the accuracy with which the operator records the data. The sources of uncertainty are illustrated in Figure 3.

4.4 ALLOCATION OF LEAK EVENTS The method of allocating leak records in HCRD into the scenarios is as follows: ■■ Identify the zero pressure leak events in order to discount them from the analysis ■■ Estimate the initial release rate Qo from the hole, based on parameters recorded in HCRD, ■■ Estimate a range of plausible release quantities, REmin to REmax, based on typical ESD and blowdown response ■■ Compare the recorded release quantity in HCRD to the estimated release quantity range to determine the scenario. The scenario allocation criteria are (in order): Zero pressure leaks – actual pressure in HCRD < 0.01 barg. ■■ Limited leaks – recorded release quantity in HCRD < REmin·/ D ■■ ESD isolated leaks – recorded release quantity in HCRD in the range REmin / D to REmax· ■■ Late isolated leaks – recorded release quantity in HCRD > REmax· ■■

With the assumption that process shutdown (PSD) is the shutdown of a particular section rather than the whole platform the PSD system may have the same effect as far as QRA modelling of release rates is concerned.


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 11

Holes<1mm only reported since 2001

All releases

LEAK Function

Holes1-2mm probably under reported

Frequency Exceeding (/year)

1.E-03

1.E-04

1.E-05 Exposed population declines as d approaches D 1.E-06

Holes >100mm not specified since 2001 Uncertainty increases for largest events probably under reported

1.E-07 0.1

1

10

100

Hole Diameter (mm) Figure 3 Uncertainties in applying curve to data

D is a disproportion factor. It is used to ensure that the classification of limited leaks is appropriate. The value given to D is typically 4 and this is the value which has been used in the calculation of the tables in this document.

As a simple indication of the relative importance of each leak scenario using the methods and criteria above, Figure 4 shows the breakdown of all leaks in HCRD for the period 1992-2010. This shows that approximately 6% of leaks are at zero pressure, and that 48% are limited leaks. Of the remaining 3% Late isolated 7% 46% leaks, 3% are consistent with late isolation.

Full leak 49%

ESD isolated 93%

Full pressure leaks 94%

HCRD Leak (Total)

43%

48%

Limited leak 51%

Zero pressure leaks 6%

6%

Figure 4 can be further subdivided to produce Table 3. This indicates the effects that each individual fluid has on the leak type. Table 3 can be used in conjunction with the data sheets to obtain an estimate of the frequencies of limited leaks.

Figure 4: Event Tree of Leak Scenarios [4]

Release Type Zero Pressure leak Full pressure leak

Total

Total

GAS LEAK

OIL LEAK

CONDENSATE LEAK

2-PHASE LEAK

NONPROCESS

6%

6%

7%

7%

2%

8%

Limited leak

48%

33%

75%

64%

67%

53%

Full leaks

ESD isolated

43%

57%

16%

27%

30%

36%

Late Isolated

3%

4%

2%

2%

1%

3%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

Table 3 Proportion Distribution of leak incidents in the HCRD database2 (%)3 [4]

2

The figures take account of HCRD data until March 2010.

3

The data that supports the distribution of 2-Phase leaks and condensate leaks are not very comprehensive and the uncertainty in these numbers is therefore larger than for the other phases e.g. gas and oil leaks. The given distribution for 2-phase leaks and condensate leaks represents a best estimate.


12 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

5. CALCULATING RELEASE RATE In order to estimate the initial release rate Qo from the hole and a range of plausible release quantities REmin to REmax a series of equations are used. The phase of the fluid refers to the initial state of fluid in the equipment before a leak. For gas releases the initial release rate from high pressure !+! equipment given !" is ! !+! !!!by:

!+! !! = !! !!! ! !" !+! !! !!! !! !" !!!! !!! =!!! ! !" !!! !!!+! ! = ! !! ! !!! ! !! !!! !!! = !! !! ! ! ! !" ! !!! ! !!! !! = !!! ! !!!

!!

!

!!!

!!

!! !

!

!!!

!+!

Eqn 7

Where: d = hole diameter (mm) ρ = initialρdensity of gas (kg/m3) rg ρ ρ =ρ initial pressure of gas (bar gauge) Pg For liquid releases, the initial release rate is given by:

Where: = QL = CD A = = rL = Po

!

2 !! !! 2 !! !!

Eqn 9

Eqn 10

! = 2.1 x 10!! ! ! ! !

substituting g = 1.31, CD = 0.85, and converting the units of pressure to bar and noting that the units of the diameter are in mm we have:!! !

!! = !! ! ! ! !! !!! = =! !! !!

!! !!

!! = 2.1 x 10!! ! ! !! !! !! = 2.1 x 10!! ! ! !! !!

gives: = gives: !!!  

!! = 1.4 x 10 ! !! !! !! ! !! != 1.4 x 10 ! !! !! !! ! = 1.4 x 10 1.4 x 10!! !! ! !!! = ! !!! ! !!! !! = 1.4 x 10!! ! ! !! !!

!! !

As a simple !! approximation, substituting CD = 0.61 and ! !! = !! the liquid 2 head !! !! h, the equation can be simplified neglecting ! to:

! !+! !! = !! ! !! Eqn 6 !! !!! ! !!! !+! ! ! ! =!!! ! ! !! ! !!! ! ! !! ! !! !! ! !! !!! ! !!! ! !! ! ! = ! !+! ! ! ! !! = !! ! !!!!!! !!! !!!!! ! ! !! ! !!! ! ! !! = !! ! ! !! substituting γ ! to absolute !!! Approximating the gauge pressure pressure, Approximating the gauge pressure to absolute pressure, γγ

Where:

By neglecting the liquid head, h, and replacing the pressure term with the gauge pressure of the liquid this can be simplified to:

!! = !! !! = !!

= initial gas release rate (kg/s) = discharge coefficient = hole area (m2) = initial pressure of gas (N/m2) absolute = molecular weight of gas γ specific heats = ratio of =γ universal gas constant = 8314 J/kg mol K = initial temperature of gas (K)

!! ! = ! ! ! Rearranging the above and !! !! noting ! !that =   = !! !   ! !!!! !! != ! !+! !!! !

g ρ h

= atmospheric pressure = 105 N/m2 = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s2 = height of liquid surface above hole (m)

Eqn 5

!!! !!!

Where:Where: Qg CD A PO γM γγg R To

!!!

