Climate Change and Civilization : Responding to the Challenge

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UNDERSTANDING CLIMATE CHANGE, PROMOTING THE NATION’S REPUTATION Under the leadership of President Yudhoyono, Indonesia has had many achievements nationally and internationally as well. Indonesia played a crucial role in international climate negotiations when it hosted the UNFCCC COP13 in Bali, which succeeded in passing the Bali Road Map. This road map is not just a guideline for international agreements, it also accomodates the local wisdom of the archipelago about the balance between human relations with the divine and the natural surroundings. Since COP 13, Indonesia has been at te forefront of nations to address climate change. After the conference President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono personally attended to the establishment of the National Council for Climate Change (NCCC) to strengthen Indonesia’s position at international climate change negotiation forums, and to coordinate actions at the national level in anticipating the impacts of climate change.

This book was published to coincide with NCCC’s fifth anniversary since its establishment in 2008. It presents a summary of NCCC’s endeavors in studying and identifying the various climate change phenomena. The main objective is to enhance the efforts in anticipation of the impacts of climate change that will inevitably affect the nation’s life. This book also explains why this council, led directly by the President, plays an important role in promoting the nation’s reputation at internatinoal negotiations.


Climate Change and Civilization : Responding to the Challenge


Climate Change and Civilization :

Responding to the Challenge

5 years of NCCC 2008 - 2013



NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (NCCC) Published for the 5th Anniversary of the Indonesian National Council on Climate Change (NCCC) 4 July 2013

CLIMATE CHANGE: THE CHALLENGE TO THE INDONESIAN CIVILIZATION FIVE YEARS of the NCCC 2008 - 2013 © 2013 copyright reserved by NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (NCCC) ISBN : 979-602-98983-5-4 Published as a climate change publication for the public on the occasion of the fifth anniversary of the NCCC First edition : July 2013


: Rachmat Witoelar, Agus Purnomo : Amanda Katili Niode, Murni Titi Resdiana, Agus Tagor : Agus Soetomo, Mariza Hamid : Fachruddin M. Mangunjaya : Frans Toruan, Jannata Giwangkara : Yani Saloh : M. Ridwan Soleh : Adeca Studio, Gita Fara

CONTRIBUTORS (in alphabetical order): Agus Supangat ● Amanda Katili Niode ● Ari Muhammad ● Dicky Edwin Hindarto ● Doddy S. Sukadri ● Farhan Helmy ● Muhammad Farid ● Murni Titi Resdiana ● Moekti H. Soejachmoen ● Nur R. Fajar ● Suzanty Sitorus ● Widiatmini Sih Winanti ● Yani Saloh RESOURCE PERSONS : Balthasar Kambuaya (Ministry of Environment), Satya Widya Yudha (National Parliament), Rachmat Witoelar (NCCC), Agus Purnomo (NCCC), Endah Murniningtyas (Bappenas), Yetti Rusli (Ministry of Forestry), Eddy Pratomo (Ministry of Foreign Affairs), Abetnego Tarigan (Walhi), Jatna Supriatna (University of Indonesia), Komaruddin Hidayat (Cultural Figure), Ismid Hadad (Kehati Foundation), Aristides Katoppo (Press)

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (NCCC) Gedung I Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT), 15 - 16th Floor Jl. MH. Thamrin No. 8 Jakarta 10340 Telephone : +(6221) 3511400 Facsimile : +(6221) 3511403 E-mail : Website : Contact : Communication, Information, and Education Division Copyright protected by law. Citations are welcome.

FOREWORD OF THE EDITORIAL TEAM Without God's blessing this book would not have been published. For us at the NCCC, the Indonesian National Council for Climate Change, this book has a special significance. It captures the history and endeavors of NCCC since it was established by President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono five years ago, on 4 July 2008. However, it is not the ceremonial meaning that we aim for, not glimmering pride that we wish to express, despite the fact that the NCCC is the only Indonesian institution that focuses on climate change, both domestically and internationally. Quite the contrary, we hope that this book can enrich the discourse and provide information and inspiration to promote awareness about climate change, its causes and impacts. Indeed, this book is our gift to the public at large, no matter their background. This book summarizes the NCCC's five-year journey from 2008 to 2013. Its endeavors since inception are presented in a language aimed at reaching a diverse audience. The NCCC's coordinating function and its widely acclaimed role in international negotiations is also presented in a balanced manner. Preparing this book involved simple research, but the main substance is actually the work, writings, and thoughts of the NCCC team itself, including the Secretariat, the various divisions, as well as working groups of the council. A series of interviews with accomplished figures was also conducted to enrich this book by capturing the variety of critical views out there. These interviews were also conducted to gain constructive input for our betterment in the future. We, therefore, thank the many contributors and resource persons involved in the preparation of this book. Their dedication and experience has truly enriched it. To those whom we cannot name within the spatial constraints of this book, we sincerely extend our gratitude as well. However we realise there is more work to come and so we welcome productive and constructive critism. Through this book, we hope that the public can get to know and love the NCCC more, as well as gain useful information about climate change. It is now well understood that the harmful impacts of climate change are real and actual; they are also multidimensional, and present in all aspects of life. Ignoring climate change amounts to treacherous neglect of humanity’s task to look after the living. For that reason, this book aims to promote and strengthen that awareness. Jakarta, July 4th, 2013



i ii iii vii ix xi xiii

CHAPTER I. COP 13 BALI: NCCC HISTORICAL MILESTONE 1. It started at the Earth Summit ● The Long Journey to Save the Earth 2. From Bali for the Earth ● Bali Action Plan 3. Behind the Idea of Establishing NCCC ● Seventeen Ministries and One Agency Supporting NCCC ● Developing Climate Change Policies and Institutions

1 4 6 8 13 14 17 18

CHAPTER II. REGARDING CLIMATE CHANGE 1. The Increasingly Erratic Seasons ● Fishermen go out to the sea less often 2. Humans and Greenhouse Gases ● Where Greenhouse Gases Came From 3. Is Climate Change Real? ● Seasons that Confuse Farmers ● Climate Change is Man-made 4. Climate Change in the Seas of the Archipelago

19 22 25 26 28 34 38 39 40

CHAPTER III. FIVE YEARS OF NCCC (2008 – 2013) 1. LET’S ADAPT ● Five Years of Adaptation Activities 2. FOCUSING ON MITIGATION ● Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) ● Abatement Cost Curve ● Climate Change Mitigation Dimensions 3. MOBILIZING SUPPORT THROUGH BUILDING AWARENESS AND EDUCATION ● Public Response to Climate Change ● Awareness and Education Activities 4. LULUCF, from Bali to Doha ● LULUCF in Indonesia 5. TECHNOLOGICAL TRANSFER TO ADDRESS THE CHALLENGE OF CLIMATE CHANGE ● Five Years of Technology Transfer

43 46 48 50 54 55 56 58 62 64 66 68 70 73


6. FUNDING FOR MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION ● From Mechanisms to Financing 7. THE NCCC AND CARBON TRADING ● What is Carbon Trading? ● Prospects and Challenges of Carbon Trading under Kyoto Protocol Chapter II 8. CLIMATE CHANGE NEGOTIATIONS ● How NCCC Prepare for International Negotiations? ● Presidential Special Envoy for Climate Change and Executive Chair of the NCCC 9. CAPACITY BUILDING COORDINATION ● The Capacity Building Homework

76 78 84 88 88 90 94 96 98 100

CHAPTER IV. CHALLENGES AND HOPES ● Charting the History of Global Diplomacy of Climate Change ● Coordination of Function and Synergy ● Communicator and Campaigner on Climate Change ● NCCC in the Eyes of the Foreign Partners ● Coordinator of International Negotiations ● Unique Role of NCCC ● International Cooperation ● Indonesia Climate Change Center ● NCCC - JICA Cooperation ● NCCC - UNITAR Partnership ● Enchancing External and Internal Coordination ● Increasing the Budget ● Strengthening The Legal Basis

101 104 106 108 108 110 112 112 114 115 116 116 117 118




125 128 130 132




In the name of God, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful, May Peace, Mercy and Blessing of Allah be Upon You, At the end of 2007, Indonesia had the honors to serve as Host and President of the thirteenth UN Conference on Climate Change, (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change/UNFCCC–COP 13) held in Bali. I saw that Indonesia had the opportunity to play a role not just as the President of COP-13, but as a country that can help promote a global consensus for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Through laborious negotiations, and after being extended for another day and night, finally the UNFCCC COP 13 summit adopted Bali Road Map, a road map to achieving global consensus in international climate change negotiations, by managing four main components, namely, adaptation, mitigation, technology transfer and financing. This historical milestone must be guarded. I believe that the Bali Road Map, including the shared vision to reduce GHG emissions that was agreed in Bali, must be supported by all societies on earth through a long-term transformation of economic development. As a form of Indonesia’s commitment in applying the Bali Road Map, in July of 2008, I established a climate change council tasked with securing the agreements of UNFCCC COP 13 in Bali and supporting a transformation of governance, particularly in translating the four components of the Bali Road Map domestically. I have elected to lead the National Council for Climate Change (NCCC) personally with the hope to accelerate the mainstreaming and institutionalizing the issue of climate change. I entrusted the day-to-day management of the NCCC to Mr. Rachmat Witoelar who has been fully involved in the international climate change negotiations. I see that in the five years since the NCCC was established, development in Indonesia has undergone a transformation toward a climate and environmentally sound direction. This shows the world that: Climate change will not bring us down! After adopting Bali Road Map as UNFCCC COP 13 decision in Bali, twenty one formal decisions and official documents of UNFCCC have referred to the Bali Road Map. At home, the Bali Road Map serves as a reference for equitable sustainable development, to fulfill the current needs of the Indonesian people without undermining the opportunities of future generations to attain prosperity and welfare. Indonesia has also given a real contribution in the global efforts to reduce GHG emissions. When international climate change negotiations faced a dead end in 2009, I announced Indonesia’s courageous step, the progressive policy to reduce emissions by 26 percent in2020 and by up to 41 percent with international support. This step encouraged other developing and industrialized countries to announce their own commitment to reduce emissions.



Domestically, I have promoted equitable sustainable development as a continuous learning process. I am proud that today we have expanded our development strategy, not only pro-growth, pro-poor, and pro-jobs, but also pro-environment. With this change, we dared to change the status quo, placing a concern for the environment as a central issue in national development. The next challenge will be implementing all the plans that have been made, as climate change is a long-term issue. I believe that we cannot achieve equitable sustainable development without addressing climate change. To that end, we need a comprehensive and systemic shift in the paradigm of development, not only through policy change, but also with the support of the entire society. I welcome the publication of this book, Climate Change and the Nation’s Civilizational Challenge: 5 Years of the National Council of Climate Change (NCCC) 2008-2013, which serves as a note of achievement of the many components of Indonesian society in translating the challenge of global climate change into short-term and long-term national development to support the national interests of Indonesia. This book discusses the knowledge of climate change, transforming governance in climate change sector, as well as views on facing the nation’s civilizational challenge in the future. A lot has happened in the establishment and development of the NCCC. Behind all the lessons learned, I believe that the NCCC needs to elevate itself in the future. This endeavor will be noted as an historical milestone towards a brighter Indonesia in the future. I wish that this book can serve as reference for stakeholders to better appreciate the various achievements of Indonesia both domestically as well as at international climate change negotiations. All of this is part of the nation’s learning in facing the challenge of climate change. This book is hoped to bring inspiration for a commitment to transformation and real change. Thank you, May Peace, Mercy and Blessing of Allah be With You,

Jakarta, September 2013 PRESIDENT of the REPUBLIC of INDONESIA,




THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (NCCC) was officially established pursuant to Presidential Regulation No. 46/2008 in early July 2008. The NCCC’s establishment was timely to address the increasingly complex challenge of controlling and overcoming climate change that demands a stronger national coordination and synergy in order to prevent a disconnect between the international process and the implementation at the national level. Dissemination of information and building awareness among the public and other stakeholders is one of NCCC’s everyday concerns. To that end, the NCCC has developed many activities, including exhibitions and seminars, and produced communication materials such as short films on climate change. The NCCC’s engagement with various educational institutions is also crucial in promoting awareness. Among the chief tasks of the NCCC is to support and strengthen Indonesia’s position in international climate change negotiations. Before sending Indonesian representatives to pertinent international negotiations, the NCCC prepares the Indonesian position and coordinates with NCCC-member Ministries and Institutions, and other organizations, including NGOs, the private sector and universities, all of whom have contributed valuable support and active participation. Since the NCCC’s founding, Indonesia has become increasingly active in the international negotiations arena and has also contributed to the many important decisions that have been made since. This has been Indonesia’s strong point, a nation who never relented in its climate change endeavors since serving as Host and President of COP-13/CMP-3 in Bali at the end of 2007. The NCCC resolves to continue this effort and play an active role in addressing the growing challenge of climate change, both in international negotiations, as well as in the national and local implementation of real action. The NCCC’s track record in the last five years attests to the importance of having an institution specifically dedicated to climate change and coordinating and harmonizing the plurality of domestic interests with the processes at the international level. Internationally, more countries have now established ministries, agencies or authorities specifically dedicated to addressing climate change that report directly to the respective heads of governments. This is important considering the growing scope of climate change issues, including its causes and the resultant problems and threats. National legislation aimed at controlling climate change is increasingly becoming a necessity in order to ensure the sustainablity of domestic efforts that, in turn, will determine the sustainability of the global effort. Thus, the NCCC will continue to play a crucial role in addressing the ever-complex challenge of climate change, at home and abroad. Jakarta, 4 July 2013



CLIMATE CHANGE AND PASSING ON A SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT TO FUTURE GENERATIONS AS PART OF THE GLOBAL COMMUNITY, Indonesia, along with other nations, wants to save this planet for our children and future generations. It is for that reason that Indonesia has set a target for reducing its CO2 emissions by 26 percent by 2020. This target represents Indonesia’s endeavor and responsibility to contribute to the global effort to address climate change, and ultimately to save this planet: the only one that we have. This responsibility and commitment to leave a better environment for future generations was affirmed with good will and solemn awareness. In a meeting with the Indonesian community in Berlin after attending the 15th Conference of Parties (COP) in Copenhagen in 2009, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono stated, “if global warming continues and the temperature rises by more than 2°C, one can imagine sea levels may rise by more than one and a half meters after 2050. We will not be able to ensure the future of our children and grandchildren. How many thousands of islands will disappear from Indonesia’s map?” Highly aware of this responsibility for the future of the nation, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono decided to establish the National Council for Climate Change (NCCC) on July 4th, 2008, which he personally heads. This decision demonstrates the strong political will of the government to show that it is aligning itself with global good, with all humanity, and not only to advance its own national interest. This principle is informed by a far-sighted vision, because the problem of climate change is a long-term challenge. This challenge demands skill and patience, especially when having to confront the variety of arguments put forth by other nations at international forums for negotiation. As we realize, the root of the problem of climate change really lies in humans. “Climate change is a man-made problem. It is anthropogenic. So it is humans that must take the responsibility to mitigate it,” said Rachmat Witoelar, the Executive Chair of the National Council on Climate Change (NCCC) on various occasions. Indeed, he has been persistent in reminding people of the importance of mitigating climate change as a collective responsibility of humanity to the environment. For that reason, Balthasar Kambuaya, the Minister of Environment, thinks that, “The problem of climate change needs to be understood more deeply by all layers of society, while a common action is needed to address it.” Mainstreaming the climate change issue is a must, because climate change has become the problem for all nations in the world, and in that regard, the NCCC is the institution dedicated to the issue of climate change. To that end, Balthasar Kambuaya sees that the NCCC is crucial in communicating national interests at fast-moving international climate change negotiations. Domestically, the NCCC plays an important and strategic role in mainstreaming climate change issues in Indonesia. “Compared to before 2007, ‘climate change’ today is heard more often and people are more familiar with the term. People are even familiar with the words, ‘we must reduce emisisons’,” says Agus Purnomo, the Head of NCCC Secretariat. In his opinion, the paradigm shift and an increase in understanding of climate change is already taking place.


Passing on a better environment for future generations is not only a social responsibility, but also a religious obligation, says Komaruddin Hidayat, the Rector of Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University. He explains the importance of preserving the harmony between climate and human existence. “This nature is a cosmos,” he says. “The opposite is chaos. Nature is a cosmos, meaning it is beautiful and orderly. If it turns into chaos, according to religious teachings, it is a result of human mistakes.” Humans must maintain harmony with nature so that life will be orderly. The many natural disasters that have taken place, in Komaruddin Hidayat’s view, are an indication that we have failed to be grateful and to love what we have received from nature. For example, in the forests that we are passing on to our offspring, the damage is accumulating. We are not thinking long-term. Where is our responsibility? He calls on citizens to be future-oriented, visonary, for the sake of the children and grandchildren. Whose children and grandchildren? “The children and grandchildren of the nation!” he asserts. A member of Commission VII of the National Parliament, Satya Widya Yudha, sees the commitment of Indonesia to the issue climate change positively. However, this commitment must be reflected accordingly in the budgetary policy as manifested in the National Budget. It is not enough to see such policy only at the Ministry of Environment; it must be evident in all elements that pertain to the environment. “Every department must have a budget for the environment. It is there that it will be evident whether Indonesia truly cares or not,” he says. The current budget at the Ministry of Environment and NCCC is very small, according to Satya Widya Yudha. “So the Government’s intention to advance Indonesia to apply green economy, for instance, is still far off.” A concrete budgetary commitment will enable the realization of climate change policies pertaining to, for instance, reducing GHG emissions. “Climate change is indeed interesting to hear and talk about, but when it comes to the budget, it is difficult to realize,” chides Satya. If only all ministries and institutions felt a sense of ownership and were concerned about the challenge of climate change, then a proper budget would become a matter of concern. If that goes well, he says, the litmus test will be with the President as the Head of the NCCC. All the President needs to do is to check how much of the budget has been spent by ministries to implement climate change programs. The coordinating role of the NCCC is also scrutinized by the Head of the Center for Climate Change Studies at the University of Indonesia, Jatna Supriatna. He sees that the success of the NCCC as a coordinating body can be measured by the success of the mainstreaming of the climate change issue among government ministries and institutions. The problem, says Jatna Supriatna, is that, “coordination is difficult to measure. Where is the success? The success is at the ministries or institutions coordinated by the NCCC. If the ministry is successful, then the coordination is successful, which means that the function and role of the NCCC as coordinator is also successful.” For that reason, Abetnego Tarigan, the Executive Director of Walhi (Indonesian Friends of the Earth), agrees on the need to consolidate all policies that address climate change. To do this, Indonesia, as a state that plays an important role in international climate change negotitations, must be encouraged to have a Law on Climate Change. “Climate Change Law will be a step forward because there is a political process within it (executive and legislative). Not like it is today, everything is on the executive, which means that when there is a new president, along with new ministers, inevitably this policy will change as well.” His concern has a basis. It is necessary, therefore, to have a certainty of vision, mission, budgetary strategy, and institutional continuity, especially to address the challenges of climate change. This book illustrates the NCCC dynamics that has been actively carrying out its mandate for five years since 2008. In a human life, five years is considered a “golden age”: an important formative age. Although still a “toddler”, the NCCC is already required to share wisely and have the courage to take the “right” position amidst the clamor of development, national dynamics, and the globalization current. This book deliberately aims to affirm the opinion that the challenge of climate change is both our current challenge and our responsibility for a better future. No matter what, passing on a good climate and a better environment to future generations is a precondition for prosperity and supports the civilizational vision as a nation. Lastly, we hope that you enjoy the book.






Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992 attended by 103 heads of states. All world leaders agreed that climate change requires urgent action

Photo: Š UN Photo/Michos Tzovaras 2




IT STARTED AT THE EARTH SUMMIT Indonesia ratified the UNFCCC on 23 August 1994, and as a member of the United Nations, Indonesia plays an active role in the global effort, strongly linked to the environmental challenges at home.

Source: NCCC Archive

In addition to that, very importantly, the Rio summit also produced three legally binding documents, namely: ● ●

Global concern: melting of polar ice in the Arctic Ocean

TWENTY YEARS ago a collective awareness about the unfolding environmental crisis and climate change brought world leaders together to discuss about planet Earth. The meeting addressed the environment and development. It was the United Nations Conference on Environment Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, in June 1992 known as the Earth Summit. This gathering, attended by 103 heads of state produced the Rio Declaration, a legally non-binding document that included 27 principles, including principles on forestry, and Agenda 21 regarding sustainable development at the turn of the 21st century.



The Convention on Biological Diversity(CBD) The United Nations Convention on Combating Desertification (UNCCD), and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, better known as UNFCCC.

Among these conventions, UNFCCC became the Convention that has held the most meetings due to the importance and urgency of the issue it addresses. The purpose of this convention is very crucial, to stabilize the Earth’s climate, which is not an easy target, but a very complex and difficult one necessitating intensive negotiations to reach agreements. The meeting of representatives of state parties to the convention is conducted annually. To date, the Conference of Parties (COP) has been held 18 times, with the latest, COP18, in Doha, Qatar, in 2012. This year, COP19 will be held in Warsaw, Poland (See: The Long Journey to Save the Earth). Indonesia ratified the UNFCCC on 23 August 1994,

Trustful gazes. The mood at COP13 Bali.From left to right: Secretary-General of the United Nations, Ban Ki-Moon, Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, dan COP13 President, Rachmat Witoelar. Source: NCCC Archive

and as a member of the United Nations, plays an active role in the global effort, which is strongly linked to the environmental challenges at home. Since the inaugural UNFCCC COP 1 in Berlin, Indonesia has been actively involved in climate negotiations. These activities were initially coordinated by the Ministry of Environment. As the climate change challenge is becoming increasingly complex, the Indonesian government sees that climate change is no longer merely an evironmental challenge, but a challenge for Indonesian development. That is why in addition to engaging in various activities at home to preserve the environment, Indonesia is also proactive in its leadership to find global solutions to climate change. The apex of Indonesia’s involvement was clearly evident at COP13/CMP3 in Bali, December 2007. Indonesia was not only a warm host, but was able to place itself in a position of leadership that enabled the participants of COP13 to overcome the deadlock in negotiations and produce international agreements. The results of the Bali meeting became an important basis

for subsequent climate negotiations, including COP14/ CMP4 in Poznan, Polandia, in 2008 and the negotiations in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2009 (COP15/CMP5). The Thirteenth Conference of the Parties (COP) also functioned as the Third Meeting of the Parties (CMP) that discussed the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. But the most important outcome was the document called the Bali Road Map and the Bali Action Plan. The Bali Road Map bridges subsequent negotiation processes and channels in order to achieve further international consensus. The Bali Road Map was also intended as a post-2012 international agreement, marking the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The Bali Action Plan summarizes the agreements of the Parties about the substance and direction of future climate change negotiations decided at COP 13 in Bali. No less than 15 documents were included in the Bali Action Plan under four general categories: adaptation,mitigation, technology for adaptation and mitigation,and financing for adaptation and mitigation.





First International Climate Conference.


Goverment requested to monitor

established the

climate change that had the potential


to impact human walfare

Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)



COP 13/ CMP 3, Bali, Indonesia. Resulted in Bali Road Map including Bali Action Plan (BAP)

COP 19/CMP 9, Warsaw, Poland, resulted in an Agreement on Advancing the Durban Platform, the Green Climate Fund and Long-Term Finance, the Warsaw Framework for REDD Plus and the


Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage

COP 12/ CMP 2, Nairobi, Kenya.

2005 2008 COP 14/ CMP 4, Poznan, Poland, The National Council on Climate Change (NCCC) established as followup COP 13/CMP 3

2012 COP 18/CMP 8, Doha, Qatar. Resulted in Doha Gateway and Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol to the United nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

COP 11, Montreal, Canada. Kyoto Protocol came into force on 16th February 2005, thus implemented CMP 1 (Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol)



COP 15/ CMP 5, Copenhagen, Denmark. Resulted in Copenhagen Accord.

COP 10, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

2003 COP 9, Milan, Italia.

2010 COP 16/ CMP 6, Cancun,

2011 COP 17/CMP 7, Durban, South Africa. Resulted in the Durban Platform





Resulted in the Cancun

COP 8, New Delhi, India.


Produced the New Delhi Declaration



The result of the first study (First

Representatives from 160 countries negotiated

Assessment Report, FAR) IPCC

commitment on target emissions, technology transfer and


finance in developing countries.



The first conference of the parties

UNFCCC comes into force on the

(COP 1)in Berlin, adopting the Berlin

21st of March 1994 As of 2013

Mandate to agree on a protocol for

there are 195 sisnatery nations

1992 UNFCCC open for signatories at the Rio Earth Summit

the implementation of UNFCCC

1995 2nd IPCC report published


emphasizing the importance of

COP 2, Geneve, Swiss.

strong policy and actions

1997 COP 3, Kyoto, Japan. Adopted the Kyoto Protocol

2001 COP 6 part II (or COP 6 bis), Bonn, Germany

1998 COP 4, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Adopted Buenos Aires Plan of



COP 7, Marrakesh, Marocco. Finalized and adopted Marrakesh Accords

1999 COP 5, Bonn, Germany.

2000 COP 6, Den Haag, Holland. Failed to reach an agreement under the Buenos Aires Plan of Action.




Source: NCCC Archive

Applause resonated around the meeting hall of COP13/CMP3 at the Westin Hotel Bali. The mood was one of exuberance and elation among the delegates who had just experienced a marathon of tough and complex negotiations for almost two weeks.

Plenary Hall UNFCCC COP 13 Bali

THIS GRAND CLIMATE CONFERENCE, attended and witnessed by 15 thousand participants from 190 countries, was a meaningful achievement in terms of Indonesia’s concern about climate change. A strike of the gavel brought the conference to an end and marked the launch of the renowned Bali Roadmap and Bali Action Plan. Rachmat Witoelar, the President of COP 13/CMP 3, began his closing speech by exclaiming, “We have a Roadmap! I am delighted to say the world has been waiting for this Bali Road Map!", Rachmat then expressed



his gratitude to the participants for making these negotiations a success. He also extended his appreciation for the great efforts made by the delegates, especially the Indonesia Delegation. He also expressed his appreciation for all the parties who were intensively involved, especially the Indonesian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Dr. Nur Hassan Wirayuda, for the special attention given by the UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-Moon, and President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono who was fully engaged throughout the conference until the very end. Exhaustion was clearly evident among the hosts, especially the members of the Indonesian Delegation. Wrinkles on foreheads became more pronounced; fatigued and pale faces due to insomnia could be seen. However, the journey of organizing Bali COP13/CMP3, brought its own special satisfaction and left lasting memories.

Coverage by Nusa Bali daily paper regarding the success of COP13. The President congratulated UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon, witnessed by Rachmat Witoelar, Agus Purnomo, and Amanda Katili. Photo: NCCC Archive

After that lively meeting, Rachmat Witoelar and Agus Purnomo went up to the fifth floor of the Westin Hotel to inform the President. The report was conveyed with delight and it was well received by the President who then gave a set of instructions and guidance. To close the conversation, the President said important words that seeded the establishment of NCCC, “I will establish a commission or a council on climate change to watch over the results of this conference.” NCCC was soon established on July 4th, 2008. The decision of President Yudhoyono to establish and personally lead NCCC is evidence of his deep and serious concern about climate change.

The day-to-day operations of NCCC are led by an Executive Chair, Rachmat Witoelar, who was then the Minister of Environment. One of NCCC’s unique features is that, in Presidential Regulation No. 46/2008 establishing NCCC, it was stipulated that the Minister of Environment also sits as a member, along with other member ministers. This can be paralleled with the portfolio of other countries who have established a dedicated climate change institution. Australia, for instance, has a special Minister for Climate Change in addition to the Minister of Environment. Similarly, Denmark’s Minister of Environment is also the Minister of Climate Change and Energy.



its role to bridge, coordinate and assist the various sectors in strengthening their climate change capacities, as well as the national coordinator in preparing for international negotiations on climate change. In practice, NCCC has also been playing the role as UNFCCC Focal Point for Climate Change since 2008, as climate change is a multi-sectoral issue that involves many ministries and institutions, such as the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Forestry, Ministry of Foregn Affairs, and others. In the carbon market, NCCC acts as an administrator whose task is to support, facilitate and regulate the various initiatives, including in the postSecond Kyoto Protocol regime, with the prediction of

Happy and elated, COP13 Bali was a success. Rachmat Witoelar congratulated by Emil Salim Source: NCCC Archive

a. Formulating a national policy, strategy, program and activities to control climate change; b. Coordinate the activities to control climate change including adaptation, mitigation, transfer of technology and funding activities; c. Formulate policies for regulating the carbon trading mechanisms and procedures; d. Monitor and evaluate the implementation of policies for controlling climate change; e. Strengthen Indonesia’s position to encourage developed countries to take more responsibility for controlling climate change. With these powers and mandate, NCCC has continued to play an important role since its establishment in 2008. The President’s intention to continue overseeing the results of negotiations since COP13 in Bali in 2007, has encouraged Indonesia, through NCCC, to continue playing an active role to address the global challenges of climate change. NCCC’s importance will continue to grow with each success in



Source: NCCC Archive

Pursuant to the mandate under Presidential Regulation No. 46/2008, the main tasks of NCCC include:

Indonesia’s signature warmth and hospitality. President Yudhoyono served water to UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon at COP13 meeting in Bali

weakening carbon markets. Amidst such market weakness, NCCC made a number of problem solving initiatives, including breakthroughs in bilateral cooperation (See Prospects and Challenges of Carbon Trading under Kyoto Protocol Chapter II).

of the thirteen days of the conference, the Indonesia President was in Bali for ten. He moved the presidential office to the Island of the Gods with almost all of his Cabinet’s support


Source: NCCC Archive

A full awareness about the need to reduce GHG emissions requires all relevant sectors, ministries and other government agencies, to be involved. Such a comprehensive involvement must also be extended to Indonesian representation at climate change negotiation forums. Indonesia’s leadership in the environmental sector has been taken seriously in the dialogues and at international forums. This is evident in the appointment of Rachmat Witolear, then the Indonesian Minister of Environment, as the President of the Governing Council of the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) in Nairobi. This position was also once held by Professor Emil Salim, another former Minister of Environment of

Indonesia, who held the Presidency of the Governing Council (GC) of UNEP in addition to being a member of the World Commission on Environment (1985-1987). The election of Indonesia as the President of GC-UNEP provided several advantages, including the facility for Indonesia to obtain a range of international support in the form of funding, human resource development, as well as technologies to preserve the environment, and the enabling of collaborations and coordination that were very much needed as the Kyoto Protocol was taking effect. The prominence of the Indonesian leadership in the international environmental sector resulted in it being asked to host COP13 in Bali. This important climate conference, attended by more than 15,000 participants and observers from various countries, brought Indonesia to the forefront of global climate negotiations. For Indonesia, accepting the responsibility as host was not an easy decision. The success of organizing this Climate Summit would enhance the good name of Indonesia if it were to succeed, however, the opposite would happen if it were to fail. As a result, the consideration to take on the responsibility of hosting this important event entailed a lengthy domestic process.

Indonesia had the opportunity to become a climate pioneer in its turn to host the conference, and increase its reputation “I will establish a commission or a council on climate change to watch over the results of this conference.”



President Yudhoyono considered the role of Indonesia as the vanguard for climate change mitigation

“So UNFCCC COP13 also acted as a remedy for the Indonesian tourism industry,” said Agus Purnomo. So important was the event that the President followed the proceedings closely and established his office in Bali for the duration of the conference. The President was present in Bali for ten out of the thirteen days. He moved his office to Bali and almost all relevant ministers in his cabinet provided support and were present on the island. COP13 produced several agreements, including the Bali Action Plan. This was very important to guide subsequent climate negotiations that always referred to the points stipulated in the Bali Action Plan. Seeing this fact, President Yudhoyono considered the important role of Indonesia as leader to control climate change

Source: NCCC Archive

As it pertains to Indonesia’s image in the world, the President of Indonesia, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, was now involved. Agus Purnomo, who is currently the Presidential Special Staff on Climate Change, was the head of the COP13 organizing committee and he explained the strategic significance of the Climate Summit in Bali. Firstly, it was Indonesia’s opportunity to take a leadership role and prove its seriousness with its active involvement in the efforts to save the environment. Secondly, because it was held in Bali, the summit was expected to help promote tourism and restore the image of Bali, the Island of Gods, especially in the aftermath of acts of terror on the island several years earlier. As host of COP13, Bali became a top story on world news channels that covered the conference hour by hour.

Amidst COP13 Bali, the Presidentand First Lady Ani Yudhoyono welcomed the Bicycle for Earth Goes to Bali group.They rode their bikes for 21 days, from 11 November to 27 December 2011, covering a distance of 1,447 km from Jakarta to Bali, in order to inform the public about COP13



BALI ACTION PLAN The Bali Action Plan is an important historical milestone in the climate change negotiation process. Some of the results of these negotiations include: 1. A SHARED VISION FOR LONG-TERM COOPERATIVE ACTION This plan presents a shared vision for the long-term global goal of the Convention to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This goal must consider and take into account the principle of Common But Differentiated Responsibilities, as well Respective Capabilities of each country. 2. FOUR IMPORTANT BUILDING BLOCKS IN THE BALI ACTION PLAN The Bali Action Plan laid down important building blocks, namely: adaptation, mitigation, transfer of technology and finance, including a shared vision in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions.

Development and Transfer of Technology: The nations will consider how to facilitate the transfer of clean and renewable energy technologies from industrialized to developing countries, inluding, inter alia, removal of obstacles to, and provision of financial and other incentives for, scaling up the development and transfer of technology to developing country Parties in order to promote access to affordable environmentally sound technologies . Finance: Financial assistance is crucial in the efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and help developing countries adapt to and minimize impacts of climate change.

Source: NCCC Archive

Adaptation: Involving international cooperation in testing and supporting the various adaptation efforts, considering the urgent needs of developing nations especially for poor or Least Developed Countries (LDC) and Small Island Developing States (SIDS), as well as African countries.

Mitigation: The parties have agreed to consider the following elements: â—? commitment to appropriate mitigation action, including calculating GHG emission limits and actions aimed at reducing emissions that must be taken by all industrialized countries; and â—? mitigation actions by developing countries supported and enabled by technology, financial resources and capacity building.




Seeing the success of COP13 and Indonesia’s leadership in climate change negotiations, thequestion arises: “Can Indonesia also lead this climate change issue at the international level?”

Bali COP13 affirmed Indonesia’s position in international climate negotiations

It was this strategic consideration that led President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono to create a special institution to address climate change. Before the exhaustion faded, after successfully hosting COP13, the President, as told by Agus Purnomo, gave the directive: “Make a climate change institution that will be led personally by the President.” This institution is certainly unique, firstly, because it, “takes care of the climate”, and secondly, because it is led directly by the President. Discussions ensued to realize it.



A series of administrative and legal processes followed. Contacts between COP13 figures, the Ministry of Environment and State Secretariat continued intensively. President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono even personally reviewed and edited the draft Presidential Regulation, before finally signing it. The result was Presidential Regulation 46/2008 regarding the establishment of the NCCC. This Council is headed by the President of Republic of Indonesia with two Deputies, the Coordinating Minister of People’s Welfare and the Coordinating Minister of Economics. In addition to that, the NCCC was also supported by a membership of 17 relevant ministers and one head of a government agency.

Source: NCCC Archive

President SBY leads the NCCC meeting at the palace, 30 September 2011

Strategically, there are at least two reasons why the President saw that it was important to establish the NCCC. Firstly, the NCCC would be an opportunity for Indonesia to play a role at the international level. This step was appropriate, considering Indonesia’s strong track record in climate change leadership at the international level, including its handling of REDD and other climate issues. This trust has continued as

evidenced in 2013 when President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono was again entrusted to hold the joint chairmanship of the UN high level panel for Millenium Development Goals (MDGs). This is a collective panel and here President Yudhoyono was among an important lineup at the MDG forum along with the President of Liberia, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, David Cameron.

The Council is chaired by the President of Indonesia, with the Coordinating Minister for People’s welfare and the Coordinating Minister for the Economy as Vice Chairs. The Council is streng thened by its membership of 17 Ministers and one Agency Head.



The establishment of the NCCC is a reflection of the serious intent of the Indonesian government to address climate change

President Yudhoyono’s resolve that Indonesia must lead in climate change endeavors has been the right strategic decision, as it has strengthened Indonesia’s leadership role in the arena of climate change at international level. Secondly, since 2008, the NCCC has become the catalyst involving other sectors in climate change negotiation efforts. The establishment of the NCCC is a

strong illustration of the government’s intention to address climate change, both at the national and global levels. Considering the complexity of the climate challenge that must involve many different sectors, a strong team is needed to successfully execute its mandate as the agency in charge of the climate change issue nationally, and the coordinator of other sectors and endeavors in this regard.

Indonesia has had a strong track record in climate change leadership at the world level. President Yudhoyono at COP15 in Copenhagen. Source: NCCC Archive



Seventeen Ministries and One Agency Strengthen NCCC The complexities and challenges of climate change required the NCCC to have a cross-sectoral coordination mandate. Presidential Regulation 46/2008 provides for the NCCC Structure. It is headed by the President of the Republic of Indonesia, with the Coordinating Minister of People’s Welfare as the First Vice Chair as and the Coordinating Minister of Economics as the Second Vice Chair. Membership of the NCCC include 17 ministers and the head of one agency, as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

State Secretary Minister Cabinet Secretary Minister Minister of Environment Minister of Finance Minister of Home Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources Minister of Forestry Minister of Agriculture Minister of Industries Minister of Public Works State Minister of National Development Planning/Head of BAPPENAS Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Minister of Trade Minister of Research and Technology Minister of Transportation Minister of Health Head of the Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysics Agency (BMKG)

In undertaking its task, the NCCC is headed by the Executive Chair who is also a member, Professor (Hon.) Ir. Rachmat Witoelar. Presidential Regulation 46/2008 provides for six Working Groups and a Secretariat, as follows: Adaptation Working Group 1. 2. Mitigation Working Group 3. Technological Transfer Working Group 4. Funding Working Group 5. Post Kyoto 2012 Working Group Forestry and Land Use Change Working Group 6. The NCCC Secretariat is headed by the Head of the Secretariat. To support NCCC’s main task, the NCCC Secretariat is supported by several divisions, including: 1. General Administration Division 2. Carbon Trade Mechanism Division 3. Communication, Information, Education Division 4. Capacity Building and Research Division 5. Monitoring and Evaluation Division The NCCC gets funding support from the National Budget for the Ministry of Environment. In terms of budget administration, the NCCC is a Working Unit within the Ministry of Environment.




1994 Law No. 6/1994, Ratificaion of UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

1999 First National Communication issued by the Ministry of Environment

2008 National Development Planning Agency issued issued the “Yellow Book“ entitled: Indonesian Responses to Climate Change (Yellow Book)

2003 Revision of Law No. 23/1997, to include the issue of climate change in environmental management

2004 Law No. 17/2004, ratification of the Kyoto Protocol

Included in the Medium Term Program Plan 20092014 (RPJM 2009-2014), Bappenas

2010 Presidential Decree on the REDD+ Task Force

2010 Submission of the Second National Communication by the Ministry of Environment

2011 2008 Presidential Regulation No. 46/2008, regarding the National Council for Climate Change (NCCC)

Issuance of Presidential Regulation No. 61 regarding the National Plan for GHG Emission Reduction (RAN-GRK)

2011 Issuance of Presidential Regulation No. 71 regarding National Inventory of GHG

2005 Decree of the Minister of Environment No. 207/2005, regarding the National Committee for Clean Development (PNPB)

2007 Publication of the National Action Plan for Climate Change (RAN-PI), by Ministry of Environment Source: NCCC Archive









Bukan lautan hanya kolam susu, kail dan jala cukup menghidupimu.. Tiada badai, tiada topan kau temui, Ikan dan udang menghampiri dirimu…. Kolam Susu, Koes Plus (1973) (Not seas but mere pools of milk, a hook and a net is enough to feed you. No cyclone, no storm to be found, fish and shrimp will come to you…) If we are to reminisce about a more stable climate on earth, perhaps one of the most ideal conditions is as described by Koes Plus in the 1970’s. “No cyclone, no storm is to be found...”




It rarely rains in Bogor these days and the air is often hot and muggy. Although there is still a little breeze in the evening, it’s not as it used to be. Bogor is not cool anymore.

cracked soil in the dry rice paddies

IF YOU ASK THE ELDERS about the olden days, they share their nostalgia and recount how, in the 1970s, travelling to Bogor or Bandung would require you to wear warm clothes or a sweater from morning until midday. The air used to be very cool, especially around Puncak on the way to Bandung. On the left and right were dense, thick forest.



It rained almost every day in Bogor, hence the nickname, the Rainy City. The Dutch Colonial government collected all sorts of tropical plants from the forests of Sumatra and Kalimantan and planted them in the Bogor Botanical Garden, as the rainfall was consistently high. Bogor then was cool and comfortable at an average elevation between 200 to 300 meters above sea level. Bogor’s temperature ranged from 20ºC, with an average of 26ºC and 70 percent humidity and high annual rainfall. Today, Bogor is not what it used to be “It rarely rains in Bogor these days and the air is often hot and muggy. Although there is still a little breeze in the evening, it’s not as it used to be. Bogor is not cool anymore,” writes Jakarta resident Parlin Nainggolan about Bogor’s weather these days in online media.



That is the local condition that we experience today. Data collected over several decades show that rainfall patterns in Indonesia have changed. In some regions the start of the rainy season has shifted; it is earlier in some places and later in others. In places south of the equator, in Java and the eastern islands of Indonesia, the rainfall has tended to increase overall, while decreasing during the dry seasons. Droughts, in the meantime, tend to be longer. Such phenomena indicate that climate change is indeed real. Some people do realize this, however many are still ignorant, because climate change happens slowly, gradually and globally. Climate is the average weather condition over the long term, between 50 to 100 years, over a wide area. Shifts in weather patterns closely associated with this climate phenomena have been realized by scientists for quite some time now. Sudden and radical changes in climate patterns are occuring more often and disrupt life, for instance, extreme weather, storms and tornadoes, including El Niño and La Niña. Daniel Murdiyarso (2012), a senior researcher at the Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) and a professor of Atmospheric Sciences at Bogor Agricultural Institute (IPB) said: “Because climate is also a physical characteristic of a region, when changes take place, the effects on biotic and abiotic components will be widespread. It may be that these changes are permanent in nature as important components disappear from such regions, for intance forests as ecosystems or the species in that forest ecosystem.” For that reason, the impacts of climate change can be fatal and terrible as humans may not be able to reverse them when these changes to climate occur.



Concern of Experts The experts took indications of climate change more seriously and held the first climate conference in 1979 in Geneva, Switzerland. This scientific meeting discussed the global challenge related to climate conditions and produced a declaration calling for governments across the world to anticipate climate change. Since then, the global climate change issue has continued to be raised, especially by the three most prominent international bodies: the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). Under these bodies, the climate change conference gained more attention and involved more governments globally. One of the most important events happened in 1988 when the Toronto Conference on the Changing Atmosphere, which invited a global debate involving 340 participants from 46 countries, agreed to create a world framework convention to protect the atmosphere. Two years later, in 1990, WMO together with UNEP published a report about the global rise in temperature in the last hundred years, that is, after the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. The report was adopted by the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) in its first report, The First Assessement Report (FAR). It was this document that laid down the basis for an international convention that was later called the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992.

Is climate change real? Listen to what fishermen have say:

OUT AT SEA LESS OFTEN Coastal residents and fishermen are directly impacted by climate change. Some of the manifestations include high tides, increased coastal abrasion, unpredictable seasons, and smaller harvests. Fishermen in Krui, West Lampung, have a story. This generation of fishermen find it hard to predict seasons. Older generations really understood the signs in the sky and the position of stars. Just by reading the position of the southern cross they know the beginning of the westerly and easterly season. The data collected by the People’s Coalition for Fishery Justice (Kiara) in 2008 show that fishermen only go out to sea 180 days in a year, or about six months. As a result, their incomes have fallen and they have become buried deeper under debt. The story above is consistent with the analysis by the Meterological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (BMKG). “The conditions at sea have uniformly changed in the last four years,” said Edvin Aldrian, the Head of BMKG’s Center for Climate Change and Air Quality. (Source: KOMPAS, Thursday 3 December 2009)




The greenhouse effect happens when energy from sunlight hits the earth’s surface. At that moment, the earth will absorb the heat. Some of the heat is reflected back into space, while some will be trapped in the earth’s atmosphere, effectively keeping it warm.

THE EARTH, now inhabited by seven billion people, is the only known planet suitable to sustain life. The current average global temperature is about 15ºC. This condition is possible because it is covered by an atmosphere that blankets and warms it. The atmosphere covering the outermost layer of earth is composed of gasses that are often referred to as greenhouse gases (GHG) in just the right concentrations.



Global warming occurs when greenhouse gases accumulate and thicken the earth’s blanket, trapping more heat to warm the earth like a greenhouse. The effect happens when energy from sunlight hits the earth’s surface. At that moment, the earth will absorb the heat. Some of the heat is reflected back into space, while some will be trapped in the earth’s atmosphere, effectively keeping it warm. The heat remains due to an accumulation of greenhouse glasses. It is like a blanket, the thicker it is, the warmer we feel. Six kinds of greenhouse gases are addressed by the UNFCCC: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and gases continuing flouride, such as hydroflourocarbon (HFCs), perfluorocarbon (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Of these greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide contributes the greatest portion at around 75 percent. That is why the amount of GHGs are always mentioned as a CO2-equivalent in the atmosphere.

livestock breeding and cattle farming are the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions Photo: Murni Titi Resdiana


















The six types of greenhouse gases have different global warming potentials (GWP). Carbon dioxide, despite contributing the largest amount, has the lowest GWP compared to the other five GHGs. If carbon dioxide has a GWP of 1, methane would have a GWP of 21. One ton of methane would have a global warming potential 21 times as big as 1 ton of carbon dioxide. This also means that reducing methane emissions by 1 ton would be equivalent to removing 21 tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. In addition to the six GHGs, scientists have recently

In simple terms, global warming occurs due to a thickening of atmosphere over the Earth’s surface as the concentration of greenhouse gases increase due to anthropogenic activities. Unfortunately, human activities that produce these gases are seen as vital in this modern age, such as electricity generation, industry, agriculture, forestry and land use, and transportation. (See illustration: Where Do GHGs Come From?) Carbon dioxide is the largest contributor and the most common greenhouse gas. It is expelled into the atmosphere from the burning of coal (or other fossil

we must keep CO2 emissions below 450 parts per milion, so as not to exacerbate the negative impact of climate change

found a new GHG, which has a far higher GWP than other gases, that is, nitrogen triflouride (NF3). However, the opinion of this group of scientists has not been fully adopted by IPCC.

Types of greenhouse gases and their Global Warming Potential (GWP) Type

Global Warming Potential (GWP)

Carbon dioxide (CO2)


Methane (CH4)


Nitrous oxide (N2O)


Perfluorocarbon (PFCs)

6,500 – 9,200

Hydroflourocarbon (HFCs)

140 – 11,700

Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)




fuels) for energy generation. Indonesia’s energy generation has been highly dependent on oil and gas fuels, fossil material that produce CO2and other GHG emissions. To prevent continuing climate change and avert its irreversible negative impacts, the world’s leading scientists have said that we must maintain carbon concentrations at levels not exceeding 450 parts per million (ppm). In their scenario, the experts explained that if the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere exceeds 450 ppm there will be a rise in temperature higher than two degrees celcius, which is a limit for a rise in temperature in the atmosphere that will still allow life on earth to survive. A rise above this level, it is believed, will cause irreversible and fatal changes on earth. The problem is, this rise in GHG concentration has increased exponentially in the last hundred years, and there are no signs of it abating.

Scientists have warned that if CO2 concentrations exceed 450 parts per million, it will lead to an increase in temperature bu more than two degrees celsius

The future of life on earth is at stake if there is no meaningful effort made to stop the rise in GHG emissions. In climate change terminology, this is called mitigation. A 2012 World Bank report illustrates that if we, as the earth’s inhabitants, continue to do nothing, or remain in a business as usual (BAU) scenario, there will be a rise in temperature of 4ºC, and this will lead to horrific consequences: coastal cities will be flooded, and food production will decrease leading to massive malnutrition. Already arid regions will become even more dry, and wet regions even more saturated with water. There will be more adverse impacts from increased heat waves, especially in tropical regions. More places will see water shortages, more tropical cyclones, and animals, including coral ecosystems that host rich marine biodiversity, will be threatened by extinction. This certainly will have a

great impact on the economy of countries, including Indonesia. (See: Impact of Climate Change to the Waters of the Archipelago) GHG concentrations monitored on Mount Mauna Loa observatory in Hawaii in May 2013 have already shown CO2 concentrations of 400 ppm. This concentration spiked up by almost 7 ppm, from 393.14 in January of the previous year, and 5 ppm from 395.55 in January 2013 (See: graph of CO2 concentrationson Mauna Loa, Hawaii). Hence, countries today must figure out ways to prevent a continued increase in emissions and make the effort to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. It is, therefore, crucial to continue the UNFCCC agreement and implement it.

Graphof CO2 Concentrations on Mauna Loa, Hawaii, May 2013 CO2 concentration has reached 400 ppm



DEVELOPMENTS IN SCIENTIFIC REPORTING The climate change phenomena is scientifically proven. There are currenly around 2,500 experts and researchers from around the world working together under the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This is the scientific body whose main task is to study research findings about technological, social and economic matters regarding climate change from around the world. The IPCC does not monitor climate change data or parameters per se or make recommendations for action to address climate change. However, IPCC does conduct analyses, studies and presents facts about the causes and impacts that will happen as a result of climate change. IPCC scientists report the results of their analyses to their members, currently representing more than 190 countries. The IPCC report is published regularly every five to seven years. However, in the interim periods, based upon UNFCCC requests, IPCC also produces special reports, for example, the Special Report on LULUCF, Technical Papers, and other documents. The last IPCC report, The Assessment Report 4 (AR4), was published in 2007, and AR5 is expected to be published in 2014. The role the IPCC plays is a crucial and credible one because this body is the scientific backbone used as the basis for mitigation and adaptation to climate change around the world.

LOWERING WHAT IS ALREADY HIGH The main source of GHG emissions is human activity, such as industry, energy generation, transportation, agriculture, forestry, mining, among others. These are called anthropogenic emissions. Human dependency

on fossil fuel for energy generation, industry and transportation, represent around 80 percent of the world’s emissions from fossil fuel burning. The remaining 20 percent or so comes from land use change and forest degradation. Of this 20 percent, the land and forest clearing activities occur mostly in tropical rainforests representing around 75 percent of the activities in the region. Because Indonesia has the third largest expanse of tropical forest cover in the world, it has gained the world’s attention. Global warming is happening and has been accelerating. This is what urges parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to regularly hold negotiations on climate change. The goal of UNFCCC is stated in Article 2 of the convention: “The ultimate objective of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.” The goal of the convention is to stabilize GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. In other words, all Parties who have ratified the UNFCCC are legally bound to try to find solutions to three things. Firstly, to set an ambitious target of reducing anthropogenic emission from sources and find ways to achieve this target so that concentrations of CO2-equivalent GHGs in the

around around 80% of emissions come from burning of fossil fuels



Source: NCCC Archive

atmosphere remain below 450 ppm. Secondly, to increase the capacity of carbon removal sinks that can be achieved by technological interventions, policy support, and regulations. Thirdly, to increase and conserve carbon sinks and storage through various

initiatives, such as conservation, mitigation and adaptation activities, as well as to involve technological and policy interventions. These three objectives have continued to be the main subjects at international climate change negotiations.




Source: NCCC Archive


a tree withers before its time

CLIMATE CHANGE in Indonesia is indicated by a change in the average daily temperature, rainfall patterns, a rise in sea level, and climate variability, such as El Niño and La Niña. These changes lead to serious impacts on various sectors in Indonesia, including health, agriculture, economy, and others. Despite limited scientific analysis and data, a number of studies conducted by both national and international institutions indicate that the climate change in Indonesia have been carried out since 1960.



The NCCC has conducted studies in North Sumatra, South Sulawesi, Gorontalo and Riau Islands and found an increase in temperature, rainfall and sea levels. Based on the NCCC records, in parts of North Sumatra in the last 100 years, there has been an increase in temperature of 0.3oC. Rainfall has increased by 0.02 to 0.4 mm per year with the highest acceleration on the west coast. As far as loss of coastal areas due to sea level rise, simulations with a scenario of +19 cm increase in 2025 and +38 cm in 2050 show no significant impact in terms of loss of coastal areas. For South Sulawesi, without taking into account contributions from GHG, the average rise in temperature in this region is projected to be 0.2°C in 2020 and 0.7°C in 2050. If GHG emissions are taken into account, the average temperature rise in 2020 and 2050 may reach 0.44°C and 1.02°C respectively.

snow melting on the jayawijaya peak, Papua

The analysis of rainfall patterns in South Sulawesi using data from 37 rainfall stations show that on an annual basis there is an increase and a decrease at different stations. (See: Farmers Confused about Seasons). Sea level rise in South Sulawesi is an average

BMKG (top) Jaya Peak in 1936 as photographed bi JJ Dozy; USGS (bottom left) Jaya Peak in 2012

of 5.5 mm per annum. Assuming that this rise will be consistent, without taking into account additional GHG emission, sea levels will rise by more than 50 cm in the next 100 years. A NCCC study in Gorontalo and North Sulawesi 5 YEARS OF THE NCCC


Climate change is occurring in Indonesia and has multi-sectoral eect

shows a rising trend in rainfall. In the 2001-2009 observation period, rainfall has increasedby 49.4 mm per year. The climate observation data in Gorontalo for the period of 1973-2009 did not show a real temperature increase, but the occurences of extreme temperature events of higher than 35oC have been quite high between 2001 and 2009 compared to prior periods. Without taking into account an additional rise in GHG emissions, the average temperature change in Gorontalo in 2020 and 2050 is projected to be 0.43oC and 1.0oC respectively. With the rise of GHG it is projected to be 0.49oC and 1.39oC respectively. A rise in average temperature significantly influences the rainfall patterns that is usually determined by the Asian and Australian monsoon cycles. This monsoon cycle determines the biannual change of rainy and dry seasons in indonesia. Changes to average daily temperature may also influence changes in rainfall in extreme ways. Analysis of data from TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite in the ICCSR (Indonesian Climate Change Sectoral Roadmap; Bappenas, 2010) for the period of 2003-2008 show an increase in the chances of extreme rainfall intensity, especially in western parts of Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, and Kalimantan) as well as Papua. Aside from causing extreme droughts or floods, the rise of atmospheric surface temperature also cause a rise



in sea water temperature than can lead to an expansion of sea water volume and the melting of glaciers and polar ice, increasing sea levels and adversely impacting the quality of lifein coastal areas. Globally, the average rise of sea level in the 20th century was recorded at 1.7 mm per year, although this rise has not occured uniformly. For Indonesia, situated between Indian and Pacific Oceans, this non-uniform rise of sea levels may influence sea current patterns (see: Climate Change in the Seas of Nusantara), increase the potential for coastal abrasion, degrade wetlands along the coast, and accelerate the intrusion of sea water into coastal aquifers. Climate change in Indonesia has also had quite a significant impact on food production, such as corn and rice. Food production from the marine sector (fish, as well as other products of the sea) is expected to be drastically depleted with changes to current patterns, temperature, sea level rise, etc. As a result, Indonesia is the ninth country most vulnerable to food insecurity due to impacts of climate change in the fishery sector (Huelsenbeck, Oceana, 2012). Increased GHG concentrations in the atmosphere can also lead to ocean acidification, which will further deplete food stocks from the ocean. In that category, Indonesia is 23rd on the list of 50 most vulnerable countries to suffer from ocean addification accorrding to the same study.

Floods prevention is a must just because of ecological impact but also because of multi sector and chair impacts Source: NCCC Archive

DROUGHTS AND FLOODS There is still a lack of studies about droughts in Indonesia due to climate change, especially on the national scale. However, it is clear that the potential for flooding in Indonesia will increase along with the rise in sea levels, higher intensity of extreme waves, extremely high rainfall and La Ni単a events. Coastal flooding due to climate change will primarily impact the coastal regions along which most strategic cities are located, as Jakarta is. Such disastrous events will have adverse impacts on the economy as well as threaten public health. Although some studies suggest that climate change has indeed taken place in indonesia, and have impacted

multiple sectors, the available data are still limited. In addition to that, climate projections always contain uncertainties. The greatest challenge is how to quantify these uncertainties in order to make them useful and enable informed decision-making. Climate change is not the sole cause of natural disasters that have been increasing. However, climate change contributes to hydro-meteorological phenomena and makes the events more extreme or extraordinary. The studies that the Indonesian government has conducted on climate change can serve as a starting point for coordinated programs to strengthen the scientific basis of climate change for various sectors in Indonesia.



Source: NCCC Archive

The agricultural sector is directly impacted by the seasonal uncertainty. Tumiar Katarina Manik, a climatologist from Lampung University, as quoted by Antara (30 June 2012), said that climate change today has caused confusion among farmers in determining their planting season. "The climate today is not like it used to be. It used to be certain that dry and rainy seasons change every six months, so that planting can be timed well,” she says. Now the dry season is a rainy dry season. This phenomenon is marked by the persistent rainfalls during the dry season, although with lower intensity, and not as frequent as it is during the rainy season.1

Ranggu (52 years) a farmer in Ngata Tompu village, Central Sulawesi, complains about his failed corn harvest due to uncertain seasons

Jatna Supriatna, an academic from University of Indonesia, says that the impact of climate change on the agricultural sector not only affects rice farming, but also other sectors, such as cocoa plantations, mangosteen groves, and others. In Tasikmalaya, his home village, the mangosteen groves have been impacted by extraordinary effects of climate change. The Tasik mangosteen is renowned for its size and good quality, making it an



Source: NCCC Archive


Farmers are frustrated about the planting season and failed harvest

Ranggu (52 years), a farmer in Ngata Tompu, a remote region in Central Sulawesi, said that his corn harvest failed due to uncertain weather and seasons. “We failed to harvest because we could not understand the seasonal patterns. We are used to forecasting, but the seasonal cycle these days is hard to predict,” he says. Ranggu and the farmers in that region often miscalculate when to begin planting. ”We thought at first that the dry season would be short, but then apparently it became a prolonged drought. Even though I would calculate by looking at the stars, the harvest would still fail. I am confused. Why is the season changing like this?” complained Laciu, a fellow farmer in Ranggu’s region of Ngata Tompu.

export commodity. This year (2013), Tasikmalaya mangosteen farmers could only export 40% of the yield because the fruits were small, not suitable for export. After the harvest they had high hopes for the rainy season. But then during the rainy season, the mangosteen flowers fell and the trees could not bear fruit. Their mangosteen groves were practically destroyed.

CLIMATE CHANGE IS MAN MADE Climate change is an evolutionary phenomenon that unfolds slowly. The changes that take place are not observable over a short period, five or ten years, but are only evident over longer periods, tens or even hundreds of years. Greenhouse gas emissions have thickened the ‘earth’s blanket’, as they trap more heat in the atmosphere that would normally be reflected back into space, causing an increase in the average global atmospheric temperature. This process has been occuring since the industrial revolution began in early 19th century, with the advent of the steam engine that burns a lot of coal, releasing carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. The use of coal for energy generation is still ongoing today, and the need for energy continues to increase as economies of developing countries continue to grow. Much of the world’s transportation sector also depends on fossil fuels, such as diesel and gasoline. As more carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere, the problem is compounded by the

loss in the earth’s sequestration capacity, as lands are cleared of forests that would normally absorb carbon dioxide from the air. For 800 thousand years the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere remained stable at around 300 ppm. In the late 20th century it increased drastically to 350 ppm and as of May 2013 it currently stands at 400 ppm (see: Humans and Greenhouse Gases). It is no longer disputed that climate change is anthropogenic, and it is only proper that the problem must be resolved by humans. From decades of climate change research, in their Fourth Assessement Report (AR4) of 2007, IPCC scientists concluded that, “Most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations.” In IPCC terminology,"very likely" means that the probability of it actually happening is more than 90 percent, while "likely "means the probability is higher than 66 percent.

illegal logging destroys nature

Source: NCCC Archive




Source: NCCC Archive

“Violent Waves, fishermen can't go out to the sea.” “Raging Winds Destroy Dozens of Homes.”

SUCH HEADLINES are seen more often these days. Floods are becoming more severe and frequent and droughts more prolonged, causing more fatalities. Natural disaster phenomena that have increased both in frequency and severity are facts of climate change. Global warming has led to a rise in temperatures, sea levels, and an accelerated the melting of ice both in the Antarctic and Greenland. Climate change due to global warming impacts vital sectors such as health, agriculture, forestry, and transportation. El Niño and La



Niña, the (in)famous twin effects of global warming, are becoming more extreme and frequent (Timmermann, et al.,1999; Timmerman 2001). Torrence and Compo (1999), recorded that El Niño and La Niña cycle is usually between two to seven years, but since 1970’s, the cycle accelerated to two to four years. In Indonesia, El Niño causes prolonged droughts that lead to forest fires, failed harvests and difficulties in starting the planting season. Whereas during La Niña, Indonesia experiences a sharp increase in rainfall causing floods and failed harvests as well. In 1997-1998, Indonesia had a particularly bad experience with El Niño, when almost all of the country experienced a long drought, causing millions of hectares of forest fires and a shock to food stocks due to failed harvest. During La Niña in 1999, Indonesia experienced a rise in rainfall, leading to floods in many parts of Indonesia, including coastal flooding as a result of high waves.

Coastal floods in North Jakarta

Globally, the rise in temperatures has increased the intensity tropical cyclones. The maximum wind speeds in Atlantic Ocean hurricanes increased by 0.4m/second/ year (Elsner, 2008). Webster et al (2005) argued that the increase in frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones is caused by global warming. He recorded a shift in the number of days of cyclone events, where they decreased in all oceans, except in the North Atlantic. The precise physical mechanism that has caused this shift is not yet clear. However, both scientists agree that this is consistent with more El Niño years and less La Niña years in the last decade.

Source: NCCC Archive

TIDAL WAVES AND SEA LEVEL RISE Aside from El Niño and La Niña, climate in Indonesia is also influenced by the Asian and Australian monsoon cycles. These cycles result in the biannual change of nearsurface wind directions that is responsible formain rainy and the dry seasons, In scientific literature, these are called the summer monsoon June-July-August (JJA) and the winter monsoon in December-January-February (DJF). These are commonly known in Indonesia as the ”Easterly season” that is identical to the dry season and ”Westerly season” for rainy season, especially in Java and southeastern islands of Indonesia.



melting of ice has accelerated in parallel with the increasing global warming. If this process of warming and ice melting continues as it has in the last five years, it is predicted that sea levels in 2100 will rise by 80 to 180 cm (Vermeer and Rahmstorf, 2009). Thus, global warming is already having a significant impact on economic activity and causing disruption to society, even leading to more disasters and damage to the ecology in general. It has clearly had immediate impacts on small communities, such as fishers who cannot go out to sea, and a chain of consequences, such as inflation due to scarcity of goods from disruptions to transportation. The Stern Review (2007) predicted that climate change will significantly damage the global economy. If nothing is done, the so-called business as usual scenario, if developed countries do not reduce their emissions (mitigation), and impacted countries do not adapt to climate change, the damage due to climate change can amount to 14 percent of the global GNP in the 21st century.

Source: NCCC Archive

During the Asian monsoon period, the maximum height of waves in Indonesian waters range between one to six meters, with the highest waves found in the Pacific Ocean, just north of Papua. In the Java Sea the waves can reach 3.5 meters in January and February. These waves can cause coastal flooding along Java’s north coast coinciding with the rainy season. On the south coast of Java the waves can reach four meters in February. This is very significant to fishers as such conditions prevent them from going out to sea to find fish, as well as the transportation sector for which it causes disruption to the flow of goods and services to various Indonesian ports. In addition to tidal waves caused by more extreme monsoons, global warming has caused sea level rise. Recent measurements show that sea levels have risen by 3.1 mm/year globally, compared to only 1.7 mm/year in the 20th century. A third of this rise can be attributed to the melting of both Greenland and Antarctic ice as well as glaciers. Recent studies have also shown that this

Extreme waves prevent the flow of goods between islands: A boat carrying basic foodstuffs at Pulau Panggang, Seribu Islands, to the north of Jakarta Photo: Agus Soetomo









Houses on stilts in Balikpapan A classic adaptation mechanism Photo: BLHD Kota Balikpapan



LET’S ADAPT We need to change the way we do things or climate change will change us.

Source: NCCC Archive

- Fellipe Carderon Hinojosa, President of Mexico

Evacuation and emergency responses to disasters

FLOODS AND DROUGHTS that lead to failed harvests, along with landslides and extreme rainfall, have become more common recently. These events are exacerbated by the classic problem of the past and present failure to manage the environment. Climate change requires that all nations adapt to changes in the climate and the environment. Climate change will give rise to specific vulnerabilities in Indonesia, being the largest archipelagic nation in the world, with more than 81



thousand kilometers of coastline. Indonesia is also one of the countries with the highest biodiversity in the world, with its rich coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove, corals and seagrass plains. It is, therefore, key that adaptation capacity is strengthened. This capacity can be measured externally, taking into account the current ecosystem and environmental carrying capacity, and internally, for example, a country’s prepared in terms of regulations, institutions, budgets as well as human resources.

MAINSTREAMING The NCCC’s strategic direction to address climate change is to realize a low-carbon and sustainable approach to development that is also able to adapt to climate change. The NCCC’s Adaptation Working Group was formed to support the strategic policy of the NCCC with a priority on efforts to strengthen both the national and local adaptation capacity. At the local level, the focus is on developing adaptation activities in

Canal repair. One way to adapt is to fix drainage systems Source: NCCC Archive

the local development planning. The Adaptation Working Group serves as the catalyst to integrate sectoral plans and implement activities. The strategic question is how the working group, within the scope of its role, task and function, is able to coordinate with and harmonize the policies of the relevant sectors with the strategy to address the impacts of climate change. Therefore, as a matter of priority, the working group must prepare a framework with measurable achievement indicators. The Adaptation Working Group also plays the role of facilitating regional initiatives to include climate change into local policies. Regions have been receptive to such assistance as many begin to see the urgency of climate change. Each region has its own unique set of geographic, demographic and topographic characteristics, which provides a closer opportunity to learn about varied micro climate approaches. This would enable creating more valid and accountable policies as they will be based on local micro climate data of the particular region. This would, in turn, encourage more

proactive adaptation actions. Inevitably, adaptation is closely linked to disaster mitigation. Unfortunately, the information and understanding about climate change adaptation, as it relates to disaster management and the links to climate change in policymaking, is still scarce in Indonesia. This causes different degrees and capacities for disaster mitigation and adaptation at different levels and sectors, and in turn informs the overall disaster mitigation and adaptation strategy in both national and local development plans. Therefore, there needs to be a holistic understanding of climate change adaptation on the one hand, and procedures and disaster mitigation systems on the other. This can be achieved by identifying disaster risk reduction and impact management practices in the context of climate change adaptation. To this end, the adaptation project can contribute ideas and concepts about disaster mitigation, including campaign strategies and education about climate change and disaster mitigation. (*)



FIVE YEARS OF ADAPTATION The NCCC has been conducting its adaptation program for five years since the council was established. 2008-2010 was a preparatory period, and since 2011 the adaptation program has entered its implementation stage.

2008-2010 PERIOD The NCCC’s Working Group on Adaptation in this period intiated the active participation of all relevant stakeholders, especially those in sectors that have a strategic role in responding to the impacts of climate change. Involving these sectors is necessary to facilitate awareness about the importance of climate change adaptation and encourage cooperation between ministries/ agencies. It was not easy, however, to bring together all stakeholders to consistently participate in the Adaptation Working Group. It required direct communication with individuals and areas, units and programs that share similar concerns and have the capacity to actively attend the climate change adaptation activities. Slowly, the Working Group was able to encourage the different stakeholders to actively participate in regular discussions. For the initial period of 2008-2010 the Working Group on Adaptation emphasised three activities. First, to deliver and disseminate information through discussions, seminars, and workshops. Second, to socialize the results of negotiations on climate change adaptation to ministries, agencies and non-governmental organizations, as well as to prepare Indonesia’s position for negotiations under the UNFCCC. Third, to conduct studies and assessment of impacts and vulnerabilities that are relevant to climate change adaptation.



In this period, the Working Group on Adaptation also began developing cooperation and communication with communities and actors in the disaster risk mitigation sector. The NCCC’s Working Group on Adaptation was involved in the National Platform for Disaster Risk Mitigation to convey the policy developments, programs and action plans regarding climate change at the national and regional levels, especially regarding threats and impacts of climate change. As an effort to integrate climate change adaptation and disaster risk mitigation, the NCCC held a national seminar in Jakarta inviting actors and disaster risk mitigation practitioners. In 2012, the need for a National Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation (RAN-API) became crucial and urgent to synergize policies and adaptation programs that are being formulated by the various government ministries and agencies. In addition to serving as a national guideline, the National Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation is used to assist regional governments to prepare their own strategy for climate change adaptation. The adaptation working group responded to this need with a series of discussions and meetings focusing on five sectors, namely: 1) agriculture, 2) coastal, marine, fisheries and small islands, 3) health, 4) housing and urban areas, and 5) water resource.

2011-2013 PERIOD The completion of the National Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation (RAN-API) produced a document that describes the policy and programs that have been and are being prepared and implemented by ministries and agencies whose portfolios will be most impacted by climate change, including the NCCC. However, this document has been seen as lacking a solid scientific basis and consideration whereas a complete and systematic scientific study is crucial and fundamental for the inclusion of the National Action Plan on Climate Change Adaptation in national development. In response to that, the National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas) took the initiative to prepare an action plan on climate change adaptation outside of the one formulated by the NCCC. Considering that several documents have been initiated and published by various ministries and agencies in the past regarding adaptation in Indonesia, such as the National Action Plan on Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation/RANMAPI (Ministry of Environment, 2007); National Development Plan: Indonesia’s Response to Climate Change (Bappenas, 2007); Sectoral Road Map to Anticipate Climate Change (Bappenas, 2010), and the last one published by the NCCC, these documents will support and complement that ‘newest’ RAN API to be formulated. An agreement was formulated to place Bappenas, Ministry of Environment, the NCCC and BMKG as the core in the process and facilitation for formulating the National Action Plan on Climate Change Adaptation (RAN-API). This activity shall be preceded by a scientific study to be conducted by two expert teams from the Bogor Agricultural Institute (IPD) and Bandung

Institute of Technology (ITB), and a series of discussions involving ministries, agencies, nongovernmental organizations and universities. The RAN-API document will be an open document to be corrected and perfected in order to respond to the developments of the climate change issue. In the current period (2010-2013) the NCCC is preparing a guidebook for training and climate change adaptation and disaster risk mitigation. In cooperation with the Agency For Disaster Risk Mitigation and Climate Change (LPBI), the Nadhlatul Ulama (NU) as one of the influential religious organizations in Indonesia, and WWF Indonesia, two adaptation modules were agreed to be implemented in two regions, Yogyakarta and Surabaya, before the training guidebook is officially published. The NCCC also used the occasion of testing of this module to introduce itself and the issue of climate change adaptation to stakeholders who have been playing an active role in the issue of disaster mitigation in the two regions. In early 2012, to learn about the extent of climate change adaptation activities in Indonesia, the NCCC’s Adaptation Working Group began taking stock of adaptation activities that have so far been and will be undertaken by ministries, agencies, non-governmental organizations and universities. The more specific goal of this collection of information was to identify and map adaptation activities to inform the active institutions and actors, as well as donors, in order to support the development of adaptation programs. It is expected that such a map will help avoid redundancies and fill the gaps as a follow up to previous activities and conduct activities in places that have so far been missed or overlooked by various stakeholders. (*)



FOCUSING ON MITIGATION "We are upsetting the atmosphere upon which all life depends."

Source: NCCC Archive

--David Suzuki, scientist and environmental activist.

determined nationallly, with a view to minimaizing adverse effect on the economy, on public health and the quality of environment, the project measures untertaken by them to mitigate or adapt to climate change.� Pollution emissions from the transport sector

MITIGATION IS ACTION to reduce the impacts of climate change by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases that cause global warming. One of the ways to conduct mitigation is to always consider programs that encourage economic, social and environmental policies that are sound and in the context of climate change, based on the commitment stated in Article 4 (f ) of UNFCCC Convention: “Take climate change consideration into account, to the extent feasible in their relevant social, economic and environmental policies, and employ approriate method, for example impact assessment, formulated and



To implement it, the Working Group on Climate Change focuses on three aspects: (i) developing the science, (ii) developing policy, and (iii) encouraging investments, which are elaborated as follows: 1. Science is developed to understand and address the various uncertainties associated with climate change to obtain an adequate picture to anticipate mitigation scenarios for the future. 2. Strong science-based policy is a precondition for the implementation of comprehensive and effective actions supported by an inclusive process. 3. Investments are made in order to create an investment-friendly environment that can initiate sustainable green investments.

Mitigation Programs always consider activities that are pro-economy, pro-society and pro-environmental relevent toward climate change action Photo: NCCC Archive



Addressing the three aspects above, aside from strengthening the position of Indonesia in international negotiations, will also encourage the implementtaion at the national level. This is necessary in order to elaborate mitigation action in greater detail to encourage effective participation of all stakeholders in the implementation in the field. Indonesia was the first developing nation to announce a voluntary target for reducing emissions by 26 percent from the Business As Usual levels by 2020 and by up to 41 percent with international assistance. This announcement was made by President Yudhoyono at the G20 meeting in 2009 and was again stated during his speech at COP15. This was followed by an Indonesian submission to UNFCCC on 19 January 2010 that affirmed the initial areas and focus sectors that will contribute to achieving the 26 percent reduction in Indonesian emissions. Indonesia’s submission, conveyed by the Executive Chair of the NCCC to UNFCCC, identified seven initial focus areas and priority sectors in national mitigation efforts: (1) sustainable peatland management, (2) reducing the rate of deforestation and degradation of forested lands, (3) developing carbon sequestration in forestry and agriculture, (4) promotion of efficiency and energy conservation, (5) developing alternative and renewable sources of energy, (6) management of liquid and solid waste, and (7) a shift to low-carbon modes of transportation. This point is also called NAMAs Indonesia (See: Mitigation Action under the Framework of NAMAs Indonesia) Important elements in mitigation are elaborated in Figure 3.5.1, describing the steps of climate change mitigation that require identifying problems, followed by efforts of policy and program engagements, engagement of sectors and actors to take part in mitigation as well as responses that may include sequestration of CO2 and reducing CO2emissions that include prevention of deforestation, energy efficiency and management of peatland. In its efforts to support climate negotiations, NCCC has taken the following approaches: 1. Developing guidelines for measuring, reporting and verifying mitigation (MRV)



2. Developing the capacity for Low Emission Development Schemes (LEDS) 3. Developing initiatives and innovation in the Green Investment, Innovation and Productivity forum. To implement mitigation activities, various networks have been developed with relevant parties to encourage open processes and widen the participation by all stakeholders.

THE STATUS OF INDONESIAN MITIGATION EFFORTS There are three interconnected elements to Indonesian mitigation efforts: action, governance and mechanism. The process of integrating these three elements is ongoing, and is expected to produce a framework of sustainable development for Indonesia that also takes into account the dynamics at the global, national and sub-national levels. The status of Indonesian mitigation efforts can be elaborated as follows: a. At the action level, the issuance of Presidential Regulation 61/2001 regarding National/Regional Action Plan for Greenhouse Gases (RAN/RAD-GRK) produced a strong institutional basis to encourage an effective and efficient low carbon development scenario. This regulation specifies around 70 programs that directly and indirectly pertain to emission reduction. Additionally, a target has been established at the sub-national level in more than 32 provinces adapted to respective local conditions. b. Strong governance was built with the issuance of Presidential Regulation 71/2011 regarding the National GHG Inventory System (SIGN). This system serves as the basis to measure, report and verify the achievement of emission reduction targets. Additionally, information flow is managed in a wellintegrated and transparent manner from the central to regional levels and vice versa. Such a system is expected to lead to a well integrated reporting for national to sub-national levels. c. The implementation of the various mitigation actions requires support in terms of financing mechanisms that integrate various market and nonmarket instruments. Additionally, this mechanism

Studies have been conducted both at macro level as well as pilot projects at provincial levels. At macro level, studies have created cost curves and Low Carbon Growth Strategy in three provinces: Jambi, East Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan. This cost curve has ranked more than 150 activities that are feasible from the cost side. This document is used as the basis for mainstreaming low emission development schemes in development plans at the national and provincial levels. Studies on the actions that have been identified have provided options for the different scenarios used as

Source: NCCC Archive

will encourage increasing ambitions to reduce GHG emissions that have been set as well as open opportunities enabled by the diverse means of financing that can be mobilized through the global, bilateral as well as domestic mechanisms. There are several ongoing tests, conducted both nationally as well as on a project basis, including the Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund (ICCTF), the Joint Crediting Mechanism, Fund for REDD+ in Indonesia (FREDDI), as well as fiscal instruments for climate change financing.

NCCC along with private sector, donor agencies, editor in chiefs of periodicals and mass media discuss Green Investment, Innovation and Productivity in Jakarta, March 2013

A MACRO STUDY OF LOW EMISSION DEVELOPMENTSCHEME(LEDS) In the context of Low Emission Development Scheme (LEDS), economic growth is supported by a range of low emission development initiatives. To that end, NCCC has initiated cooperation with various competent international institutions to formulate a range of development scenarios that take into account projected emission potentials of various sectors.

reference in the National Action Plan to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions (See: Cost Abatement Curve). A series of studies at the macro level also explored the different dynamics and socio-economic impacts due to climate change. This includes a study on the population dynamics and climate change jointly conducted by NCCC, the National Family Planning Coordination Board (BKKBN) and UNFPA (2012), which



produced a policy memo titled “Population Dynamics and Climate Change in Indonesia”. This study’s conclusions included the following: ● Great improvements can be made in terms of energy efficiency in urban areas based on evidence of related spatial planning interventions. ● Revitalizing the national family planning program can make a big contribution to Indonesia in its mitigation efforts in the next 40 years. ● A massive intervention in the education of youth today is an important component for a successful mitigation strategy and a smooth transition into a green economy. ● A lot can be done to promote the benefits of environmentally sound and sustainable living

to help stem the rise of carbon emissions in Indonesia.

INVOLVING PRIVATE SECTOR It is not enough to only expect the government to take mitigation action. An active role in taking such actions on the part of the private sector is also imperative not only to successfully achieve the emission reduction targets, but also as a sign of support to the various ‘green’ development initiatives. The NCCC has initiated actions to encourage green investments, innovations and productivity with the private sector, donor agencies, as well as the media. Such initiatives are an important step to encourage the private sector to be more involved in the issue of climate change, as well as to promote awareness about the importance of innovation and investment in low-emission development schemes.(*)

NATIONALLY APPROPRIATE MITIGATION ACTIONS (NAMAs) Indonesia announced its voluntary domestic emission reduction target in 2009, promising to reduce GHG emissions voluntarily by 26 percent from the BAU levels by 2020, and by 41 percent with international assistance. While this promise was never categorized under Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs), Indonesia became one of the main supporters of the Bali Action Plan. Indonesia contributed to the development of the Copenhagen Accord wherein NAMAs is one of the main elements. In early 2010, the Indonesian submission to UNFCCC on seven main mitigation actions as a follow up to the Copenhagen Accord, affirmed the Indonesian commitment to support NAMAs (See: Focusing on Mitigation).



Domestically, Indonesia has taken steps to translate this voluntary emission reduction target into policy and development action. In 2008, as a response to the Bali Action Plan, Indonesia had included climate change into its Medium-Term Development Plan of 2009-2014. In that plan, climate change is recognized as a cross-sectoral issue that is inherent to at least three of the eleven national development priorities: food security, energy and environment, as well as disaster management. In the same year, the National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas) published the National Development Plan: Indonesia’s Response to Climate Change, or the “Yellow Book” as a liaison document to developing the Medium-Term Development Plan. (*)

ABATEMENT COST CURVE The NCCC also conducted a study on the GHG Abatement Cost (2010), which estimated Indonesia’s annual GHG emissions, as well as the cost of emission reduction in the six sectors considered to be the largest contributors to emissions along with the potential for reduction in the respective sectors. The six sectors are buildings, cement, farming, transportation, power generation, forestry and peatland. This study produced a slightly different emissions estimate for 2020 (3.30 Gt CO2e), but concluded that land use change, along with forestry and peatland, will remain the two largest contributors to Indonesia’s future emissions. The cost curve has identified the steps that Indonesia can take to reduce its emissions by 2.3 Gt CO2e in 2030, around 70 percent of the total emissions, using existing technologies. The study identified around 150 different steps that can be executed by the government, the private sector, and the public, which, if all are implemented, will cut up to 70 percent of total emissions by 2030.

The five biggest opportunities to reduce emissions are by preventing deforestation (570 Mt), preventing peatland fires (310 Mt), preventing peatland oxidation by water management and rehabilitation (250 Mt), implementing and enforcing sustainable forest management (240 Mt), as well as reforesting marginal and degraded forests (150 Mt). Better management of land in Indonesia is the key to reducing emissions and improving economic planning. This offers an opportunity to reduce emissions by up to 1.9 Gt CO2e in 2030. This and other studies published in the 2000s demonstrate that the majority of Indonesia’s current GHG emissions come from the forestry and land use sectors. Indonesia also still depends on fossil fuel for its energy, especially coal and oil, which may increase the emissions of fossil fuel-based industries in Indonesia by five to six times the current levels in 2030.(*)

Source: Indonesia Cost Curve Abatement, NCCC (2010)






National Action Plan on GHG Emission Reduction

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation



Provincial Action Plan on GHG Emission Reduction

EMISSION REDUCTION TARGET BY 2020 26% domestic actions

0.767 Gt CO2e 41% with international support

1.189 Gt CO2e















1. GHG Emission by 2000: 1.72 Gt CO2e 2. GHG Emission by 2005: 2.12 Gt CO2e


Non-governmental organization


3. Proportion : LULUCF




Peat Fires

12% 11%





Industrial Process

4. GHG Emission Projection by 2020 : 2.95 Gt CO2 Source: SNC, MOE, 2009

POTENTIAL REDUCTION 1. GHG Potential Reduction: 2.3 Gt CO2e by 2030 2. Potential Reduction through: a. Avoided Deforestation (570 Mt) b. Peat Fires Prevention (310 Mt) c. Peatland Oxidation Prevention through Water Management and Rehabilitation (250 Mt) d. Implementation of Sustatinable Forest Management (240 Mt) e. Reforestation of Marginal and Degraded Forest (150 Mt)

Source: Indonesia GHG Abatement Cost Curve, NCCC, 2010


CHALLANGES Global Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil-fuels 1990-2008



Source: Boden, T.A., G. Marland, and R.J. Andres (2010). Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A. doi 10.3334/CDIAC/00001_V2010.



2008 Global CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion and some Industrial Processes (million metric tons of CO2) Source: National CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Cement Manufacture, and Gas Flaring: 1751-2008.

Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Source Source: IPCC (2007); based on global emissions from 2004. Details about the sources included in these estimates can be found in the Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change .




Source: NCCC Archive


The NCCC exhibition booth

Behavior change is the keyword in addressing climate change, and actions to create such behavior change on a massive scale cannot be done partially, or unilaterally, but require strong public support. Such public support is the ‘social capital’ that must be created. The NCCC places great importance to building awareness and education, and established a Communication,



Information and Education Division with that purpose in mind. Its tasks include increasing public awareness, working together with climate change stakeholders and providing education about climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts. Public awareness and education is one of the mandates under UNFCCC that Indonesia has ratified as Law No. 6/1994. Article 6 of the Convention addresses the issue of education, training and public awareness about climate change, and calls on the governments to educate, empower and involve all stakeholders. State parties are expected to implement six measures: education, training, public awareness, access to information, public participation and international cooperation.

Source: NCCC Archive

The education element includes measures to promote, facilitate, develop and implement education and training programs that especially target the young population, including exchange programs. Training is aimed at scientific, technical and managerial personnel at the national level and, where necessary, sub-regional, regional and international. The public awareness element is addressed by working together in the promotion, facilitation, development and implementation of public awareness programs about climate change and the impacts at the national level, and, appropriately, at sub-regional, regional and internatinoal levels. It includes information about what can be done to address climate change,

including encouraging contributions and individual action, supporting climate-friendly policies and encouraging behavior change, including through popular media. Access to information includes facilitation of public access to data and information about climate change initiatives, policies and outcomes of actions that the public and other stakeholders need to to understand, address and respond to. Activities to address climate change cannot succeed without public participation, which is why it is crucial to promote public participation to address climate change and its impacts for such activities to have a significant impact.



Lastly, as climate change is a global issue, international cooperation is imperative at sub-regional, regional and international level in order to strengthen the collective capacity of the Parties to implement the Convention. Such cooperation is crucial to achieve synergy among different conventions and increase the effectiveness of all sustainable development actors.(*)

CLIMATE CHANGE FILM Film is a very effective means of communication than can appeal to different layers of society. Every year NCCC produces short films of 24-40 minutes used for education and socialization of climate change. Lakukan Sekarang Juga (Do It Now), a 2009 documentary, provides information about evidence of climate change in Indonesia, its impacts as well as adaptation and mitigation efforts that communities as

well as individuals can do. Perubahan Iklim di Halaman Kita (Climate Change in Our Backyard), a 2010 documentary, is about how communities in Jakarta, Papua and Sulawesi adapt to impacts of climate change. The NCCC also produced climate change-themed films for children with the title Bumiku (My Earth). Socialization materials that were also launched for Bumiku include: 1) the Children’s film Bumiku (30 minutes), 2) Teacher’s Guidebook to Climate Change, 3) Student’s Guidebook to Climate Change that is packaged in an appealing way to make it more acceptable to children. Another short film was produced for teenagers called Senandung Bumi (The Earth Songs), with the aim of 1) Giving the correct understanding about climate change to public at large, especially teenagers, 2) Introducing to the public, especially teenagers, about adaptation and mitigation actions that can be done in daily life to address climate

Climate change education through cultural approaches: Wayang Beber NCCC



Source: NCCC Archive

change, 3) Create an appealing and entertaining media for education of teenagers to learn about and understand climate change.

CAMPAIGNS IN NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL MEDIA In order to effectively address and prevent impacts of climate change it is necessary to have a Mega Community movement, that involves the government, private sector and civil society. Promoting public awareness should be done with a systematic and sustained program, not only to achieve the goals but also to enable evaluation.

The goal of this concerted national campaign is to inform the public that climate change is indeed happening in Indonesia and can become a threat to national development. For that, massive support is needed that involves the government, public, academia, industry and individuals to take action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance the local capacity to face the impacts of climate change. The NCCC also sees that it is important to promote the issue of climate change in the international media, and considers it a voluntary commitment that it has made. Such international media campaigns are expected to promote a shared commitment to reduce global



In 2011, the NCCC held interactive dialogues and conducted surveys in 19 provinces to assess the understanding of and response to the issue of climate change among the public and students. This activity was conducted in selected areas, including Jakarta and a number of provinces to support the government’s plan to reduce national greenhouse gas emissions. The results show that the public has high expectations for the government to do more to socialize the impacts of climate change to different groups in the society. As the effects of climate change are becoming increasingly apparent and complex it was recommended that this socialization can be conducted regularly, and guidance is provided to the public to appropriately respond to problems that may arise as a result. The involvement of local governments, universities and stakeholders needs to be enchanced in order to gain more information about local phenomena that can provide a more complete picture about climate change. The study also shows that the public generally supports and is willing to participate in the

greenhouse gas emissions and make the post Kyoto Protocol negotiations a success. NCCC conducted a climate change campaign in international media in November and December of 2011 which included: ● Producing three 30-second TV commercials (TVCs). The main message of the TVCs is that Indonesia does not view the climate change issue as something



Source: NCCC Archive


implementation of the National Action Plan to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions (RAN-GRK). This large public support must be seen as public demand that the government seriously implement the action plan, as well as a way to monitor the implementation. It can also serve as the basis for the government to implement the various programs that can be developed into a movement at a national scale involving the whole of society to address climate change. (*)

depressing, but a challenge for which we all share the responsibility to develop solutions. This TVC was aired in international media, including the Bloomberg Channel and CNN. Produce three print media designs with the same message as the one in the TVCs. These print ads were also published in two international print media: Newsweek dan Time. (*)

Executive Chair of the NCCC Rachmat Witoelar invites the public to start GHG emissions reduction actions through a tree planting program at the Universitas Hasanudin campus in Makassar Source: NCCC Archive




2009-2012. Working together with NCCC, there are currently 225 Indonesian climate leaders at The Climate Reality Project (TCRP) who have been trained by Al Gore



2011 and 2012 – NCCC hosted the interreligious Youth Camp for Climate Change, attended by 300 youths from all across Indonesia

2010, inclusion of children and youth delegations at the UN Conference on Climate Change

2011 and 2012 – Indonesian Pavilion. To support Indonesia’s soft diplomacy in international climate change negotiations, NCCC held seminars, workshops and exhibitions in the midst of the UN Conference on Climate Change

2011 – Photo contest on climate change held in 5 cities: Jakarta, Pekanbaru, Palangkaraya, Surabaya and Denpasar. The best photos were published in the book “Soulview on Climate Change”

2011-2013, the annual Indonesia Climate Change Education & Expo (ICCEFE) at Jakarta Convention Center



Source: Yani Saloh



Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forestry (LULUCF) is a key issue in climate change as it has a great potential both to produce emissions as well as to absorb and store carbon. Globally, emissions from LULUCF are greater than other sectors. According to the IPCC (2007), LULUCF



(agriculture and forestry combined) has contributed 31 percent of emissions, greater than emissions from energy and fossil fuels that stand at only 26 percent. The largest contributions to LULUCF emissions come from developing countries who still need to clear and convert forests for development, to build facilities and infrastructure, housing, expansion of agricultural land, plantations and regional expansion. A study by the NCCC (2010) showed that emissions from LULUCF in 2005 in Indonesia accounts for around 85 percent of total national greenhouse gas emissions, and is projected to remain the main source of emissions until 2030. The

LULUCF is an emissions producer but has a high potential for carbon capture and storage

LULUCF trend in industrialized countries is the opposite, where land management has been relatively stable and unchanged for a long time. Managed forest lands, for example, serve as carbon sinked than as a source of GHG emissions in developed countries.



LULUCF IN INDONESIA Because 71 percent of Indonesian land has been legally established as permanent forest areas (Ministry of Forestry, 2010), the forest is the centerpiece of LULUCF in Indonesia. LULUCF is closely related to the issue of forest land use conversion for plantations, mining, and others. Additionally, LULUCF is closely related to issues of land use access, forest management, land tenure, and the rights of people to forest resources. Climate change mitigation efforts through LULUCF in Indonesia pertain to three things (REDD National Strategy Draft, 2011), namely: (1) vulnerability to impacts of climate

change; (2) a transition towards a low-carbon economy; and (3) an opportunity to improve forest and peatland management. Until 2020, emissions from forests and peatland will continue to be the greatest contributors to Indonesia’s greenhouse gas emissions. In LULUCF perspective, forestry and peatland is none other than land use change that has taken place in most forested land and peatland. The projection of GHG emissions in Indonesia, according to Presidential Decree 61/2011, is shown in the following figure.

Business as Usual Emissions Projections 2,950 3,0

Million tons of CO2 emissions


2,5 2,0

Energy and Transport

1,5 Forest and Peatlands (=69%)







Profile of Indonesia’s emissions until 2020



greenhouse gas emissions. As a consequence of Indonesia becoming a Party of UNFCCC, the government’s policy must be adapted to the decisions and guidelines agreed through UNFCCC. In regard to LULUCF, the IPCC has issued special guidelines for land use in global terms. IPCC has divided land use into six general categories, i.e. forest land, grassland, wetland, cropland, settlement, and other lands. The government of Indonesia, in this case the Ministry of Forestry, then further elaborated the six categories into 23 sub-categories. LULUCF in Indonesia must be implemented in differentiated forms and intensities by taking into account the existing forest cover and the potential for development (the balance between conservation efforts and development). Policies that pertain to LULUCF must remain a priority for the government in order to achieve low-carbon development. Irrespective of the increasing threat from LULUCF, we must try to proceed in a way where LULUCF can provide an important contribution to support an average seven percent economic growth, while still contributing to the 26 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, known as formula 726.(*)

Source: NCCC Archive

In order to meet the development needs of the future, forested areas in Indonesia will be reduced in stages. The National Forestry Planning (RKTN) 2011-2030 stipulates that the future use of forest areas will be directed towards six main goals, namely: conservation, protection of natural forests and peatland, rehabilitation of critical lands in Riparian Areas (DAS), large-scale forest exploitation, small-scale forest exploitation, and for non-forestry purposes. For this purpose, the total area of state forests will be reduced from the current 130 million to around 112 million hectares in the next twenty years. Although forests have been planned that way, great challenges remain. Land tenure remains an on-going issue that has not been resolved to this day. The Indonesian decentralization policy gave greater authority to the district-level leadership and poses its own sets of challenges. Illegal mining continues to increase and disrupt government’s efforts to regulate land management. The use of peatland areas for industrial forestry, plantations and other purposes is also not managed well. These are some of the examples of problems that need to be resolved in order to control emissions from LULUCF, the main contributor to Indonesia’s

Haze in one of the Pekanbaru forest 5 YEARS OF THE NCCC



Source: NCCC Archive

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions can also be achieved and facilitated with a technological approach. Technological innovation remains the key in addressing the challenges of climate change in order to achieve a sustainable human civilization. UNFCCC Parties, therefore, must facilitate technological solutions especially to overcome the direct impacts of climate change in least developed and developing countries. In regard to technology transfer, the UNFCCC provides that:


“The developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II shall take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies and know-how to other Parties, particularly developing country Parties, to enable them to implement the provisions of the Convention. In this process, the developed country Parties shall support the development and enhancement of endogenous capacities and technologies of developing country Parties. Other Parties and organizations in a position to do so may also assist in facilitating the transfer of such technologies.� (Paragraph 4.5.)


Source: NCCC Archive

"Technology must be found or adopted," Jared Diamond, Collapse.



Reservoir area in Kalimantan

In Paragraph 4.7 the Convention also urges industrialized countries to implement their commitment of transfer of technology and financial resources in a way that fully takes into account the economic and social development and poverty eradication as the overriding priority of the developing countries: “The extent to which developing country Parties will effectively implement their commitments under the Convention will depend on the effective implementation by developed country parties of their commitments under



Source: Prihasto Setyanto, Ministry of Agriculture

the Convention related to financial resources and transfer of technology and will take fully into account that economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of the developing country parties.� COP7 in Marakesh reached a consensus to adopt a framework and effective actions to support the implementation of Paragraph 4.5, by establishing the Expert Group on Technology Transfer (EGTT). Funding for technology transfer would be supported through the

Global Environmental Facility (GEF) as a climate change focal area and the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF). At COP14 in Poznan, the GEF Strategic Program for Transfer Technology began operating through the Poznan Strategic Program for Transfer Technology that provided funding for the implementation of technologoy transfer, and a Pilot Project for Transfer Technology was established along with funding for Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) for GHG adaptation and mitigation in developing countries as the basis for technology transfer activities. COP15 in Copenhagen approved the Technology Mechanisms, including the Technology Executive

Committee (TEC) and Climate Technology Center & Network (CTC-N). The TEC will have an advisory function to CTC-N, the agency that will have the day-to-day operational function in technology transfer. The TEC itself was established and began operations after COP16 in Cancun. The discussions of issues that have not been agreed at COP16 in Cancun were continued in the rounds at COP17 in Durban and COP18 in Doha, which aimed to have a fully operatoinal Technology Mechanism by 2012. At COP18 in Doha, the CTC-N has gone through a tender process, where UNEP and several other consortiums were selected as CTC-N.(*)

FIVE YEARS OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER Within the five years of NCCC, the Technology Transfer Working Group has conducted a range of activities in line with its duties and functions as a think tank forum for developing policies about technology transfer related to climate change control in Indonesia. There are four main activity categories, namely:

1. PREPARE TECHNOLOGY NEEDS ASSESSMENT (TNA) Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) includes a range of activities to identify and determine priorities of each country for climate change mitigation and adaptation technologies. The TNA also a supports and serves as a reference for low carbon emission development initiatives. In TNA technology priorities are identified according to inputs from relevant stakeholders, which are then compiled in the Technology Action Plans (TAPs). TNA and TAPs are used as the basis for the implementation of climate change technology transfer from industrialized countries to developing countries.



There are seven priority sectors in TNA for climate change mitigation: energy, transportation, industry, forestry, agriculture, marine, and waste. Of the seven sectors, three priority sectors are energy (including for transportation sector), forestry and waste, as they have the greatest potentional for reducing emissions with the application of technology compared to other sectors. The following are technological options for climate change mitigation for the three priority sectors: ● Energy sector (including transportation sector): solar cells, Regenerative Burner Combustion System (RBCS), and Mass Rapid Transportation (MRT). ● Forestry sector: calculation and monitoring of carbon sequestration and emissions, remapping of peatland, and water table management in peatland. ● Waste sector: biological and mechanical waste treatment, in-vessel composting, and low solid anaerobic digestion. In terms of climate change adaptation, the three priority issues analyzed in TNA are coastal vulnerability, food security, and water resources. The three issues have been identified as priority through a series of consultative meetings with relevant stakeholders and policymakers. The following are technological options for adaptation for the three priority sectors: ●


Coastal vulnerability sector: seawall and sea revetment technology, coastal reclamation, and Gryone technology to mitigate abrasion. Food security sector: drought and flood resistant rice strains, aquaculture, and increasing meat production. Water resource sector: rainfall harvesting technology, recycling of domestic waste water, and modelling and projection of water resources.


2. IMPLEMENTATION OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROJECTS THROUGH THE FACILITATING IMPLEMENTATION AND READINESS FOR MITIGATION (FIRM) PROGRAM To follow up some of the ideas that have been identified, NCCC in cooperation with the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) conducts the FIRM (Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation) program along with several other developing countries. The FIRM program is aimed at enhancing the national capacity to formulate low-carbon development strategies and identify opportunities for mitigation in the context of sustainable national development and the National Action Plans for Mitigation in seven developing countries in three regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. In conducting this program, NCCC’s Technology Transfer Working Group and BPPT has held a series of consultative meetings with relevant stakeholders. The FIRM program is focused on the energy, industrial and transportation sectors. In the energy sector, the focus is to develop national solar energy technology, while for the industrial and transportation sector is the implementation of Regenerative Burner Combustion System (RBCS) and biojet fuel. To support the initiative of developing solar energy technology in Indonesia, the working group has identified and evaluated economic and fiscal policies to support and secure the photovoltaic cell production and market in Indonesia. The ideas for the industrial sector (implementation of RBCS) and transportation (development of bio-jet fuel) are still being coordinated with the various stakeholders to identify the possibility of RBCS application and development of bio-jet fuel, as well as the obstacles and issues pertaining to such technology transfer. The formulations and recommendations will bridge the needs in the field and government policies that support them.

In the Indonesian context, the priorities for climate change mitigation and adaptation technology transfers in relevant sectors are as follows: Sector

Mitigation Technology

Energy (and Transportation)

● ●



Adaptation Technology

Solar energy Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) Regenerative Burner Combustion System (RBCS)

Food Security

Domestic waste recycling

Water Resources

Forestry and Land Management

Coastal Vulnerability

3. PREPARING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A NATIONAL DESIGNATED ENTITY (NDE) TO IMPLEMENT TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER UNDER UNFCCC MECHANISM. To facilitate technology transfer in Indonesia, a National Designated Entity (NDE) will be established to work together with the Climate Technology Center & Network (CTCN). The focal point of NDE is the NCCC, with a guiding committee and a technical team from relevant stakeholders.


NDE’s functions include the following: 1. Manage the national proposal submission process for CTC-N. 2. Identify technology priorities and development capacities that are appropriate for national




Rice strains that withstand droughts and floods. Development of mariculture Development of livestock Rain harvesting technology Modelling of water resources and projection of their potential

Seawall and sea revetment technology Coastal reclamation technology

needs, climate strategy and collaborative program designs with CTC-N, that also refer to the results of TNAs, LED, RAN/RAD-GRK and other relevant activities. Facilitate the consultation process to enhance coordination and collaboration between government and the private sector for policymaking on technology strategy for the purposes of mitigation and adaptation. Support government activities pertaining to CTC and its network. Monitor and evaluate the implementation of proposed technology transfers. Provide feedback to CTC and communicate regarding the quality and procedures of CTC-N. (*)





Source: NCCC Archive

Like blood, funding is an important element that moves an activity.

Reservoir area in Kalimantan

IN OTHER WORDS, funding is very important to ensure that efforts to address climate change are implemented. The scale, effectiveness of mitigation and adaptation depends on the availability of and access to funds. The issue of funding becomes even more important for developing countries like Indonesia as problems related



to climate change affect the development budget. Funding for mitigation and adaptation is still considered an extra need that must also be derived from private and international sources. This situation brings a strong international dimension to the issue of funding. In the last five years, the Working Group on Finance has explored the various issues related to financing, including the need, possible sources, and mechanisms to financing instruments (See: From Mechanism to International Negotiations). However, the issue goes beyond direct financing. It also extends to provision of incentives, including those coming from carbon trading. The Working Group on Finance also works to develop financing models, testing them through pilot projects and actual funding.

Source: NCCC Archive

The international dimension becomes more pronounced when we refer to the commitment under UNFCCC that must be met by industrial nations to support mitigation and adaptation activities in developing countries, including by providing grants and soft loans outside, or in addition to, the foreign assistance for general development purposes. Twenty years since the Convention was adopted, the flow of funds for

climate change mitigation and adaptation to developing and least developed countries is still limited. Within the constraints of this multilateral level mechanism, the Working Group on Finance is also involved in bilateral and regional mechanisms to secure funding for climate change from industrialized countries to developing countries. (*)




Source: NCCC Archive


THE WORKING GROUP on Finance has conducted a series of activities with domestic stakeholders and international partners in the last five years. These activities are funded by the National Budget and foreign assistance. They include:

1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MECHANISMS, INSTRUMENTS AND FINANCIAL INCENTIVES Mechanisms, instruments and financial incentives were developed by conducting studies, consultations and coordinations. Some of the studies include: ● Identifying financing needs and effective financing mechanisms for mitigation activities in Indonesia in collaboration with the UNFCCC Secretariat. This is conducted as part of the global initiative to assess these needs at the national level.



Identifying opportunities and policies – particularly incentives – to encourage mitigation activities in the industrial and transportation sectors in collaboration with the World Bank. Short-term financing provided by industrialized countries to Indonesia in the period of 2010-2012: the study started in 2011 and will be completed in 2013 after industrialized countries have lodged their latest reports with the UNFCCC Secretariat in mid 2013.

To discuss efforts to address problems that have been identified, the Working Group on Finance held a series of consultations, especially regarding the effectiveness of climate change financing from international sources and increasing the role of the private sector in climate change financing. For that purpose and in order to increase awareness and understanding about climate change issues, the Working Group on Finance has held consultations and coordination with national financial institutions in order to explain the positions and roles of the various mechanisms and schemes.

The growing awareness and understanding that the Indonesian public has toward climate change must be accompanied by the

Source: NCCC Archive

development of mechanisms and schemes



Source: NCCC Archive

The role of financial institutions, both government as well as non-government, bank or non-bank, needs to be enhanced to support climate change programs and projects. To that extent, the Working Group on Finance coordinates and collaborates with several institutions, including: ● The National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas) to support the Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund (ICCTF) to obtain accreditation from the Adaptation Fund as the National Implementing Entity in Indonesia. ● Supporting Bank Indonesia to prepare the concept of “Green Banking” that aims to encourage an increased role of the national banking sector and management of climate change funds. ● To promote national financial institutions, both government, state-owned enterprises, NGOs and the private sector, in a regional and international network with a concern to improve access to climate change financing by national financial institutions.

Meeting on Effectivity of Climate Change Funding



2. EXPLORING FINANCING SCHEMES FOR ADAPTATION For a developing country like Indonesia, adaptation is a great challenge considering both the economic and social vulnerabilities of its people to climate change, , while a large share of available resources is still aimed at meeting basic needs. Adaptation is a complex issue as it pertains not only to the physical aspect, but also social. Although the impacts of climate change are strongly felt, it is not easy to quantify the impacts and risks. Adaptation activities closely relate to development activities in general, and they often lead to methodological problems in calculating the cost of adaptation. Considering these challenges, the Work Group on Finance held a series of activities to increase the understanding of stakeholders about adaptation financing from mixed sources. They include: ● A study about how the national insurance industry can play a role in financing climate change adaptation activities, especially for most impacted communities such as small farmers and fishers. The

study, conducted in cooperation between NCCC and UKAID, involved a review of the literature and focus group discussions with actors from the national insurance industry. This study found that the insurance industry is highly interested in playing such a role. However, developing a national climate change insurance scheme still faces the problem of lack of scientific data regarding impacts of climate change and lack of government incentives. A study to test the possibility of using several methodologies for calculating the need for adaptation, including cost-benefit analysis, costeffectiveness analysis, and multi-criteria analysis. The study focused on determining the possibility of using these methodologies to calculate the cost of adaptation at sub-national level.

3. ENCOURAGING PRIVATE SECTOR INVOLVEMENT The Indonesian government has prepared a National Action Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions (RAN-GRK) affirmed by Presidential Regulation 61/2011, to support achieving the emission reduction target as set by the President in 2009, that is, up to 26 percent with its own resources and up to 41 percent with international assistance by 2020 calculated from the BAU projection. The list of activities identified in RAN-GRK has usually been proposed by the public sector (government ministries) and has not taken into account how the private sector can contribute to achieving this target. Private sector involvement in this regard is crucial, considering the limitations of public funds in light of other crucial development priorities. A series of activities were held to encourage the involvement of private sector, including: ● A series of discussions in 2011, focusing on government actors to enhance their understanding about public-private partnerships in the climate change project.

Focused discussion regarding “the role of private sector in funding mitigation action with market and non-market approaches” in 2012. Results of this and other informal discussions informed subsequent NCCC activities, including developing result-based model of financing that involves the private sector.

4. RESULTS-BASED AND PRIVATE FINANCING MODEL To support Indonesia’s readiness for results-based climate change financing that involves the private sector, the Working Group on Finance in cooperation with the German Development Bank KfW explored the development of a pilot project, “Carbon -Linked Incentive Scheme" (CLS). Through the CLS scheme, companies participating in the project—small and medium enterprises (SME)—will obtain soft loans for emission reduction activities and incentives for emission reduction that have been recorded and are verifiable. Financing for this pilot project is supported by the European Commission through its Asia Investment Facility that at the end of 2012 approved a grant for technical assistance and incentives for SMEs. KfW, in the meantime, will provide soft loans to SMEs who are willing to participate in the pilot project. This scheme is expected to be operational in 2014 and will be managed by a national financial institution that will be identified at the end of 2013. The main objective of CLS is to prepare infrastructure for results-based emission reduction financing scheme that involves the business sector within the context of Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) that is linked with the government target, policy and regulation. This infrastructure also included the preparedness of local financial institutions in green project financing. This is important in anticipating the future trend where the role of national financial institutions is expected to increase the management of climate change funds from international sources.




Source: NCCC Archive

At the international level, in the last five years the issue of climate change financing has been one of the most important topics that has drawn a lot of interest and controversy. UNFCCC negotiations since COP13 in Bali (2007) emphasized that one of the most important actions to be enhanced is the provision of financing from industrialized countries to developing countries. On the one hand, developing countries have insisted that without such financing, there is only limited action that can be taken in their respective countries. On the other hand, most of the industrialized countries have been experiencing a rather severe financial crisis giving them reasons to postpone their commitments. To support the NCCC’s function as a focal point in UNFCCC and other international climate change forums, the Working Group on Finance has been leading many discussions to prepare the Indonesian delegation who



will be negotiating the issue of financing. Several coordination meetings have been held to formulate Indonesia’s position. Additionally, the Working Group on Finance held meetings, and had been using mass media and publishing special books on the issue of climate change financing to enlighten the key stakeholders in Indonesia regarding the developments of financing issues discussed in multilateral negotiations. Indonesia’s international role in the climate change issue did not stop after it hosted COP13. In the issue of financing, the Indonesian delegation had been asked to lead, as Co-Chair or Co-Facilitator, meetings that have followed since addressing the issue of financing. In 20112012 the Secretary of the Working Group on Finance had been entrusted as Co-Facilitator of the financing negotiations under the Ad Hoc Working Group on Longterm Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA) which strives to achieve an agreed outcome to resolve the financing negotiation rounds under AWG-LCA. Additionally, in 2012-2013, the Working Group Secretary was asked to Co-Chair the meeting of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) that addressed various financing issues. Aside from UNFCCC meetings, there are also several international, regional and bilateral meetings on climate change where the NCCC’s Working Group on Finance played an important role to represent Indonesia. Indonesia’s representation and contribution to international financing institutions is also evident in the presence of Indonesian representatives as members of theBoard of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) since the middle of 2012. The GCF is a new multilateral fund established by UNFCCC through COP16 decision in Cancun, Mexico in 2011. Indonesia was represented by the Head of Fiscal Policy Bureau of the Ministry of Finance who also head NCCC’s Working Group on Finance. Aside from GCF, NCCC’s Working Group on Finance had also succeeded in placing the Deputy Head of the Working Group as member of the Executive Board of Clean Development Mechanism for 2013-2014. (*)

Though the impacts of climate change have been already felt, it is not easy to put a numerical value of the costs of the impact 5 YEARS OF THE NCCC



Source: NCCC Archive

The carbon market is a market-based innovation that was created in response to the global challenge of climate change, in particular to secure funding for mitigation projects to reduce or offset greenhouse gas emissions using market mechanisms.

THE CARBON MARKET is a policy tool to provide incentives for climate change mitigation activities. Climate change mitigation projects that can be financed with funds secured from ‘carbon trading’ include: clean renewable energy, energy saving solutions, forests conservation, and others. Presidential Regulation 46/2008 clearly stipulates that one of the tasks of NCCC is to “formulate a policy for regulating the mechanism and procedures for carbon trading”. Carbon trading is a direct consequence of the principle of “Common but Differentiated Responsibilities.”



This is how the parties who are obligated to reduce emissions and parties who do not have such direct obligations ‘link up’ to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Under the Kyoto Protocol Indonesia does not have the obligation to reduce its emissions. This allows Indonesia to trade Carbon Emission Reduction certificates from its climate change mitigation projects with industrialized countries under Annex I. Carbon trading is also possible between Indonesian companies obligated to reduce emissions with companies abroad or at home who have committed themselves to various emission reduction activities. Currently, there are only two methods of trading carbon credits, namely through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, and through the voluntary carbon market between business actors.

CDM is one of the solutions, to lower greenhouse gas emissions, where developed countries invest in developing countries on projects that result in the reduction of GHG emissions



The NCCC is preparing a post 2012 carbon market through scaling up

In the Kyoto Protocol, industrial countries are required to reduce their GHG emissions by at least 5 percent from 1990 emission levels in the period between 2008-2012. Under CDM, industrialized countries can invest their capital in developing countries in projects that aim to reduce GHG emissions by purchasing Certificates of Emission Reduction (CER). These certificates are alternatively called ‘carbon credits’, and are calculated based on GHG emission reduction expressed in terms of CO2-ton-equivalent. The ratification of the Kyoto Protocol through Law 17/2004 has provided more opportunities for Indonesia to participate in Clean Development Mechanism to support low-carbon development programs. A CDM project proposal follows the following procedure: preparation of project proposal, validation of the proposal by independent bodies, registration in CDM Executive Board of UNFCCC, verification of emission reduction by an independent body, and issuance of CER as carbon credit. To be registered as a CDM project in UNFCCC, the project must first get approval from the host country’s Designated National Authority (DNA). The DNA of the host country would approve the project by taking into account the project’s contribution to national sustainable development. In Indonesia, the DNA for CDM projects is the National Commission for Clean Development Mechanism (KNMPB) established by Minister of Environment Decree 206/2005 and later renewed by Minister of Environment Decree 522/2009 regarding the National Commission for Clean Development



Mechanism. The KNMPB Secretariat is hosted by the NCCC. Its main task is to monitor the status of Indonesian project documents in the CDM Executive Board on a monthly basis through data available at UNFCCC website and UNEP Risø. As of May 2013, the status of Indonesian projects are as follows: ● 242 Indonesian projects have been proposed to UNFCCC; ● 212 projects have been given the Letter of Approval (LoA) by the Indonesian National Commission for Clean Development Mechanism (KNMPB); ● Of these projects, 172 projects have an active status in the UNFCCC pipeline; ● As of March 2013, 128 projects have been registered and 6 PoAs as CDM projects in UNFCCC with an emission reduction potential of ±143.6million CO2-ton-equivalent by 2020; ● Of these projects, 28 have reduced emissions and obtained carbon credits (Certified Emission Reduction) with a ±7.9million CO2-ton-equivalent; ● 9 projects have been developed in the voluntary market, with a total VER (Voluntary Emission Reduction) of up to 1.87 million CO2-ton equivalent created. The development of carbon trading still requires further agreements through UNFCCC negotiations. Aside from Kyoto Protocol II, the decisions of the Doha Gateway 2012 had brought significant changes to the carbon trading scheme. (See: Prospects and Challenges of Carbon Markets in Kyoto Protocol II).(*)

Geothermal is one technology that can be harnessed for renewable energy Source: NCCC Archive

Aside from CDM, the NCCC is currently also preparing a series of activities to develop post-2012 carbon markets by working together with several national and international institutions. They include: â—? The Multilateral Market. Here, the World Bank is facilitating a trust fund through a partnership aimed at providing financial and technical support to strengthen the readiness of developing countries to use market instruments. This partnership is called the Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR). â—? Regional/Bilateral Markets. NCCC also conducts an activity called Bilateral Offset Crediting Mechanism


(BOCM). Under this activity, Japan and Australia has offered to conduct a new bilateral carbon trading scheme for Indonesia and several other developing countries. Domestic Market. Domestically, NCCC is preparing for post-2012 carbon markets by enhancing the capacity and coordination between government agencies and market actors in Indonesia. In lowcarbon development, NCCC has begun developing a GHG program, called the Skema Karbon Nusantara (SKN, Archipelago Carbon Scheme) a carbon certification and registration scheme in Indonesia.



WHAT IS CARBON TRADING? The term "carbon trading" is actually a bit misleading. For example, many people think that carbon here is charcoal, not carbondioxide (CO2). In fact, carbon dioxide is not the only thing that is traded in carbon trading. Presidential Regulation No. 46 of 2008 stipulates carbon trading as follows: “Carbon trading is an activity of buying and selling carbon emission reduction certificates from climate change mitigation activities.” Carbon trading, like other markets, require buyers, sellers, goods (supply), price, and agreements. In carbon trading, what is being traded is the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in ton-CO2-equivalent. The types of greenhouse gas credits that can be traded in the carbon market are related to the six greenhouse gases specified under the Kyoto Protocol. The commodity traded in the carbon market is called carbon credit, that is essentially certified emission reduction,where one unit of carbon credit is equivalent to a reduction in one ton of carbon dioxide. Sellers of carbon credits are those who develop emission reduction projects and buyers of carbon credits are individuals or organizations that will use the credits to offset the greenhouse gas emissions resulting from their activity. Buying and using carbon credits means neutralizing greenhouse gas emissions in the amount of carbon credits bought, even if the amount of carbon credits used to offset is the same as the amount of emissions traded, the emissions of the owner of the carbon credit is considered to remain zero/neutral. Based on how the markets are formed, carbon credits can be divided into two categories: ● Compulsory market, resulting from an obligation to reduce emissions imposed by the government on the emitter (also called capping). The sanction for non-compliance is usually a high fine, so the option of trading credits is more preferrable to an emitter.



Voluntary carbon market, formed as a result of voluntary emissions reductions. Aside from idealistic motivations, this can also be due to market demands as well as preparatory steps in anticipation of future obligations to reduce emissions. There are two ways in which carbon credits are traded, namely: Crediting, which is usually project-based and the carbon credit is the difference between emissions before and after the project (ex-post), for example: CDM; Trading, to trade the difference between the given emission limits (ex-ante) with actual emissions that are released, example: EU-ETS.

THE PROSPECT AND CHALLENGES OF THE CARBON MARKET UNDER KYOTO PROTOCOL CHAPTER II Climate negotiations at COP18/CMP8 in December 2012 in Doha, Qatar, produced unencouraging results that will have a rather significant impact for Indonesia, particularly in regard to the development of carbon markets which previously have benefited Indonesia. The Doha round failed to increase the emission reduction ambitions. As a result, there will not be additional demand for carbon credits at the carbon markets. On top of that, the fact that Japan, Canada, New Zealand and Russia can no longer use CDMs as a mechanism for climate change mitigation has also reduced demand for CDMs until the second round of commitments of the Kyoto Protocol expire. To compound the problem further, the European Union announced that from the end of 2012 the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) will no longer accept Certificates of Emission Reductions (CERs) from developing countries, including Indonesia, and will only accept them from the Least Developed Countries (LDC). An exception is made only for CDM projects registered with UNFCCC prior to 31 December 2012 and CDM projects under the PoA

The carbon trade is the act of buying and selling certificates of carbon emission reduction from climate change mitigation: Mangrove plantation by NCCC Source: NCCC Archive

(Program of Activities) category. In the 2013-2020 period no new projects will be developed to supply these markets. In the meantime, the Australian carbon market, an alternative market for developing countries allowed by COP, will only open in 2015. The Australian carbon market will link with the EU-ETS market, so in the event that EU-ETS market experiences oversupply, the Australian market can buy allowances (CER) from EU-ETS. As the market for CDM is expected to drastically decrease, Indonesia must undertake several policy

recommendations to address this matter. Firstly, as Australia will be the main market option for developing countries when it becomes fully operational in 2015, Indonesia must initiate approaches with the Australian Government to secure access to its carbon market. Secondly, the Indonesian CDM projects that have been registered prior to 31 December 2012 and sold under a long-term purchase agreement with Japan, Canada, Russia, and New Zealand will have to be re-negotiated and transfered either to EU-ETS to the upcoming Australian markets.



Source: NCCC Archive


THE CONFERENCE of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP) and the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC serving as Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) are held annually as a multilateral effort to stabilize the concentrations of greenhouse gases at levels that will not endanger the continuity of humanity and the planet (see Chapter 2: Greenhouse Gases and Humanity). International negotiations to control climate change are not only conducted under the United Nations, the UNFCCC, and the Kyoto Protocol as multilateral forums, but also through other bilateral, regional and plurilateral channels. However, the multilateral process is the main inclusive process. With COP and CMP as the highest authorities for UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol respectively, other meetings are held to prepare the materials to be decided by COP and CMP, as well as jointly by COP/CMP. The meetings of the permanent subsidiary bodies under COP and CMP, the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technical Advice (SBSTA) as well as the Subsidiary Body for



Implementation (SBI), are conducted bi-annually, with every other meeting of each subsidiary body conducted in parallel with COP and CMP. SBSTA was established with the mandate to advise COP and CMP on the scientific and technical aspects regarding UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. The SBI conducts studies and reviews the effectiveness of UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol implementation. These two very important instruments usually meet in parallel, and for several topics of crucial importance the discussion is conducted jointly in an SBSTA/SBI joint session. There was another body established under the Kyoto Protocol, namely, the Ad-hoc Working Group on Further Commitments of Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) established at CMP1 in Montreal in 2005. Its main mandate is to discuss the sustainability of Kyoto Protocol implementation after the expiration of the First Commitment Period (2008-2012). After rounds of laborious discussions, AWG-KP finished its work at CMP8 in Doha, 2012. It produced an agreement regarding the sustainability of Kyoto Protocol implementation through the Second Commitment Period starting 1 January 2013 until 31 December 2020. This agreement was adopted as the Doha Amendment that must be ratified by at least three quarters of the 191 State Parties to the Kyoto Protocol for it to take effect and have legal force. Global efforts to control climate change have evolved over the years. The parties to UNFCCC can be grouped into: (i) Annex I countries, that is, industrialized countries and countries in economic transition, (ii) Annex

Various UNFCCC member countries following negotiating proceedings in Bonn, Germany, April 2013 Source: NCCC Archive

II countries, that include most Annex I countries who are given additional obligations in terms of financing, development and technology transfer, as well as capacity building for developing countries, and (iii) Non-Annex I countries that include developing countries, including less developed and vulnerable countries. However, the UNFCCC document does not stipulate the mechanisms for implementing the obligations. Legally binding decisions, produced by the Conference of the Parties (COP), are regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. It stipulates, for instance, how industrialized countries should reduce their emissions and provide financial and technical support to developing countries, especially countries most vulnerable to impacts of climate change (island nations and least developed countries). Including developing the human resources necessary to implement adaptation

programs. Planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation are the responsibility of respective countries who shall consider the decisions the directions in the agreements achieved during UNFCCC proceedings. UNFCCC decisions also emphasize the importance of national circumstances, legislation and sovereignty. Unlike other multilateral negotiations, UNFCCC is also unique in the number of meetings held. During its full session in 2012, five main meetings were held: COP, AWG KP, AWG LCA, SBSTA and SBI, addressing a total of 65 main agenda items.

INDONESIA’S ROLE IN INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS As a member of the international community, Indonesia has demonstrated its positive contribution in the multilateral arena of climate change negotiations. 5 YEARS OF THE NCCC


Source: NCCC Archive

Delegates in the midst of negotiation on climate change: On climate change conference in Bonn, Germany, April 2013

Indonesia hosted a UN Climate Change summit, the Thirteenth Conference of Parties in 2009 in Bali, which produced two important global agreements, the Bali Action Plan (BAP) and the Bali Road Map. Indonesia focuses on a number of topics under UNFCCC negotiations, including: 1. Mitigation Action. Mitigation action is the ‘cornerstone’ of international negotiations. Without concerted mitigation efforts on a global scale, climate change will continue to accelerate. For Indonesia, mitigation is in its national interest not only because it is in line with its strategy of reducing GHG emissions, but also because it is consistent with the needs of national development to make them more effective and efficient. For the 2013-2020 period, Indonesia’s negotiation efforts will focus on mitigation actions under NAMAs including the types of mitigation actions and the associated sectors, mechanisms of registration, monitoring, reporting, support for implementation and utilization of the various approaches, including market and nonmarket schemes.



2. Adaptation. As an archipelagic nation with a large agricultural, forestry and plantation sector, Indonesia is highly vulnerable to impacts of climate change. Adaptation action, which has thus far been understood mostly as a reaction to impacts of climate change, must also include adaptation that anticipates expected future impacts. 3. Financing Mechanism. A financing mechanism is an important requirement for effective and efficient implementation of mitigation and adaptation actions. Negotiations regarding a financing mechanism present an opportunity for Indonesia to increase access to international financing, and enhance the transparency of its use. Climate change financingdepends not only on international financing but must also encourage domestic sources, including developing innovative financing mechanisms. 4. Development and technology transfer. Like financing mechanisms, weak development and transfer of technology will undermine the global effort to control climate change. Discussions on this

subject have been laborious as technologies are not always controlled and developed by governments representing the State Parties in negotiations. The establishment of the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) is expected to bridge the perception gap between industrialized and developing countries in this regard. 5. Capacity building. Another means of implementation is capacity building which would enable Indonesia to be competitive and become the master in its own country in efforts to control climate change. Limitations in institutional capacity and human resources are the greatest challenge for State Parties to be able to play a role and seize the opportunities in this global effort.

6. ADP. Discussions under ADP have been challenging for all countries, especially in regard to the long-term goal to keep the average global temperature rise to no more than 2oC above the average global temperature before the Industrial Revolution. Some countries, especially the least developed and more vulnerable countries, have demanded that the increase shall be no more than 1.5oC considering the impacts that they are already experiencing. In the various climate change negotiations, Indonesia always affirmed its position that this effort shall be a global responsibility and, as such, must be undertaken by all countries by considering the national circumstances and sovereignty.


The 2013 climate change negotiations will inform decisions that have been, are being, and will be made by 2015. These decisions will be affirmed and have legal force in 2020. This must be an emphasis for all parties including Indonesia. Aside from legality, serious efforts in closing the gap of global GHG emissions require attention, as emissions are projected to continue to increase. Taking stock of ongoing efforts, identifying innovations, and an increased global cooperation are key to ensuring the success of addressing global climate change.

The challenge in regard to the ambitions of industrialized countries in reducing emissions ●

The Challenge of Developing a New Protocol ●

Implementing convention principles in the new agreement. Taking into account national circumstances and the dynamics (economic crisis, natural disasters, etc.) in the future. Ensuring that the implementation of a new agreement can be “Applicable to All”, including securing the commitment of different parties to the convention to reduce emissions. Ways to implement incentives and a convincing implementation of regulations and fulfilling obligations. Ensuring that new requirements will strengthen the multilateral approach based on laws and regulations under the convention.

Learning from the past implementation of the convention and Kyoto Protocol and other multilateral agreements.

● ●

Increasing the emission reduction ambitions of countries that have pledged emission reductions and encourage countries that have not registered emission amounts to be reduced (percentage) International and national actions to complement emission reduction “pledges”, where state parties that have been doing such efforts are further strengthened, encouraged and supported by the convention. The role of “means of implementation” to increase emission reduction ambitions. Accelerating mitigation actions and initiatives to significantly reduce emissions. Learning from ongoing initiatives. Running programs more effectively, including technical and quantitative analysis of the options to increase the emission reduction ambitions. Providing incentives for mitigation actions and ensure effective implementation. Strengthening engagement of decision makers and stakeholders. Applying convention principles to increase emision reduction ambitions.




Source: NCCC Archive


NCCC Internal coordination meeting

The participation of the Indonesian Delegation in international climate negotiations is coordinated by the NCCC as the National Focal Point. The main mission of the Indonesian Delegation in international negotiations is to secure the national interests and encourage the commitment of industrialized countries to reduce emissions and provide assistance to developing countries. Normally, UNFCCC holds three international meetings every year. Two preparatory meetings are held to prepare draft decisions at the COP meeting held at the end of every year. In preparation for these meetings, NCCC establishes a series of three meetings, including:



1. Initial Consignment to identify issues of main concern for the Indonesian delegation and to draft the Indonesian position in line with its domestic policy. This meeting involves all stakeholders, including ministry and agency members of the NCCC, the private sector, NGOs and universities. 2. Final Consignment, where the Indonesian position is finalized. Having a clear position is crucial for the delegation to make interventions during negotiations. The participants during the final consignment meeting have the opportunity to provide constructive input based on developments of policy interventions at respective ministries and agencies in implementing programs related to climate change. The final consignment is concluded with a plenary meeting before the Indonesian delegation departs to attend UNFCCC negotiations. Ministry and agency members of the NCCC attend this meeting to inform the basic position of Indonesia and to gather input to ensure the success of the negotiations.

Some members of the Indonesian delegation in climate change negotiations Source: NCCC Archive

Aside from regular preparations before every negotiation, the Negotiation Working Group also conducts a series of activities to strengthen the preparation of the Indonesian delegation, including: 1. Training for the Indonesian delegation. The training is aimed at strengthening the Indonesian delegation in the preparation and actual negotiations. Three main items of concern for every negotiator in the Indonesian delegation are: knowing the Indonesian position, building networks, and defending Indonesian interests. 2. Preparing Indonesian submissions. In order to facilitate the discussion of particular issues during the negotiations, the UNFCCC Secretariat solicits the positions of member states. This request is made three months prior to the negotiations. The international Negotiation Working Group invites the stakeholders to discuss issues that pertain to Indonesian interests to help inform the

considerations and prepare decision-making guidelines for Indonesia’s own position. 3. Attend meetings outside of UNFCCC. There are many regional and multilateral initiatives that address climate change outside the main UNFCCC forum. The materials discussed are very important to consider as they inform the developments of negotiations under UNFCCC. 4. Evaluating the participation of the Indonesian delegation. The preparations of the Indonesian delegation have seen a steady increase in participants every year. This shows that the issue of climate change is cross-sectoral. The serious participation of all stakeholders contributes to optimal preparation and will help the Indonesian delegation in its task to defend the nation’s interest in the arena of international negotiations. (*)



PRESIDENTIAL SPECIAL ENVOY FOR CLIMATE CHANGE CONTROL AND EXECUTIVE CHAIR OF NCCC Why does Indonesia have a Special Presidential Envoy for Climate Change Control who is also the Executive Head of its National Council for Climate Change? As previously stated, NCCC was established in 2008 in response to the need for coordination of Indonesia’s efforts to address climate change. Among its main tasks, NCCC represents the official Indonesian position in international forums of climate change negotiations. As international climate change negotiations have become increasingly complex, the presence of high level officials to represent every country in the negotiations has become crucial. Some countries have established ministries with a dedicated climate change portfolio, such as in the Department of Climate Change, Energy and Buildings in Denmark; the Department of Energy and Climate Changein the UK; the Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency in Australia. Most other countries also have specifically appointed envoys for climate change, like New Zealand, Australia, Venezuela, South Korea. With this special commission, the countries in question have a permanent representative in the climate change negotiation process. Since NCCC was established in 2008, this role has been performed by the Executive Head of NCCC, Rachmat Witoelar, who at the time was also the Minister of Environment. As the negotiations became increasingly complex, it became necessary to have a figure who was focused on climate change control. As a result, in May 2010 the President of the Republic of Indonesia announced a ministerial-level appointment for Rachmat Witoelar to focus on international negotiations as the Presidential Special Envoy for Climate Change Control.



The envoy can also be present and play an active role in climate change negotiations in various informal meetings at the ministerial level, such as Pre-COP, the Petersberg Climate Dialogue (PCD) and the Cartagena Dialogue (CD). During these ministerial-level opportunities, the dialogue is usually more open, unlike at the negotiator level. Many interesting things take place. It shows how such openness creates an opportunity for countries to better understand each others’ positions. (*)

“Gangnam-style” in the Arena of International Cooperation An interesting event took place during PCD-4 in Berlin in early May 2013. This meeting, organized jointly with the German Government as the host along with Poland as the President of COP19/CMP9, was held at Axica Building near the Brandenburger Tor. Although situated in the basement, the meeting room was unique in that it had a glass roof, symbolizing transparency of the process. As a result, the stronger the sun shone as the day progressed, the hotter and brighter it got in the room as sunlight penetrated the room directly. The circular seating arrangement of the 35 countries placed Japan, Indonesia and India at the brightest spot, causing the representatives of the three nations to struggle to pay attention to the dialogue. Connie Hedegaard of EU then offered Rachmat Witoelar her sunglasses to wear as the room became too bright and made it difficult to see. As the time came for Indonesia to present its position, Rachmat Witoelar first offered his apology to the Co-Chair of the dialogue for having to wear sunglasses in order to be able to read the prepared notes. He also said, in a rather serious tone, that the sunglasses are a real example of European Union’s Technical Assistance to Indonesia. The room responded with boisterous laughter. It did not stop there. As the European Union took its turn to relate its position after Indonesia, Connie Hedegaard said that the European Union was very happy to work together with Indonesia, including in the Technical Assistance that was provided earlier. But she was even more happy to make Rachmat Witoelar adopt a Gangnam Style... and the room erupted into another round of boisterous laughter.

The main mission of the Indonesian delegation is to secure the country's priorities and to push the commitment of developed countries commitments in emissions reduction efforts and to provide assistance to developing countries.




Source: NCCC Archive

“Strength does not come from physical activity. It comes from an indomitable will.” Mahatma Gandhi

CLIMATE CHANGE EXPERTS in Indonesia are spread across various universities and institutions, both at the local and national levels. NCCC has counted 138 Indonesian experts on subjects pertaining to climate change, whose expertises include: mitigation, adaptation, basic science and observation. They are spread across both state and private universities, such as Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Bogor Agricultural Institure (IPB), Universitas Gajah Mada (UGM), Institut Teknologi Surabaya (ITS), Universitas Palangkaraya. These experts also work for various government research institutions, including the Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), and research bureaus of



various ministries, and special agencies such as the Meteorolgical Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG). In spite of that, a range of expertise is lacking when compared to the urgency of the problem that must be addressed by the nation in regard to climate change. Capacity building in terms of expertise is considered to be crucial and strategic, particularly for the purposes of climate change policy making. In the effort to further build the capacity of all the stakeholders to address the challenges of climate change, NCCC has coordinated a series of activities. ● Preparing NAMAs and/or Low Carbon Emission Development. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) refers to a set of policies and actions of developing countries as part of their commitment to reduce GHG emission with the support of technology, funding, and capacity building. NAMAs are conducted following MRV procedures and adapted to capacities of respective countries.

Source: NCCC Archive

Research on climate change requires adequate expertise and capacity

● ●

● ●

Implementing Adaptation Programs. Maximize Technological Need Assessments (TNAs) to operate in the new technological framework. The TNA is the crucial first step in applying technology to address, in practical terms, the vulnerabilities due to climate change, to contribute to development goals and meeting greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Conducting MRV. Monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) is a scheme that must be fulfilled in the effort to show that actions – especially in reducing greenhouse gas emissions – are conducted in an accountable manner. Preparing and/or implementing REDD and/or REDD+. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) are efforts to create financial value of carbon stocks stored in existing forests by offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from deforestation and invest in low-carbon sustainable development. Develop and prepare GHG inventory. Conduct the National Authority of CDM effectively.

Research and Development Capacity 2009 – 2012 Efforts to develop R&D capacity are coordinated under the Research and Development of Climate Change Science Basis in Indonesia, and include: 1. Coordination with the Climate Change and Environmental Conservation Task Force, Council of Universities, in preparing the joint program for Research and Development of Climate Change Science Basis, as well as communication and networking among Indonesian universities in developing climate change research programs. 2. Monitoring and Evaluation of climate change research activities conducted by LIPI, several R&D bureaus, such as BMKG and the Ministry of Marine and Fisheries and several universities. 3. Cooperation between universities in Indonesia. 4. Facilitation of research partnerships with international institutions such as Monash University (forestry), CSIRO (water vulnerability), FIO-China (monsoon-climate variability), UNESCO (coastal resilience) and IUCN-UNEP (blue carbon). (*)



CAPACITY BUILDING HOMEWORK It is very important that specific information about climate change in Indonesia to be continually studied and disseminated. In terms of capacity building to address the issue of climate change, the following needs to be done:

Source: NCCC Archive

1. A well-coordinated and sustainable compilation and verification of long-term climate data in Indonesia is crucial, as spatial and temporal data sufficient for climate change analysis in Indonesia is still lacking. To illustrate the scale of such efforts, the compilation of global precipitation data alone requires international projects conducted in many countries to obtain a complete picture. 2. The increase in climate variability in the interyear as well as intra-season time scale poses a real threat and requires urgent action as it could directly impact the health and agricultural sector. To anticipate the impacts of climate change in the short term (five to ten years forward) it is necessary to conduct studies of climate variability trends and increasing the capacity to predict seasons. 3. Information about climate change and its impacts often reaches the public haphazardly,



causing confusion. A way to address this is to compile a national reference book regarding climate change with the advice from national and international experts. Such a reference book is to be regularly updated in order to keep abreast of the latest developments in climate change science.

Policy recommendations to increase capacity include: ●

The need for a new research institution that specifically addresses climate change, that could draw expertise from the existing research institutions who are already engaged in climate change research, which, at the same time, can create synergy across the diverse relevant fields. The preparation of a Roadmap for Capacity Building, especially for climate change research. The preparation an Action Plan for Capacity Building of Climate Change Research based on the National Action Plan for Reducing GHG Emissions (RAN-GRK) and API An Assessment of the preparedness of Indonesia’s facing the risks of loss and damage, especially in regard to extreme weather and slow onset events. (*)





Source: NCCC Archive


Since COP13, Indonesia has progressed in addressing climate change issues. The progress is followed up by a range of important policy legislation to realise Indonesia’s commitment.





GLOBAL DIPLOMACY OF CLIMATE CHANGE Under the leadership of President Yudhoyono, Indonesia recorded many positive and concrete achievements in many fields. President Yudhoyono worked not only for national interest, but also for world interests. Such a statesmanlike vision has been “contagious� to those under his leadership in the government, and to citizens and other groups in society. One of the most outstanding achievements is making Indonesia a crucial actor in international climate change negotiations: a legacy of President Yudhoyono. President Yudhoyono with the support of Prof. Rachmat Witoelar as the President of COP 13 and Prof. Dr. Emil Salim as the head of the Indonesian Delegation. The Bali Road Map was not just a crystallization of words, or Source: NCCC Archive

merely a document that will guide future international climate change negotiations. It also has a deeper meaning as it adopted the local wisdom of the archipelago that has been inherited for generations, such as the concept of Tri Hita Kirana which seeks the balance THE ROLE OF INDONESIA in international climate change negotiations became more real and received international acclaim when it succeeded in passing the Bali Road Map at the UNFCCC COP 13 in Bali to strengthen international action to address climate change. This success was in large part due to the diplomacy led by



of relations between humans, the divine and nature, all of whom are inter-connected.

Indonesia’s commitment to anticipating climate change impact is concretized more and more everyday Indonesia’s President at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development Rio de Janeiro, 2012 Source: NCCC Archive

In addition to the Bali Road Map, as explained in

Certainly, Indonesia’s great success at COP 13 did

previous chapters, COP 13 also produced the Bali Action

not happen in an instant; it was a result of great concern

Plan. This important doccument summarized the world’s

and a long historical journey from earlier times. To refresh

shared vision to take action in the form of long-term

our memory, since 1994, when Indonesia passed Law

cooperation to reduce global emissions through

No.6/1994 regarding the Ratification of UNFCCC, then

programs and real action of adaptation, mitigation,

later in 2004, Law No.17/2004 regarding the Ratification

technology transfer, and financing. In subsequent

of the Kyoto Protocol, Indonesia has taken many steps

international summits on climate change, the Bali Road

forward and has been more concrete in its response to

Map and the Bali Action Plan were used as reference,

climate change.

even guidelines, and not merely historical documents.

In subsequent high level International climate change meetings, the Bali Road Map and The Bali Action Plan has been used as references, even guidelines



This progress was followed up by a series of

Ismid. He gave the example of policymaking and

important policies to manifest Indonesia’s commitment,

coordination of REDD+ handled by the REDD+ Task

including the establishment of the National Council for

Force, while mitigation policy is addressed by Bappenas

Climate Change (NCCC) through Presidential Regulation

through both the National and Regional Action Plans to

No.46/2008 to strengthen Indonesia’s position in

Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions that have been

international forums, as elaborated earlier. Other

mainstreamed into the short and long-term national

important policies include the commitment to reduce

development plans. In terms of climate change financing,

emissions by 26%, the National Action Plan to Reduce

there is the Fiscal Policy Agency of the Ministry of

Greenhouse Gas Emissions, through Presidential


Regulation No. 61/2011, Climate Change Road Map, and

According to Ismid Hadad, in the future, the role of

a range of other relevant Presidential and Ministerial

the NCCC as a coordinating agency and designer of

regulations regarding forest management, reducing

policy on climate change must be enhanced, both at the

emissions from deforestation and degradation of land

national and international levels. Together with

(REDD+), and fiscal policies regarding climate change.

Bappenas, the NCCC is expected to function through

Many people see that these policies are very positive

coordination of climate change policies as well as

because they are very visionary and futuristic,

matters pertaining to GHG Emission Reduction plans,

considering how climate change is long-term and has

implementation of REDD+ and MP3EI schemes. In the

multidimensional impacts on various sectors of life.

MP3EI program, the NCCC can act as the bridge to

These policies, strategically speaking, not only have a

balance between economic growth and the resultant

fundamental significance to harmonize coordination of

greenhouse gas emissions.

climate change at home, but also guide the steps in

Eddy Pratomo, the Indonesian Ambassador to

international negotiations. The NCCC is tasked as the

Germany, believes that the NCCC and Bappenas as

coordinator to synergize these steps.

coordinating bodies can complement each other, because each have their own uniqueness. The division

Coordination Function and Synergy

of coordination tasks need to be enhanced, according

Since the NCCC was established —it is now in its fifth

to Eddy Pratomo, in order to achieve a more solid and

year (July 2013) —challenges and hopes have been

comprehensive synergy in the future from both.

expressed by many relevant actors and policymakers.

According to Eddy Pratomo, the NCCC and Bappenas are

Ismid Hadad, the Secretary of the Indonesian Delegation

like “two sides of a coin”. The NCCC plays a role at the

during COP 13, said that, “Among the tasks entrusted to

global level while Bappenas is the national development

the NCCC, there are two main things that it has done well

planner. “Our commitment with the international

~ and they are the international negotiations and the

community must be translated into Bappenas programs.

carbon trading.” Other fields are worked on by other

When NCCC makes reports and submissions to UNFCCC,

institutions who formally have a better capacity, says

Bappenas plays a role and is transparent in providing the



Source: NCCC Archive

The NCCC and Bappenas are two sides of the same coin, as NCCC plays a role at the International level while Bappenas is the national development planner



information and in its implementation. So, Bappenas

far future, whereas it is already happening now. People

takes part at the level of negotiation, agreements and

must be made aware and given an understanding. They

implementation,” explains Eddy. The NCCC functions to

must be turned into skilled and powerful campaigners.

prepare Indonesia’s position at the national level and

Jatna gave the example of people planting trees. Perhaps

bring it to the table at international negotiations. In its

tree planting is an insignificant event to some, but we

implementation it will involve the relevant sectors in

explain the idea of carbon footprint and how to reduce

climate change, because the NCCC cannot and indeed

that footprint, then this issue gets a new significance.

should not be standing alone in these coordination

Campaigns on this issue must be increased, or else it will


be just business as usual. Understanding the carbon footprint is not only a matter of caring about the

Communicator and Campaigner on Climate Change

environment, but it also promotes energy efficiency,

A senior environmental journalist, Aristides Katoppo,

environment, and so on. The role of the NCCC is to

said that the NCCC needs to prepare effective and

promote such policies to be solid, comprehensive, and

enforceable policies to mainstream the issue of climate

not piecemeal.

reduces the use of products that endanger the

change and the way it is addressed in public at the national level. The NCCC must also come up with a

NCCC in the Eyes of the Foreign Partners

communication strategy that involves the press, NGOs,

Jose Ferraris, representative of UNFPA (United

private sector and academia. Similarly, the Exectuvie

Nations Population Fund) Indonesia, says that the NCCC

Director of Walhi, an environmental NGO, Abetnego

has been very good in coordinating its work regarding

Tarigan, is of the opinion that NCCC must be more

climate change and population dynamics with other

effective in promoting the awareness and understanding

government ministries and agencies. “In my experience

to the general public about climate change.

working on the issue of population dynamics, the NCCC

Jatna Supriatna, an academic from University of

has been effective and efficient in coordinating with

Indonesia, was more concrete in his comments. Because,

relevant ministries and agencies, and has connected with

among the big issues, climate change is one that affects

researchers and academics in this field. There is a follow

almost all sectors of life. It must, therefore, be

up mechanism, not just publications,” he says. UNFPA

mainstreamed to all departments, and the public and

feels it has been helped with NCCC’s leadership and

private sectors, in order to anticipate it in the long run.

coordination with other government agencies in the

The policy needs to be like that. International

government policies regarding climate change.

commitments are necessary indeed, but commitments

Kawanishi Masato, Chief Advisor of JICA (Japan

at home are just as important. Many people still think

International Cooperation Agency) Project, sees the

that the impacts of climate change will happen in the

domestic role of the NCCC in harmonizing the



Firmness of principles and accuracy is a must in climate change negotiations: Rachmat Witoelar and Agus Purnomo along side the delegates of COP13, Bali 2007 Source: NCCC Archive

implementation of development strategy that pertain

change, so it can coordinate with relevant ministries/

directly or indirectly to climate change to achieve the

agencies about integrating the issue of climate change

goal of sustainable development. “Climate change must

and development.

be continually integrated with development, but also

The NCCC is also expected to be able to explain the

include the different development agendas. It also

most recent progress of international negotiations and

requires several levels in the time and space scale, from

the impacts of such negotiations in everyday language

national to local levels. Different levels, different times,

to the public at large. “I believe that the NCCC, with its

different spaces, different agendas. That is perhaps

strong networking with NGOs, will be a strong bridge

critical for a developing country, a fast developing

between climate change negotiations that are

country like Indonesia,” he says.

increasingly complex, on the one hand, and the problems

The NCCC has the advantage as the focal point appointed by the government in the issue of climate

in real life about climate change, on the other hand. That is my hope for the NCCC in the future,” says Kawanishi.



government agencies, scientists, and academics, to the

Our hope is that the NCCC will continue to improve in coordinating Indonesia’s position in international climate change negotiations by taking into account work plans of all related ministries and agencies collectively with this, there should by a sinergy between activities at the national level with the negotiation proposals Indonesia offers at the international level

public and the business sector. Climate change meetings are also diverse, from technical, political meetings, as well as different levels from bilateral, regional to multilateral. In that regard, the NCCC must be the coordinator at the national level that can provide guidance and input from the results of its meetings at the international level, and how it is to be implemented at the national level. Eddy Pratomo also highlighted an obstacle experienced by the Indonesian Delegation when negotiating at the international level, that is, the issue of representation of each ministry and government agency who are stakholders in climate change. “The representation is there, but they are not in a position to make decisions. So sometimes the Indonesian delegation runs into obstacles during meetings. Although these obstacles can be resolved with the wisdom of the Presidential Special Envoy for Climate Change or the Head of the NCCC, the head of the delegation, advisors, but we hope that this can be strengthened in the future. the NCCC also can play a more active role up to the level

Coordinator of International Negotiations

of implementing international commitments at the

The NCCC acts as the national coordinator regarding

national level,” says the former Director General of

the climate change issue for negotiating Indonesian

International Agreements at the Ministry of Foregin

interests at the international level. As the only agency


bridging national interests and representing Indonesia’s

Meanwhile, Endah Murniningtyas, the Deputy

position at international negotiations to the fullest, the

Minister for Natural Resources and the Environment of

role of the NCCC is not only crucial, but also strategic.

Bappenas, says that according to the function and role

However, Eddy Pratomo sees a challenge for the

that cannot be exercised by other government agencies,

NCCC in coordinating climate change stakeholders. This

that is, the focus on negotiation process, the NCCC has

is understandable considering the number and variety

been very good in exercising its negotiating function

of stakeholders involved, ranging from ministries,

and role. “ the NCCC personnel includes the human



The NCCC focuses on negotiations at the international level, and domestic level performs coordinating functions as well climate change education: President Yudhoyono and First Lady Ani Yudhoyono Participating in tree planting in Sarongge Bogor village, January 2013 Photo: Abror/Istana Negara RI



resources that have been frequently participating in

change in Indonesia would not have been this good

national and global events, that have the capacity and

without the NCCC. Climate change is something new

the time to focus on preparing the negotiation process

and can develop rapidly, and it cannot just be handled

and continuous communication with external parties,”

in a regular manner,” she says.

she says.

A real example of the NCCC’s role at the international

The NCCC has the strategic position to focus on

level was the President’s statement about Indonesia’s

coordination for negotiations/communication with the

commitment to reduce emissions by 26 percent

global society in defending the Indonesian position in

voluntarily and by 41 percent with international

the global arena. To fulfil this role, the NCCC membership

assistance. Despite the conditions at home whereby the

includes representatives from relevant ministries and

policy of reducing emissions cannot be optimally

agencies, so that the updating of government policies

implemented, as climate change is still a new issue, both

pertaining to climate change can be maintained.

nationally and internationally, this commitment has

To strengthen this role, the NCCC must continually

elevated the world’s appreciation for Indonesia.

engage in enhancing its negotiating capacity, conduct

Even though climate change is a new issue,

studies to establish the basis for negotiations along with

Indonesia has become the global leader in addressing

the impacts, complement them with legal advisors who

climate change with its commitment to reduce emissions,

understand the issue of climate change and international

which was then elaborated in the national and regional

matters, and act as a focal point for Indonesian

action plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well

communication networks with the global society.

as other policies, such as the REDD+ Task Force.

Similar support was expressed by the Minister of

To be more effective and have a wider impact, the

Environment, Balthasar Kambuaya, who reminded

NCCC has involved ministries and agencies to work

people that negotiation dynamics unfold rapidly, so “...

together with foreign parties, such as the bilateral

our hope is that the NCCC can be better in coordinating

discussions on cooperation in carbon trading, the Joint

the preparation of the Indonesian position in negotiating

Crediting Mechanism (JCM) by involving the

climate change at the international level, by taking into

Coordinating Ministry for Economics. The NCCC also

account the working plans of all ministries and agencies.

helped promote the finding of partners for green

That way, it can create synergy between activities at the

economic activities in Indonesia, such as communities

national level with negotiation proposals that we offer

in Aceh who planted mangrove forests whose carbon

at the international level,” he says.

stocks can be traded through JCM or multilateral channels. “The forestry sector has many great potentials

The Unique Role of The NCCC

with the public to be offered in carbon trading,” she says.

Expert Staff for Environment and Climate Change of the Ministry of Forestry, Yetti Rusli, sees the NCCC’s role

International Cooperation

in coordinating issues that pertain to climate change as

In addition to its coordinating function, the NCCC is

being quite extraordinary. “The journey of climate

tasked to conduct international cooperation about the



Source: NCCC Archive

issue of climate change with international entities. One

that Indonesia is seen as one of the big countries that

such cooperation is with the Japanese government

has made a great contribution to addressing climate

through the Japan International Cooperation Agency

change and can lead in international negotiations.

(JICA). Kawanishi Masato, Chief Advisor JICA Projectsaid

“Indonesia’s contribution to international discussions

that the cooperation between JICA and the NCCC in the

and negotiations regarding climate change has been

field of climate change has been positive.

quite substantial. Hosting COP 13 with its successful

“Climate change is a global issue for all of us. There

adoption of the Bali Action Plan, for instance. As well as

has to be partnership between countries that transcend

its voluntary commitment to reduce emissions by 26%

borders to address this issue. JICA has been active and

by 2020 has also positively influenced the aspirations of

will continue to be so in its partnership with Indonesia

international climate negotiations,” he said.

in the field of climate change,” he says. Kawanishi says

The progress of Indonesia’s commitment to tackling climate change would not be at this advanced stage had there not been the NCCC. Climate change is a new issue and experiences quick development, and it cannot be handed the usual way.



INDONESIA CLIMATE CHANGE CENTER The National Council on Climate Change (NCCC) aims to improve coordination in the implementation of climate change control to strengthen Indonesia’s position in international forums. To support science-based policy, the NCCC identified the need for an institution that would serve as a place to produce scientific work to support science-topolicy initiatives. In 2010, at a NCCC coordination meeting chaired by the Vice Chair of the NCCC, the Coordinating Minister for People’s Welfare, the NCCC was tasked to develop a Regional Center, which was expected to become a climate change think tank and a partner for the government in producing climate change policy. In the same year, the government of Indonesia and the United States produced a cooperation agreement, the US-Indonesia Comprehensive Partnership that includes six Working Groups: the Working Group on Democracy and Civil Society; the Working Group on Education; the Working Group on Climate and Environment; the Working Group on Trade and Investment; the Working Group on Security; and the Working Group on Energy. In line with this partnership, under the umbrella of the Working Group on Climate and Environment, NCCC held a meeting with the United States Forest Service (USFS) to develop a think tank in Indonesia especially to facilitate science-to-policy application. The United States Government welcomed the proposal and affirmed its willingness to support the development of an institutional concept and



the think tank program. The Regional Center concept evolved. In the coordination meeting of ministries and agencies, NCCC saw that before exploring a regional think tank, it would be more appropriate to develop a network at the national level. As a result, the Indonesia Climate Change Center (ICCC) was developed, which serves as a forum of national and international experts to produce thematic studies in order to support measures to reduce Indonesian greenhouse gas emissions and increase the national adaptation capacity. This concept was then finalized between Indonesia and the USFS. In October 2011 NCCC and USFS reached an agreement to develop the Indonesia Climate Change Center, both institutionally as well as its programs. The development of the ICCC is expected to strengthen and complement the existing institutions, including climate change research institutions. The ICCC does not aim to replace existing institutions, but is expected to serve as a liaison to bridge the gap between science and policy of climate change. The ICCC is expected to contribute to the National Action Plan to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the National Action Plan for Climate Change Adaptation through science-based studies that can support government policies. The involvement of national and international experts in the development of scientific research in ICCC is expected to enrich the results. (*)

There needs to be a government and Parliamentary legislation to strengthen the NCCC’s position. Climate change is a global problem

NCCC-JICA COOPERATION The NCCC and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) conduct technical cooperation to support climate change institutional capacity building in Indonesia. This cooperation involces three main activities: firstly, policy development and analysis pertaining to international negotiations and its implementation at the national level. Secondly, the development of monitoring and evaluation systems for the various measures to address climate change, and support for a series of dialogues regarding issues in global negotiations. Lastly, capacity building and public awareness building to disseminate climate change issues and encouraging policymakers to mainstream innovative steps regarding climate change.

Three activities of the NCCC-JICA cooperation are: 1. Policy development: ● