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Environmental performance‌ an urgent challenge DNV Serving the maritime industry


Environmental Performance‌ An Urgent Challenge

Tor E. Svensen Chief Operating Officer, DNV Maritime

There is increasing evidence that human activities are contributing to global warming and rapid climatic changes. Although marine transportation is quite energy efficient in terms of ton/mile performance compared to other transportation alternatives, shipping is now facing a new reality: media, politicians and the public at large are increasingly focusing on environmental issues. Carbon emissions which contribute to global warming are particularly in the spotlight. Action is being demanded and companies’ corporate social responsibility is being challenged. Ambitious emission reduction targets are currently being discussed and agreed in international and regional forums.

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Challenges

Energy Efficiency

There is little doubt that rules and regulations covering environmental issues will become more and more strict in the years ahead. Vessels ordered today may still be in operation beyond 2040. What should we in the shipping industry do to prepare for this new reality? Rather than just waiting for new regulations to come into force we in DNV believe a proactive approach is the best alternative: looking for opportunities, continuously developing and implementing effective and practical alternatives and working with regulators to influence regulation with real-world knowledge and experience. In many cases future-oriented solutions have eco-

Discharges to sea

Hazardous material


CHALL ENGES

nomic incentives continuously strive towards our own potential for improvements rather than claiming that we in shipping are the champions. Environmental issues are top priority for DNV. Our vision is “Global impact for a safe and sustainable future.” We are already serving the industry extensively within this field, and we are spending considerable resources to develop state-of-the-art competence and services. These include classification and verification activities, R&D and technology development, concept evaluation and development, advisory services and training.

There is little doubt that rules and regulations covering environmental issues will become more and more strict in the years ahead

Times of change are often times of opportunities. Identifying and implementing environmental improvements for shorter and longer term gains and positioning may very well produce good return on investment. Investment in our own future. We are pleased to serve the shipping industry with a wide range of environmental services and contribute to sustainable development that benefits all of us. Let us see how we can support you in developing your competitive edge. The first movers may very well be the winners!

Commitment and cooperation

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There are many reasons for reducing air-borne emissions The human impact on global climate is increasingly evident. With that, initiatives to reduce emissions with a high greenhouse gas potential; in particular CO2, are becoming more and more urgent and important. Many nations have set ambitious emission reduction targets to be reached before 2020. Most likely these will impact international shipping. As fuel prices increase, a reduction in fuel consumption will not only have a positive impact on the emitted greenhouse gases to air, but will also help to reduce the operational costs of a vessel. Effective energy management, as well as setting emission targets and implementing technical and operational solutions, is the key to success.

The shipping industry should prepare for reduction of CO2, NOx, SOx and particulate matter (PM) from engines

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Challenges

Energy Efficiency

Discharges to sea

Hazardous material


ENER GYEF FICIE NCY

REDUCING FUEL CONSUMPTION For vessels yet to be built, the improvement opportunities are substantial, e.g. the choice of fuel or energy supply, with possible solutions including LNG, 2nd generation bio fuels, fuel cells, wind-, solar- and wave power, or nuclear power, and making use of cold ironing--shore-side electrical power sources in port. Through further optimized hull and propulsion designs, as well as optimization of engines and monitoring systems, emissions from main engines and auxiliary engines can be significantly reduced. Minor energy consumers, like deck paint, pipe insulation and air conditioning systems can have a reduced impact with improved technology. Bunker fuel represents the highest cost element for sea transport, and may account for 50 – 70% of total operational expenses, hence even small improvements will have a positive impact on the bottom line. Some main areas with potential for improvement of a vessel’s energy efficiency performance include: REDUCING SOX EMISSIONS One of the major shipping-related emissions to air is SOx (collective name for sulphur oxides), causing acidification and smog, resulting from burning of sulphur-containing fuel. The implementation of Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECA) restricts the sulphur content in the fuel oil severely, meaning that a change to low-sulphur fuel oil, changing to another fuel, or eliminating SOx from the exhausts, is a ticket to trade. SOx emissions can be almost eliminated (>99%) from the exhaust gas through the use of a scrubber (fresh water or sea water) in which SOx will be absorbed and washed down to the seawater, making use of the natural buffer capacity of the ocean. In addition, new principles for SOx scrubbers are now under development. Implementing a scrubber includes an additional fuel penalty in the range 1.5 – 3%, and of course there will be a capital cost for a retrofitting. In sensitive waters, or in harbours with little net inflow, it is expected that requirements will be introduced with regard to handling of the wash water and the cleanliness of the effluent water. It may therefore still be necessary to switch to low sulphur fuel alternatives in certain areas.

Commitment and cooperation

REDUCING NOX EMISSONS NOx (collective name for nitrogen oxides) is the result of the combustion of fuel in contact with an excess of ambient air. NOx causes smog, acidification and eutrophication-the over-growth and consequent oxygen deficiency, resulting from too many nutrients in a water habitat. MARPOL as well as the US EPA are setting increasingly strict requirements on NOx performance for vessel engines, and Norway, with other nations possibly to follow, has recently implemented a nationwide NOx tax per kg NOx emitted. For shipowners under the Norwegian NOx tax, a pre-set NOx emission value depending on vessel engine(s) size will constitute the prime preference for the bill to be paid. Being able to prove the actual NOx emissions and finding ways of reducing those is essential. An efficient and accurate monitoring and reporting system is vitally important and can enable a shipowner to significantly reduce NOxrelated costs. One feasible solution to reducing the NOx emissions is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) which reduces the NOx conversion into nitrogen gas and water vapour through the use of ammonia or urea. The reduction potential is around 85- 99%, and can significantly reduce the particulate matters as well. So called “wet solutions” that are using water vapour or injection of water emulsions into the engine prove a reduction potential of some 30–70%. Knowing which technology is best suited for a particular application, will be crucial for an efficient result in NOx reduction.

