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DNV Tanker Update Information from DNV to the tanker industry


Lay-Up Port State Control Tool Kit Ice Load Monitoring

No. 1 May 2009


12 Ice Load Monitoring

14 ››

Marinvest: Emergency propulsion

Photos: front/back cover ©Conny Wickberg/Stena Bulk, p3 ©DNV, p7 ©DNV/Magne A. Røe, p9 ©DNV, p10–11 ©DNV/Magne A. Røe, p14–15 ©Marinvest, p18–19 ©DNV/Magne A. Røe, p23 ©DSME

COVER STORY TMSA: CO2 reduction challenges facing tanker owners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 LAY-UP DNV’s Guidelines for Lay-up of Ships . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 EXPERIENCE FEEDBACK Valuable experience feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 PORT STATE CONTROL Port State Control Tool Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 ICE LOAD MONITORING The ultimate tool to avoid hull damage in ice? . . . . . . . . . 12 MARINVEST Emergency propulsion – “take me home” . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 EMAXair Stena’s EMAXair tanker – a significant step in the direction of greener tankers . . . . 16 FSRU GOLAR SPIRIT The world’s first conversion of LNG/C to re-gasification unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 RECENT DELIVERY BW Austria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2|


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Stena’s EMAXair tanker


DNV Tanker Update WE WELCOME YOUR THOUGHTS! DNV Tanker Update is a newsletter published by Det Norske Veritas, DNV Maritime. It is distributed to DNV customers and stations worldwide. © Det Norske Veritas AS Please direct any enquiries to your nearest DNV station or Tanker Update e-mail: Editorial committee: Jan Koren, Business Director, Tankers Editor: Magne A. Røe Production: Lisbeth Aamodt Design and layout: Coor Graphic Communications 0904-022 Print: 07 Oslo AS, 6,000/5-2009 Online edition of DNV Tanker Update: DNV (Det Norske Veritas AS) NO-1322 Høvik, Norway Tel: +47 67 57 99 00 Fax: +47 67 57 99 11 An updated list of all regional offices can be seen on DNV’s website:



Jan Koren Business Director, Tankers

Overall, the tanker segment has until recently been less severely hit than the bulk carrier and container ship segments, even though, according to the International Energy Agency, the world oil demand growth has slumped into negative territory for the first time since 1983. There is presently no end in sight for the downturn, and we can only hope for the best… In the meantime, the tanker order book is currently at around 44% (grt) of the tankers in operation, which means that a continuous flow of newbuilds will enter the market in the next few years. Even with some cancellations, delayed deliveries, lay-ups, a significant number of single

hull tankers exiting the market and oil carriers operating as storage tanks, it is likely that we, at least in the short term, will see an oversupply of tanker tonnage in the market. In addition to the fact that owners’ revenues are falling, one consequence of such a scenario is that charterers can pick and choose vessels more than before. The tanker vetting process must be expected to continue undisturbed by the market turmoil. The OCIMF’s (Oil Companies International Marine Forum) Tanker Management Self Assessment (TMSA) scheme, which is a continuous improvement tool for tanker owners, cover-

ing elements within the scope of vetting procedures, has become a universally applied tool for the tanker industry. A few months back, Energy Efficiency and Fuel Management guidelines were published by the OCIMF to expand the TMSA scheme’s pre-existing Environmental Element. The aim is to reduce CO2 emissions from ships. This means that tanker owners now have to deal with another challenge, and they would be wise not to wait for better times before starting to implement these guidelines. Cost cutting, consolidation and in some cases even survival, will now be the name of the game for most owners in

the short term. Some owners are, however, also preparing for the longer-term perspective. The next wave of new tanker orders is expected to be ‘greener’ than before, in line with the OCIMF’s ambitions and the authorities’ clearly expressed targets. These are important signals to the tanker industry and a challenge many have already started to prepare for. Challenges are also associated with opportunities. Success factors may include timing, creativity and technology developments. DNV has the resources and services to support the tanker industry throughout the different business cycle phases.

Shipping is cyclical by nature – DNV is your partner at all times The global economy is behaving like an unpredictable roller coaster, moving faster and in more directions than anybody could anticipate. Many ship owners, ship operators, yards, ship finance institutions, and people are suffering through financial losses and business instability. As your partner we will support and assist you to meet your requirements.

