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DNV 32 cutting edge projects 2011

cutting edge view

02 cutting edge

Contents service directors p06–07

Maritime&Class p08–19 10 Software for Hull Integrity Management 11 Hull Integrity Management 12 FPSO Fatigue Revisited 13 Re-thinking Container Ship Design 14 Pushing Fuel Cell Tech

Oil&gas frontiers p20–37 22 Flow Assurance Management 23 Risk Based Corrosion 24 Drilling and Well Risk Assessment 26 Addressing Deep Water Lifting 27 HDD – Recommended Practices

Cleaner energy p38–53 40 Offshore Wind Power 41 SESAM Wind 42 Offshore Wind Farm Collection 43 Wind Turbine Lifespan 44 Wind Wake Loss 45 Wind Blade Issues

15 Triple-E™ 16 Class Rules for Battery Powered Vessels 17 LNG Route Simulation 18 Port State Control Improvements 19 Preparing DNV for Introduction of the Ballast Water Management Convention

28 Subsea Pipeline Steel 30 Learning Lessons Offshore 31 Deep Water Deployment 32 Offshore Risk Standards  34 Validating Phast™ for LNG 36 Control Systems and Software

46 Wind Operations Meteorological Monitoring 47 Wind Load in Solar Roof Installations 48 Offshore Wind Farm Cable Risks 49 Extending RAM 50 Liquefied Natural Gas Power Options 51 Albertan Oil Sands 52 LNG in Motion

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Cutting edge view 2012 Every year we invite all our staff to propose new ideas for technology and service development. That is because we believe that colleagues working closely with our customers all over the world have great knowledge of our market needs. As a consequence, we can address important industry issues. In 2011, 208 of these project ideas got realized. We think that sharing knowledge is a key driver to success. This Cutting Edge view is meant to be a sample of how we are focusing that knowledge. We have selected 34 projects within three categories, Maritime&Class, Oil&Gas Frontiers and Cleaner Energy, to present in this publication. We welcome your responses, and invite you to contact us, whether it is to provide input, to get more information about our projects, or to join us in our efforts to solve industry challenges and lead the way in Joint Industry Projects.

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editoRiAL For nearly 150 years, dnV has remained an independent foundation growing to meet customers’ and society’s needs through its strong vision, purpose and values. our services are to identify, assess and manage risks to create and protect value for our customers and society at large. We build these services on our strong base of technologies, competences and our independence and third party role. dnV has established many initiatives for innovation and technology development, fulfilling specific purposes. dnV Research and innovation looks into the future, focusing on long term strategic research programs to acquire new knowledge and competence. our Platform initiatives are large development programs initiated by the dnV management. these initiatives aim to improve our competitive edge through process and efficiency enhancements and through development of our it and production systems.

We also run short-term, intense projects with durations of 3–4 months, where project teams are taken out of production to work full-time to answer a specific challenge. these “extraordinary innovation projects” focus on solving real industry challenges by innovatively combining existing technologies with concepts that can be further matured by the industry.

i am often struck with respect and admiration for the dnV team, their knowledge, experience and the technical accomplishments of their ongoing work. Happy reading!

dnV’s cutting edge portfolio is a “bottom-up” innovation initiative in which ideas for development projects are collected from creative dnV employees from across the world. the projects in the resulting portfolio aim at developing services that add value to our clients by collaborating with them, and focusing on solving their real challenges. technology Leadership is centred around dnV’s core technical disciplines, and is driven by our subject matter experts. the objective of the initiative is to develop and maintain state-of-the-art technical discipline competence. this publication showcases a selection from DNV’s 2011 Cutting edge and technology leadership projects to give you a taste of the range of exciting development initiatives carried out around the world. Henrik o. Madsen ceo

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Key figures In order to provide our customers with holistic and balanced risk management of the opportunities and threats from relevant technical, organizational, environmental, human, commercial and societal factors, DNV invests approximately 6% of our operating revenue in research and development. Our Cutting Edge and Technology Leadership portfolios are part of this investment. New ideas are generated every day by our worldwide staff, inspired by close interaction with key customers and partners. Sometimes it is an extension of current knowledge and methodologies. At other times we come up with totally novel knowledge or applications. In 2011 we completed 208 development projects within the Cutting Edge and Technology Leadership portfolios.

At DNV we work continuously to improve technologies, methodologies and solutions related to the energy and maritime sector. Close cooperation with the industries has been key to the results we have produced. In 2011 we ran 47 Joint Industry Projects within the Cutting Edge program.





Distribution of projects within Maritime&Class, Oil&Gas Frontiers and Cleaner Energy.

Distribution of projects within service development, development of core competencies and efficiency and work process improvement.

6% 208 47 JIP

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We are lucky, in part because we are able to work with people developing best practices, and can do that with cross-disciplinary knowledge. geir Dugstad service director


cLAssiFicAtion seRVices


MegAtRends ARe inFLuencing cLAssiFicAtion And incLude tHe incReAsingLy coMPetitiVe MARitiMe industRy, coMBined WitH neW And innoVAtiVe designs, And neW coMPLeXity in sHiPs And oFFsHoRe units. dnV is Assisting tHe industRy to ResPond to tHe MuLtiPLe coMPLeXity And eFFiciency cHALLenges.

dnV’s VeRiFicAtion seRVices stAnd At tHe FoReFRont in undeRstAnding neW tecHnoLogy And iMPLeMenting tHAt KnoWLedge in seRVices, stAndARds And RecoMMended PRActices. dnV ALso uses tHis KnoWLedge to deVeLoP neW seRVices And AddRess neW needs in tHe MARKet.

As operations become more and more dependent on complex integrated it systems, dnv classification services are stepping forward to meet the new challenges. innovation is also strongly driven by the demand for more fuel efficient vessels as well as the need to become more environmentally friendly, and, as a consequence, these areas are crafting our classification activity and approaches. the forces that are leading to increased regulation represent a major challenge for industry. examples include how to operationalize future environmental regulations such as those concerning the discharge of ballast water and exhaust gas emissions. dnv’s classification service activities in 2011 focused attention in four areas. Firstly, we focused on assisting the industry in complying with an increasing number of environmental regulatory requirements. Secondly,

we provided our customers with assistance in improving management and maintenance of their assets, including tools that help owners maintain an up-to-date fleet status overview, and new survey arrangements enabling application of state-of-the-art inspection techniques for reduced downtime, among others. thirdly, we provided a number of new and improved products and services aimed at assisting our customers in developing designs for the future, taking major industry trends into account. And last but not least, we added focus into improving the efficiency and quality of our service delivery, to meet a maritime market that has declining tolerance for pollution at the same time as it addresses increasingly competitive and cost sensitive realities. You will find a broad range of classification work noted in the projects on these pages.

dnv’s verification services answer the evolving nature of industry. Service development can be due to technology development, different regulatory requirements, new environments, or new segments where there are limited or no common descriptions. Our services also answer a need for verification for broader purposes, for example, to answer stakeholders’ concerns and meet the needs for verification parameters of environmental and functional requirements. Our two main focus areas in 2011 were on development of verification and certification services related to offshore wind installations and oil and gas deep water technology.

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With the ‘redline’ in our verification services, risks are managed, and we provide real value to our clients and the global industry.

We find it exciting to bring together diverse knowledge of technology, systems, services and needs. the best result often comes out of diversity.

astri gaarde service director

tore Morten Wetterhus service director

AdVisoRy seRVices when it comes to the certification and verification of wind turbines and wind farm projects, dnv is one of the leading global certification societies, with strong competence in europe, active expansion in Asia, and an emerging verification role for offshore wind in the u.S. with respect to our work in oil and gas deep water technology, the focus has been on integrity Management (dnv subsea cMc), enhanced hydrodynamic load modules on flexible risers in a lifetime perspective and the fatigue life of flexible riser armours. in 2011, dnv also agreed on a strategy for developing a set of dnv service documents for type certification and project certification of wind farms. the dnv service specifications are based on the iec certification regime, with references to dnv documents where dnv has incorporated the latest technology. we look forward to helping industry meet their needs for verification services and see that need growing, as environmental and efficiency concerns move to the forefront.

coMPAnies And oRgAnisAtions oPeRAting in tHe gLoBAL econoMy continue to incReAse in coMPLeXity. neW tecHnoLogies, gLoBAL VALue cHAins And unceRtAinties ReLAted to FutuRe ReguLAtoRy ReQuiReMents ARe eXAMPLes oF RisKs And oPPoRtunities tHAt need to Be MAnAged. dnv’s ambition is to be the leading provider of Risk Management services. we strive to create new opportunities for sustainable solutions by exploiting existing and new technologies to enable more effective operations. in 2011, our oil and gas clients were focusing on postMacondo actions, driven by new legislation in the uSA and by pressures from north Sea regulators. dnv did respond to those concerns. Several cutting edge projects addressed best practices for offshore safety. ideas were also developed in 2011 on advanced barrier methodologies which would come to fruition in 2012 with projects bringing Man-technology-Organization into our risk assessments. Also, Joint industry initiatives to trial newer barrier based risk assessment methods for a typical maritime hazard were carried out.

the four service areas within Advisory services focused on a range of activities in 2011: ■

technology Qualification – revised the dnv methodology document RP A203 and addressed a training course to encourage more and better tQ projects. SHe Risk Management – continued developments of Risknet and risk tools, and launched the BScAt Barrier Based Accident investigation tool including the method, software, and a training course. enterprise Risk Management – developed a platform for knowledge sharing, discussions, service production and service wiki. Asset Risk Management – introduced hull integrity management (HiM) systematics for Maritime. Several Recommended Practice initiatives were commenced in the oil and gas sector.

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Maritime&CLASS Although marine transportation is considered energy efficient compared to other transportation alternatives, shipping is now facing a new reality. Media, politicians and the public at large are increasingly focusing on environmental issues. Carbon emissions that contribute to global warming are particularly in the spotlight. Vessels ordered today may still be in operation beyond 2040. Rather than just waiting for new regulations to come into force, DNV takes a proactive approach by looking for opportunities, continuously developing and implementing effective and practical alternatives, and working with regulators to influence regulation with real-world knowledge and experience. Our vision is “Global impact for a safe and sustainable future�. We are already serving the industry extensively within this field, and we are spending considerable resources to develop state-of-the-art competence and services.

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Facts about:

the Great barrier reef The Great Barrier Reef is one of the world’s greatest natural wonders. Within it, marine life on Earth can be monitored and protected. It is the world’s largest reef system, and its most pristine breeding ground. Thousands of miles of coral gardens and islands support thousands of species, whose variety matches those of the entire Earth’s marine populations. Fish species present in the Reef number 1,625; coral species number 1,400. It supports 30 species of whales and dolphins, 133 species of sharks and rays, and 6 of the world’s 7 turtle species. The Reef is managed by the people who have lived there for 60,000 years. They monitor the reef, guided by the latest research, innovation and technology. The Reef is the subject of regular assessment and continuing research to assure its sustainability. These efforts measure water quality, coastal habitats, the impacts of industry and ecosystem resilience. These classification and guidance efforts are crucial to its survival. Even here, codes and practices govern the protection and risk management needs of the Reef. Ongoing research means that services provided within the Reef system assure its sustainability. Balancing human management with nature’s miraculous creation is a priority. The coordination of government authorities and private sector initiatives secures the future of the Reef for generations to come. The preservation of the Reef is owed to more than Nature, but also to the classification and management of risks that threaten it, assuring its resilience and protection by innovative marine research and human hands.

10 cutting edge > MARitiMe&cLAss

soFtWARe FoR HuLL integRity MAnAgeMent Hull inspection is timely and oversights costly. it is better to be pro-active, more efficient to detect and handle defects early. enter dnV, with a new Hull integrity software solution that brings all related data into focus.

PRoJect MAnAgeR PÅl WOlD Principal engineer – Maritime Advisory, Master of science, university of glasgow, naval Architecture, 1998 Pål started working for dnV in 1998 in the Hull Approval section as hull responsible approval engineer for various ships in addition to be project manager for approval for the world’s largest cruise ship, oasis of the seas. in 2009 he joined the container Lift program, where he started to work for seaspan in Vancouver, canada, focusing on operational challenges with focus on fuel saving initiatives. Returning to dnV, he became project manager for implementation of the container Lift program.

tHe HiM serViCe dnv’s existing Hull integrity Management (HiM) service helps ship owners and managers keep continuous and cost-effective control over their vessels’ hull condition. Frequent inspections by crew mean that potential problems can be discovered at an early stage. the general inspection regime is based on cAP (condition Assessment Programme) methodology and ensures compliance with the new dnv Rules for HuLL PMS. As well, it should help owners and operators comply with increasing vetting requirements, especially from the major oil companies. NeW sOlUtiONs Better records are the key to recapturing the time and knowledge invested in hull inspection activities. this dnv project was designed to address this need. dnv has now developed a new nauticus Hull integrity (nHi) software solution which consists of an onboard desktop application and an onshore management system. the nHi supports planning, inspections, analysis of the hull condition, and follow-up of repair specifications. the new onshore system consists of both a webbased solution, for quick and easy overview of hull status, and a software application for more advanced users, including 3d models for unique visualization of the hull condition. the software is intuitive and easy to use. combined with dnv Hull inspection Manuals and Hull competence training, the software forms a powerful package that will enable ship owners and operators to more efficiently and effectively manage the hull integrity of their fleet.

in his current position Pål is working with various development projects for container ships such as Quantum 6000 and 9000 in addition to be project manager for “ecore” – an eco-friendly very large ore carrier. From 2011 he has been managing the new software development for Hull integrity Management.

nAuticus HuLL integRity – software that helps ship owners and operators be in continuous control of the hull’s condition.

lOOkiNg fOrWarD dnv can now offer a low cost HiM service with nHi software and related installation. the overall objective of the HiM service is to support the strategic goal of achieving 7,000 ships in class. dnv is increasing its HiM advisory competence in the regions to meet new market demand expected for the low cost and competitive HiM service. resUlts what do our customers think? Actions speak louder than words: the new HiM service was ordered by geden for 24 ships, with a later second order adding 9 ships to the scheme. dnv’s goal is to meet demand for at least 500 ships on the HiM service by 2014. in doing so, technology, tracking and safety are linked, providing significant improvements to maritime operations globally.

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HuLL integRity MAnAgeMent FoR oFFsHoRe cLAss VesseLs unanticipated repairs represent a serious business and operational risk for owners of offshore vessels. Following an intensive three-year development programme, dnV launched HiM, Hull integrity Management, a web-based service that provides owners with the ability to take a more active role in assessing their fleet’s hull condition. the class in-service inspection Program (iiP), a module within HiM, provides the owners with a new improved graphical fleet status overview. HiM is an innovative web-based service designed to improve maintenance, streamline reporting, facilitate inspections and avoid downtime due to unanticipated repair work. reDUCiNg DOWNtiMe An increased focus on costs has led to rising demand for effective tools to avoid unplanned downtime. in the past, as the condition of components deteriorated, an offshore unit could unexpectedly fail inspection, leading to unplanned repairs. with iiP and HiM, the improved detailed reporting provides the owners with a condition rating also for acceptable inspections, giving an indication that components are deteriorating, information that can be used to address needs prior to an unacceptable condition occurring. By sharing the latest detailed class survey and owners’ own inspection results on a common platform, owners and dnv can eliminate unwelcome surprises. Owners can plan maintenance of hull and mooring equipment more effectively, in support of business objectives.

+ HIM SERVICES ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Hold the potential to reduce operational downtime Allow up-to-date fleet overview by class and inspection Permit sharing of plans and information with all parties the in-service inspection Program (iiP) goes web-based is applicable to 250 vessels in offshore class.

tHe iiP aND HiM CONCePt the iiP and HiM service concept is extremely practical. the service is part of dnv’s broader efforts to help customers reduce costs by developing verifiable integrity management systems. the dnv surveyors plan and report hull and mooring class surveys in the iiP module, including positive reporting of surveyed items. A status rating is provided on items starting to deteriorate. Owners and their inspection contractors can use HiM to report in the same way, and by sharing all the latest inspection results on a common platform, the HiM service becomes a strong service for a continuous updated maintenance plan based on performed inspections and the actual condition of the vessel. equally important, doing so gives owners the opportunity to manage issues related to corrosion or defects before they pose a significant operational risk. HiM serViCe eleMeNts the HiM service is broad-based, and includes hull competence courses for officers and superintendents as well as a web-based tool and software. the service includes optional 3-d visualisation models of vessel conditions. the HiM components can be used individually or together for a more holistic approach. Ola Hallvard Bjørnøy notes, “All the services are based on dnv’s extensive hull expertise.”

PRoJect MAnAgeR oLA HALLVARd BJØRnØy senior Principal surveyor – Master of science, ntH, 1984 ola Hallvard Bjørnøy joined dnV in 1985, the first period with analyses and assessment of offshore fixed structures and the dnV strength laboratory. one area was fatigue analyses and fatigue testing of tubular joints and components for tension leg platforms. After some interesting testing of pipelines, ola Hallvard joined the pipeline section and became instrumental in the development of the services for the operation phase, as integrity and risk assessment of pipelines. ola Hallvard is now in the offshore class section as a senior principal engineer, with the responsibility to develop the iiP and HiM services and to get the service rolled out, both internally in dnV and to the offshore class customers.

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FPso FAtigue ReVisited A floating production, storage and offloading system is used extensively by oil companies to store oil from offshore rigs. these ‘Fso’ and ‘FPso’ systems are examples of some of the best engineering in the marine oil industry, allowing companies not only to produce but also refine oil at sea, ready for offloading to the intended industrial sector. in this project, dnV re-evaluated fatigue analysis tools for Fsos and FPsos. the result is significant software improvements to predict system tracking, inadequate fatigue strength and repair needs.

Master of science, chalmers university of technology Åke Karlsson joined the dnV Research division in 1981 and has worked with technical advisory services, development and support of technical software both as team member and project manager in different parts of the dnV organization. Åke left dnV and worked 2 years for norwegian contractors, a company designing and constructing offshore concrete platforms, as responsible for all aspects of technical software. since 1996 he has mainly been involved in support, testing, training and project management in connection with the development and maintenance of nauticus Hull software for verification of compliance with dnV Hull structural Rules, in close cooperation with dnV software. in his current position as project manager, he is responsible for the software part of the 3 year Rules and tools – Hull, development program.

the industry is ready and in positive development, with several planned developments, in particular in Brazil. Memorandums of understanding are expected with over 200 units. this development has also been well timed to give dnv the right tools to assist with newbuild contracts.

fatigUe CraCks Proper design and prediction of fatigue strength is essential in the design and engineering of FSOs and FPSOs. improper design or fabrication can cause fatigue cracks during the operational phase. Repairs can involve welding, and may require shut-down of the production. in a worst-case scenario, systematic cracking due to inadequate fatigue strength can require docking and extensive repairs, costs and risks that could be better managed for savings and performance. fatigUe aNalysis FSO and FPSO designers, consultants and engineering companies are constantly involved in fatigue analysis of newbuildings and conversions. they work to verify their designs efficiently and document compliance with class. due to the complexity and sensitivity of the required calculations, a software tool is essential for this purpose. without it, industry struggles with timeframe issues. As well, non-software solutions introduce an unacceptable level of risk for errors. For conversions, complex fatigue calculations are required to determine the remaining fatigue life. details to support reducing the expected remaining fatigue life must be completely dependable, reinforced with appropriate support. the scope of details requiring fatigue strengthening can be broad, and is usually assessed and known early in the FSO/ FPSO lifespan. resPONses aND resUlts dnv identified the need for an analysis tool to perform fatigue calculations according to dnv’s offshore standards and recommended practises for FPSOs, in general and specific to conversion projects. the Simplified Fatigue tool calculating fatigue life of longitudinal stiffener end connections is fully integrated with nauticus Hull and was part of the official november 2011 release. the results will assist oil companies

© dnV

PRoJect MAnAgeR Åke karlssON

to meet their risk management and safety needs efficiently. Less time spent on fatigue calculations and improved quality of results enables more robust fatigue design and an improved basis for decisions.

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Re-tHinKing contAineR sHiP design container ships have always been designed for top speed and maximum draft. slow steaming and cyclical market conditions during the financial crisis in 2009 changed that. Higher fuel prices and environmental awareness contributed to a new reality. optimising the ship for real operational patterns creates the opportunity to effect important improvements in the main dimensions and hull lines, with great potential for reduction in energy consumption. so, how much more fuel efficient can we expect the new generation to be? seaspan corporation, Jiangsu new yangzijiang shipbuilding, the Marine design and Research institute of china (MARic) and dnV have jointly developed a new 10,000 teu container ship with major improvements in energy efficiency and emissions to air. NeXt geNeratiON DesigN A conventional 10,000 teu design, optimized for high design speed, was used as a starting point in this project. Studies carried out earlier for the dnv Quantum projects showed that widening the beam and lowering the block coefficient would improve the hull efficiency when operating at lower speeds, and these ideas were brought into this 10,000 teu design. After the main dimension optimizing process, fine tuning the hull lines and the bulb design followed. dnv worked closely with the owner, yard and designer at every step, resulting in a design that both reached the maximum speed of 25 knots and achieved an overall fuel saving of 20% compared to existing similar-sized container ships. the new hull design also enables the vessels to carry minimum amounts of ballast water while in operation, allowing for a higher cargo intake.

+ SAVER 10000 the new 10,000 teu container vessels have been developed in close cooperation between Jiangsu new yangzijiang shipbuilding; the Marine design and Research institute of china (MARic); the owner, seaspan corporation; and dnV. ©dnV

Another project goal was to optimize the hull structure and layout. this work was managed by the dnv Approval centre in Shanghai with a cross team involving our container experts at Høvik, norway and in Pusan, Korea. during the steel optimization phase, dnv discussed the redistribution of steel and arrangement with the designer and owner, ensuring a design with reduced steel weight while still maintaining an acceptable safety level. iNClUsiON Of “CONtaiNer lift PrOgraM” rUles Because dnv released a new set of rules and supporting software tools for container ships in 2011, part of the “container Lift Program,” the project became a good opportunity for the dnv Shanghai Approval centre to develop further competence on the rules. An external rollout of the rules included local training of project partners. valuable feedback was obtained during the project which will provide a basis for further development and calibration of our rules and tools. leaDersHiP NOW in June, 2011, the largest shipbuilding order in china was signed. the order, between Jiangsu new Yangzijiang Shipbuilding and Seaspan cooperation, covers 7 container vessels of 10,000 teu, with the option for 18 more. the ships will be classed by dnv, and include innovations developed by the project partners. the project is an excellent example of how dnv can support the industry, with leadership, competence and technology, and, in cooperation with the yard, owner and designer, create a safe, efficient and environmentally friendly container ship for the future.

PRoJect MAnAgeR eMiliaN BUksak naval architect, graduated from technical university of gdansk 1996 emilian Buksak has more than 15 years’ practical experience from ship design and joined dnV in 1999. Prior job experience includes R&d within numerical optimization of ship structure and advanced nonlinear and dynamic calculations. during his career in dnV he has occupied different positions: group leader in nauticus Modelling centre in Poland, hull approval engineer in oslo and head of Approval centre Poland. in his current position, as Head of Approval centre shanghai, emilian is part of great china Management team, focusing on Maritime and oil and gas development in china. His work involves development of competence with merchant vessels and mobile offshore units, deliveries of approval services within great china and also managing newly established technical advisory units.

14 cutting edge > MARitiMe&cLAss

PusHing FueL ceLL tecH For a group of german shipyard companies who are key customers of dnV, the fuel cell is a device with unrealized potential for power production in advanced passenger ships and super yachts. the fuel cell’s marine applications continue to be developed, while all recognise it as a device for power production that avoids many of the environmental draw-backs associated with conventional power production in ships. dnV is working with joint industry partners, including serenergy, on the PaXell project. now in its third year, this five-year project is pushing fuel cell technology, standards and applications for ships to new levels of viability.

PRoJect MAnAgeR JOHN OlaV NØkleBy senior Principal engineer, Master of science ntnu (ntH) 1974, and (Ph.d) 1981. His career started with 6 years in dnV Research and innovation. After one year in Advisory services/ Machinery he became Head of section for Failure investigations, a position he held for 6 years, followed by 8 years as Head of section for inspection and consultancy services. in 1996, he moved to classification, as Head of section for Materials. in 2006, he moved to his present position in certification of Machinery, with tasks related to Research and innovation. He worked with certification of the world’s first large-size, ship-borne fuel cell in a merchant ship. the work continued in 2009, when the “PaXell” project was launched with John olav as responsible for a part project called “safety and Quality Assurance”.

lations, using software and procedures developed as an integrated part of the project. PrOJeCt aCtiVity the project is managed by dnv germany, with dnv R&i and dnv Maritime co-operating. A fuel cell of the type High temperature PeM will be mass produced in base units of 15kw. Any number of such units can be combined to serve the power need of the actual ship. the fuel cell manufacturer has been chosen, Serenergy of denmark, as well as the manufacturing company, Fischer of germany. Other key partners are inven, and deutsches Luft- und Raumfahrtzentrum, about to join.

eNVirONMeNtal gOals As environmental goals and aspirations are globalized, developing alternative sources of power for the shipping industry becomes a necessary challenge. Fuel cells, with their positive profile, hold potential as a perfect alternative power source providing electricity, heat, and chill. Fuel cells produce no nOx, no SOx, no particulate matter, very little noise, and significantly reduced amounts of cO2, compared to conventional technologies. this makes their development within the shipping industry exciting and of paramount importance.

the draft design of the base unit as well as the unit’s integration into the ship systems is finished. Regulatory requirements have been clarified, and testing of the actual fuel cell is in progress. Models for simulations of the processes taking place in the fuel cell have also been developed. these follow a format suitable for integration with dnv’s cOSSMOS simulation tool. the ship-borne demonstration unit will be installed in a large cruise ship to be built by Meyer werft, probably of dnv class.

the scope of the PaXell project is to integrate a fuel cell into a passenger ship, with the necessary flexibility and performance to serve as a power generation source for the hotel load of a large cruise ship. the fuel cell will be located in the engine room and is connected to the vessel’s main switchboard. the installation will be class approved and compliant with Flag State requirements. the technology qualification activities required for approval will be based, to the largest extent possible, on process simu-

fUll-sCale iNNOVatiON the installation will also include a high tech waste heat recovery unit, producing chill for the vessel’s air conditioning system from cooling water by use of adsorption technology. this unit is already built and will be tested as a full scale installation in a cruise ship, to be delivered in the second quarter of 2012. the total project budget for dnv activities is 871,000 euro, of which 50% is contributed by german research institutes.

+ +

FACTS AND FIGURES: UNIQUE OPPORTUNITIES FOR LEADERSHIP the PaXell project is unique in several ways: ■ it demonstrates and strengthens our mission as a competent and attractive partner in large maritime development projects. ■ it marks the first time we have participated in a german national R&d project of this magnitude. ■ it demonstrates new levels of cooperation between dnV’s market unit in germany, dnV’s technical unit at dnV Maritime norway, and dnV’s high tech unit for development of new technology (dnV R&i). ■ it is contributing to the development of cutting edge technology for reducing harmful emissions from ships. ■ it explores today’s technological limits for the use of simulations as a tool for class approval of new technology. ■ it strengthens our position in the knowledge field of ship-borne fuel cells with class approval. ■ it is providing new insights into the technology of adsorption chilling for use with waste heat recovery in ships.

cutting edge > MARitiMe&cLAss 15

tRiPLe-e™ shipping companies have an increasing need to document that their ships are operated in the most environmental and energy efficient way. in light of this, dnV has developed triple-e, an environmental and energy efficiency performance rating scheme for ships. triple-e is designed as a tool for ship operators to prepare for emerging environmental rules and regulations. triple-e helps ship operators document and prove environmental responsibility and energy efficient operation. greeN BUsiNess CHalleNges environmental regulations and energy efficiency performance must now go hand in hand. As a result of emerging international rules and regulations, shipping companies have a need to document compliance as a ‘ticket to trade’. in addition, producers of goods and services are starting to demand green supply chains, imposing additional responsibility requirements on ship operators. DNV’s leaDersHiP Project staff developed triple-e in close cooperation with the industry. what triple-e does is deliver a rating of a ship’s environmental and energy efficiency performance from 4 to 1, with 1 as the highest value. Requirements that help fulfill a satisfactory rating are based on standing industry guidance: whether a satisfactory environmental management system is in place; how energy efficient operation has been made a part of policies, plans and daily operations; and what verifiable monitoring and measurement schemes are in place to document the ship’s actual performance. the project budget for 2011 was 3 million nOK.


tHe CUttiNg eDge during 2011, triple-e was implemented and rolled out as a global service by dnv with the capacity to be delivered locally to clients in Oslo, London, Piraeus, vancouver, dubai and Singapore. to date, it has been successfully used by industry-leading tanker, container and roll-on rolloff ship operators. the target is that triple-e is seen as a new environmental performance standard for ships in the market. to support this, continuous dialogue is undertaken with maritime industry stakeholders including ports, local authorities and government bodies to build up recognition for triple-e as a brand.

triple-e rating symbol

Master of science from ntnu (norwegian university of science and technology), Marine technology, 1998 current position is Product Manager for triple-e

For more information: Web: e-mail:


“seaspan sees triple-e™ as a good way to support our efforts in reducing our impact on the environment and at the same time prepare ourselves for the uncertainty of upcoming regulations.” Peter Curtis, Vice President, seaspan ship Management Ltd., responsible for overall operations and commercial management

“the issues we focus on through triple-e are good for the crew as it creates awareness and gives them a measure of how they perform . . . in thenamaris, we must be truly transparent in our operations and procedures and able to demonstrate clearly how we operate. the triple-e rating underlines these commitments to our clients, and this is highly appreciated by them.” John Mavrides, safety & Quality Manager, thenamaris ships Management inc.

PRoJect MAnAgeR Petter aNDerseN

Petter Andersen has 13 years of experience from various positions within dnV in norway and abroad. His prior job experience includes 3 years as a customer service Manager for dnV in singapore working closely with dnV’s clients in south east Asia. Petter also has practical experience from working as a ship surveyor and a strong technical competence within ship hull structure. Petter has been responsible for development of the triple-e service, which currently is being implemented as a global service for dnV. this involves close cooperation with dnV’s regional offices to secure project deliveries, together with a continuous dialogue with maritime industry stakeholders to build up recognition for triple-e as a brand and as a new green performance rating standard for ships.

16 cutting edge > MARitiMe&cLAss

cLAss RuLes FoR BAtteRy PoWeRed VesseLs Battery powered vessels are here, and dnV project staff are not only tracking their development but leading their classification. dnV saw the need to establish requirements for battery installations in order to ensure that a battery driven vessel is as safe as an ordinary vessel. this 2011 project team developed now-published tentative class rules for battery driven vessels.

PRoJect MAnAgeR sVerre erikseN Master of science, norwegian university of science and technology, electric Power engineering, 1991 sverre has twenty years of experience in electrical engineering and joined dnV in 2008. Prior job experience includes power systems for telecommunication plants and data centres. in addition he has worked with railroad signaling systems for safe train operations. sverre has strong background in power supply systems – in particular batteries, uPss (uninterruptable Power supplies) and power converters. His master thesis was about power converters for electrical cars. in his current position as a Principal specialist, sverre is part of the electrical section at maritime approval centre at Høvik. His current job responsibilities are mainly approval of electrical systems for ships and offshore units. Furthermore he works with type approval of electrical components.

rUle COVerage the new notation, BAtteRY POweR, will be granted to any ship using batteries as a part of their propulsion energy when compliance with the new rules is verified. the rules cover the safety of the battery as well as its installation on board the vessel, and are function-based, with guidance for companies seeking to implement them. due to the nature of risks to batteries and related safety, dnv project staff also introduced requirements for certification of the batteries. traCkiNg Battery DeVelOPMeNts dnv leaders are tracking new battery technologies for vessel propulsion for their potential to reduce the environmental footprint of shipping activities. Both hybrid battery solutions and ‘pure’ battery driven vessels are currently in use, with hybrid solutions permitting the whole system to optimize for lower fuel consumption.




■ ■

■ ■ ■

up to 10 times higher energy density than conventional lead acid batteries (at cell level). Lithium batteries must have integrated electronics to manage the safety (prohibit thermal runaway). these electronics control temperature, voltage and current. there are various Lithium chemistries used for batteries, Li(nicoAl)o2, LiFePo4, Li(niMnco)o2, LiMn2o4 and more to come. still rather high price but the price is assumed to reduce. international standards for large industry batteries are under development.

Simultaneously, battery technology is under rapid development. Since lithium batteries are seen as the battery technology most relevant for vessels, the new class rules place special focus on this type of battery. due to an energy density ten times ordinary lead acid batteries, lithium batteries are more temperature sensitive. the new rules therefore also address the risks related to thermal runaway, a safety issue integrated with the class rules. interest in using batteries onboard ships continues to grow. Ferries on the western coast of norway already plan several ‘pure’ battery driven vessels, while hybrid solutions seem relevant for offshore supply vessels. the results are reduced consumption of fossil fuels and noxious pollutants, essential elements of sustainable business culture. Offshore supply vessels are readying for dnv classification, with interest in extending applications to ferries and tugs. resUlts this new set of class rules is a significant accomplishment. with the BAtteRY POweR notation, dnv has positioned itself to serve the maritime industry as it moves forward with environmentally friendly technology and solutions. HYBRID SOLUTION















cutting edge > MARitiMe&cLAss 17

Lng Route siMuLAtion “the hull girder shakes and shudders due to the waves.” the presence of hull girder vibrations, referred to as whipping and springing, is well-known. Recently it has been confirmed to occur also on Lng vessels, introducing an uncertainty in design predictions that cannot be disregarded. this dnV project includes consequence assessment of springing and whipping vibrations for Lng vessels. company participants include a ship owner, a yard and an oil company, so far. DaMages the industry knows that fatigue cracks occur frequently, but ships breaking in two are fortunately rare events. cracking is costly and inconvenient, and a collapse of the ship’s back is unacceptable. Recent assessment indicates that waves cause vibrations which accelerate cracking and may trigger collapse of the hull girder, ‘breaking the back’. Although such vibrations are disregarded in ship design, most ships are designed with a significant safety margin. Still, that safety margin is reduced in the presence of these vibrations. will new Lng vessel designs have sufficient fatigue life and safety margin against collapse? PrOJeCt aCtiVity the JiP team is improving a route simulation tool and assessing the strength and measured loading collected from real Lng vessels in an effort to answer this question for companies worldwide. the guideline

gives ship owners, operators and yards full control of the consequence of ship vibrations as input to their future design specifications of Lng vessels. Further, RoutSim (dnv software) is improved to assess fatigue and extreme loading for a specific vessel within a specific trade. the guideline together with RoutSim is used in the Maritime Advisory Service to ensure that the vessel’s hull is cost efficient and safe for its intended operation and service life. unlike the minimum class rules and approval procedures of other classification societies, the guideline and RoutSim are used early in the design life to account for the consequence of the ship vibrations and to determine whether further steps are necessary to ensure a cost effective and safe design. PRoJect MAnAgeR gaUte stOreNg

resUlts the project will be completed in 2012. So far the assessment has confirmed that the vibrations are important for both fatigue loading and extreme loading, increasing the possibility for inconvenient fatigue cracks and reducing the safety margin significantly. RoutSim is updated to include vibrations.

Principal specialist, Phd, norwegian university of science and technology, Marine structures, 2007

the costs are totally about 2.5 MnOK, and dnv is contributing with 0.6 MnOK. the potential savings can exceed this on a single vessel design. the new guideline and improved software tool will become part of the new advisory service for ships in general.


13900 13800 13700 13600 13500 13400 13300 13200 13100 0.0027





Rotation of cross-section [rad]



© istock photo

Vertical bending moment [MNm]


gaute storhaug has 18 years of working experience from Marintek, a yard, a shipping company and from dnV, which he joined in 1995. He has worked in sections for ship structures and hydrodynamics in Maritime Advisory, but with a short stay in an approval section. the Phd was related to hydroelasticity (mutual interaction between hydrodynamic loads and structural response) focusing on ship vibrations from waves. He has a degree from nHH, was a toptech candidate in 2009/2010 and has been working as an associate professor (20% position) at Vuc in 2011. the work in dnV has been related to consultancy, research and trouble shooting (e.g. heavily involved in the Msc napoli investigation) including model tests and full scale measurements. the work has resulted in 35 publications, explaining the role as a principal specialist.

18 cutting edge > MARitiMe&cLAss

PoRt stAte contRoL iMPRoVeMents Port state control (Psc) measures are familiar to all shippers. But what’s at stake? start with civil liability for bunker oil pollution damage. continue with recording hours of rest and fatigue. Accurate and verifiable records are more critical than ever. this project encompasses more than one individual project. to be precise, dnV projects designed for all who class their vessels with dnV and who require their organization to have a continued focus on Port state performance will benefit. Welcome the company status Report, Port Psc Profile tools, a Psc Fleet statistics tool, and the dnV Port state control smartphone App.

PRoJect MAnAgeR tiM WarD Principal Analyst, Bsc (Hons) Maritime Business and Law, the university of Plymouth 1994 tim Ward has 18 years of experience working within the Maritime industry, both directly for shipowners and latterly for technology companies supporting the maritime industry. He Joined dnV in 2008 as a project manager, then moving on to the role of Principal Analyst for the division global governance and development. “Although my primary role at dnV is that of an analyst, i am occasionally approached to manage projects where i have previous experience. during 2007 i was heavily involved with the development of PdA tools for the electronic capture of operational data on oil tankers through electronic engine Room Logs and also siRe Pre-Vetting inspections. so the concept of using new technologies to help improve quality performance onboard the vessel is something i am quite familiar with,”states tim.

seeiNg aND MeetiNg NeeDs there are two primary drivers behind these projects. First, they will help dnv clients reduce the risk of Port State control detentions and related and potentially costly off hire. Second, they help show dnv’s growing position as best performer in Port State control inspections worldwide. these products will provide dnv customers with information they need on potential Port State risk areas within their own organizations, and provide a set of simple tools to assist them in mitigating the related risks.

Preparatory actions will be able to be monitored on board through the use of the dnv Port State control App, a Smartphone application comprised of a series of electronic checklists that enable crew to easily and reliably prepare for PSc inspections prior to arrival. information contained in the electronic checklists is derived from data available from dnv’s production and monitoring tools. the app is not yet ready for delivery, but expectations are high: its predecessor, the PSc tool kit, sold over 3,800 copies. BeNefits Performance on PSc is a key quality indicator for both dnv and its customers, and the investments made within these projects demonstrate the commitment dnv has towards helping our customers improve within this critical area. the project staff can be proud to be adding to the overall predictability of global maritime operations. in summary, these tools are being designed to reduce the risk of PSc detentions, monitor global PSc inspection status and help dnv customers improve on PSc performance. “these projects are not designed for revenue generation, but strictly for improving quality for clients.”

PrODUCt Details the company Status Report provides dnv customers with statistic on their fleet’s PSc performance, highlighting typical deficiencies and identifying at-risk vessels. this data, combined with information regarding ports, now offers dnv clients significant benefits when managing PSc inspections. the Port PSc Profile tool goes further.

+ +

FACTS AND FIGURES ABOUT SMART PHONE APPS: 1. 69% of u.s. smartphone owners downloaded a mobile app as at oct 2010 ( and Harris interactive Research) 2. the average number of app downloads per smart phone user is 27 (the nielsen company) 3. there are over 140,000 applications in Apple’s itunes App store. (Apple) 4. total global mobile applications market was projected to be worth $25 billion by 2015 – currently it has exploded to $38 billion, and is now predicted to grow to $58 billion in the next 12–18 months. (World Mobile Applications Market 2010– 2015 Research) 5. the price variation for apps on the Apple App store range from free to $1000, with an average price of $2.40 (

cutting edge > MARitiMe&cLAss 19

PRePARing dnV FoR intRoduction oF tHe BALLAst WAteR MAnAgeMent conVention the international convention for the control and Management of ships’ Ballast Water and sediments is probably one of the most significant environmental and operational challenges faced by the maritime industry today. the convention will require compliance for all ships and offshore structures designed to carry ballast water regardless of age and size. A global Ballast Water Management Project was established in dnV in order to prepare the organisation for the extraordinary workload expected upon ratification.

with the convention entering into force, the entire world merchant fleet (with some exemptions) will have to comply with the convention’s standards. in order to prepare dnv for this situation, a global Ballast water Management Project was established in 2011. the main focus of the project has been to update the dnv procedures and systems to ensure efficient production and to train approval engineers and surveyors to meet the expected demand in requests for compliance.

tHe target the introduction of invasive marine species into new environments by ships’ ballast water has been identified as one of the four greatest threats to the world’s oceans. in 2004 the international convention for the control and Management of Ships Ballast water & Sediments was adopted by iMO. the convention will enter into force 12 months after ratification by 30 States, representing 35% of world merchant shipping tonnage. it is expected that the criteria for entry into force will be met in 2012, with entry into force one year later.

the project also targeted further development of our class, consultancy and branding services related to the BwM convention in order to position and profile dnv as a competent and preferred partner for our clients.

PrOCeDUres aND serViCes dnv has a strong position with competence and knowledge on ballast water management and type approval of treatment technologies, and we have also played a central role in the iMO, providing input to the development of the guidelines.

glOBal effOrt By having a cross regional project funded separately, dnv now enjoys a world leading role in the BwM business. the freedom the project provided to address main issues across division and initiate activities wherever they are needed around the world allowed us to build on a solid competence and brand our name as the leading society when it comes to this issue. the project’s success will continue in 2012 and is a recommended approach to developing new services in dnv, especially those related to environmental protection.

18000 18000 16000 16000 14000 14000 12000 12000

estimated number of vessels required to install ballast water treatment systems (submitted by Japan to MePc.81)

10000 10000 8000 8000 6000 6000 4000 4000 2000 2000 0 0 2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 2011 2012 2012 2013 2013 2014 2014 2015 2015 2016 2016 2017 2017 2018 2018 2019 2019 2020 2020

3) 3) Vessels Vessels constructed constructed from from 2009 2009 to 2011 to 2011 (greater (greater than than 5,000m 5,000m 3 or3greater 3) 3) Existing vessels than 1,500m or greater than than 5000m 5000m Existing vessels (less(less than 1,500m 3 and 3 and 3 ) 3) Existing vessels (between 1,500m Existing vessels (between 1,500m 5000m 5000m 3) 3) Newly constructed vessels (greater than 5000m Newly constructed vessels (greater than 5000m 3) 3) Newly Newly constructed constructed vessels vessels (less(less than than 5000m 5000m

PRoJect MAnAgeR JaD MOUaWaD senior engineer, Master of science, ntnu trondheim, Marine technology, 2005. Be, American university of Beirut, Mechanical engineering, 2002 Mouawad joined dnV in 2006, working on approval and certification of tankers with main focus on cargo handling systems and piping systems. He was responsible for conversions of tankers up until 2008, followed by engagement in the Ballast Water Management convention (BWM convention). He is responsible for the overall engagement of dnV with regards to approval of treatment systems, retrofits and newbuildings, courses, publications etc. in his present position he has taken on the role as group leader for the environmental Protection group which, in addition to BWM, is class responsible for co2 emissions from ships, sox and nox emissions as well as ship’s recycling, pollution emergency response and type approval of treatment systems.

20 cutting edge > oil&gas frontiers

oil&gas frontiers Tomorrow’s oil and gas production will increasingly take place at greater water depths, in harsher environments and remote locations. Only by pushing the technology envelope can we make many of these new fields accessible at acceptable costs and risks. At the same time, future hydrocarbon occurrences will increasingly be located in more fragile environments, necessitating a high degree of reliability and safe operations. We will likely see stricter regulatory frameworks demanding transparent and environmentally sustainable operations. DNV has built a broad competence base in subsea technology. We provide services ranging from concept evaluation, through product development to manufacturing control and follow-up. We also focus on installation and operational maintenance. When qualifying new technologies, our engineers combine a deep-rooted technology competence with a systematic risk-based approach, so that regulators, operators and industry contractors can proceed with greater confidence in their concept selection, performance and investment.

cutting edge > oil&gas frontiers 21

Facts about:

the grand canyon The Grand Canyon is considered one of the greatest natural wonders of our world. Its rock strata date to the Pre-Cambrian era, between 4,600 and 542 million years ago. While forming, the earth was believed engulfed in gases with little oxygen. As oxygen increased, it reacted chemically and bonded with iron, forming early rock strata. Much more recently, the Colorado River wove its path through the various layers of rock. The Grand Canyon was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979. It covers 1.2 million acres and hosted 4.2 million visitors in 2011. Anyone who has had the chance to view its color-rich breadth and depth, traverse its canyons and cliffs, or raft its canyons and rivers knows the stunning beauty of this geological creation. The earth also holds unseen beauty in its rocky depths. Ancient petroleum seeps became drilled oil wells by the mid-1800s, and geologists continue to discover oil and gas in deeper and more remote areas. We marvel at the technology that now blesses our lives with power from such rocks. Today in the Canyon, safety in operations and sustainability are keywords. Projects are ongoing to reduce greenhouse emissions, conserve water, and develop alternative energy sources and fuels. The rocks under pressure have created the oil and gas we rely upon in our daily lives. Without these resources, many of the mechanisms we have developed for social and cultural progress would be non-existent. In that sense, the Grand Canyon is not only a marvel of Nature, but reminds us of the marvel of our global social and cultural heritage, a heritage we intend to protect.

22 cutting edge > oiL&gAs FRontieRs

FLoW AssuRAnce MAnAgeMent
































Surge Vortex induced vibrations (internail)


Pulse induced vibrations




Sand transport and accumulation

Sand erosion

















Flow capacity
























Flow assurance is the ability to assure production and transportation of multiphase fluid from the reservoir to the sales gas processing plant during all operational modes.

Cavitation Wax deposition Hydrate

Black powder Brittle fracturing (TC/Ceramics)

Droplet erosion


Valves and components

Export pipeline


Export riser


Topside system

in her current position as an engineer in dnV, Mathilda is part of the “Flow technology” team in the department “Well, Pipelines & subsea”. Her work mainly involves concept studies/design related to availability and reliability of production and transportation systems for Hc-liquids with special address to multi-phase flow, thermo hydraulics, insulation, hydrate, dispersion, erosion, sand accumulation, inspection and production optimization etc.

CUttiNg eDge the guideline is intended as a practical reference document for operators, engineering companies, third party verification bodies and research institutions. it will provide a structured process to obtain an optimized flow assurance strategy – from concepts to operation, identifying the potential threats and considerations required. it also takes into account


Mathilda Lindén has almost five years of experience in flow technology and joined dnV in 2008. Mainly job experience is within the energy industry, but prior job experience includes flow technology within the automotive industry and within the defence research.

PlaNNeD iNtegratiON the proposed flow assurance guideline will be integrated with a higher level integrity Management (iM) process. this will ensure compatibility with other dnv codes, and assure a coherent system for integrity management of underwater systems. dnv’s project team, with industry partners, is leading the way, with sophisticated and integrated solutions to flow assurance management concerns.


Master of science, chalmers university of technology, Mechanical engineering, 2007

teaMWOrk fOr sOlUtiONs draft invitations for the JiP were distributed in 2011, and a final revision is listed for release in March 2012. if sufficient partners are engaged, the JiP will proceed through 2012 with completion in 2013. Project partners include oil and gas operators, companies worldwide, and suppliers of subsea equipment. current industry practices and initial requirements for underwater flow assurance strategy are under study and will be established in close cooperation with the JiP partners.

Subsea system

PRoJect MAnAgeR aNNa MatHilDa liNDÉN

UNDerWater assets Several guidelines are available today in the market for integrity management of specific objects or assets related to oil and gas production, but none are related to assurance of production or injection flow. to address the challenges communicated by the industry, dnv initiated this project, which will lead to a Recommended Practice (RP) for qualification and management of a flow assurance strategy for complete underwater systems and lifecycle. this RP is based on the general principles already established in dnv-RP-A203 “Qualification of new technology”.

changes in conditions during operation. its purpose is to establish a high-level checklist addressing specific systems. it highlights appropriate considerations to be made and the alternative solutions available to optimize the flow assurance strategy.


the oil and gas industry is continuously facing new challenges related to deeper water. these include long tie-back distances and marginal fields. it also includes late life operation with depleted reservoirs. the industry meets these challenges with more advanced technologies. their responses usually involve more complex ‘flow assurance’ challenges. solutions need to be optimized for reliability and cost. this dnV Joint industry Project (JiP) involves development of a guideline to reduce flow assurance management problems and their related risks.



cutting edge > oiL&gAs FRontieRs 23

RisK BAsed coRRosion sixty percent of the world’s offshore fleet is past its theoretical design age of 20 years. Rigs are being kept in operation for prolonged periods, well beyond their anticipated design life. Ageing fleets need a management focus on fatigue cracking and corrosion. the essential safety and integrity of these assets should be demonstrable to a wide variety of stakeholders. in this project, dnV staff are pushing the envelope, developing predictability and best practices consistent with the needs of those requiring pro-active corrosion management and control. OUr aPPrOaCH For rig owners, fleet managers and maintenance engineers responsible for maintaining the availability and integrity of ageing assets, the Recommended Practice of Risk Based corrosion Management is a holistic approach for lowering corrective maintenance inspection costs. unlike traditional planned inspection and re-active corrective maintenance, our product provides tools for a quantitative comparison of corrosion damages and required remediation, as well as clear communication of these throughout the organisation. this permits proactive management. Our approach binds worlds together. the project team developed the concept of combining Risk Management principles (as defined in the iSO 31000) with corrosion management techniques. this ensures that integrity and safety are maintained within acceptable limits, and provides a platform to communicate the risks in a transparent way. this approach promises both inspection and repair cost savings combined with active asset management.

Establishing the Context

tHe PrODUCt A Recommended Practice (RP) was determined to be the most effective path forward, developing a guide through the worlds of corrosion techniques and risk management principles. the core of this RP is a structured five-step approach, which helps clarify needs in a methodical way. to ensure understanding, the complete approach is clarified by examples and supported by technical corrosion management information. tHe CUttiNg eDge A key advantage of this approach is that it can be applied in general and with different levels of implementation, without losing its practicability and effectiveness; from units under construction to older units, from units in benign water to units in exposed condition, from a practical management of inspections based on existing information to a complete approach supported by extensive analyses. we like to take the approach further, beyond the project scope – for example with customers realizing the envisaged benefits in an operational setting. A second example we’ve been thinking about is combining a corrosion management approach and our offshore class service. this would ensure that class safety and reliability aims are reached in a more efficient and transparent way. the project team asserts, “it has long been known that paint is cheaper than steel, but we believe that, in the long run, good corrosion management is cheaper than paint.”

Step 1


Monitoring and Review

Step 3

Risk Evaluation

Detail Evaluation

Step 5

Risk Analysis

Life Cycle Management

Step 2

Risk Ranking

Step 4

Risk Treatment

Mscee, BBA, cPM offshore class Product Manager Michiel van der geest has a broad background in management of operations and technical and strategical projects. Before joining dnV he concluded a 13 years’ career as Lieutenant commander in the dutch navy. Besides his operational skills, he achieved (master) degrees in electrical engineering, Business Administration and Project Management. in his latest role he managed a technology development program in state-of-the-art Radar technology. From 2006 he built up classification experience as a nautical safety approval engineer/surveyor with assignments in norway and Korea. Afterwards, he took this experience further as a classification Product Manager, from 2010 with a main focus on the offshore segment. in this role, he combines his background and project approach to develop the dnV offshore class service further to cover business needs and technical developments.

Risk Assessment Risk Identification

PRoJect MAnAgeR MiCHiel VaN Der geest

Remediation & Repair

Binding worlds together

24 cutting edge > oiL&gAs FRontieRs

dRiLLing And WeLL RisK AssessMent April 20, 2010. not an ordinary day at the Macondo oil field in the gulf of Mexico. the investigation of the ‘deepwater Horizon’ accident found problems of course, but also a great deal of business as usual. As a result of this and other incidents in the drilling industry, operators, drilling contractors and oversight authorities have increased attention paid to many aspects of well operations. What remains lacking is an integrated framework for risk management during well planning and drilling operations. dnV began this project to address some of the process failures in existing drilling and well risk management.

PRoJect MAnAgeR HÅVarD BraNDt Business development Leader – Master of science, technical university in delft, Mathematics and statistics, 1996 Håvard Brandt has during the past years been working with business development in dnV’s Risk Management solutions Region in norway. He currently has a role as customer service Manager for the Region towards BP norge and conocoPhillips. He has more than fifteen years of experience as a Risk consultant in the oil and gas industry, and has worked on a number of project assignments throughout the world. For more than six years Håvard was based in the dnV office in Houston, where he was the deputy manager for the Asset Risk team with responsibility for a large portfolio of projects towards the upstream market sector. His expertise involves qualitative and quantitative risk assessments with a focus on technical and economical evaluations. Main focus has been related to risk assessment of subsea systems and drilling and well operations.

tHe NatUre Of tHe risk traditional risk management techniques are not well suited to addressing offshore drilling risks. “One reason is that, as you drill, you are constantly changing the basis for your risks and also modifying your risk barriers. Specifically, risks change depending on where you are in the drilling operation or what operation is performed. it is unlike traditional process safety in which you have flow in pipes, leak detection and automated shutdown systems in the event of a leak. instead, during drilling, you are 100 percent dependent on the driller and the drilling team to shut down the system during a critical scenario. the concept is quite difficult to treat, from a risk consultant’s perspective,” states Håvard Brandt, of dnv’s drilling & well Risk Management group. in sum, present methods for risk management are too generic and fail to identify well specific risks, degraded or weakened well barriers during operations, limitations in the drilling and well technology and system interface challenges during operations. instead, the focus has been on reducing slips, trips and fall related risks; not on understanding and

managing risks related to major accidents. there is a need to address risk in a lifecycle perspective, from engineering and design into the operation and execution of the drilling operation. OPeratiON: COMPleX control of large scale accident risk requires understanding the complex interaction between man, technology and organisation. Recent improvements in the industry related to integrated Operation (iO), and new information and communication technology (ict), have significantly changed the work processes and increased the complexity related to drilling and well operations. these technological improvements offer significant possibilities for further study and guidance in drilling and well risk assessment, and the promise of more systematic risk management and control. aDDressiNg tHe CHalleNge dnv’s project, drilling and well Risk Management, called for a new assessment of safety barriers in drilling and well risk, one of the most difficult risk management areas. the 2011 project combined staff in three areas: those with the latest technical knowledge related to the process of drilling and wells; experts on drilling and rig equipment; and staff experts familiar with risk management and systematics. this group of global experts was assembled and workshops conducted between them in Oslo. Meetings were conducted over several days. As a result, a suitable risk management process was developed to identify and address drilling and well risk as it relates to the different phases in a drilling operation.

+ FACTS: the deepwater Horizon rig, which was drilling the Macondo well, had an uncontrolled blowout, which resulted in eleven lost lives and an oil spill of nearly five million barrels. in the investigation of the deepwater Horizon” accident two important challenges were identified; what can be done to better maintain and assure control of the barriers and how can we assure that all the important information always is available to the decision maker?”.

cutting edge > oiL&gAs FRontieRs 25

DOiNg tHe Details From a project activity perspective, dnv saw two approaches to this process. First, it was desirable to develop a pilot test case with an oil and gas operator to identify framework contents. Second, support from dnv Houston helped launch a drilling risk framework project as a Joint industry Project. the scope of work included the mapping and identification of risks, of critical barriers, and of requirements for barrier performance. the communication of barrier conditions was addressed as well as a full review of the technology in use. Quantification of risk reduction was then undertaken, and risk models were used to evaluate alternative design and operational methods. the management of change during operations was also addressed, including interface handling, technology, personnel and processes. Shortcoming and gaps in present drilling operation risk assessment were identified. the risk framework is being taken to the next level through a new initiative establishing performance standards applicable for drilling operations. Performance standards will be developed on the basis of the risk based barrier management and ‘bow-tie’ models.

resUlts Oil operators and drilling contractors are now coming to dnv for knowledge and support in managing drilling related risks. A suitable risk management process has been developed – one that can identify and address a broad spectrum of risk factors. companies can use this process not only to evaluate operational risks, but to evaluate the effect of specific risk mitigation actions, operations methods, technology in use and contingency plans. this new process holds the potential to greatly improve drilling safety. Knowledge and background from the project supported Statoil in implementing their drilling risk management process for the gullfaks field in norway. As Brandt notes, “now, we can systematically work on looking at technology and assess risk of blowout, as well as blowout contingency action plans. without an integrated approach to this, it’s easy to make wrong decisions.”

Selective visibility is ON



Hazard Threat barrier

Threat barrier

Recovery measure

Recovery measure

Threat barrier

Threat barrier

Recovery measure

Recovery measure


B1 E4 A2 D3

Consequence D0 B2 E5 C3

Top event Defeating factor

Defeating factor control

Defeating factor control

Defeating factor

26 cutting edge > oiL&gAs FRontieRs

AddRessing deeP WAteR LiFting Present and future deep water field developments will put more and more focus on safe lifting operations. And, as oil and gas exploration and development move into deeper water, the risks related to lifting operations are increasing exponentially. “existing standards and regulations don’t sufficiently meet this challenge and this is why dnV has initiated a joint industry project to ensure a unified safety approach,” states Robert A. oftedal, dnV’s Business development Leader in cranes & Lifting. Fourteen key international offshore players have joined the project.

Business development Leader and senior Principal engineer – Master of science, ntnu trondheim, Marine engineering/ naval Architecture, 1987 Robert A. oftedal has more than 20 years of experience and started his career by working with hydrodynamic and structural analysis for floating structures. He took on the role as Head of section for cranes & Machinery in 2004 followed by management of the merging of the crane/lifting competent groups in Bergen and stavanger into one large section. in his current position as Business development Leader he is focusing on identifying new possibilities for growth within complex cranes and lifting appliances.

ensuring proper design and correct operation, as well as regular inspection and maintenance, are crucial not only for the reliability of a lifting appliance, but also for the safety of the personnel and equipment involved. laCk Of staNDarD Subsea lifting standards and regulations have not followed the steep curve of technological progress. “the required safety level has been


while various stop-measures are in use, implementing standards and regulatory requirements is the safest and most efficient way of reducing the risks involved in offshore operations. DNV’s rOle dnv invited the industry to develop a unified approach concerning important aspects of subsea lifting. Firms working with project staff to accomplish this objective include: Statoil, Petrobras, Lundin norway, Marathon Oil norge, technip, Subsea7, SAiPeM, Heerema Marine contractors, cargotec, Liebherr werk nenzing, ttS energy, Huse engineering (Rolls-Royce), SamsonRope and w. giertsen Services. the budget is 5.9 million nOK. PrOJeCt gOals Reducing risks and improving consistent industry practice in the area of deep water lifting is the technical challenge being met by this project team. the aim is to increase the efficiency and safety of related equipment design, operation and maintenance. conclusions on a Recommended Practice are anticipated within a year.

FACTS: ■ ■

■ ■

the need for energy is continuously increasing in the world. one of the solutions for the growing energy demand is deep water oil and gas field exploitation. such development introduces several technological challenges, among them ensuring safe execution of subsea lifting operations. Many fields are already discovered in deep waters. there will be hundreds of subsea field developments worldwide in the next few decades, many in very deep waters.

deep water field developments worldwide must demand high focus on safe execution of lifting operations, both in the installation phase and throughout the lifetime of the field.

© dnV/Magne A. Røe

PRoJect MAnAgeR rOBert a. OfteDal

BaCkgrOUND the development of subsea cranes and lifting appliances has been driven by constant demand for increased lifting capacity, operations in greater water depths and motion compensating systems. this has introduced several technological challenges related to ensuring the reliable execution of subsea lifting operations so that objects can be safely placed on and removed from the seabed.

defined by clients’ specifications, technological boundaries and manufacturers’ considerations, rather than regulatory documents acknowledged by all the stakeholders involved. Some client specifications may also be based on vessel-to-platform lifting and not subsea lifting. this situation is a challenge when contracting new equipment,” Oftedal explains.

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Hdd – RecoMMended PRActices Horizontal directional drilling (Hdd) is an alternative construction method in the trenchless industry that has experienced rapid growth in recent decades. it represents a significant improvement over traditional open cut methods for installing pipelines beneath obstructions such as rivers, highways, railroads and other obstacles. However, Hdd is a complex procedure not well understood by most contractors. this 2011 joint industry project (JiP) engages dnV with the affected industry. the result will be a set of internationally acceptable requirements and recommended practices for Hdd construction. HDD iN PraCtiCe Hdd installations have been completed in nearly every conceivable subsurface condition. they are also being utilized increasingly in the shore approach of offshore pipelines, primarily because they present a lower environmental impact in certain cases than alternative construction methods. in contrast, shore crossing installations using Hdd are much more complex and challenging than typical surface to surface installations. Many factors determine the success of an Hdd project, and all are under evaluation for the new requirements and recommendations. existing guidelines have failed in establishing clear parameters, limits and criteria for essential issues related to Hdd projects. dnv’s current work fills a void and offers a solution in this important area.

Hdd operations. All relevant aspects in an Hdd project are being addressed to ensure that site investigation, engineering, planning and execution of pipeline installation by Hdd are performed in accordance with minimum requirements and best practices. leaDersHiP iN aCtiON this is the first time operators, contractors and drilling companies have joined to discuss best practices and minimum requirements for successful pipeline installations by Hdd, keeping in mind not only important issues related to the borehole but also aspects related to the pipeline to be installed. “this is an ambitious project, but we are confident that the objectives will be accomplished, resulting in many benefits to the participants and industry,” states danilo Machado, Project Manager. Project participants include Petrobras, Subsea 7, Sinopec, Brasfix, drilltec, intech engenharia, Laney directional drilling, Polidrill, Megadrill South America, Superpesa/Mgi and Herrenknecht. internationally recognized drilling companies are working with Hdd specialists with many years of experience at projects worldwide. the resulting standards will provide first-time company benefits: clear guidance on Hdd projects, and a reduction in the risks and costs of Hdd works.

PrOJeCt OBJeCtiVes Our objective is to elaborate a set of requirements and recommendations in order to guarantee the quality of an Hdd project and the success of

+ FACTS: Many problems have been faced in Hdd operations: the industry is aware that there is a long-term benefit if they invest in the development of application standards and designs for techniques that will provide a successful job and specify the acceptable range of conditions. that is the idea of this JiP – our first JiP in Brazil.

PRoJect MAnAgeR DaNilO MaCHaDO doctor of science, the Federal university of Rio de Janeiro, coPPe/uFRJ, 2009 danilo Machado completed the Msc degree in 2005, and the dsc degree in 2009, both at coPPe/ uFRJ (Federal university of Rio de Janeiro). the Msc thesis was related to the definition of initial configurations of flexible lines, and the dsc thesis was about non-linear dynamic simulation of offshore pipeline installation. Before joining dnV in 2008, danilo worked for 5 years in cooperation projects between cenPes (Research centre of Petrobras) and coPPe/uFRJ. in his current position as a senior engineer, danilo is part of the suRF&Pipeline section, Rio de Janeiro office. His work involves design verification of pipeline projects with focus on pipeline and equipment installation analysis. danilo Machado is the Project Manager of the Hdd Joint industry Project – Recommended Practices for onshore and shore Approaching Hdd Projects.

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suBseA PiPeLine steeL

PRoJect MAnAgeR raMgOPal tHODla senior Project Manager, technology development department columbus, Metallurgy indian institute of technology, Madras (1996) M.s., Materials science and engineering, the ohio state university, oH (1998) Ph.d., Materials science and engineering, the ohio state university, oH (2001) Prior to joining dnV, dr. thodla worked at ge global Research center in Bangalore, india, where he set up a corrosion and electrochemistry facility to work on a wide range of problems. A significant portion of his work was focused on performing stress corrosion cracking of nickel based alloys in high purity water environments. in his present position dr. thodla is involved with several programs in the area of sour service corrosion fatigue and fracture for offshore pipelines. dnV columbus specializes in pipeline integrity, coating evaluation, stress corrosion cracking, underground corrosion, cathodic protection, and electrochemical testing techniques.

An engineering critical assessment (ecA) is routinely done in the pipeline industry in order to underwrite the life span and structural integrity of sub-sea girth-welded pipelines. As oil and gas exploration in deeper waters becomes viable, industry standards, technology and practices must be adapted for safety, security and the reduction of risks. dnV began this Joint industry Project (JiP) to develop new guidelines on the qualification of X80 pipes, taking account of the effect of ‘sour service’ on fracture toughness. the project will lead to an improved capability to perform more realistic integrity assessments and non destructive testing (ndt) defect acceptance criteria.

the high pressure and temperatures are also typically associated with sour environments. this places a significant demand on the corrosion fatigue and fracture toughness of the pipeline material. while there has been some data generated in sour environments on X65 line pipe steels, there is little or no information on the performance of X80 and higher grades. the fracture toughness of welded high strength steels in air as well as potentially in sour environments is of importance in performing ecA. Limited research and analyses have addressed the impact of HAZ softening on the integrity of pipeline girth welds in X80 pipes.