ρ ρPa

2!! !! − !! !! !ℎ !! = !! ! 2!! !! − !! !! !ℎ 2! ! − ! !  Eqn 8 2!!! !!! − !!! !!! !ℎ !ℎ = !! ! 2!! !! − !! !! !ℎ

initial liquid release rate (kg/s) discharge coefficient hole area (m2) liquid density (kg/m3) initial pressure of liquid (N/m2) (absolute)

! ! ! where: d = hole diameter (mm) ρr = liquid density (kg/m3) L ρP = initial pressure of liquid (bar gauge) L

ρ

This equation may be used for oil, condensate and nonprocess releases. Two-phase releases are less amenable to simple approxima!"#

!

tion, since form a!small proportion of HCRD, they ! γ !!they!"#!! ! =but ! !"#!! !"# are represented by: ! !! ! ! = !"#!! !! !"#!! γ ! !"# !! = !"#!! !! !"#!! !! Eqn 11 where: Qo Qg QL GOR

= = = =

initial release rate (kg/s) release rate (kg/s) release rate (kg/s) gas oil ratio (kg gas per kg oil)

The initial release rate is assumed to continue at a constant rate until the inventory is isolated. After isolation, the release rate declines as the isolated section is depressurised through the leak. Blowdown of isolated sections can then further increase the rate at which the section is depressurized and hence decrease the release rate through the hole.


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 13

Isolation

Blowdown

QT

Equipment

No.

Size

Process Vessel

0.5

8”

1

6”

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

1

6”

Flange

11

8”

Flange

5

6”

Actuated Valve

2

8”

Small Bore Fittings

2

½”

Manual Valve

3

8”

Process Pipe

10

8”

Process Pipe

5

6”

Centripetal Compressor

QO

Release Rate

QB

Leak Flow

tI

Time

tB

Figure 5 Decline of release rate with time

Table 4 Parts Count of Isolatable System

The expected release quantity is calculated as follows: !

!

! !! + !! ! ! − ! ! ! =! ! !! + ! 1 − !!!!!!  +! + III 1 !! ! ! !!! = = !!!! ! !!!  1− ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!! !!! !! = !! !! + I 1 − ! + !! !

Where:

!

Where:

! ! =! ! exp ! !!! = =! !!! exp exp !! = !!!!exp ! ! ! = ! = III !!!!!! !!! = ! ! !! ! = I !!!! !!! !! !! = ! ! !! !! = !! !! !! !! = ! ! ! ! ! !!!

!!! !! !!! !

!! !!! !!! !! ! I! !!! I !!! !I! !!! I

Cooler

Eqn 12

!

HP Section Scrubber

Eqn 13 Eqn 14 KEY

Eqn 15

M anual Valv e

! ! !! ! ! !! !! ! !! !

= != release ! rate leak when blowdown starts Q ! !!through !!B Q = release rate leakthrough when blowdown starts (kg/s) !! QT

ρ ρ ρ ρ

I MB t tI tB rd RE b

(kg/s) = total release rate through leak and blowdown valve when blowdown starts ( kg/s) = inventory in isolated section (kg) = mass remaining when blowdown starts = time from start of leak (s) = time from start of leak to isolation (s) = time from start of leak to blowdown (s) = density factor = expected ESD-limited outflow (kg) = blowdown valve diameter

The density factor is set to 1 for gas and 2-phase releases, !! but for liquid releases the following formula is used: !!

Where:

! ! ! =! ! !!! = =! ! !!!!!! !! !! = ! ! !!

HP Gas Compressor

Eqn 16

Where: f = density number (0.5) ρ ρ ρrg = gas density (kg/m3) ρ ρ = liquid density (kg/m3) ρrl

ρ Once the frequency of a hole size occurring is determined the release rate for that particular diameter of hole can be calculated thereby finding the frequency of that release rate.

Actuated Valve Flange Small Bore Fitting

Figure 6: Sample Isolatable Section

5.1 SAMPLE CALCULATION Figure 6 shows a sample isolated section and Table 4 displays the part count for this simplified system. Process pipe is length in metres, not number of pipes. There are 2 pipe sizes in the system. The 6” pipe connects the scrubber to the compressor and on to the cooler. The remaining pipework is 8”. The leak analysis is being conducted on a gas stream. There are a number of assumptions that are made in counting the parts: ■■

■■

For parts that are independent of equipment size (all items except for valves, pipe and flanges) the largest pipe diameter that is connected to the piece of equipment is taken to be the size. Only half the scrubber is counted since only the top half is in contact with gas under normal operating conditions. (The lower half of the scrubber is included in a separate count for the liquid stream).


14 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

■■

■■

Two flanges are counted on each valve. (The base leak frequency of the valve does not account for flange connections).

The results are shown in Table 3. Then by applying Eqn 1 to each type of equipment, the contribution of each hole size can be examined.

The actuated valves at the boundaries of the system are ESDVs. These isolate the section. Only half these valves are counted and one flange connection.

Equipment

No.

Size

Frequency [ /equipment year]

Total [Leaks/year]

Process Vessel

0.5

8”

2.155 x 10-3

1.077 x 10-3

Centrifugal Compressor

1

6”

1.061 x 10-2

1.061 x 10-2

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

1

6”

3.446 x 10-3

3.446 x 10-3

8”

-4

1.414 x 10-3

-4

5.585 x 10-4

-4

1.184 x 10-3

-4

Flange Flange Actuated Valve

11 5 2

6” 8”

1.286 x 10 1.117 x 10

5.921 x 10

Small Bore Fittings

2

½”

5.894 x 10

1.178 x 10-3

Manual Valve

3

8”

1.437 x 10-4

4.311 x 10-4

8”

-5

6.945 x 10-4

-5

3.674 x 10-4

Process Pipe Process Pipe

10 5

6”

6.945 x 10 7.349 x 10

Total

0.021

Table 5 Sample Calculation

5.2 ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF LEAK FREQUENCY DATA The leak frequency data and methodology presented in this document are based on analysis and application of data in the HSE Hydrocarbon Release Database. A number of other data sources and methodologies have been published, but DNV considers the HSE database to be the best available for most QRA applications. Other available databases include the handbook for failure frequencies which was developed by the Flemish (Belgian) Government [5], and the Reference Manual Bevi Risk Assessments which was developed by the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and the Environment[5] [6]. DNV has compared the leak frequency result from these sources against the DNV methodology. A comparison of results based on the sample isolatable section is shown in Table 4. The comparison of results shows that the leak frequency estimated using DNV’s method for this case is greater than that obtained by the Dutch and Belgian methodologies. The Belgian and Dutch methodologies present leak frequency data for equipment systems; and omit any explicit counts of the flanges, valves and instruments associated with major equipment items. This is the main reason why the Dutch and Belgian methodologies produce lower estimate of leak frequency.