It’s about partnership.

DNV serving the Maritime Industry during any cycle




Expansion of the Tanker Management Self Assessment (TMSA) scheme:

CO2 reduction challenges facing Tanker Owners OCIMF is now expanding the TMSA scheme. Energy Efficiency and Fuel Management guidelines have been developed to expand upon the TMSA’s Environmental Element (Element 10 A + 10 B), specifically with a view to reducing CO2 emissions from ships. These guidelines were published in late 2008. TEXT: JAN KOREN

OCIMF – OIL COMPANIES INTERNATIONAL MARINE FORUM • OCIMF is a voluntary association of oil companies having an interest in the shipment and terminalling of crude oil and oil products. • Its mission is to be the foremost authority on the safe and environmentally responsible operation of oil tankers and terminals, promoting continuous improvement in standards of design and operation. • OCIMF was formed at a meeting in London on 8 April 1970. It was initially the oil industry’s response to increasing public awareness of marine pollution, particularly by oil, after the Torrey Canyon incident. • OCIMF currently comprises 72 companies worldwide.



The aim of the guidelines is to encourage companies to implement CO2 reducing practices and technologies as part of a culture of fostering continuous improvement. The main objective is to develop a proactive approach to Energy Efficiency and Fuel Management that includes the improvement of vessel and voyage efficiencies aimed at reducing the CO2 emitted from ships. It is further stated that “The efficient use of energy should be a fundamental requirement for operators offering their vessels for charter to OCIMF members.” This implies that operators should establish and maintain procedures and limit the use of energy in their operations. This should include provisions for: • minimizing energy waste • promoting energy efficiency awareness • implementing vessel and voyage strategies to minimize energy usage • promoting cooperation with charterers and others to facilitate energy efficient operations. As these guidelines do not yet form part of the TMSA scheme, they are initially intended for consideration on a voluntary basis. It is envisaged that the ideas and concepts identified in the guidelines will be considered for inclusion in TMSA when that publication is next reviewed.

It is, however, wise of tanker operators to start implementing these guidelines now. In a market where an oversupply of tanker tonnage may be expected, implementation can be an important differentiator and create a business advantage. It should be noted that OCIMF does not this time cover basic design features intended to minimize fuel consumption and associated emissions. This is likely to be introduced later on, based on different design indexes currently being developed, e.g by the IMO. The full guidelines can be accessed via

DNV SUPPORT DNV has a wide range of expertise prepared to help owners implement the guidelines and also improve performance on a continuous basis. Our Energy- and Fuel Management Services which were established a couple of years back, primarily based on very high fuel oil prices, have since updated, and are very much in line with the OCIMF guidelines. The following figure indicates the scope of such DNV services. For more information, contact or

“It is wise of tanker operators to start implementing Energy Efficiency and Fuel Management guidelines now. In a market where an oversupply of tanker tonnage may be expected, implementation can be an important differentiator and create a business advantage.” Jan Koren, DNV Business Director, Tankers




• • • • • •

• • • • • •

Hull condition Propeller condition Autopilot and rudder Trim and draft Voyage planning and execution Weather routing and sea current

Main engine tuning and efficiency Aux. engines tuning and utilization Tank heating/cleaning Boiler usage Thruster operation Other power requiring units



• Fuel procurement and hedging

• Energy management strategy/policy • Performance management • Organization – roles and responsibilities • Training and awareness • Integrate with environmental profile • Life-cycle perspective

– Optimize fuel price and minimize risk

• Pre-bunkering – Contracts securing fuel quality

• During bunkering – Processes securing fuel quantity

• Post-bunkering – Secure equipment condition (e.g. scrape down)

TANKER MANAGEMENT AND SELF ASSESSMENT (TMSA): A BEST PRACTICE GUIDE FOR SHIP OPERATORS • First published in 2004, revised in June 2008. • Encourages ship operators to achieve high standards of management and continuous improvement and provides guidance on what OCIMF believes to be current best practice. • Provides a comprehensive tool to help ship operators measure and improve their safety management systems and encourages the assessment of safety management systems against listed key performance indicators as a guide and measure of best practice. • TMSA defines 12 key elements of management practice. • Continuous improvement implies 1) plans, 2) acts, 3) measurements and 4) improvements. • KPIs and associated self assessment on a regular basis are integral parts of the TMSA tool. • TMSA was established by OCIMF as a voluntary tool, but owners will in most cases have difficulties passing the vetting without having implemented TMSA.