BaCkgrOUND Oil and gas exploration in extreme regions is increasing, moving into deep and ultra deep water, remote areas and the Arctic. Activity in all productive global deep water areas is growing, which means risks are growing. internal and external pressures applied to deep and ultra-deep pipelines can be extremely high. these conditions introduce plastic strains to the pipelines, especially during the installation phase. As a result, strain-based rather than stress-based design criteria are needed to assess these pipelines. Pipe materials with enhanced properties including greater strength, better toughness, elongation and adequate strain capacity should be used. High strength steels, such as X80, could be the best candidates for such a situation.

reCOrD Of leaDersHiP dnv has been actively involved in various JiPs to provide practical guidelines to the pipeline industry on such questions, and is currently involved in two Joint industry Projects (JiPs) to develop data related to sour service conditions. One JiP is aimed at determining if the reeling of welded X65 line pipe has an effect on sour service Fatigue crack growth Rate (FcgR) and Fracture toughness. Another JiP is focused on understanding environmental effects on FcgR and Fracture toughness to develop guidelines for sour service ecA analysis for X65 line pipe. the latest 2011 project focuses on the issue of characterisation of fracture toughness of X80 pipes with Softened HAZ. the novelty of this JiP is to

+ BENEFITS the results will include a state-of-the-art review, a Recommendation on characterisation of fracture toughness in X80 pipes, and a Recommendation on ecA of X80 pipes with softened HAZ. new guidelines should provide a more realistic engineering critical assessment that addresses existing highlighted shortcomings. the pipeline industry will benefit through an improved capability to perform more realistic structural integrity assessments, and has the prospect of justifying more relaxed ndt defect acceptance criteria.

cutting edge > oiL&gAs FRontieRs 29

study the influencing factor on fracture toughness measurements in sour environments and its influence on ecA calculation. these issues have never been looked at together, and this makes the current project unique. PrOJeCt aCtiVity the project is tackling shortfalls in characterizing fracture toughness of X80 pipes and its influence on ecA calculation. the following parameters influence fracture toughness measurements in sour environments:

Hydrogen charging, K-rate, and Sample geometry. with hydrogen testing, dnv seeks to determine the optimum soaking times, as well as better understand the fundamentals of hydrogen generation and diffusion. the measurement of hydrogen flux helps in understanding and quantifying the duration of soak times needed for testing as well as relating the fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth to the hydrogen flux/concentration. Research on the K-rate will allow for determining the fracture toughness over a sufficiently long period of time (2–3 days for the lowest K-rate), to determine the effect of hydrogen. it is very likely that at lower K-rates, the toughness values would be lower. the role of sample geometry and constraint on toughness in air has been a subject of significant investigation over the last couple of years. However, the role of constraint on fracture toughness in sour environments has not been studied in any great detail. it is possible that, in cases of purely brittle behaviour, the sample geometry may not be as significant. However, in line pipe steels which exhibit elasticplastic behaviour, it is important to understand the role of constraint.

© dnV

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LeARning Lessons oFFsHoRe the decommissioning of offshore structures is a topic of extensive discussion and debate. industry operators are struggling with balanced solutions to a wide spectrum of decommissioning decisions. At the same time, the industry can improve their knowledge from detailed information that decommissioned offshore structures can offer. dnV’s Project Management office began an internal project to explore whether dnV could take a more active leadership role in this area.

PRoJect MAnAgeR aNette PeDerseN Master of science, ntnu, chemistry, 2000. Anette Pedersen has experience with corrosion control in the offshore industry and joined dnV in 2005. Prior job experience includes R&d related to corrosion protection of carbon steel in co2 and H2s environments and experience with corrosion laboratory testing techniques. Anette is part of the Materials technology section in Høvik, focusing on corrosion assessments of offshore facilities. Her work involves specification, verification and advisory services related to the design of systems for corrosion control and quality control of manufacturing of corrosion control systems. she has also been involved in lifetime extension evaluations of offshore pipelines, updates of dnV standards and recommended practices on coating and cathodic protection. in 2011 she managed the internal project initiated to explore dnV’s opportunities related to inspection of decommissioned offshore structures.

searCH fOr aNsWers in April 2010, the Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) published regulations encouraging operators to evaluate the condition of decommissioned offshore structures. in 2011, dnv initiated an internal project to explore taking an active lead related to such assessments. One question was how knowledge from structures that had served their design life could be utilised for reassessment and life extension of ageing structures. Another dealt with studying the potential for improving the basis for future design. the initial objective was to develop a Joint industry Project (JiP) proposal. in October 2011 dnv arranged an industry seminar to discuss the potential JiP with operators on the norwegian continental Shelf, among them BP, conocoPhillips, Statoil, total, PSA and OLF. OUr aPPrOaCH inspection of decommissioned structures is a unique opportunity to investigate how these structures have actually performed over their 20–40 years of operations. this should provide valuable information in a number of areas, including the relationship between design premises

and real conditions; increased knowledge as to offshore repair and reinforcement solutions; confirming the condition of non-accessible areas; verifying inspection findings from operational data; and the sharing of information by collecting comparable data. PrOJeCt sPeCifiCs the overall objective is to use data and experience from inspections of decommissioned structures to improve the basis for future design, reassessment, life extension and inspection approaches. A guideline would establish a common approach among operators on the norwegian continental shelf. the JiP has potentially 3 phases. Phase 1 is development of a guideline; Phase 2 will include the inspection of decommissioned structures; and Phase 3 will result in guidance to improve future design and inspection philosophy. Phase 1 is funded by norway’s Oljeindustriens Landsforening (OLF) and the guideline is to be developed in co-operation with a technical committee with participants from the operators. Phase 2 is planned for launch as a JiP in late 2012. eXPertise dnv has a multidisciplinary team working on the project with competence in materials technology, inspection technology and jacket design and analysis. oBJectiVe: Re-evaluating the inspection of decommissioned offshore structures INSPECTION OF STRUCTURES






“When facilities are disposed of, the operator shall carry out studies of the structure’s condition. the results shall be used to assess the safety of similar facilities . . . the examinations should particularly be carried out with a view towards projected new facilities and use of facilities beyond their original planned lifetime in mind.” PsA ReguLAtion §50 (2010)


Phase 1

Inspection findings

Phase 2

Design analysis and comparison

Phase 3

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deeP WAteR dePLoyMent the future has arrived when it comes to the challenges of installing subsea equipment in the oil and gas sector. ship-mounted systems capable of performing installation work with precision at 3,000 metres in depth need new standard-setting, both in terms of integrated systems technology and for documentation of safety and reliability over time. this is exactly what dnV’s deepwater deployment and Recovery systems JiP project set out to address. As the oil operator with responsibility for field development knows, the safety and reliability of these systems is crucial. DeePWater CHalleNges developers and users of new technology have a quandary. existing standards often impose detrimental restrictions on flexibility, flexibility needed for development. engineers and developers grapple for appropriate reference documentation as a basis for standard-setting. Yet, more often than not, the project team is left working with standards or recommended practices that do not cover the technology they are working to develop. the reason? compliance standard setting takes time. in the area of deep water deployment and recovery, the technology required must be exceptionally light-weight and utilize synthetic materials. Any effective standard must be both comprehensive and interdependent. Safety and reliability are achieved after integrated system analysis using technology qualification principles.


OUr sOlUtiON dnv’s approach was a return to fundamentals. the result is a new standard, dnv-OS-e407, underwater deployment & Recovery Systems. enhanced methods for technology qualification were used. the new standard requires testing of the relevance of existing standards and practices to facilitate the new development process by ensuring the freedom of the developers. the new standard requires engaged, deep integration of the skills of system integrators, mechanical systems manufacturers, control and instrumentation suppliers and suppliers of offshore fibre ropes and their loadbearing yarns and internal coating. the project is a Joint industry Project with global partners, now in Phase 2. the new standard brings partnering industries together in a technology qualification setting. traceability and documentation of system performance is enabled, and the capability of the system is carefully matched to the needs of the installation contractor, who will perform the actual work in a field development project. tHe resUlt the new standard dnv-OS-e407 ‘underwater deployment & Recovery Systems’ will be published in October 2012, and will provide the industry with the requirements it needs to identify and prioritise development activities, plans for implementation and condition management. As well, it provides a framework for certification.

Fibre Rope Technology Improvement


Deepwater Deployment & Recovery

Offshore Moorings

For the past 15 years, dnV has been working actively on the development of fibre rope technology for offshore mooring on behalf of the industry. now the developments made in one application area can be used to shape the developments in another application area. As it was the general marine fibre rope technology that was developed by the industry into offshore mooring lines, that experience can now be used to further deepwater installation, which in turn will benefit mooring line technology or lines for general marine use. (see circle.)


PRoJect MAnAgeR ViDar ÅHJeM Vidar Åhjem is a senior specialist in his 21st year at dnV, working in technical Advisory ship & offshore in norway, location Høvik. the first 11 years he worked for dnV’s specialised large-scale test facility for mooring equipment in Bergen, gaining experience from failure investigation and testing, and where he took part in the testing and qualification of the earliest fibre mooring systems some 15 years ago. From that time and up to now he has taken part in the establishing of the Bergen facility as the global market leader. Vidar has been responsible for the dnV publications pertaining to offshore fibre moorings, and has learned a lot from working together with this industry and helping it move forward for the past 15 years. He has an interest in applying technology qualification principles in providing added value for the clients, and an interest for what can be learned in one industry and applied in another.

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oFFsHoRe RisK stAndARds the Phast offshore project is aimed at updating business as usual by generating a state-of-the-art industry standard tool for offshore risk assessments. dnV is funding this important research and development effort.

PRoJect MAnAgeR sJUr stafsNes HassellUND Principal consultant naval architect, ntnu 1996 sjur Hassellund works within project & program management, PM coaching, project QA, training and facilitation. He is a certified Project Management Professional, a certified Prince2 practitioner, a certified agile scrum master and a contributor to dnV PM process and toolbox. customers include technology leaders and ceos. Project types include software projects, process improvement projects, innovation and business development projects as well as behaviour awareness projects.

tOOls BeHiND tHe tiMes existing tools for offshore risk assessment are ageing and make complex facilities difficult and time-consuming to assess. neptune, for complex assessments, is ageing and is going to be phased out; Soqrates, another tool, is a spreadsheet model with inherent limitations. Since the deepwater Horizon incident, the offshore market is also more aware of the risks of business as usual, and is prepared to demand more powerful quantified risk assessments (QRAs). DNV’s ‘tHOUgHt leaDersHiP’ Offshore QRA, the core service in SHe Risk Management, is providing the base for dnv’s Phast Offshore project, whose primary goals are to establish an industry standard tool, integrating separate models into one common QRA process tool. the tool will reflect a uniform approach to risk modelling, will address all risk points, and will follow an installation from planning to decommissioning. the resulting QRA tool is expected to manage risks underpinning offshore QRA work for the next 15 to 20 years.



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Previous experiences in dnV include trainee program, management consultancy, management certification and qualification as ship and offshore surveyor. sjur has also worked outside dnV running a small company specializing within internet business solutions and search optimization.

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3-d platform graphics for feature specification and enhanced visualization integrated frequency estimation Modelling of releases and consequences in confined modules integrated modelling of safety system activation and failure Ability to reflect cFd modelling results integrated probabilistic explosion modelling integrated subsea dispersion modelling detailed escape, evacuation and impairment analysis Accountability tools for barrier management effectiveness improved input and study setup capabilities More efficient “running” of models VeritV compatible, multi-core processing easier to QA and verify studies improved result reporting and risk contribution analysis

DeDiCatiON tO Details the Phast Offshore project builds on the Phast and Phast Risk (onshore specific) tools to include existing models, where adequate, and to develop features and models specific to offshore where needed. the tool will include significant new and state-of-the-art features (see box). the tool is written in a manner allowing ongoing inclusion of novel features, and like other Phast tools, will be sold commercially. this model of external participation has provided for significant improvements, beyond those which dnv alone could support. lOOkiNg fOrWarD this project has been funded at 10.7 million nOK over 2 years, with dnv Software contributing an additional 2 million nOK. technical experts in norway and europe are engaged to contribute, while total overall funding is estimated to be over 15 million nOK, concluding in 2012. Soon, this complete tool for future offshore risk assessment will not only be fully updated and ready for use, but be positioned to shape future global offshore safety and security for the next decade and beyond.

cutting edge > oiL&gAs FRontieRs 33


iNterVieW WitH CyNtHia sPitZeNBerger, senior consultant and technical advisor to the Phast Offshore project. How has the development work progressed? it has gone very well. it has been very interesting working with the software team to develop this critical tool. they are very adept at taking our complex analytical requirements and converting them into code and usable features of the tool. When will the tool be available for use? the target release of the tool internally is early 2013, followed by release to customers. those who are interested in this tool are welcome to contact us, and we can keep them informed on availability.

For software inquiries and sales of the tool, the following key personnel should be contacted: ■ colin Hickey, safeti Product Management ( ■ tim Jones, group Leader Product development and Risk Framework ( ■ geir Korneliussen, Principal software engineer (

© getty images

Who should be contacted for further information about the project and tool? For technical and theoretical discussions about the project and offshore risk assessment in general, the following key personnel should be contacted: ■ Andreas Falck, senior Principal engineer ( ■ dr. Robin Pitblado, director sHe Risk Management service Area ( ■ dr. david Worthington, group Leader safeti Modelling (

34 cutting edge> oiL&gAs FRontieRs

VALidAting PHAst™ FoR Lng dnV software has offered the risk management tool, Phast (Process Hazard Analysis software tool), to assess situations which present potential hazards to life, property and the environment, and to quantify their severity. Recently, the u.s. government developed a model validation protocol that would focus on liquefied natural gas (Lng) and its dispersion. since Lng is handled and transported at cryogenic temperatures, it is a serious hazard if lost from its containment. dnV was the first company to submit its model to the u.s. government for validation and its dispersion model in Phast was approved in 2011. the result allows Lng operators to use Phast in safety studies specifically designed to address the needs of new and updated Lng terminals. PRoJect MAnAgeR rOBiN PitBlaDO Vice President, Responsible for sHe Risk Management services Robin is by background a chemical engineer, with experience in the petrochemical and consulting businesses. He has worked for dnV for over 20 years and has had postings in London, Los Angeles and Houston. His background has focused on risk assessment, safety management systems, and major accident investigation. He is currently responsible for overseeing the sHe Risk Management services within dnV, to ensure that tools, methods and data are maintained up-to-date. He has been involved with Phast since its launch in 1988. He has used this consequence prediction package and its risk assessment tool in many assignments globally. Mostly recently he has published a book “Lng – Risk Based safety” with John Woodward and published by Wiley/Aiche. this addresses a wide range of consequence modelling issues associated with Lng.

safety first Lng developments pose a potential major hazard to surrounding populations. All global regulators working in this area require detailed safety studies. these are usually either consequence-based, as in the u.S., or risk-based, as in europe and elsewhere. Yet how good are the model predictions? And how applicable are they to the Lng industry? PrOJeCt NeeD this project supported a determination of an Lng dispersion model protocol and its submission to the u.S. government for approval. the u.S. department of transportation and State Fire Marshals developed a model validation protocol to focus on all Lng dispersion trials. As a result of earlier criticism at public meetings, the government asked for industry input. Modellers were invited to put their models through the


protocol and answer detailed questions on modelling methodology. this was much more than how accurate the result was, but included questions on what scientific method was used and what important mechanisms were included. this first validation exercise for Lng was the most detailed for any model since eu validation work over 10 years ago. leaDiNg By eXCelleNCe dnv was the first company to submit its model and received validation for the dispersion model in Phast™. this was a joint effort of dnv energy and dnv Software. it involved multiple model runs against the data and extensive documentation. dnv regards validation exercises as an opportunity to demonstrate that its models are not black boxes, but tools open to scrutiny. this information is expected to respond to concerns raised by the industry and public. BeNefits this approval will allow Lng sites and clients of dnv Software to use the Phast model in safety studies for new and updated Lng terminals. Approved older models are no longer supported or developed. Phast, in contrast, has had multiple enhancements in the past 10 years, and is now recognized as the leading consequence modelling tool for the global process industry.



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Liquid flashing to 2-phase

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Vapour Liquid

Liquid gas

Evaporating droplets

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3-d platform graphics for feature specification and enhanced visualization integrated frequency estimation Modelling of releases and consequences in confined modules integrated modelling of safety system activation and failure Ability to reflect cFd modelling results integrated probabilistic explosion modelling integrated subsea dispersion modelling detailed escape, evacuation and impairment analysis Accountability tools for barrier management effectiveness improved input and study setup capabilities More efficient “running” of models VeritV compatible, multi-core processing easier to QA and verify studies improved result reporting and risk contribution analysis

cutting edge > oil&gas frontiers 35

You may drive out nature with a pitchfork, yet she’ll be constantly running back. Horace, Roman poet, 65–68 B.C.