Data source & methodology

Leak frequency (per year)

HCRD (DNV)

0.021

Dutch government

0.006

Belgian government

0.012

Table 6: Comparison of Estimated Leak Frequencies

The experience base of the Dutch and Belgian methodologies does not match the large experience of leaks contained in the HCRD; leak frequencies derived from the HCRD are more accurate primarily because HCRD is the largest database with information for over 70 different sizes and types of equipment, collected systematically over the last 20 years. DNV notes that the absence of separate frequencies for flanges, valves and instruments in the Belgian and Dutch methodologies also means that risk assessments performed using these methods are insensitive to some design decisions, such as the benefits of all-welded designs. Figures 7 and 8 illustrate these points. They show the ratios of frequencies for each type of equipment obtained by dividing the DNV frequency by the Dutch/Belgian frequency for each type of equipment. The figures show for the majority of equipment types the DNV methodology quotes higher frequencies. The figures highlight the large difference between the frequencies. The explanations of the differences are as discussed in Section 3.2.


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 15

Storage Vessel Centrifugal Compressor Heat Exchanger Plate Heat Exchanger (HC in tube) Heat Exchanger (HC in shell) Recipricating Compressors Centrifugal Pump Process Vessel 20(in.), Im in LengthProcess Pipeline 6(in.), Im in LengthProcess Pipeline 2(in.), Im in LengthProcess Pipeline

0.1

1

10

100

1000

Figure 7: Ratio of frequencies - DNV data to Belgium tabulation

Storage Vessel Recipricating Compressors Centrifugal Compressor Recipricating Pump Centrifugal Pump Process Vessel 20(in.), Im in LengthProcess Pipeline 6(in.), Im in LengthProcess Pipeline 2(in.), Im in LengthProcess Pipeline

0.01

0.1

Figure 8: Ratio of frequencies - DNV data to Netherlands tabulation

1

10

100

1000


16 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

6. LEAK FREQUENCY DATASHEETS The following pages include leak frequency data for 17 types of process equipment. These process equipment types are split into two categories: ■■ Diameter Dependent ■■ Diameter Independent As explained in section 4.1 there is enough information in the HCRD to determine all the constants of the leak frequency data equation for the diameter dependent equipment types (Process pipe, Flanges, Manual and Actuated Valves). Leak frequencies for other types of equipment are considered to be independent of equipment size. For equipment considered independent of equipment size the leak frequencies are quoted to an equipment size of 6 inches. This is because the leak frequencies remain the same for the larger diameters.

Typically the parts count is multiplied by the total leaks to determine the overall leak frequency. For a more in-depth analysis the parts count may be multiplied by the values in the full, limited and zero pressure leak columns, but for most purposes it will be sufficient to use only the “full” leak frequencies. The frequency of limited leaks can be obtained using data in Table 3. It may be noted that the sum of frequencies for full, limited and zero pressure leaks do not necessarily equal the total leaks. The small difference is due to total, full and zero pressure leaks being determined using different equations. The tables presented in this section have been generated using commercially available DNV LEAK software which implements the methodology described in this document.


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 17

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Centrifugal Compressors 

Definition:

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

The scope includes the compressor itself, but excludes all attached valves, piping, flanges, instruments and fittings  beyond the first flange. The first flange itself is also excluded. 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

0.5 in 

1 in 

2 in 

4 in 

6 in 

Total 5.802E‐03  2.462E‐03  1.435E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  9.699E‐03     5.802E‐03  2.462E‐03  1.435E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  9.699E‐03     5.802E‐03  2.462E‐03  1.057E‐03  3.772E‐04  0.000E+00  9.699E‐03     5.802E‐03  2.462E‐03  1.057E‐03  3.772E‐04  0.000E+00  9.699E‐03 

 

5.802E‐03 2.462E‐03  1.057E‐03  2.257E‐04  1.516E‐04  9.699E‐03 

Full Pressure  5.583E‐03  2.316E‐03  1.300E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  9.199E‐03     5.583E‐03  2.316E‐03  1.300E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  9.199E‐03     5.583E‐03  2.316E‐03  9.686E‐04  3.309E‐04  0.000E+00  9.199E‐03     5.583E‐03  2.316E‐03  9.686E‐04  3.309E‐04  0.000E+00  9.199E‐03 

 

5.583E‐03 2.316E‐03  9.686E‐04  2.008E‐04  1.300E‐04  9.199E‐03 

Zero Pressure  1.324E‐04  1.052E‐04  2.624E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  5.000E‐04     1.324E‐04  1.052E‐04  2.624E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  5.000E‐04     1.324E‐04  1.052E‐04  9.519E‐05  1.672E‐04  0.000E+00  5.000E‐04     1.324E‐04  1.052E‐04  9.519E‐05  1.672E‐04  0.000E+00  5.000E‐04 

 

1.324E‐04 1.052E‐04  9.519E‐05  4.428E‐05  1.229E‐04  5.000E‐04 


18 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Reciprocating  Compressors 

Definition:

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

The scope includes the compressor itself, but excludes all attached valves, piping, flanges, instruments and fittings  beyond the first flange. The first flange itself is also excluded. 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

0.5 in 

1 in 

2 in 

4 in 

6 in 

Total 3.641E‐02  1.581E‐02  9.572E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.179E‐02     3.641E‐02  1.581E‐02  9.572E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.179E‐02     3.641E‐02  1.581E‐02  6.973E‐03  2.599E‐03  0.000E+00  6.179E‐02     3.641E‐02  1.581E‐02  6.973E‐03  2.599E‐03  0.000E+00  6.179E‐02 

 

3.641E‐02 1.581E‐02  6.973E‐03  1.532E‐03  1.067E‐03  6.179E‐02 

Full Pressure  3.685E‐02  1.512E‐02  8.324E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.029E‐02     3.685E‐02  1.512E‐02  8.324E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.029E‐02     3.685E‐02  1.512E‐02  6.238E‐03  2.085E‐03  0.000E+00  6.029E‐02     3.685E‐02  1.512E‐02  6.238E‐03  2.085E‐03  0.000E+00  6.029E‐02 

 

3.685E‐02 1.512E‐02  6.238E‐03  1.275E‐03  8.107E‐04  6.029E‐02 

Zero Pressure  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00     0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00     0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00     0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00 

 

0.000E+00 0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00 


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 19

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Filters

Definition:

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

0.5 in 

1 in 

2 in 

4 in 

6 in 

Total 1.870E‐03  9.307E‐04  7.187E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  3.520E‐03     1.870E‐03  9.307E‐04  7.187E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  3.520E‐03     1.870E‐03  9.307E‐04  4.820E‐04  2.367E‐04  0.000E+00  3.520E‐03     1.870E‐03  9.307E‐04  4.820E‐04  2.367E‐04  0.000E+00  3.520E‐03 

 

1.870E‐03 9.307E‐04  4.820E‐04  1.258E‐04  1.109E‐04  3.520E‐03 

Full Pressure  1.608E‐03  7.559E‐04  5.259E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  2.890E‐03     1.608E‐03  7.559E‐04  5.259E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  2.890E‐03     1.608E‐03  7.559E‐04  3.661E‐04  1.598E‐04  0.000E+00  2.890E‐03     1.608E‐03  7.559E‐04  3.661E‐04  1.598E‐04  0.000E+00  2.890E‐03 