BEING BRIEF The exhaust emissions from burning of fuel are affecting the global climate in addition to causing environmental impacts like acidification, overgrowth and smog. Emissions can be significantly reduced through the use of more efficient design and technology, more careful energy management as well as the implementation of feasible emission reduction technologies.

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Discharges to sea – increasingly important Accidental discharges, as well as operational discharges of oil have continuously decreased over the last decades. International and national regulations, incentives and policies as well as environmental fines and law-suits have forced the shipping industry to reduce any oil discharges to sea significantly. Today, the shipping industry needs to deal with yet other discharge regulations. Discharge of ballast water is maybe one of the most challenging.

BALLAST WATER The environmental and economic consequences of the introduction of alien species from de-ballasting operations are already evident today. This is now considered one of the four greatest threats to the World’s oceans. In 2004, the Ballast Water Convention was approved, requiring that all ocean going vessels need to have a Ballast Water Management System implemented onboard no later than 2016. For a ship owner, it is crucial to be prepared to install an approved Ballast Water Management System before this date. As the applicability of different ballast treatment systems will vary with vessel type, performing a technical feasibility study is time and money well spent. Typical issues to evaluate are footprint, back pressure, location flexibility, ease of implementation and maintenance needs.

For some trades, new solutions such as catamaran or trimaran designs can be feasible options which would significantly reduce or eliminate the need for ballast tanks and hence lessen the energy consumption while eliminating the need to implement ballast water treatment systems onboard. WASTE WATER For waste water, the international restrictions on waste water management are tightening. In some local jurisdictions, even tighter restrictions have been defined. Within 12nm from shore, all black water is to be treated by an advanced wastewater treatment system before discharge, otherwise the ship must rely on its holding capacity. Consequently, shipowners have to either invest in new costly waste water technology or adapt their operation to their black water holding capacity. An optimized waste water system and waste water management plan for these ships will immediately increase their sailing flexibility.

BEING BRIEF The challenges with discharges to sea have somewhat shifted from operational and accidental discharges of oil, to treatment of ballast water and waste water streams. There are more and more ballast treatment technologies to choose from, and a careful feasibility study is a sound investment. Regulations on waste water streams are becoming more and strict, and efficient waste water treatment systems are a necessity.

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Challenges

Energy Efficiency

Discharges to sea

Hazardous material


DISCHA RGESTO SEA

Waste – an inevitable cost or a potential resource? With the world fleet increasing, the amount of ship-generated solid waste is increasing as well. With each ship producing several hundred kilos of oily sludge and significant amounts of solid waste daily, proper onboard and portside waste facilities are needed. Good onboard waste management starts with a viable garbage management plan. A cleaner and tidier ship can be achieved by minimizing the amounts of waste brought onboard, adequate waste sorting procedures that match shore-side sorting codes, optimal burning with heat recovery, and proper segregation of non-reusable waste fractions and good operational routines. In the near future, systems for recovering more energy from the garbage may be seen not only onboard, but also in main ports as a significant source of energy. Gasification

Commitment and cooperation

is one such technology. In ports, such power plants may be supplying ships with additional energy through cold ironing systems, or offer electricity commercially to local shore side facilities. Through an updated total waste management system a fleet can reduce operational costs and avoid unpleasant surprises. Proper focus on garbage handling onboard may also reduce the waste volumes and hence lower the burden on garbage treatment systems and possibly reduce the shore-side discharge fees significantly. Finally, by integrating the different waste treatment systems properly and ensuring that all side-streams and residues get properly handled, the overall waste management system becomes more robust and is easier to maintain in a good working manner.

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A vessel’s last voyage – with an Inventory of Hazardous Material The life of a vessel ends at a scrapping site - or rather, recycling yard. With few requirements and procedures in place, deconstruction of a vessel is complicated, hard work, often resulting in severe workplace accidents and health- and environmental incidents. A shipowner that is not responsibly scrapping vessels might lose his reputation in the industry.

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Challenges

Energy Efficiency

Discharges to sea

Hazardous material


HAZARDOUS MATERIAL

To ease the work of deconstruction and aid in the opportunities for recycling of material, the Green Passport document – recently re-named Inventory of Hazardous Materials - has been created. The Inventory of Hazardous Materials quantifies and locates the hazardous material in existence on the vessel.

most vessels today, with most significant occurrences on vessels built before mid-eighties. It seems that asbestos material continues to be used regularly during repair, regardless of asbestos bans; hence an asbestos free certificate is no warranty. Some charterers include asbestos free as part of their charter party requirements, with possible significant off-hire costs if asbestos is found onboard.

As an example of hazardous materials built into the structure of a vessel, asbestos is identified and found onboard

Commitment and cooperation

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Commitment and cooperation

For the shipping industry to have a chance at achieving their part of the ambitious reduction targets for 2020, all parties need to do their share. Key stakeholders in the industry need to show concerted efforts in improving the environmental footprint, supporting a global IMO-based regulatory regime as well as intensifying research into alternative energy sources. The logistics chain can be greatly improved, but will imply

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Challenges

Energy Efficiency

closer cooperation between cargo owners, charterers and ship owners in order to achieve any promising results. Such proactive cooperation could result in improvements such as: I larger ships with higher utilization I enhanced routing through optimization of the logistics chain I fewer ballast voyages I larger cargo batches I optimized arrival times

Discharges to sea

Hazardous material


COMMITMENT ANDCOOPERA TION

Commitment and cooperation

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Environmental performance... an urgent challenge