36 cutting edge > oiL&gAs FRontieRs

contRoL systeMs And soFtWARe offshore drilling and production are increasingly dependent on complex controls, new technology and automation. yet the industry has been slow to adapt to a software-intensive environment. this has resulted in long delays in commissioning and excess operational downtime. dnV responded, working with the industry to release a new, simplified and updated offshore standard on integrated software and systems.

PRoJect MAnAgeR rOlf BeNJaMiN JOHaNseN

Project director – Master of science, Applied Physics, university of oslo, 1998 Rolf Benjamin Johansen has twelve years’ experience from the offshore and energy industry. He joined dnV as a materials technology specialist in 1999, and after five years he took on the position as head of section for dnV’s subsea technology unit. in the period from 2006 to 2009 he worked for the Boston consulting group as a senior management consultant focusing on strategies for oil and gas production, power generation and renewable energy. since joining dnV for the second time in 2009, he has been working as director of operations and project director. in these positions he has consistently been working to incorporate all dnV’s capabilities on systems and software in our offering to key clients in the maritime and energy industries.

Delays aND DOWNtiMe the cause of commissioning delays and excess downtime is recognized as being caused at least in part by software and integration problems. Remi eriksen observed, in Offshore magazine in 2010, that modern drill ships frequently experience delays of seven months or more in commissioning. After vessels become operational, problems continue to emerge. the industry needs to manage these risks to control costs. DNV’s rOle dnv staff developed, tested and applied a new optional offshore rule, OS d-203, integrated Software dependent Systems (iSdS) to help ensure the delivery of systems with greater operational reliability. iSdS focuses on three critical aspects of newbuilds: software quality, systems integration and commissioning. this focus addressed the related problem of software not always being fully tested by suppliers prior to installation at the yard. Further, even when each individual software component works as designed, problems occur because messages, ‘handshakes’ and parameters are not consistently implemented across systems.

COOPeratiVe DeVelOPMeNt in 2011, the iSdS rules were simplified and updated, and dnv engaged oil companies, rig owners, and yard and system vendors to apply the standard to real-life projects. Feedback is excellent. to date, Statoil has applied dnv’s methodology widely in connection with upgrades to their fixed north Sea drilling platforms, and total has applied the methodology for the installation and work-over control system for a subsea field development in west Africa. Among rig owners, Songa Offshore, Seadrill and dolphin drilling have been early adopters of the iSdS approach. latest aCtiVity dnv is now engaged with dolphin drilling in an effort that will lead to the issuance of the first iSdS class certificate. in addition, dnv is working with the daewoo Ship and Marine engineering (dSMe) yard in South Korea on drilling units being built for Songa Offshore. these are specified for full scope iSdS and dnv follow-up. the year 2011 saw dnv’s income estimates for iSdS implementation exceeded by more than 100%, with new services sold for over 15 million nOK. the service range in use includes iSdS offshore class service to rig owners and yards, and iSdS advisory service to oil companies and suppliers.


50–70% of the development cost for a modern car is related to software the control systems on board a modern airplane, like the Airbus A380, has more than one million lines of software code the main systems on board a new drilling unit has alone more lines of software code than a modern airplane: ■ the Blow out Prevention control system contains approx. 20,000 lines of code ■ the dynamic Positioning system typically contains 500,000 lines of code ■ the drilling control system has more than 500,000 lines of code ■ the Power Management system, the safety systems and the integrated Automation system have, together, more than 80,000 lines of code An experienced programmer can program, test and verify only 10–15 lines per day

cutting edge > oiL&gAs FRontieRs 37

scope of an isds application

38 cutting edge > cleaner energy

Cleaner energy Global demand for energy is surging. For the next century, this demand is primarily expected to be met through the use of carbon-rich fossil fuels, which produce the greenhouse gas CO2. However, climate change is currently one of the most pressing environmental issues globally. Hence, the public is also increasingly concerned about maintaining a sustainable balance in the environment. This creates a challenge for the energy sector. Promising solutions to the problem are wind and solar energy as well as extended use of liquefied natural gas. DNV is playing a leading role in the development of technologies related to renewable energy, bringing our multidisciplinary expertise to the challenge of developing sustainable solutions. We are brokering the process of creating industry standards and regulations, qualifying new technologies and services, verifying new installations, and helping companies and authorities manage their increasingly complex risk exposure. By enabling the development of comprehensive solutions, we help the energy sector meet its stakeholders’ expectations of a sustainable, decarbonized future.

cutting edge > cleaner energy 39

Facts about:

Mount Everest Mount Everest is one of the world’s most remarkable natural wonders. Cutting into the clouds at 29,000 feet, or 8,848 metres, it is the highest peak on Earth. Magnificent to behold, it has posed challenges and risks for those who would ascend it as long as mankind set eyes upon it. It was Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay’s ascent in 1953 that opened its height to humans – and a new era for Everest, an era of both risk-takers and professional climbers clamouring to follow in their footsteps. Mount Everest is an area of abundant biological resources and many rare animals and plants. Geographical research continues today, while the utilisation of wind, water and solar energy is of special interest. The diversified ecosystem is now being preserved for generations to come. Mountain climbers would agree that re-thinking equipment and re-evaluating alternative materials has reduced mankind’s exposures to risk on the ascents. Just as in the development of new energy resources, man seeks efficient solutions, pushing the envelope to find better ways to go forward, go higher, dive deeper and go beyond that which has gone before. For climbers of Mount Everest, solutions have been demanded. Readiness has been well planned. The challenges facing human capabilities are the unique story behind a successful ascent. The design, planning and engineering that go into reaching the peak are no lucky accident. For those who succeed and return to tell the story, their cutting edge knowledge, comprehensive planning, professional determination, teamwork and interdependent systems for success are values we take pride in and strive to replicate in our own work.

40 cutting edge > cLeAneR eneRgy

oFFsHoRe Wind PoWeR cLAss RuLes FoR seRVice VesseLs twenty utility companies, shipowners and other stakeholders gathered in 2011 at dnV’s head office in oslo to discuss the classification of vessels involved in the offshore wind energy industry. the conclusions were several. First, it is expected that this will be an interesting and fast developing business sector. second, the need for in-service maintenance of an expected total of 10,000 wind turbines in the north sea Basin is significant. third, there was little coordinated guidance for service vessels involved in this work. dnV has now worked to fill that gap.

A naval architect and chartered engineer, ian edwards graduated from southampton university with a Masters degree in ship science before embarking on his career in the maritime industry, which commenced in the uK working for ship owners. the practical experience gained working within ship operations was an ideal building block as ian moved further into ship technical management and later newbuilding projects. this eventually led to assignments in both norway and south Korea, performing both plan approval and survey of new ship constructions on behalf of owners. in 2006 after 10 years working with ship owners, culminating with a role having responsibility as director of projects, ian joined dnV Maritime’s Approval centre norway where he remains today. ian is currently Head of section for Passenger, Ro-Ro, Light craft and naval ships.

wind projects located closer to shore are reached through day trips by high speed light craft, while sites located further offshore call for larger vessels with overnight stay capabilities. this represents an opportunity for the maritime industry, and calls for purpose-built ships.

© ulstein group

PRoJect MAnAgeR iaN eDWarDs

MaiNtaiNiNg WiND statiONs “Simpler and less expensive.” this was the refrain of those who seek wind power service vessels. Yet until dnv’s work in this area, no set of guidelines fully suited the specialisation required. Staff involved are not tourists or general passengers, but highly skilled workers with safety and security knowledge and supplies. dnv stepped forward, first out with classification rules, gaining contracts during 2011 totalling 30 specialised crafts, some in use already with others in the building stages.

rUle COVerage dnv’s work on the new class rules for purpose-built smaller wind farm service craft was launched in January 2011, and has been further developed during the year by this project team, taking into account experiences gained to date in the field. Further, to complete the service portfolio, dnv launched class rules for larger OSv-based wind project maintenance vessels in July. a teaM effOrt dnv staff have been working closely with the industry to develop and adapt the rules for wind project service craft. Based on industry feedback, dnv has postponed publishing permanent rules, opting for further study, analysis and feedback during early 2012. continuous development of the technical standards will ensure that they are suitably aligned with the needs of the industry and regulators, and sufficiently flexible and transparent. the most important steps have now begun to reduce risk in this cleaner energy working environment, in partnership between dnv and the industry.

cutting edge > cLeAneR eneRgy 41

sesAM Wind offshore wind turbine generators are getting larger and are installed in deeper water and in harsh environments. More wind turbines will be grounded on jacket foundations, replacing the traditional monopile foundation. the industry needed a tool capable of detailed analysis of these combined forces, and will find it in dnV’s new sesAM Wind software. this project examined the monitoring, verification and analysis needs, and responded with sesAM Wind.

aBOUt sesaM WiND SeSAM wind can import wind loads generated from an aeroelastic code and combine the wind loads with the wave loads acting on the foundation. the stresses are evaluated in the time domain and a detailed fatigue analysis can be performed. Furthermore, SeSAM wind uses all of the built-in capabilities available in genie, such as code checks, eigen frequency analysis and pile-soil interaction.

OffsHOre WiND DeVelOPMeNts Offshore wind turbine generators are getting larger and are installed in deeper water and in harsh environments. Jacket foundations for these are expected to be more common as offshore wind farms move to water depths greater than 30 metres. wind farm developers and designers therefore needed an analysis tool that can combine both wind turbine loads and wave loads on a jacket foundation. Moreover, that tool needed to be capable of detailed analysis of the stresses in the jacket foundation.

One of the more significant achievements is that SeSAM wind can calculate the fatigue in the joints of the jacket directly after combining the loads, based on rain flow counting in the time domain, a feature not seen in other products. this can save a considerable amount of work and time when designing a jacket foundation for a wind turbine, where knowing the precise fatigue in the joints is a design-driven parameter.

aNsWeriNg NeeDs dnv already had a robust and recognized analysis tool for jacket foundations, through the SeSAM software, genie. it was therefore logical to develop an extension that made it possible to combine both wind and wave loads. A development project was initiated in 2011 to identify architectural changes in the SeSAM package, implement those and verify the results. By year’s end, SeSAM wind was ready. the results have been verified, and the software is now available for commercial use.

NeXt steP One next step is the development of a fully integrated dynamic analysis. this work is being initiated together with Fedem technology AS and dnv Software.

+ OUR OFFERING TO THE INDUSTRY: FiXed stRuctuRes ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Quick modelling changes during design Beam code checking Fatigue non-linear pushover Reporting

FLoAteRs & suRF ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Quick modelling interaction with hydro Advanced hydrodynamics Plate code checking stochastic fatigue umbilical & pipeline design

PRoJect MAnAgeR MaDs Berg larseN Master of science, technical university of denmark, ocean engineering, 1996 Mads Berg Larsen is an experienced project manager with more than 15 years of practical experience in engineering. He has verified foundations for offshore wind turbines, met masts and substations since 2008 using a.o. ABAQus and sesAM software solutions. Key experience includes explicit and implicit FeM, structural dynamics and material behaviour. Mads has been involved in verification of more than 20 offshore wind farm projects looking at primary and secondary steel structures, grouted connections, concrete structures and independent structural Finite element Analyses of grouted connections and of steel support structures. Prior to joining dnV, Mads Berg Larsen worked with risk assessment of buildings exposed to blast loads and risk assessment of safety distances to explosives.

42 cutting edge > cLeAneR eneRgy

oFFsHoRe Wind FARM coLLection in 2011, dnV set out to evaluate an important emerging renewable energy market, offshore wind power. similar to onshore wind power, offshore wind power offers many challenging technical aspects. From project development to equipment selection, the problems in this sector present a set of unique challenges. the result is dnV’s white paper, offshore Wind Farm collection system and integration. this offers an in-depth look at the technical challenges of designing a medium-voltage collection system offshore. in addition, it addresses the technical challenges and limitations of installing a long distance subsea transmission line to facilitate offshore wind power generation. PRoJect MAnAgeR BOye traNUM Boye tranum has more than 25 years’ experience from technical and management positions in large national and international organizations. He has worked with development of information based solutions, solving interoperability challenges and managing risks. He has been leading development and implementation of standards for multinational organizations. in his current position as general Manager for dnV cleaner energy san Francisco, Boye is focusing on growing the dnV competence and global reach in the solar PV market with high end expert services. Previously Boye has been leading dnV information Quality and interoperability service focused groups in both Washington dc and Houston, tX with focus on us Federal clients. He also established and headed up the dnV office in Washington dc from 2006 to 2008. Boye has repeatedly been Project Manager and Project sponsor for complex global projects within dnV.

UNiQUe OffsHOre CONCerNs designing underground medium voltage networks is fairly common in the electric power industry, and is a vital necessity for onshore wind farms and solar power systems. A medium voltage collection system for onshore systems uses readily available direct burial cables for the collection and delivery of power generated. the offshore wind power topology of the electrical system is similar to onshore systems, but requires the use of specialized subsea cables designed for submersion. these are typically triplex cables consisting of three shielded conductors with an overall steel armour for additional structural protection. the construc-

tion of subsea cables introduces additional power losses not typically found in direct burial cables. this not only affects the economics of the electrical system but also the topology of the wind farm. PrOJeCt Details this project considered many layouts, exploring voltage and reactive power limitations in addition to the financial impact of each layout. in addition to the challenges presented by the medium-voltage electrical system, long-distance high-voltage Ac (HvAc) subsea transmission lines also present unique challenges for offshore wind farms. Staff also evaluated charging currents, reactive power needs and voltage limits for four transmission lengths. eight unique collection system configurations were considered, each evaluated for different cable sizes and routing. All configurations were compared to a base case. the results illustrate how differing topologies affect the capital cost and overall electrical efficiency of each case. this report is now available to guide and inform owners, operators and designers in this growing industry sector.

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cutting edge > cLeAneR eneRgy 43

Wind tuRBine LiFesPAn

OUr aPPrOaCH dnv’s goal was to evaluate the industry’s need for a documented process to assess the remaining useful life of onshore turbines and lay the groundwork to establish a Joint industry Practice (JiP), which will

+ Life assessment and life extension are becoming increasingly important topics in wind power as utility scale turbines are ageing and wind is becoming an increasingly important generation source supplying utilities. globally there are over 200 gigawatts (gW) of wind-powered generators, with approximately 24 gW of wind turbines over 10 years old and 74 gW over 5 years old. it is important to know whether the expected lifespan will be reached, and whether the turbines can be economically operated until, or even beyond, the planned design life. edP Renewables, the world’s third largest wind power company, attributes a €21 million boost in savings in 2010 to reduced depreciation charges, a result of adjusted life expectancy based on a dnV study.

Participants benefit by having a voice in the development of the assessment process, which will consider the needs of multiple stakeholders. dnv will use the resulting document as input to create a draft Recommended Practice for Assessing Remaining useful Life of Onshore wind turbines. PrOJeCt statUs: aCtiVe we are in discussion with multiple parties interested in this JiP, and a plan and proposal are in progress. Several single-scope projects related to life assessment were secured which improves our knowledge, capability and thought leadership in this area. we are regularly receiving more inquiries for wind turbine life assessment and possible extension, as the industry ramps up globally. dnv was selected for a 2012 european wind energy Association (eweA) poster and presentation on this subject, further demonstrating our leadership position. the electric Power Research institute, whose membership includes participants from 40 countries and accounts for more than 90% of electricity generation and delivery in the united States, recently selected dnv to perform a life assessment and extension study. during 2012, the JiP and assessment activity will be ongoing.

Global Annual Installed Wind Capacity (GW) & Age Based on “World Market Update 2010” Data 200


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2006: Installed 15.1GW 74GW is 5+ years old



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iNDUstry NeeD wind turbine owners and operators, as well as financiers, buyers and sellers, insurance companies and manufacturers need reliable remaining useful life assessment. Questions are raised by current owners planning their future operations and budgets, as well as asset buyers and sellers, financial institutions and insurance companies. All need to understand the risks associated with existing assets. Yet, current analysis methods are considered ad-hoc, developed and implemented on an as-needed basis. efforts developed without extensive stakeholder input are also unlikely to see widespread industry adoption.

develop this documented process. the JiP will include a number of industry members cooperating to create a documented assessment process which will help them and other members of the industry.

Cumulative Installed Capacity (GW)

globally, there are over 200 gigawatts (gW) of wind-powered generators, with approximately 24 gW of wind turbines over 10 years old and 74 gW over 5 years old. it is important to know whether the expected lifespan will be reached, and whether the turbines can be economically operated until, or even beyond, the planned design life. edP Renewables, the world’s third largest wind power company, attributes a €21 million savings in 2010 to reduced depreciation charges, a result of adjusted life expectancy based on a dnV study. this dnV project looked at the effects of life extension for these facilities, informed by a sophisticated life assessment.

PRoJect MAnAgeR JerOeN DOlMaNs Jeroen dolmans joined dnV Renewables (usA) in 2010 to lead the turbine engineering group. Jeroen brings a professional background built on 13 years of aerospace experience specialized primarily in business jet aircraft loads analysis using a variety of experimental and theoretical aerodynamic data, inertia properties, structural properties and interactions between systems and structures as aircraft experience different manoeuvres, turbulence, gust & ground loads. He also brings a broad background in experimental data collection and analysis as well as modelling. Jeroen possesses Bs and Ms degrees in aerospace engineering as well as an MBA degree with experience managing a diverse group of engineers based in both the usA and Bangalore, india. He is currently managing the high performance turbine technology team as the Head of section with cleaner energy, Americas, based in seattle, usA.

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Wind WAKe Loss Wind turbine wake losses are defined as the effect of reduced wind speed behind a wind turbine on other nearby turbines. Wake loss is often the largest technical source of loss at a wind farm: at large projects, 10% or more of potential energy production can be lost to wakes. Wake losses are also one of the least well understood, particularly as wind projects grow larger. Based on the results of our wake investigations from past years, dnV undertook this project to update our methodology for modelling wakes. Better wake loss predictions will provide the wind industry with both the tools needed for wake loss reduction, and the vision needed for planning new developments. PRoJect MAnAgeR gOrDON raNDall gordon Randall has eighteen years of consulting experience, including the last twelve years working in wind energy with dnV. during this time, much of his research has focused on investigating data to best predict output from wind projects under development, reviewing operational data from projects that have been built to better understand why they behave as they do, and developing approaches to accurately assess and quantify uncertainty and variability in wind resource assessment. this work has led to the establishment of many of dnV’s methodologies for wind project energy assessment. gordon is frequently involved in wind industry events related to resource and energy assessment, including chairing the technical session on resource assessment at the 2011 AWeA WindPoWeR conference and the wake modelling session at the 2011 AWeA Wind Resource and Project energy Assessment Workshop.

Wake lOss effeCts aND researCH wind farm wake loss is not limited to individual farms; in many areas, wind projects are being built sufficiently near each other as to create wake effects between projects. understanding and quantifying wake loss is of key importance to wind developers and stakeholders, as they question whether wake effects are hurting project revenues more than expected. dnv has investigated turbine wake effects for some years, both through targeted research and evaluation of wind farm production. Observed cases have varied widely from model predictions, with both higher and lower effects. in a 2010 project, a 400 Mw wind farm with many rows of

turbines was found to have wake effects underestimated by a factor as high as three. then, in early 2011, dnv began exploring new atmospheric data that help explain why wakes are behaving as they do. the combination of wake observations and meteorological measurements from remote sensor devices and tall towers gave dnv more pieces of the wake puzzle to put together. iMPrOViNg Wake PreDiCtiONs this project promises an update to the methodology for modelling wakes. while our research methodology was determined to be generally unbiased overall, changes to our modelling methodologies will produce better wake estimates and reduce uncertainty for all wind farms. the result is better financing terms for wind projects, and better financial performance for our clients. fUtUre stePs we are continuing our research to further refine our methodology and verify results against more data. that includes conducting additional wake measurements using remote sensors downwind of operating wind farms under specific atmospheric conditions. this will provide new information on how far wakes can travel, and how wakes from large projects affect each other.


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in addition to our unique wake modelling methodology, dnV uses industry-leading methods for evaluating wind flow, uncertainties, and turbine downtime to assess energy production for wind projects. While the industry at a whole has historically overestimated wind energy production by about 10%, dnV’s results have been accurate to within 3% on average. dnV has measured large wake effects over 70 rotor diameters downwind of operating onshore wind projects – equivalent to over 8 km for modern large wind turbines. Wakes may travel even farther offshore. Wake effects frequently vary by a factor of 4 or more between day and night, as changes in the atmosphere affect the amount of energy available to replenish wakes. dnV’s wake modelling methodology treats these changes more accurately than traditional models. Atmospheric effects causing large wake effects also tend to reduce the apparent turbine performance. Between all the synergistic effects, production at a large wind farm can vary by well over a factor of 2 for a given ambient hub-height wind speed.


cutting edge > cLeAneR eneRgy 45

Wind BLAde issues As offshore wind turbine blades get larger, new methods are needed to assess the integrity and remaining life span of the blades. dnV initiated this research and innovation project and Joint industry Project (JiP) to develop best practices for composite blade integrity assessment. Matters Of siZe wind blades are tailored to the needs of wind turbines operating in areas with extreme weather conditions. with the increased length of offshore wind turbine blades has come a need to use advanced composite materials. Although these have proven a positive operational experience, a limited range of analysis and testing methods have been applied to the larger scale wind turbines. “As a natural consequence of the ambitious plans for renewable energy in many countries, we are seeing increasing projections on the amount of wind power being fed into the grid”, states Bjørn tore Markussen, Managing director of dnv’s clean technology centre (ctc) in Singapore. “the increased expectations for wind power generation have led to growth in wind turbine size, particularly in offshore wind. the technical and potential quality issues faced in such a rapid growth phase can be overcome by cross-industry collaboration to develop best practices, such as this project.” reDUCiNg risks WitH teaMWOrk dnv initiated this innovation project to develop improved integrity

© dnV/terje toftenes

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assessment procedures for large scale offshore wind turbines in 2011, and joined an industry consortium on advanced composites in use. consortium partners include vestas, energy Research institute@ nanyang technological university and instron. Leveraging the experience of instron in bi-axial testing of composites with various flaws introduced, the expertise of dnv together with eRi@n in finite element analysis, and the knowledge of vestas in this industry, the project aims to provide insight into composite failure in wind turbine blades. with the results of the analysis, dnv will be developing integrity management procedures for advanced composite wind turbine blades. MOre ON OUr rOle the first phase of the JiP addresses development of bi-axial testing methods and finite element analysis procedures. these will enable development of test data for deriving and verifying models for flaw growth in the composites. Blade life predictions and integrity management procedures resulting from this project will reduce risk and improve predictability in this growing industrial sector. while dnv has been active in Singapore for over 40 years, their clean technology centre was only opened there in March 2010. now, with over 2,000 employees in 80 offices in the Middle east and Asia, dnv is positioned to meet growing demand for Risk Management services in South east Asia, including within green Shipping, Lng, carbon capture, Power/transmission and Renewables.

S, S22 (Avg: 75%) +1.331e+02 +1.029e+02 +9.642e+01 +8.417e+01 +7.193e+01 +5.968e+01 +4.744e+01 +3.519e+01 +2.295e+01 +1.070e+01 -1.541e+00 -1.379e+01

PRoJect MAnAgeR sØreN karkOV søren holds a Bsc degree in Mechanical engineering from the danish Academy in copenhagen. He is coming from a position as Vice President Field operation with Vestas America, where he among others was responsible for managing all aspects of construction and commissioning of large wind farms. For dnV, søren is providing advisory and consulting services with the renewable energy sector in the following areas: Project feasibility studies, technical due diligence, energy and performance modelling, utility grid interconnection studies, PV system design, and standards development and compliance assessment. søren has more than 25 years’ experience in the power sector, where he among other things has worked for ABB and Alstom Power. søren has also vast experience in project management.

46 cutting edge > cLeAneR eneRgy

Wind oPeRAtions MeteoRoLogicAL MonitoRing Wind energy project developers must collect meteorological (‘met’) data during a project’s planning, feasibility, and design stages. the wind energy industry has recognized best practices for collecting and processing these data. However, best practices for collecting and using meteorological data during a project’s operational phase are less well developed. dnV has a long history in evaluating wind project operational and meteorological data, and in specifying wind measurement equipment, both tower-mounted and remote sensing applications. dnV is drawing on this experience to develop a recommended “best practices” guideline for the collection of met data during the operational phase of a wind project.

Bachelor of science, northland college, environmental science, 1999 sarah Meyer has twelve years of wind energy consulting experience and joined dnV in 2008 through the acquisition of global energy concepts. sarah has a background in meteorological monitoring, having coordinated numerous wind resource assessment programs and provided meteorological equipment specification, procurement, installation, and maintenance logistics for gec’s met services department. As senior consultant for dnV’s cleaner energy due diligence and Feasibility section, sarah provides support for wind project developers and investors throughout all stages of development. Her work involves feasibility studies, turbine noise and shadow-flicker impact assessments, turbine suitability evaluation, wind project layouts, due diligence, economic and energy production analyses. in 2010, sarah’s research into the effectiveness of meteorological measurement placement at reducing wind speed bias was presented at leading WindPower conferences.

NeeD fOr Met OPs Data Project owners may need to monitor meteorological conditions during wind energy operations for a variety of reasons. Met measurements are necessary for project and turbine power performance testing. Reconciliation of actual energy production with expected energy production is of special interest both to project owners and project investors. the calculation of energy lost due to curtailment and the reporting of met data may be a contractual requirement. Met data also help owners assess equipment problems, operate equipment safety and evaluate the potential for project expansion. Accurate, consistent, and longterm meteorological measurements are essential to the overall success of the project. PrOJeCt aCtiVity through this project, dnv evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of various methods for monitoring wind project met conditions, and identified appropriate applications for each during operations. dnv has also reviewed lessons learned from measurement equipment deployments, and has assembled a list of logistical considerations for use when planning and implementing an operations phase measurement campaign. resUlts the resulting guideline will raise awareness of the need for accurate, consistent, and long-term meteorological measurements during project operations. it will also provide recommendations for equipment specification and data collection, enabling project owners to collect data necessary to correctly understand and evaluate project performance, meet contractual obligations, and accurately forecast and improve future energy production estimates.

© dnV

PRoJect MAnAgeR saraH Meyer

At a time when the wind industry has developed a reputation for producing energy below predicted levels, the planning and implementation of operations phase ‘met’ data should become an integral part of a project’s planning and development phase, not an afterthought. this project demonstrates dnv’s commitment to understanding project performance and provides a common-sense approach to an identified lack of guidance in the wind industry.

cutting edge > cLeAneR eneRgy 47

Wind LoAd in soLAR RooF instALLAtions Photovoltaic (PV) systems are commonly installed on the rooftops of large commercial buildings. While those roofs are often flat, the systems are typically installed at an angle of 5° to 30° southerly to optimize solar gain. in 2011, dnV research provided guidance to the industry to estimate wind loads on PV systems. the result of this Joint industry Project (JiP), Wind Loads on tilted PV Modules on Flat Roofs, provides step-by-step guidelines to estimate wind loads. this report illustrates that, depending on the location on the roof, previous code-based calculations of wind loads have both over-estimated and under-estimated expected wind loads. aDDressiNg iNDUstry NeeDs the American Society of civil engineers (ASce) publishes the “Minimum design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures” design standard. the ASce 7 standard is the most comprehensive wind design standard in the u.S., and is relied upon by the industry. However, this standard contains no data directly applicable to roof-mounted Pv systems where the module is tilted relative to the roof. Meanwhile, designers typically use the ASce 7 to estimate wind loads. Because this standard was not intended to be applied to roof-mounted systems, a lack of sufficient standard existed. dnv initiated this JiP with a private wind tunnel manufacturer, developing an analytical approach to quantify wind loads on roof-mounted Pv systems based on the ASce 7 standard while utilizing angled installation.

OUr researCH Our analytical procedure applied 20° tilted Pv modules to flat commercial roof and compared results with a typical ASce 7 application. Key differences were noted and further analyzed. For example, the ASce defines wind-loading zones on the roof as a function of building geometry alone, while the JiP’s wind-loading zones took into account the Pv geometry, as well as “corner” and “edge” zones and interior sections of the array. OUr resUlts the project report provides a step-by-step procedure to estimate wind loads on Pv systems depending on several factors: their location relative to the roof edges; the amount of shielding offered by the parapet walls and rows of adjacent Pv modules; and their proximity to rooftop objects such as air-handling units and penthouses. Areas in which the ASce 7 standard was in fair agreement and those in contrast were highlighted. dnv is proud to be able to assist this innovative energy sector in identifying solutions for safety, efficiency and growth.


Asce dnV

none interior Perimeter (“east / West / south”) Back Row (“north”) Accelerated Flow Region

3 (Corner) –36.3 –23.9 –35.9 –47.9 –62.2

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Method array Zone 2 (edge) –21.8 –17.3 –25.9 –34.6 –44.9

colleen o’Brien has worked in the photovoltaics (PV) industry for fifteen years.

As a Principal engineer at dnV, colleen assesses the performance, reliability and safety of PV systems for investors, project developers, and system operators.


1 (Middle) –19.9 –12.0 –17.9 –23.9 –31.1

Principal engineer – Bs Mechanical engineering – university of new Hampshire

Before joining dnV she managed the testing and Reliability group at PowerLight (now sunPower), where she was responsible for mechanical and electrical testing of PV modules and mounting hardware, ensuring wind and seismic code compliance of PV mounting hardware, directing wind tunnel test programs, monitoring and analyzing data from fielded PV systems, and evaluating emerging PV technologies.


roof Zone

PRoJect MAnAgeR COlleeN O’BrieN

colleen received a Bs in mechanical engineering from the university of new Hampshire and is a registered Professional Mechanical engineer in california.

48 cutting edge > cLeAneR eneRgy

oFFsHoRe Wind FARM cABLe RisKs

PRoJect MAnAgeR tHOMas BOeHMe thomas Boehme has more than twelve years’ experience in electrical engineering and joined dnV in 2006. Prior job experience includes electronics engineering as well as installation and servicing of wind farms in the P.R. china. He wrote his doctoral thesis on ‘matching renewable generation with demand in scotland’. in his current position, thomas is part of the London-based consulting team, focusing on onshore and offshore wind developments. His work involves providing technical advice, performing due diligence assessments and conducting installation and commissioning surveys. Furthermore, he audits power plants, investigates incidents and accidents and runs Hazard identification and FMeA workshops. His interests include the energy business and ‘green’ economics. in 2008–2009, he managed a Joint industry Project assessing safety issues related to transformer and accommodation platforms in offshore wind farms and edited the resulting offshore standard dnV-os-J201, “offshore substations for Wind Farms”.

it was sometime in 2010 when the wind farm industry gathered. there seemed to be too many incidents involving subsea power cables in offshore wind farms, often during installation. installations in the north sea, irish sea and Baltic sea identified such risks. Add to that a lack of industry guidance. dnV stepped in after encouragement from the industry, consulting with 24 stakeholders, participating in related conference and press discussions, and engaging in a new JiP.

dnv is drawing on experience in the Pipelines and Subsea technology groups, but also acknowledges that some issues are specific to power cables where the JiP partners will bring a wealth of experience to the table. Particular challenges of this nOK 2 million project include the urgent need in the market, the sometimes contradictory views of stakeholders, and the relative newness of the subjects for many parties moving into the growing offshore wind market segment.

gUiDeliNe DeVelOPMeNt Stakeholders identified the need to focus less on project cost and more on risk, significant knowledge and experience gaps and a lack of written “industry best practice”. the results were presented at conferences in London and Amsterdam, further raising the industry’s interest in tackling the lack of guidance for the sector.

UNiQUe & aPPrOPriate sOlUtiONs Because of the growing importance of the offshore wind market, dnv can justify developing comprehensive and dedicated guidance for this sector – as opposed to making extensions to the existing portfolio of guidance documents for submarine pipeline systems. A risk-based approach covers the entire life cycle of the wind farm or inter-connector project – from site condition assessment through decommissioning. the resulting guideline will raise awareness of cable challenges, improve stakeholder communication and reduce cabling related risks. this project demonstrates dnv’s capacity to be a leader in resolving problems raised by new ideas and technology, as well as to work with industry to provide solutions for comprehensive risk management.

WOrkiNg WitH iNDUstry during 2011, the dnv team produced, among other things, a draft table of contents for a new industry guideline to address these needs, and arranged the coordinated participation of 12 companies to help finalize these efforts in 2012. Since the uK and germany are currently the largest offshore wind markets and the uK has the largest operational capacity, the cableRisks JiP will be run from London, with participating companies located in countries around the north Sea.

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cutting edge > cLeAneR eneRgy 49

eXtending RAM RAM stands for Reliability, Availability and Maintainability, and is a wellestablished approach used in the oil and gas industry as a performance forecasting tool. All refineries, chemical plants and production platforms undergo periodic performance checks using RAM methods. these can diagnose the current health of assets and explore possible improvements in operational philosophy and inventory. RAM analysis with dnV uses the MARos tool. dnV conducted this study to test the MARos tool for RAM use in the power transmission and distribution sector.

and the accompanying transmission network, and may prove useful in micro-level investigation and criticality analysis of the equipment in use. NeXt stePs going forward, the dnv team will seek to develop a more deterministic model to address the reliability of ageing power distribution assets based on feedback from various external sources. Such an evaluation is currently underway to determine if a solution space can be developed to address power cable failure.

OUr aPPrOaCH An assessment similar to the RAM method is pertinent in the power transmission and distribution industry: substantial costs are often incurred both by the end-user and supplier as a result of power disruptions. Potential customers for this service include electric utility companies (typically vertically integrated), power generation companies, power system/grid companies and independent power producers.

PRoJect MAnAgeR kiaN HOCk kelViN taN dr. tan has over 10 years of experience in engineering and renewable energy, including his role as an electrical engineering lecturer and researcher at the curtin university of technology in Perth, Western Australia where he supervised Phd and Msc students. He was actively involved in renewable energy research including wind grid-connected systems, inverter control techniques, passive/active/hybrid filters, remote area power supply systems, power quality, and harmonic mitigation techniques.

At dnv, RAM analysis of oil and gas assets has typically been aided by dnv’s MAROS tool, which takes into account the failure rates of individual components and outputs the overall reliability of the system. necessary maintenance actions are also made clear by the outcomes of the analysis. PrOJeCt aCtiVity this study evaluated the suitability of MAROS for RAM analysis in the power transmission and distribution sector. to do this, a sample power system reliability model was created using MAROS. A comparative assessment between MAROS and other commercially available power system reliability tools was then conducted.

Š getty images

the results indicate areas of the power sector where MAROS has potential application. Results indicated that MAROS may not be sufficiently competitive with other reliability module add-ons or stand-alone software for general application. A key drawback was its limited ability to handle reliability issues that determine power losses in the system. using MAROS to perform reliability assessments of power flow in each branch was a non-direct and complex process, rendering the commercial use of MAROS in power system reliability analysis problematic. However, for long distance power transmission applications, MAROS may be used to model the uni-directional flow of power. MAROS is also able to take into consideration the complexities of power sub-stations

Prior to joining dnV, dr. tan was a renewable energy consultant with Parsons Brinkerhoff where he worked with power system, solar and wind energy consulting. At dnV, dr. tan is senior Wind Advisor, executing power, wind and solar energy-related consultancy services including feasibility studies, due diligence reviews, technical market analysis, meteorological campaigns and risk assessments. His responsibilities also include developing dnV clean technology centre wind and renewable energy business segment.

50 cutting edge > cLeAneR eneRgy

LiQueFied nAtuRAL gAs PoWeR oPtions in remote locations and on islands not served by centralised electricity or existing gas networks, Lng-based distributed power and mini/microgrids may offer a cost-competitive and environmentally attractive alternative to traditional electric power sources. Lng-based distributed power can also utilize locally available renewable energy resources such as wind, solar, biomass and mini-hydro. But when? And how?

PRoJect MAnAgeR saNJay CHittaraJaN kUttaN dr sanjay c Kuttan, director, dnV clean technology centre sanjay joined dnV ctc, singapore in March 2011 and is currently Head of section for the power and renewables team. His roles in the private sector range from line management (AP technical Response Manager at exxonMobil Asia Pacific), business development (Business development Manager at Mobil oil Australia) to consulting (Petroleum Practice expert/eM at McKinsey & company). Prior to joining dnV, he was the director of industry development at the energy Market Authority, a statutory Board under the Ministry of trade and industry. there he was in charge of three key clean technology projects embarked by the Authority i.e., intelligent energy system Pilot; aka smart grid, the electric Vehicle test bed and the Pulau ubin Renewable energy project. He also supported the Ministry of national development on a number of working groups.

lNg POWer feasiBility this project created a preliminary framework for assessing the potential use of Lng-based distributed power and micro-grids, with a focus on indonesia and South east Asia. the framework includes a technological and economic assessment of the potential, including infrastructure requirements for shipping, re-gasification and distribution. Project staff then applied the framework to case studies in order to assess the potential costs and benefits of Lng-based distributed power and microgrids. Providing electricity remains a major challenge in many developing countries, with many unserved areas and populations. the problem is particularly acute in eastern indonesia, parts of the Philippines, vietnam, Myanmar, Laos and cambodia. geographical challenges can make the development of power infrastructure economically tenuous. nevertheless, governments seek to provide power to greater sections of their population, and support economic growth through increased capacity and networks.

fOCUs: CHalleNges & OPtiONs Since Lng infrastructure technologies are known to be capital intensive, it was important to analyse the cost of Lng fuel supply and distribution. these costs were assessed relative to other distributed power generation systems (including renewable, diesel and small scale coal power plants). Supply chain options studied included both import-pipeline and local storage-and-transport options. the analysis was driven by inputs on power generating capacity, distances and other geographical and geo-political considerations. individual chains were combined to study interesting integrated supply concepts. resUlts tHat sPeak fOr tHeMselVes the project result is a comprehensive framework for preliminary technoeconomic assessment of both Lng supply chains and distributed power and microgrids. Life cycle capital and operational cost models are included, developed using spreadsheet and modelling tools. the results give industry and government new tools for assessing Lng power development’s potential with predictability and certainty. it should now be possible to fully assess the viability of powering isolated communities with small scale gas-fired power generation systems. this approach could potentially aid companies and governments in making informed decisions when weighing the benefits of remote gas-fired power generation against the relatively high costs of new Lng supply and distribution.

examples of Lng supply chains for distributed Power & Microgrids LNG EXPORT OR STORAGE FACILITY

















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ALBeRtAn oiL sAnds dnV is playing a role in venture technology solutions for the oil sands industry. Alberta has 1.7 trillion barrels of oil equivalent in situ, making it the largest oil reserve on earth. to meet growing global energy needs the oil sands industry must increase production, but it has been criticized for creating significant environmental impacts. oil sands operations utilize more water and emit more greenhouse gases than most conventional oil extraction operations, and they have an immediate need to remediate over 170 km2 of tailing ponds. eXtraOrDiNary fUNDiNg PrOJeCt this study began as an exploration of the role dnv could play in helping industry mitigate environmental challenges, and grew into a research and innovation project that was aimed at significantly reducing or eliminating bitumen extraction environmental impacts through process engineering. OUr CONsUltiNg aPPrOaCH A new advisory approach called Pathfinder Solutioning engaged stakeholders through a Joint Stakeholder Project (JSP) to provide solutions for environmental challenges. Stakeholder input included government, trade groups, oil sands operators, ngOs, community groups, process engineers, technology providers and academia. Our aim was to be the catalyst for step change, accelerating innovation through application of best available technologies. dnv synthesized the JSP input and developed a new process that would significantly reduce environmental impacts during bitumen extraction.

CONCePt sOlUtiON the JSP developed a concept solution called environmentally Sensitive extraction Services (eS2) which was designed to use off-the-shelf technologies targeted at reducing water usage, remediating tailing ponds and potentially eliminating most greenhouse gas emissions from local power generation. A zero emission power plant using a waste fuel source was central to mitigating bitumen extraction environmental impacts, driving remediation of tailing ponds, and reducing water use. the eS2 process could also generate green fuel for mobile equipment. MOViNg fOrWarD whether or not eS2 is adopted as a total integrated process, or rearranged to address individual environmental impacts, dnv has framed a stepchange process that has the potential to be an “out of the box” solution for mitigating environmental impacts. dnv is currently considering filing of a provisional patent for the eS2 process. Pathfinder Solutioning can be applied to any number of complex issues requiring integrated solutions such as mitigating environmental issues related to shale gas projects as well. getting all stakeholders together in a JSP is a highly effective way to create step-change for mitigating complex risks. this new consulting approach will allow dnv staff to become venture technologists in a variety of teams targeted at difficult solutioning assignments.

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Have an impact on the sustainable management of water and energy use in oil sands processing and support continuous improvement initiatives Few places in the world provide such an extraordinary opportunity to be impactful, positively changing the level of energy and water usage during extraction and post-processing oil sands production will increase from 1.4 million barrels per day in 2010 to 4.0 million barrels per day in 2020 A 36% reduction in gHg intensity has been realized since 1990, but aggregate emissions are increasing due to production expansion Pragmatic oil sands engineers look to resolve challenges by applying technological solutions within their operations complex challenges will require a coalition strategy involving multiple stakeholders thinking outside the box


-Transportation -Extraction trucks and shovels -Other apps

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Blending >15% diesel >15% H2 >60% natural gas


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PRoJect MAnAgeR riCHarD greeN Master of science, the university of Wisconsin, green Bay, Wisconsin, usA Richard green has more than 35 years of practical experience in environmental management and engineering and joined dnV in 2005. Prior job experience included municipal and industrial water/ wastewater treatment design, construction and operations in the usA and Puerto Rico; environmental engineering assignments in the pharmaceutical industry; and delivering environmental services to a variety of sectors. in his current position as deputy director for Risk Management solutions in Houston, Richard is part of the Hse and Asset risk management team servicing oil and gas customers with an emphasis on environmental due diligence, management systems assessment, safety cases and incident investigation. His 2012 focus will also include expanding risk management services to oil sands and shale gas operators.

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Lng in Motion

PRoJect MAnAgeR ØyViND lUND-JOHaNseN Principal engineer – Master of science, ship Building, norwegian technical university, 1973 Lund-Johansen has nearly 40 years’ experience in dnV, starting in the section for noise and Vibration after completing the trainee program. After 10 years he moved to the dnV strength Laboratories doing destructive strength testing related to offshore structures, including a period as section manager. in his present position in section for ship structures in Maritime Advisory, he manages full scale measurement projects on board ships. the competence and experience gained during these projects formed the basis for the dnV HMon class notation, dealing with Hull stress Monitoring. since 2007, the main task has been managing the JiP project on full scale measurement on sloshing in Lng tanks, including development of the measuring concept.

Liquefied natural gas (Lng) is marine transported by specialized ships. the gas is liquefied at cryogenic temperatures and stored and transported in insulated tanks of special design. containment vessels used for this transport include tanker membranes subject to interaction with the motion of waves. this dnV initiative is developing more reliable methods for design and operation of Lng membrane tankers based on full- and model-scale liquid motion and sloshing measurements.

PrOJeCt aCtiVity the first phase of the project managed by dnv included partners, Bw gas, teekay, dSMe, gtt, Light Structures and Lloyd’s Register. A new dSMe-built 148,300 m3 Lng/c was fitted with a prototype fibre optic sloshing measurement system designed by Light Structures and dnv. the vessel, the Lng iMO, managed by Bw gas, is trading primarily in routes between europe, nigeria and north America.

liQUiD MOtiON: MeMO Predictions of liquid motion forces inside Lng cargo tanks have been based on model testing and computer simulations as well as the experiences of existing ships. these have provided the basis for Lng filling restrictions and the strengthening of membrane cargo containment systems. Successful full-scale measurements for more accurate predictions of liquid forces have not previously been carried out. this Joint industry Project (JiP) has done that, capturing full-scale measurements of liquid motion forces in progress.

not unexpectedly, the prototype measuring system experienced initial problems, mainly related to operation in cryogenic temperatures (–163°c). After modifications, the system performed according to expectations and recorded a number of parameters continuously. these parameters include environmental conditions, ship operational data, ship motions, sloshing forces and structural responses due to sloshing impacts.

in 2007, dnv launched a JiP to develop more reliable methods for design of Lng membrane tanks. the first phase of the project, including full scale measurement of sloshing forces during normal ship operation, was carried out from 2009 to 2011. the measurement activity has been successful and has produced unique and valuable information regarding sloshing forces in Lng tanks. the industry can now move forward to utilize this information to secure the safety and efficiency of Lng marine transport. OUr researCH the main objective of this investigation was to acquire full scale data. we are using these data for assessment and calibration of the dnv guidelines for sloshing model tests and for calibration of analytical tools. One important aspect in this context is the scaling from model scale sloshing pressure to full scale sloshing pressure. the investigation also contributes valuable data that can be utilised in the development of both short-term and long-term statistics of ship motions and the resulting sloshing forces. Furthermore, it will contribute to broader rule development activity for the classification of Lng carriers.

Sensors measuring the sloshing responses are mounted in forward top deck corners, and are continuously sampled at 20 kHz. Five computers are dedicated to the data acquisition and linked together in a local network. this network is again connected to the ship network through a firewall, allowing safe access to the ship’s satellite system. utilizing this connection, the measuring system is maintained from Light Structures’ headquarters. System status files are generated automatically on a daily basis and submitted to dnv for follow-up of the performance of the system. Furthermore, files including statistics of the measured data are regularly generated automatically and transmitted to dnv. the statistics includes information on ship position, environmental conditions, ship operating conditions and sloshing responses. in turn, these data are uploaded to the web, allowing project participants to follow the measurements. PrOJeCtiNg seCUrity High sloshing pressures are to be expected in situations with large ship motions, although the study vessel has experienced mainly moderate sea-states during measurements. while no incidents with high sloshing pressures have been recorded, high pressure spikes from sloshing are not needed to meet the objectives of the project. Moderate sloshing pressures combined with the associated ship motions are sufficient to carry out model sloshing tests and establish the link between true fullscale pressures and model testing. gtt has performed model tests using the actual measured ship motion controlling the test rig motions.

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An important consequence of this research is the opportunity to calibrate methods used for prediction of sloshing forces. Project staff are assessing and calibrating the dnv guidelines for model tests and calibrating analytical tools for the industry. there is also increased interest in a heavy weather decision Support System: this may be useful for gas transportation, ship-to-ship transfer and FPSO operations. dnv’s research in this area is leading not only to enhancing design and engineering innovations, but to assuring the energy security and safety of Lng marine transport. the system concept installed on the Lng iMO is also being explored for applications to other Lng vessel types. dnv presented the project at the gAStecH 2011 conference in Amsterdam. Analyses and evaluation of the results are ongoing. the measurements are expected to be terminated in the 1st quarter of 2013, with the evaluation of results expected in the 2nd quarter. the verification of the class note and possible updates will follow in late 2013.






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cutting edge VieW – PMo dnV’s ambition is to maintain the role as technology leader within defined technical disciplines, as well as providing cutting edge services and technologies to clients in selected markets. that is why we invest heavily in innovation and technology through a central Project Management office (PMo) in governance and global development. the PMO drives the innovation process across dnv’s geographic divisions. this ensures a consistent and transparent approach for project development through the entire innovation life cycle, from idea collection through implementation of project results into operational units. Further, a centrally located PMO optimises the synergies across various development portfolios, supporting project managers and project sponsors, enabling them to focus on the subject matter, and minimising their administrative work. the PMO manages various development portfolios, ranging from large, centrally driven, efficiency and work process development initiatives, to short term “bottom up” service and technology development initiatives like “cutting edge”. colleagues all over the world contribute

with good project ideas, and projects are carried out in teams consisting of subject matter experts assembled from our global organisation. CUttiNg eDge – serViCe aND teCHNOlOgy DeVelOPMeNt cutting edge projects are typically carried out within one year. the scope should fulfill expressed customer needs. Strategic fit is ensured through an annual development plan that links dnv strategy to focus areas for development. technology directors in our geo divisions, as well as the global Service directors, are involved in assessment and selection of the best ideas. A wide range of services is developed in close cooperation with customers and other external stakeholders, and run as Joint industry Projects focusing on key industry challenges. Maritime&class, Oil&gas Frontiers and cleaner energy were our main portfolios in 2011. seVeN fOCUs areas WitHiN teCHNOlOgy leaDersHiP Seven core technical disciplines have been identified as focus for development of state-of-the-art competence

ex Pro ec je ut ct io im n of ple pr me oj ec nta t r tio es ul n ts

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within our “technology Leadership” initiative. Project ideas originate from global networks of subject matter experts within dnv, working closely with our clients within the following fields: ■ ■ ■ ■

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environment Hydrodynamics and advanced simulations Structural integrity including fatigue Materials and welding technology, including nde and fracture mechanics Risk and reliability, including human factors integrated systems and software integrated machinery systems

we welcome your feedback, whether it is to get to know the projects more, or suggestions for working together to solve challenges and lead the way for the industry. For further information, please contact ■ Afzal Hussain (Head of PMo) ■ evelin garnaas (cutting edge) ■ Francisco chavez (technology Leadership) ■ christina Høysæter (Monitoring)

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Nature does nothing without purpose. Aristotle, Greek philosopher, 384–322 B.C.

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THIS IS DNV DNV is a global provider of services for managing risk, helping customers to safely and responsibly improve their business performance. Our core competence is to identify, assess and advise on risk management. DNV is an independent foundation with presence in more than 100 countries.

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