 

1.608E‐03 7.559E‐04  3.661E‐04  8.894E‐05  7.089E‐05  2.890E‐03 

Zero Pressure  2.453E‐04  1.605E‐04  2.232E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.290E‐04     2.453E‐04  1.605E‐04  2.232E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.290E‐04     2.453E‐04  1.605E‐04  1.150E‐04  1.082E‐04  0.000E+00  6.290E‐04     2.453E‐04  1.605E‐04  1.150E‐04  1.082E‐04  0.000E+00  6.290E‐04 

 

2.453E‐04 1.605E‐04  1.150E‐04  4.219E‐05  6.598E‐05  6.290E‐04 


20 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Flange

Definition:

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

The following  frequencies  refer  to  a  flanged  joint,  comprising  two  flange  faces,  a  gasket  (where  fitted),  and  two  welds to the pipe. Flange types include ring type joint, spiral wound, clamp (Grayloc) and hammer union (Chicksan) 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

0.5 in 

1 in 

2 in 

4 in 

6 in 

Total 3.725E‐05  1.364E‐05  1.227E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.316E‐05     4.037E‐05  1.479E‐05  1.279E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.795E‐05     4.628E‐05  1.695E‐05  6.126E‐06  7.661E‐06  0.000E+00  7.701E‐05     5.745E‐05  2.104E‐05  7.605E‐06  8.062E‐06  0.000E+00  9.415E‐05     6.816E‐05  2.496E‐05  9.023E‐06  1.594E‐06  6.852E‐06  1.106E‐04 

Full Pressure  3.538E‐05  1.239E‐05  1.031E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  5.808E‐05     3.771E‐05  1.320E‐05  1.066E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.156E‐05     4.229E‐05  1.480E‐05  5.076E‐06  6.269E‐06  0.000E+00  6.844E‐05     5.133E‐05  1.797E‐05  6.161E‐06  6.540E‐06  0.000E+00  8.200E‐05     6.028E‐05  2.110E‐05  7.235E‐06  1.206E‐06  5.603E‐06  9.542E‐05 

Zero Pressure  1.156E‐06  8.773E‐07  2.367E‐06  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  4.400E‐06     1.156E‐06  8.774E‐07  2.367E‐06  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  4.400E‐06     1.157E‐06  8.780E‐07  7.519E‐07  1.616E‐06  0.000E+00  4.403E‐06     1.171E‐06  8.891E‐07  7.614E‐07  1.630E‐06  0.000E+00  4.452E‐06     1.241E‐06  9.420E‐07  8.067E‐07  3.550E‐07  1.343E‐06  4.687E‐06 


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 21

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Flange

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

10 in 

14 in 

20 in 

 

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

Total 8.880E‐05  3.252E‐05  1.176E‐05  2.077E‐06  7.110E‐06  1.423E‐04     1.088E‐04  3.984E‐05  1.440E‐05  2.544E‐06  7.360E‐06  1.729E‐04     1.379E‐04  5.051E‐05  1.826E‐05  3.226E‐06  7.724E‐06  2.176E‐04 

Full Pressure  7.801E‐05  2.731E‐05  9.362E‐06  1.560E‐06  5.780E‐06  1.220E‐04     9.559E‐05  3.346E‐05  1.147E‐05  1.912E‐06  5.956E‐06  1.484E‐04     1.218E‐04  4.263E‐05  1.462E‐05  2.436E‐06  6.218E‐06  1.877E‐04 

Zero Pressure  1.884E‐06  1.430E‐06  1.225E‐06  5.388E‐07  1.779E‐06  6.856E‐06     4.148E‐06  3.148E‐06  2.696E‐06  1.186E‐06  3.316E‐06  1.449E‐05     1.454E‐05  1.103E‐05  9.450E‐06  4.158E‐06  1.037E‐05  4.955E‐05 


22 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Fin Fan Heat Exchanger 

Definition:

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

The scope  includes  the  heat  exchanger  itself,  but  excludes  all  attached  valves,  piping,  flanges,  instruments  and  fittings beyond the first flange. The first flange is also excluded. 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

0.5 in 

1 in 

2 in 

4 in 

6 in 

Total 7.997E‐04  3.802E‐04  2.700E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  1.450E‐03     7.997E‐04  3.802E‐04  2.700E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  1.450E‐03     7.997E‐04  3.802E‐04  1.866E‐04  8.339E‐05  0.000E+00  1.450E‐03     7.997E‐04  3.802E‐04  1.866E‐04  8.339E‐05  0.000E+00  1.450E‐03 

 

7.997E‐04 3.802E‐04  1.866E‐04  4.600E‐05  3.740E‐05  1.450E‐03 

Full Pressure  7.997E‐04  3.802E‐04  2.700E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  1.450E‐03     7.997E‐04  3.802E‐04  2.700E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  1.450E‐03     7.997E‐04  3.802E‐04  1.866E‐04  8.339E‐05  0.000E+00  1.450E‐03     7.997E‐04  3.802E‐04  1.866E‐04  8.339E‐05  0.000E+00  1.450E‐03 

 

7.997E‐04 3.802E‐04  1.866E‐04  4.600E‐05  3.740E‐05  1.450E‐03 

Zero Pressure  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00     0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00     0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00     0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00 

 

0.000E+00 0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  0.000E+00 


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 23

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Plate Heat Exchanger 

Definition:

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

The scope  includes  the  heat  exchanger  itself,  but  excludes  all  attached  valves,  piping,  flanges,  instruments  and  fittings beyond the first flange. The first flange is also excluded. 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

0.5 in 

1 in 

2 in 

4 in 

6 in 

 

Total 5.164E‐03  2.847E‐03  2.688E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  1.070E‐02     5.164E‐03  2.847E‐03  2.688E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  1.070E‐02     5.164E‐03  2.847E‐03  1.664E‐03  1.023E‐03  0.000E+00  1.070E‐02     5.164E‐03  2.847E‐03  1.664E‐03  1.023E‐03  0.000E+00  1.070E‐02     5.164E‐03  2.847E‐03  1.664E‐03  4.940E‐04  5.293E‐04  1.070E‐02 

Full Pressure  5.008E‐03  2.792E‐03  2.699E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  1.050E‐02     5.008E‐03  2.792E‐03  2.699E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  1.050E‐02     5.008E‐03  2.792E‐03  1.655E‐03  1.044E‐03  0.000E+00  1.050E‐02     5.008E‐03  2.792E‐03  1.655E‐03  1.044E‐03  0.000E+00  1.050E‐02     5.008E‐03  2.792E‐03  1.655E‐03  4.981E‐04  5.461E‐04  1.050E‐02 

Zero Pressure  1.482E‐04  9.695E‐05  1.348E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  3.800E‐04     1.482E‐04  9.695E‐05  1.348E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  3.800E‐04     1.482E‐04  9.695E‐05  6.948E‐05  6.535E‐05  0.000E+00  3.800E‐04     1.482E‐04  9.695E‐05  6.948E‐05  6.535E‐05  0.000E+00  3.800E‐04     1.482E‐04  9.695E‐05  6.948E‐05  2.549E‐05  3.986E‐05  3.800E‐04 


24 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Shell Side Heat Exchanger 

Definition:

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

Shell & tube type heat exchangers with hydrocarbon in the shell side. The scope includes the heat exchanger itself,  but excludes all attached valves, piping, flanges, instruments and fittings beyond the first flange. The first flange  itself is also excluded 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

0.5 in 

1 in 

2 in 

4 in 

6 in 

 

Total 2.011E‐03  1.035E‐03  8.532E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  3.900E‐03     2.011E‐03  1.035E‐03  8.532E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  3.900E‐03     2.011E‐03  1.035E‐03  5.583E‐04  2.949E‐04  0.000E+00  3.900E‐03     2.011E‐03  1.035E‐03  5.583E‐04  2.949E‐04  0.000E+00  3.900E‐03     2.011E‐03  1.035E‐03  5.583E‐04  1.521E‐04  1.428E‐04  3.900E‐03 

Full Pressure  1.827E‐03  9.847E‐04  8.876E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  3.700E‐03     1.827E‐03  9.847E‐04  8.876E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  3.700E‐03     1.827E‐03  9.847E‐04  5.603E‐04  3.272E‐04  0.000E+00  3.700E‐03     1.827E‐03  9.847E‐04  5.603E‐04  3.272E‐04  0.000E+00  3.700E‐03     1.827E‐03  9.847E‐04  5.603E‐04  1.616E‐04  1.656E‐04  3.700E‐03 

Zero Pressure  2.339E‐04  1.027E‐04  6.340E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  4.000E‐04     2.339E‐04  1.027E‐04  6.340E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  4.000E‐04     2.339E‐04  1.027E‐04  4.590E‐05  1.749E‐05  0.000E+00  4.000E‐04     2.339E‐04  1.027E‐04  4.590E‐05  1.749E‐05  0.000E+00  4.000E‐04     2.339E‐04  1.027E‐04  4.590E‐05  1.023E‐05  7.264E‐06  4.000E‐04 


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 25

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Tube Side Heat Exchanger 

Definition:

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

Shell & tube type heat exchangers with hydrocarbon in the tube side. The scope includes the heat exchanger itself,  but excludes all attached valves, piping, flanges, instruments and fittings beyond the first flange. The first flange  itself is also excluded. 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

0.5 in 

1 in 

2 in 

4 in 

6 in 

Total 1.721E‐03  7.729E‐04  5.462E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  3.040E‐03     1.721E‐03  7.729E‐04  5.462E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  3.040E‐03     1.721E‐03  7.729E‐04  3.548E‐04  1.914E‐04  0.000E+00  3.040E‐03     1.721E‐03  7.729E‐04  3.548E‐04  1.914E‐04  0.000E+00  3.040E‐03     1.721E‐03  7.729E‐04  3.548E‐04  8.138E‐05  1.100E‐04  3.040E‐03 

Full Pressure  1.473E‐03  6.618E‐04  4.749E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  2.610E‐03     1.473E‐03  6.618E‐04  4.749E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  2.610E‐03     1.473E‐03  6.618E‐04  3.038E‐04  1.711E‐04  0.000E+00  2.610E‐03     1.473E‐03  6.618E‐04  3.038E‐04  1.711E‐04  0.000E+00  2.610E‐03     1.473E‐03  6.618E‐04  3.038E‐04  6.968E‐05  1.014E‐04  2.610E‐03 

Zero Pressure  1.665E‐04  1.089E‐04  1.515E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  4.270E‐04     1.665E‐04  1.089E‐04  1.515E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  4.270E‐04     1.665E‐04  1.089E‐04  7.807E‐05  7.343E‐05  0.000E+00  4.270E‐04     1.665E‐04  1.089E‐04  7.807E‐05  7.343E‐05  0.000E+00  4.270E‐04     1.665E‐04  1.089E‐04  7.807E‐05  2.864E‐05  4.479E‐05  4.270E‐04 


26 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Pig Trap 

Definition:

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

Includes pig  launchers  and  pig  receivers.  The  scope  includes  the  pig  trap  itself,  but  excludes  all  attached  valves,  piping, flanges, instruments and fittings beyond the first flange. The first flange itself is also excluded. 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

0.5 in 

1 in 

2 in 

4 in 

6 in 

 

Total 3.253E‐03  1.814E‐03  1.753E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.820E‐03     3.253E‐03  1.814E‐03  1.753E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.820E‐03     3.253E‐03  1.814E‐03  1.075E‐03  6.783E‐04  0.000E+00  6.820E‐03     3.253E‐03  1.814E‐03  1.075E‐03  6.783E‐04  0.000E+00  6.820E‐03     3.253E‐03  1.814E‐03  1.075E‐03  3.235E‐04  3.547E‐04  6.820E‐03 

Full Pressure  3.271E‐03  1.591E‐03  1.178E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.039E‐03     3.271E‐03  1.591E‐03  1.178E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.039E‐03     3.271E‐03  1.591E‐03  8.021E‐04  3.756E‐04  0.000E+00  6.039E‐03     3.271E‐03  1.591E‐03  8.021E‐04  3.756E‐04  0.000E+00  6.039E‐03     3.271E‐03  1.591E‐03  8.021E‐04  2.034E‐04  1.722E‐04  6.039E‐03 

Zero Pressure  4.815E‐05  4.936E‐05  6.825E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  7.800E‐04     4.815E‐05  4.936E‐05  6.825E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  7.800E‐04     4.815E‐05  4.936E‐05  6.082E‐05  6.217E‐04  0.000E+00  7.800E‐04     4.815E‐05  4.936E‐05  6.082E‐05  6.217E‐04  0.000E+00  7.800E‐04     4.815E‐05  4.936E‐05  6.082E‐05  3.838E‐05  5.833E‐04  7.800E‐04 


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 27

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Process Pipe 

Definition:

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

Includes pipes  located  on  topsides  (between  well  and  riser)  and  subsea  (between  well  and  pipeline).  The  scope  includes welds but excludes all valves, flanges, and instruments. 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

0.5 in 

1 in 

2 in 

4 in 

6 in 

   