DNV’s Guidelines for Lay-up of Ships:

Preserving the assets for shorter or l o n g e r periods During the major lay-ups in the shipping industry in the 1970s and 1980s, when the tanker market was particularly affected, DNV was instrumental in setting the standards for safe and cost-optimal lay-up and preservation. Unfortunately, the experience and competence developed at that time are once again in demand. TEXT: ØYSTEIN GOKSØYR, RICHARD TAO

DNV’s interim Guideline for Lay-up of Ships was issued in February 2009, after a complete revision based on the technical developments in shipping over the past two to three decades. The Guideline will be finalized after the consultation process, involving owners, charterers, insurance companies and national and local authorities, has been completed in April 2009. The Guideline provides a systematic and cost-effective approach to preparing the ship for lay-up and maintaining it in a safe and cost-effective condition. An overview of relevant lay-up considerations, such as ‘hot’ or ‘cold’ lay-up, lay-up site, lay-up period, re-commissioning time, class, insurance and flag requirements, is given as a means for the ship owner to make the best decisions. Practical procedures for re-commissioning the ship are also included. If the ship is laid up in compliance with the safety and preservation recommendations in the Guideline, DNV will, upon request and after successful verification, issue a Lay-up Declaration and Layup Preservation Declaration confirming compliance with the recommendations.



ADVISORY SERVICES The feedback from the shipping industry so far clearly indicates the relevance of the topic. There is concern about new technology, i.e. the extensive installation of electronic equipment on board. There is little experience available about the effect of lay-up on such equipment. Even though most of the approximately 1,000 ships idle today are laid up ‘hot’ (i.e. with the machinery kept in operation or on stand-by for the sake of fast re-commissioning), feedback shows that technical challenges start to occur only a short time after lay-up. For ships laid up in tropical waters, reports are coming in that vessels experience problems moving after a relatively short time due to marine growth along the hull, especially within the crucial areas around the rudder, propeller and bow thrusters. The reports are adding weight to arguments in favour of selecting lay-up sites for ‘cold’ lay-up (i.e. longterm lay-up with the machinery out of service) in colder and dry climates like the sheltered waters of Norwegian fjords. This will also simplify the protection of

often expensive and sensitive electronics on board. In order to handle the increasing number of inquiries about lay-ups, DNV has established advisory services to assist owners in laying up their ships in a safe and cost-efficient way. The services range from advice on lay-up sites and lay-up plans, declarations of safe lay-up, supervision during lay-up and re-commissioning. For tankers, the control of cargo tank atmosphere, gas freed or inerted, is covered. For tankers with big, heavy propeller shafts and propellers, special precautions should be taken to protect the bearings following considerations in each case. While the scope of DNV’s Lay-up Declarations traditionally covered safety and preservation, there is now an increased interest in extending the scope to cover environmental issues as well. Examples of environmental challenges during lay-up are anti-pollution measures, re-coating and brushing of antifouling, and sewage treatment. You will find our Lay-up Guidelines and other available information at

›› There are many issues to consider for laying up ships. DNV has the knowledge.




Valuable experience

FEEDBACK Since 2005, DNV has recorded all the findings of surveys on board ships worldwide in a structured database that allows for detailed analysis of trends and frequencies across the more than 5,000 vessels classed by DNV. More than 50,000 findings are continuously fed into the database each year. This can serve as unique feedback to approval engineers, surveyors, rule developers and clients. TEXT: STUART WEETMAN THOMSON

This knowledge base is unique in the maritime industry and has already provided in-depth insights into topics that have been difficult to come to grips with. Rudder damage is one example that can serve to illustrate the potential of this database in the years to come. Rudder damage is a well known problem on all ship types and it is often the case that difficult and untimely repairs must be carried out to ensure the safe operation of the vessel. Using the information stored in DNV’s database, we were able to identify which types of rudders experienced the most damage and where this damage occurs. In addition, we were able to highlight the importance of a highquality and correct repair to prevent problems from reoccurring. One example shows for instance that, in 2007, 26% of cracks in semi-spade rudders started in the pintle recess area (Fig. 2). From the results of this analysis, Maritime Services’ Hull Section was able to give DNV’s surveyors more relevant tools to suitably repair areas where this damage has been experienced. By highlighting these critical areas, we could then enable our surveyors not only to save time during inspections but also to be confident of verifying a more reliable and durable repair. In addition to empowering our surveyors, we were also able to provide relevant practical advice to our approval centres on what to look for during initial rudder approval and what to avoid.



Using all the findings on rudders, we have proposed rule changes with the aim of avoiding designs which are known to cause this commonly occurring damage. Thousands of findings are recorded in the database every month for all parts of the vessel, its systems and components. This concept was originally developed as a powerful internal tool for our production tasks. However, the potential benefits for external parties such as yards, designers, owners and manufacturers can also be substantial and highly relevant for the improvement of their deliveries. By harnessing this unique information, we can adapt and improve our working methods to give our surveyors and customers a more practical approach to classification. As a classification society, we are now in a much better position to more effectively identify risk areas and systematic problems and provide experience feedback and proactive follow-up of sister vessels or similar vessels, thereby minimizing or avoiding bigger problems. We may also offer similar feedback to designers and yards for improved design or construction practices, based on follow-up of the vessels beyond the usual one-year guarantee period they are normally given. We are confident that this can be a useful and important contribution to safety at sea.


Figure 1: Rudder damage. Figure 2: In 2007, 26% of the cracks in semi-spade rudders started in the pintle recess area. Figure 3: Typical high-stress areas.



RUDDER DAMAGE • In 2007, around 10% of all the findings on DNV-classed vessels were related to rudders. • Between 2005 and 2007, more than 1,000 rudder-related findings were recorded. • One in five bottom survey findings are rudder-related. • On average in 2007, there were eight rudder findings per week. • In 2007, 30% of rudder findings were related to cracks.




Support from DNV:

Port State Control Tool Kit Performance in Port State Control continues to offer a benchmark regarding the quality of both a vessel and its owner, both of which have the charterers’ attention in connection with the vetting of tankers. With an oversupply of tonnage in the market, this becomes even more important for tanker owners. TEXT: TIM WARD

In our efforts to continue to offer support to our clients in this area, we in DNV Maritime in cooperation with our clients have undertaken research and investigations into how we can cooperate to achieve improved Port State performance. These activities, which were undertaken in the autumn of 2008, constitute the first phase of a continuous process aimed at enabling DNV Maritime to offer more advanced advice, guidance and training on the topic of Port State Control to our global client base. DNV-classed vessels have over the years been top performers under the different PSC regimes, and DNV has co-operated very closely with port authorities in those cases where problems have occurred.

›› PORT STATE CONTROL TEAM: Jan Solum, Senior Surveyor Niki Ioannidou Mowinckel, Senior Surveyor, Co-ordinator for PSC Activities Aleksejs Alosins, Senior Surveyor

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DNV PSC TOOL KIT The research work resulted in the development of the new ‘DNV PSC Tool Kit’. This Tool Kit provides an amalgam of tools for both office and sea staff to help focus on the preparation prior to a Port State Inspection and comprises: 1. Port State Control – Top Detention Items 2008 (Booklet) 2. DNV PSC Wizard – software to enable creation of a ship-specific PSC Guide

3. Port State Control Posters – Good and Bad Practice 4. DNV PSC Tool Kit Folder – for storing all the documentation related to PSC Inspections. This ‘Tool Kit’ has been developed in the above format to improve communication with crew members and to build ownership between the new PSC guide and the shipping company, and it can upload company logos and add ship-specific information and pictures. Our intention is for the Tool Kit to become a part of the work activity on board our clients’ vessels. Statistics published by Port State Control regimes, and understanding of the PSC working processes and our general survey experience are all important elements forming the basis of the Tool Kit which is now available. The DNV Tool Kit will form the foundation for future Port State campaigns by DNV, and will have the ability to store Port State Control Circulars and other updates as we continue to increase our clients’ awareness of this topic. For more information contact




The ultimate tool to avoid hull damage in ice? How do people on the bridge know that they are operating within the design limits of the hull? TEXT: MORTEN MEJLÆNDER-LARSEN

Ship structures are designed for different ice loads, depending on assigned ice class. This represents operational limitations for the ship in order to avoid structural damage. How do the people on the bridge know that they really are operating within those limits, particularly under low visibility in darkness, fog and/or under heavy snowing conditions? Operation of vessels within those limitations is a key challenge for the people in command. Extensive practical experience from ship operations in ice, and knowledge about the individual vessels and their specifications, have so far been essential elements to avoid damages. TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS Now, we see a trend where ship operations in ice-infested waters are increasing, with growing ship sizes, and in many cases less experienced people involved than before. The perception of ice conditions and actual stresses on hull structure is a major challenge, particularly in darkness and snowing conditions. Real-time information about ice loads on the hull structure, as decision support for navigators on the bridge, is more needed than ever before. During the past three years, DNV has been developing technological solutions for ice load monitoring to enhance safety and regularity for ship operations

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in cold climate. The project culminated ultimo 2008 after the development of a comprehensive decision support tool for transiting ice. The system has been tested over the past two winter seasons onboard the Norwegian coast guard vessel KV Svalbard, operating extensively in various Arctic ice conditions. It has been important to develop and test the system over an extended period of time under different ice conditions, since ice conditions are so variable and it was necessary to make sure that the system is working under various circumstances. REAL-TIME ICE LOAD INFORMATION The system includes fibre-optic sensors (suitable for installation in gas-dangerous spaces) that measure shear strain on the vessel’s hull and electromagnetic equipment, which measures the thickness of the ice in the ice belt in way of the bow. This information is analysed and displayed on the bridge. Additionally, meteorological and satellite data about the ice is integrated into electronic charts allowing for optimum route selection. Real-time ice load information is essential to avoid damages. The system is providing essential and simple information to the bridge about acceptable loads, borderline loads or overloads. Or expressed in other words: go ahead, caution or reduce/stop.

›› 1. THE SYSTEM TO BE MOUNTED ONBOARD INCLUDES (FIG. 3): 1. Strain sensors to measure the shear at the frames, i.e. actual structural response of local members exposed to ice load. The sensors are mounted on the frames in a limited area in the bow area. 2. Electromagnetic ice thickness measurement equipment. 3. Computer and software to process data and display on the data at bridge. 4. Meteorological and satellite data and apply these data on the electronic chart. 5. Display and update the ice information and forecast continuously.

1 2 2. Morten Mejlænder-Larsen, DNV Programme Director, Cold Climate Shipping. 3. Fibre-optic sensors measuring shear stresses, located on web frames in way of the bow.

LEADING AND UNIQUE Based on the success of the Ice Load Monitoring project and a thorough understanding of the risks associated with Arctic operations, our conclusion is that technology will not be a showstopper for safe, well-planned ship operations in Arctic waters. We are ready to apply this technology now. This system is leading and unique. Our goal is to maintain high competence levels and updated rules and notations so that DNV is able to provide owners, yards and oil majors with stateof-the-art technology and the support they need to safeguard “Operations of vessels their cold climate activities. within those limitations is DNV is currently involved in a key challenge for the major projects where Ice Load Monitoring will be applied people in command.” both for ships and also for offshore structures, as decision support for ice navigation and ice management. The Ice Load Monitoring project was headed by DNV and supported by the Norwegian Research Council. Other partners were Teekay, StatoilHydro, Light Structures, The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Cmap/Jeppesen and the Norwegian Coastguard.


For more information contact




Emergency propulsion – “take me home” On the short list for the Seatrade Awards 2009, in the Safety at Sea category, is a new “take me home” or Power Take-In (PTI) system for slow-speed diesel engines. This is an emergency system developed by Swedish shipowner Marinvest AB in Gothenburg and fitted on board four of its DNV ice class 74,999-tonne product tankers recently delivered from the Brodosplit Shipyard in Croatia. The system was primarily developed to enhance the safety of single screwed and slow-speed engine vessels in the case of engine failure. TEXT: MAGNE A. RØE

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›› ››

Marinvest CEO Lars Mossberg (left) and Technical Director Roger Karlsson.

Marinvest CEO Lars Mossberg and Technical Director Roger Karlsson claim that “… our emergency propulsion system gives our product tankers a speed of eight to ten knots in moderate weather and, if needed, can be activated in less than 15 minutes.” “One of the main reasons for us developing this system was the many islands and narrows outside of Gothenburg, since we would never like to see our ships being stranded on any of these, or any other place in the world, due to engine failure. That would really be a disaster, with potentially major negative effects on the environment and our brand name. When combined with a controllable pitch propeller, the PTI system provides good manoeuvrability and control,” says Mr Mossberg. The PTI system is the first of its kind, and the power is supplied by the Framo cargo pump hydraulic power unit. “We worked both with Framo in Norway and Hägglunds in Sweden to make the system operational, but the patent for the system is ours,” says Mr Karlsson. Mr Mossberg continues: “Tankers are normally required to be able to leave terminals on short notice (e.g. within 15 minutes) in emergencies. Maintenance work on main engines at cargo terminals is

The disconnector, a key element in the PTI system.

therefore not allowed if it conflicts with the engine’s standby mode. Emergency power requirements for evacuation have to be complied with. The alternative for tanker engine maintenance is often to stop at sea and go off-hire while the maintenance work is carried out. The improved opportunity for maintenance when it is most convenient was the second important reason for us making the effort to develop the PTI system.” FEEL SAFE With the Marinvest PTI system connected, the propulsion standby mode is maintained even when the main engine is completely shut down for maintenance. “This is a significant advantage both for the people on board and the owners,” claims Mr Mossberg. Basically the concept is very simple. The main engine is decoupled from the shaft and the engine propulsion power is substituted by hydraulic or electric motors, driven by the auxiliary engines. Four hydraulic motors are used on board Marinvest’s own tankers. “The disconnector is a key element in our PTI system and is patented,” continues Mr Mossberg. “This device is a cylindrical unit, with a diameter approximately twice

MARINVEST AB Founded in 1988, it is a private shipping and investment group whose operations consist of being part owners and managers of product tankers. Holdings include investments in Panamax product tankers of about 80,000 dwt, an expanding coastal shipping company as well as real estate and securities. Its headquarters are in Gothenburg, Sweden.

that of the shaft and a length about three times the shaft diameter. The key features of the unit are the two shaft connections with flange bolts and a set of radial dowels, allowing the two flanges in the unit to be separated and rotate independently of each other.” In Marinvest’s Panamax vessels, the available hydraulic power is 2,600 kW at 270 bar. Aft of the disconnector, the system has a drum with sprocket wheels and a four duplex chain drive transfers the hydraulic power to the intermediate shaft. Mr Mossberg claims that the further detailed design development of the PTI system is in progress. This, combined with the training of personnel, will result in a normal activation time of close to ten minutes. “Should the main engine fail, the ship will always have enough speed to manoeuvre for another ten minutes – and normally there is much more time to complete the changeover than a mere ten minutes,” he says. The change can be executed by four crew members. Vessels with emergency propulsion systems may be granted the additional class notation Redundant Propulsion, EP-1 by DNV.

DNV’S ADDITIONAL CLASS NOTATION FOR EMERGENCY PROPULSION: EP-1 A technical standard for emergency propulsion, utilising the ordinary shaft and propeller. Intended to enhance safety and the likelihood of reaching a safe harbour after a single failure in the main propulsion system. One important requirement: the emergency propulsion power must be enough to maintain a speed of at least seven knots.




Stena’s EMAXair tanker – a significant step in the direction of GREENER tankers The youngest and smallest member of Stena Bulk’s Max family has been presented. A 15,000 dwt product carrier with strong focus on safety and emission reductions has been designed. The vessel is LNG-fuelled. TEXT: MAGNE A. RØE

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The new design was developed by Stena’s 14-person-strong, LNG is a clean fuel compared to oil, with potential for ambitious in-house design department Stena Teknik. The 20–25% less CO2 emissions, 90% less NOx and close to result confirms Stena’s pioneering attitude and willingness 100% less SOx and particals compared with oilfuel. Then to stay in the forefront of the development and not wait for there will be no need for installation of catalytic converter others to establish the trends. in order to comply with future emission requirements. This Engines are gas-fuelled based on LNG. Since there is no design will by far comply with all emission requirements heavy fuel oil on board, engine room installations will not applicable in Emission Control Areas (ECA), such as The include equipment/systems Baltic Sea and The North Sea, required for such fuel. now and in the foreseeable A further development future. “Typically, we have estimated that of the initial EMAX design is This vessel is primarily the fuel consumption may be EMAXair intended to reduce fuel intended for Baltic trades, and reduced from 22 tonnes for a consumption further. The bottom has therefore also been strengthis designed to keep air trapped ened to Swedish/Finnish ice conventional design to 17 tonnes, below the flat bottom. Air is supclass ICE 1A. or more than 20 per cent. The “The hull is wide and shallow plied from compressors. Model corresponding potential reduction draft. The need for high speed of testing will be carried out in the the vessels in the EMAX series is near future to verify any potential of CO2 emissions when using not important for the vessels for fuel saving. LNG as fuel is estimated to be in intended for Baltic trade as they “We have the patent on the the range 35–40%.” will be spending a considerable bulb and the air max systems. The part of their operational life in characteristic of the bulb is that it Björn Stignor, EMAX project manager ports. So design speed is 13 knots is much wider and more pointed with max speed of 14,5 knots,” than conventional bulbs. The says Björn Stignor. main purpose of this design is to Stena is expecting that the price for a tanker of this push the water flow underneath the vessel, giving a better design will be somewhat higher than for a conventional water flow and less resistance. In addition, once the water is design. This is, however, believed to be compensated by a underneath the vessel there is a section of the hull which is reduced fuel bill. The EMAX has, in line with the basic filled with air. We actually pump air into these areas as the friction between air and water is less than between steel and Stena Max concept, full redundancy for propulsion and water,” says Björn Stignor, EMAX project manager. “The key steering. Stena is currently in contact with both charterers and word is friction together with the bulb – reduce the friction yards to prepare for contracts. and you reduce your fuel consumption.” Estimates indicate that fuel saving due to be the air concept is in the 10–15% range. This will be investigated by model tests in the near future.




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›› Ulf Ryder, CEO Stena Bulk (left) and EMAX project manager Björn Stignor.

MAIN FEATURES OF THE EMAX • Twin skeg and two completely separate engine rooms for full redundancy, similar to the other members of Stena’s Max family. • Diesel-electric propulsion system. • Gas-fuelled engines: producing around 2 x 5.7 mW and twin auxiliary engines, each producing around 2.7 mW. • Two LNG fuel tanks located on cargo deck, each with 250 m3 capacity, enough for refuelling every 22 days. • One marine diesel oil tank 250 m3 capacity. • Service speed 13 knots, slightly below common practice today. • Optimized hydrodynamic features for optimized fuel consumption: bow and hull design, 2 x 4.8 m diameter relatively slow rotating propellers. • The tanker will be fitted with 14 cargo tanks. • One 1,000 kW bow thruster. • Arranged for kite-assisted propulsion.




›› Conn Fagan, Business Development Manager LNG, DNV Energy.

FSRU GOLAR SPIRIT the world’s first conversion of LNG/C to re-gasification unit After about eight months at Keppel Shipyard in Singapore, the 1981-built LNG/C Golar Spirit was delivered as a re-gasification unit. This is the world’s first such conversion from an ordinary LNG carrier. TEXT: JAN KOREN

“In such a pioneering and complex project, cooperation between all parties and disciplines involved is essential for a successful end result.”