Total 9.169E‐04  3.435E‐04  1.680E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  1.428E‐03     2.725E‐04  1.021E‐04  5.310E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  4.277E‐04     9.989E‐05  3.742E‐05  1.389E‐05  8.424E‐06  0.000E+00  1.596E‐04     5.363E‐05  2.009E‐05  7.457E‐06  6.607E‐06  0.000E+00  8.779E‐05     4.454E‐05  1.669E‐05  6.192E‐06  1.127E‐06  5.123E‐06  7.366E‐05 

Full Pressure  9.409E‐04  3.294E‐04  1.442E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  1.414E‐03     2.851E‐04  9.979E‐05  4.577E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  4.307E‐04     1.032E‐04  3.611E‐05  1.238E‐05  6.095E‐06  0.000E+00  1.578E‐04     5.270E‐05  1.845E‐05  6.325E‐06  4.581E‐06  0.000E+00  8.205E‐05     4.248E‐05  1.487E‐05  5.098E‐06  8.497E‐07  3.425E‐06  6.672E‐05 

Zero Pressure  7.564E‐06  5.300E‐06  1.084E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  2.371E‐05     4.768E‐06  3.341E‐06  7.575E‐06  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  1.568E‐05     3.551E‐06  2.488E‐06  1.936E‐06  4.216E‐06  0.000E+00  1.219E‐05     3.022E‐06  2.117E‐06  1.647E‐06  3.886E‐06  0.000E+00  1.067E‐05     2.864E‐06  2.007E‐06  1.561E‐06  6.230E‐07  3.165E‐06  1.022E‐05 


28 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Process Pipe 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

10 in 

14 in 

20 in 

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

Total 3.967E‐05  1.486E‐05  5.516E‐06  1.003E‐06  5.055E‐06  6.610E‐05     3.880E‐05  1.454E‐05  5.395E‐06  9.814E‐07  5.043E‐06  6.475E‐05     3.792E‐05  1.420E‐05  5.272E‐06  9.591E‐07  5.030E‐06  6.338E‐05 

Full Pressure  3.688E‐05  1.291E‐05  4.427E‐06  7.378E‐07  3.369E‐06  5.833E‐05     3.587E‐05  1.255E‐05  4.305E‐06  7.174E‐07  3.359E‐06  5.680E‐05     3.482E‐05  1.219E‐05  4.179E‐06  6.965E‐07  3.348E‐06  5.523E‐05 

Zero Pressure  2.749E‐06  1.926E‐06  1.498E‐06  5.980E‐07  3.118E‐06  9.890E‐06     2.723E‐06  1.907E‐06  1.484E‐06  5.922E‐07  3.107E‐06  9.813E‐06     2.691E‐06  1.885E‐06  1.466E‐06  5.852E‐07  3.094E‐06  9.722E‐06 


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 29

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Centrifugal Pump 

Definition:

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

Centrifugal pumps including single‐seal and double‐seal types. The scope includes the pump itself, but excludes all  attached  valves,  piping,  flanges,  instruments  and  fittings  beyond  the  first  flange.  The  first  flange  itself  is  also  excluded. 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

0.5 in 

1 in 

2 in 

4 in 

6 in 

 

Total 4.204E‐03  1.575E‐03  7.497E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.529E‐03     4.204E‐03  1.575E‐03  7.497E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.529E‐03     4.204E‐03  1.575E‐03  5.846E‐04  1.652E‐04  0.000E+00  6.529E‐03     4.204E‐03  1.575E‐03  5.846E‐04  1.652E‐04  0.000E+00  6.529E‐03     4.204E‐03  1.575E‐03  5.846E‐04  1.063E‐04  5.880E‐05  6.529E‐03 

Full Pressure  4.044E‐03  1.432E‐03  6.242E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.099E‐03     4.044E‐03  1.432E‐03  6.242E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.099E‐03     4.044E‐03  1.432E‐03  4.973E‐04  1.269E‐04  0.000E+00  6.099E‐03     4.044E‐03  1.432E‐03  4.973E‐04  1.269E‐04  0.000E+00  6.099E‐03     4.044E‐03  1.432E‐03  4.973E‐04  8.411E‐05  4.276E‐05  6.099E‐03 

Zero Pressure  1.566E‐04  1.073E‐04  1.681E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  4.320E‐04     1.566E‐04  1.073E‐04  1.681E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  4.320E‐04     1.566E‐04  1.073E‐04  8.119E‐05  8.688E‐05  0.000E+00  4.320E‐04     1.566E‐04  1.073E‐04  8.119E‐05  8.688E‐05  0.000E+00  4.320E‐04     1.566E‐04  1.073E‐04  8.119E‐05  3.151E‐05  5.537E‐05  4.320E‐04 


30 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Reciprocating Pump 

Definition:

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

Reciprocating pumps including single‐seal and double‐seal types. The scope includes the pump itself, but excludes  all  attached  valves,  piping,  flanges,  instruments  and  fittings  beyond  the  first  flange.  The  first  flange  itself  is  also  excluded. 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

0.5 in 

1 in 

2 in 

4 in 

6 in 

 

Total 2.848E‐03  1.644E‐03  1.708E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.200E‐03     2.848E‐03  1.644E‐03  1.708E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.200E‐03     2.848E‐03  1.644E‐03  1.014E‐03  6.934E‐04  0.000E+00  6.200E‐03     2.848E‐03  1.644E‐03  1.014E‐03  6.934E‐04  0.000E+00  6.200E‐03     2.848E‐03  1.644E‐03  1.014E‐03  3.186E‐04  3.748E‐04  6.200E‐03 

Full Pressure  2.331E‐03  1.457E‐03  1.812E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  5.600E‐03     2.331E‐03  1.457E‐03  1.812E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  5.600E‐03     2.331E‐03  1.457E‐03  9.886E‐04  8.236E‐04  0.000E+00  5.600E‐03     2.331E‐03  1.457E‐03  9.886E‐04  8.236E‐04  0.000E+00  5.600E‐03     2.331E‐03  1.457E‐03  9.886E‐04  3.428E‐04  4.807E‐04  5.600E‐03 

Zero Pressure  2.347E‐04  1.625E‐04  2.627E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.600E‐04     2.347E‐04  1.625E‐04  2.627E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  6.600E‐04     2.347E‐04  1.625E‐04  1.247E‐04  1.380E‐04  0.000E+00  6.600E‐04     2.347E‐04  1.625E‐04  1.247E‐04  1.380E‐04  0.000E+00  6.600E‐04     2.347E‐04  1.625E‐04  1.247E‐04  4.908E‐05  8.894E‐05  6.600E‐04 


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 31

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Small Bore Fittings 

Definition:

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

Includes small‐bore  connections  for  flow,  pressure  and  temperature  sensing.  The  scope  includes  the  instrument  itself plus up to 2 valves, 4 flanges, 1 fitting and associated small‐bore piping, usually 25mm diameter or less. 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

0.5 in 

1 in 

2 in 

 

Total 3.092E‐04  1.373E‐04  8.644E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  5.330E‐04     3.092E‐04  1.373E‐04  8.644E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  5.330E‐04     3.092E‐04  1.373E‐04  6.220E‐05  2.424E‐05  0.000E+00  5.330E‐04 

Full Pressure  2.998E‐04  1.287E‐04  7.643E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  5.050E‐04     2.998E‐04  1.287E‐04  7.643E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  5.050E‐04     2.998E‐04  1.287E‐04  5.601E‐05  2.042E‐05  0.000E+00  5.050E‐04 

Zero Pressure  1.092E‐05  7.144E‐06  9.935E‐06  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  2.800E‐05     1.092E‐05  7.144E‐06  9.935E‐06  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  2.800E‐05     1.092E‐05  7.144E‐06  5.119E‐06  4.815E‐06  0.000E+00  2.800E‐05 


32 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Actuated Valves 

Definition:

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

Includes all types of actuated valves (block, blowdown, choke, control, ESDV and relief), but not actuated pipeline  valves (pipeline ESDV and SSIV). Valve types include gate, ball, plug, globe and needle. The scope includes the valve  body, stem and packer, but excludes flanges, controls and instrumentation. 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

0.5 in 

1 in 

2 in 

4 in 

6 in 

 

Total 5.587E‐04  1.767E‐04  7.507E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  8.105E‐04     5.594E‐04  1.769E‐04  7.515E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  8.114E‐04     5.611E‐04  1.774E‐04  5.404E‐05  2.131E‐05  0.000E+00  8.138E‐04     5.656E‐04  1.788E‐04  5.447E‐05  2.140E‐05  0.000E+00  8.202E‐04     5.711E‐04  1.805E‐04  5.500E‐05  8.033E‐06  1.347E‐05  8.281E‐04 

Full Pressure  5.421E‐04  1.681E‐04  7.023E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  7.804E‐04     5.427E‐04  1.683E‐04  7.030E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  7.813E‐04     5.444E‐04  1.688E‐04  5.030E‐05  2.018E‐05  0.000E+00  7.837E‐04     5.487E‐04  1.702E‐04  5.070E‐05  2.026E‐05  0.000E+00  7.898E‐04     5.540E‐04  1.718E‐04  5.119E‐05  7.292E‐06  1.307E‐05  7.974E‐04 

Zero Pressure  6.077E‐06  4.209E‐06  7.804E‐06  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  1.809E‐05     7.710E‐06  5.340E‐06  9.633E‐06  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  2.268E‐05     9.926E‐06  6.875E‐06  5.276E‐06  6.838E‐06  0.000E+00  2.891E‐05     1.293E‐05  8.957E‐06  6.873E‐06  8.606E‐06  0.000E+00  3.737E‐05     1.517E‐05  1.050E‐05  8.060E‐06  3.172E‐06  6.748E‐06  4.365E‐05 


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 33

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Actuated Valves 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

10 in 

14 in 

20 in 

 

Total 5.843E‐04  1.847E‐04  5.628E‐05  8.220E‐06  1.356E‐05  8.471E‐04     6.000E‐04  1.897E‐04  5.778E‐05  8.440E‐06  1.365E‐05  8.695E‐04     6.269E‐04  1.982E‐04  6.038E‐05  8.819E‐06  1.381E‐05  9.081E‐04 

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

Full Pressure  5.669E‐04  1.758E‐04  5.238E‐05  7.462E‐06  1.314E‐05  8.157E‐04     5.821E‐04  1.805E‐04  5.378E‐05  7.661E‐06  1.323E‐05  8.373E‐04     6.082E‐04  1.886E‐04  5.620E‐05  8.005E‐06  1.337E‐05  8.745E‐04 

Zero Pressure  1.861E‐05  1.289E‐05  9.891E‐06  3.892E‐06  8.053E‐06  5.334E‐05     2.134E‐05  1.478E‐05  1.134E‐05  4.463E‐06  9.088E‐06  6.102E‐05     2.471E‐05  1.712E‐05  1.313E‐05  5.169E‐06  1.037E‐05  7.050E‐05 


34 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Manual Valves 

Definition:

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

Includes all types of manual valves (block, bleed, check and choke). Valve types gate, ball, plug, globe, needle and  butterfly. The scope includes the valve body, stem and packer, but excludes flanges, controls and instrumentation. 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

0.5 in 

1 in 

2 in 

4 in 

6 in 

 

Total 5.166E‐05  2.401E‐05  1.837E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  9.404E‐05     5.180E‐05  2.407E‐05  1.841E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  9.428E‐05     5.262E‐05  2.446E‐05  1.169E‐05  6.986E‐06  0.000E+00  9.575E‐05     5.760E‐05  2.677E‐05  1.279E‐05  7.459E‐06  0.000E+00  1.046E‐04     6.876E‐05  3.196E‐05  1.527E‐05  3.658E‐06  4.859E‐06  1.245E‐04 

Full Pressure  5.247E‐05  2.278E‐05  1.479E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  9.004E‐05     5.260E‐05  2.284E‐05  1.483E‐05  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  9.027E‐05     5.344E‐05  2.320E‐05  1.023E‐05  4.814E‐06  0.000E+00  9.169E‐05     5.850E‐05  2.540E‐05  1.120E‐05  5.176E‐06  0.000E+00  1.003E‐04     6.984E‐05  3.032E‐05  1.337E‐05  2.938E‐06  3.047E‐06  1.195E‐04 

Zero Pressure  3.030E‐07  2.222E‐07  4.241E‐07  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  9.494E‐07     5.840E‐07  4.283E‐07  8.172E‐07  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  1.829E‐06     1.146E‐06  8.403E‐07  6.906E‐07  9.129E‐07  0.000E+00  3.590E‐06     2.269E‐06  1.664E‐06  1.368E‐06  1.808E‐06  0.000E+00  7.110E‐06     3.393E‐06  2.489E‐06  2.045E‐06  8.630E‐07  1.840E‐06  1.063E‐05 


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 35

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Manual Valves 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

10 in 

14 in 

20 in 

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

Total 1.163E‐04  5.405E‐05  2.583E‐05  6.185E‐06  6.834E‐06  2.092E‐04     2.067E‐04  9.607E‐05  4.591E‐05  1.099E‐05  1.059E‐05  3.703E‐04     4.436E‐04  2.062E‐04  9.852E‐05  2.360E‐05  2.044E‐05  7.924E‐04 

Full Pressure  1.181E‐04  5.128E‐05  2.261E‐05  4.968E‐06  4.462E‐06  2.014E‐04     2.099E‐04  9.114E‐05  4.020E‐05  8.830E‐06  7.154E‐06  3.573E‐04     4.506E‐04  1.956E‐04  8.627E‐05  1.895E‐05  1.421E‐05  7.656E‐04 

Zero Pressure  5.640E‐06  4.137E‐06  3.400E‐06  1.435E‐06  3.059E‐06  1.767E‐05     7.888E‐06  5.785E‐06  4.754E‐06  2.006E‐06  4.278E‐06  2.471E‐05     1.126E‐05  8.257E‐06  6.786E‐06  2.864E‐06  6.107E‐06  3.527E‐05 


36 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Process Vessel 

Definition:

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

Includes all  types  of  pressure  vessel  (horizontal/vertical  absorber,  knock‐out  drum,  reboiler,  scrubber,  stabiliser,  separator and stabiliser), but not the HCRD category “other”, which are mainly hydrocyclones. The scope includes  the  vessel  itself  and  any  nozzles  or  inspection  openings,  but  excludes  all  attached  valves,  piping,  flanges,  instruments and fittings beyond the first flange. The first flange itself is also excluded. 

Frequency Data: 

Equipment Size 

Category 1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

0.5 in 

1 in 

2 in 

4 in 

      6 in     

 

Total 8.884E‐04  5.946E‐04  8.768E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  2.360E‐03     8.884E‐04  5.946E‐04  8.768E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  2.360E‐03     8.884E‐04  5.946E‐04  4.379E‐04  4.389E‐04  0.000E+00  2.360E‐03     8.884E‐04  5.946E‐04  4.379E‐04  4.389E‐04  0.000E+00  2.360E‐03    8.884E‐04  5.946E‐04  4.379E‐04  1.652E‐04  2.736E‐04  2.360E‐03 

Full Pressure  7.859E‐04  4.093E‐04  3.448E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  1.540E‐03     7.859E‐04  4.093E‐04  3.448E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  1.540E‐03     7.859E‐04  4.093E‐04  2.236E‐04  1.211E‐04  0.000E+00  1.540E‐03     7.859E‐04  4.093E‐04  2.236E‐04  1.211E‐04  0.000E+00  1.540E‐03    7.859E‐04  4.093E‐04  2.236E‐04  6.181E‐05  5.930E‐05  1.540E‐03 

Zero Pressure  1.600E‐04  1.393E‐04  5.117E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  8.110E‐04     1.600E‐04  1.393E‐04  5.117E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  8.110E‐04     1.600E‐04  1.393E‐04  1.408E‐04  3.709E‐04  0.000E+00  8.110E‐04     1.600E‐04  1.393E‐04  1.408E‐04  3.709E‐04  0.000E+00  8.110E‐04    1.600E‐04  1.393E‐04  1.408E‐04  7.316E‐05  2.977E‐04  8.110E‐04 


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 37

Process Equipment Leak Frequencies 

Equipment Type: 

Atmospheric Storage Vessel 

Definition:

Rev.:

1

Date:

26/9/2012

Source:

HCRD 10/92 – 03/10 

This datasheet applies to offshore atmospheric tanks. Includes types of vessel at atmospheric pressure (oil storage  tanks). The scope includes the vessel itself and any nozzles or inspection openings, but excludes all attached valves,  piping, flanges, instruments and fittings beyond the first flange. The first flange itself is also excluded. 

Frequency Data:  Equipment Size 

0.5 in 

1 in 

2in

4in

6 in 

Category  1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total    1 ‐ 3 mm  3 ‐ 10 mm  10 ‐ 50 mm  50 ‐ 150 mm  > 150 mm  Total 

Total 1.462E‐03  1.084E‐03  2.144E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  4.690E‐03     1.462E‐03  1.084E‐03  2.144E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  4.690E‐03    1.462E‐03  1.084E‐03  9.034E‐04  1.240E‐03  0.000E+00  4.690E‐03    1.462E‐03  1.084E‐03  9.034E‐04  1.240E‐03  0.000E+00  4.690E‐03     1.462E‐03  1.084E‐03  9.034E‐04  3.866E‐04  8.537E‐04  4.690E‐03 

Full Pressure  1.177E‐03  8.152E‐04  1.318E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  3.310E‐03     1.177E‐03  8.152E‐04  1.318E‐03  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  3.310E‐03    1.177E‐03  8.152E‐04  6.255E‐04  6.922E‐04  0.000E+00  3.310E‐03    1.177E‐03  8.152E‐04  6.255E‐04  6.922E‐04  0.000E+00  3.310E‐03     1.177E‐03  8.152E‐04  6.255E‐04  2.462E‐04  4.461E‐04  3.310E‐03 

Zero Pressure  3.081E‐04  2.593E‐04  8.126E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  1.380E‐03     3.081E‐04  2.593E‐04  8.126E‐04  0.000E+00  0.000E+00  1.380E‐03    3.081E‐04  2.593E‐04  2.514E‐04  5.612E‐04  0.000E+00  1.380E‐03    3.081E‐04  2.593E‐04  2.514E‐04  5.612E‐04  0.000E+00  1.380E‐03     3.081E‐04  2.593E‐04  2.514E‐04  1.253E‐04  4.359E‐04  1.380E‐03 


38 I PROCESS INDUSTRY I quantified risk assessment I

7. REFERENCES 1. Department of Energy, The Public Inquiry into the Piper Alpha Disaster, 1990 2. Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Hydrocarbon release reporting and statistics (www.hse.gov.uk/offshore/ hydrocarbon.htm) accessed 2012 3. Spouge, J. (2005), New generic leak frequencies for process equipment, Process Safety Progress, 24, 4, pp249-257 4. Falck, A., Bain, B., & Rødsætre, L. (2009) Leak frequency modeling of offshore QRA based on the Hydrocarbon Release Database, Hazards XXI Conference, IChemE, Nov. 2009. 5. Flemish Government. (2009) Handbook Failure Frequencies 2009 for drawing up a safety report. LNE Department. Environment, Nature and Energy Policy Unit. Safety Reporting Division. 6. RIVM. (2009). Reference manual BEVI risk assessments. v3.1, Jan 1st 2009. Centre for External Safety, Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and the Environment

DISCLAIMER: This document describes certain of DNV’s

methods and applications. It was prepared on the basis of the at-the-time knowledge and information and it is provided to you for information purposes only. Nothing herein contains specific advice and DNV makes no representation or warranty regarding the information’s characteristics, fitness-for-purpose or other qualities. You as a reader understand and accept that you are solely responsible for your conclusions, use, or non-use of the information herein and that DNV is not liable for any consequence, damage, or loss arising therefrom, including but not limited to loss of opportunities, profits or otherwise.


I quantified risk assessment I PROCESS INDUSTRY I 39


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Failure frequency guidance  

Process equipment leak frequency data for use in QRA

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