Golar Spirit is also the world’s first permanently located re-gas vessel. The vessel is classified by DNV, including the REGAS-2 class notation applicable for continuous re-gas operations. Gunnar Bech, When LNG/C Golar DNV Singapore's site project manager Spirit was delivered from Kawasaki Shipyard in 1981, she was the first Japanese-built LNG carrier ever (Moss design). Golar Spirit was chartered by Petrobras in Brazil in April 2007 for a ten-year charter as an FSRU

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(Floating Storage and Re-gasification Unit) commencing summer 2008. After conversion and successful gas trials and commissioning of the Pecém Terminal in Brazil she relocated to Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro. Here she commissioned Brazil’s second LNG import facility, which is a sea island inside the well protected Guanabara Bay. Golar Spirit will receive LNG from a standard LNG carrier. The LNG is transferred over a jetty through cryogenic hard arms, re-gasified in a closed loop and delivered into the gas grid via high-pressure hard arms at a pressure of 100 bar. The storage capacity of Golar Spirit is 129,000 m3 LNG. The re-gas capacity is 7,000,000 m3/d of gas, equivalent to approx. 5,300 tons of LNG per day.

›› Top left: Tor Skogan, Vice President, Gas, Moss Maritime. Top right: Gunnar Bech, DNV Singapore's site project manager.

Petrobras considers DNV to be the best qualified for such a technically complex project and Golar has chosen to work with DNV on these projects because of their capabilities with Gas Carriers as well as other complex projects. We recognize DNV to be an important partner for us and appreciate the assistance and positive approach we receive from the very skilled professionals in DNV. It is also reassuring that our clients have the same view on DNV, says Hugo Skaar, Vice President at Golar LNG.

Teamwork, including DNV’s best qualified resources around the world, has contributed to the successful start-up of this project. The ability to co-ordinate a global team of resources and draw upon appropriate experience from different parts of the organization is the basis for DNV being recognized as leaders in this field, says Conn Fagan. For more information, contact or

Approval of the conversion and re-gas unit was carried out at DNV’s Head Office in Oslo. Site supervision was carried out by DNV’s site team in Singapore. Gas trials in Brazil and installation process at site was supported and supervised by local DNV personnel.




›› 1. Jan Flatseth, Chief Operation Officer, Golar and Hugo Skaar, Vice President Operation, Golar's project manager for Golar Spirit. 2. The President of Brazil, Lula da Silva, visited Golar Spirit on 30 March 2009 in connection with the inauguration of the LNG terminal in Rio de Janeiro.

1 DNV’s additional class notations REGAS-1 and REGAS-2: • REGAS-1: safety standard for on-board re-gasification plants intended for occasional operation in connection with cargo discharge. • REGAS-2: safety standard for on-board re-gasification unit intended for continuous operation (FSRU). A Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) is required as basis for safety on board.

“The project has been a milestone for Moss Maritime in confirming our position as a key provider of technical solutions for the LNG shipping industry and making the world's first conversion happening.” Tor Skogan, Vice President Gas, Moss Maritime

2 GOLAR LNG: Golar LNG’s business objectives, as described on their home page, include: Build upon industry leading position as a ‘midstream’ solutions provider via: • Delivery of additional Floating Storage and Regasification Unit (FSRU) projects. • Development of Floating LNG (‘FLNG’) production unit projects. Eleven LNG carriers in operation. FSRUs Golar Spirit and Golar Winter (No 96, built 2004) under conversion for operation in Guanabara Bay from 2nd Quarter 2009. Golar Freeze (Moss, built 1977) to be converted for operation in Jebel Ali, UAE from April 2010. Golar Frost (Moss, built 2004) to be converted for operation offshore Livorno, Italy from mid-2010.

22 |



Owner Yard Ship Type Flag Port of Registry Class Notation

Register Information Other DNV Services LOA LBP Breadth Depth Design draught Scantling draught Main engine Speed

BW Gas DSME LPG Carrier Norway Oslo 1A1 Tanker for Liquefied Gas E0 CLEAN COAT-2 PLUS-1 BIS TMON Nauticus(Newbuilding) Ship type 2G(–50ºC, 610kg/m3, 0.25 bar) ERS ERS 226.0 m 215.0 m 36.6 m 22.2 m 11.4 m 11.8 m MAN B&W 6S60MC-C(Mk8) 17 knots



DNV Tanker Update No. 1 2009  

Reduced CO2 Emissions. Also inside: Lay up, Port State Control Tool Kit, Ice Load Monitoring

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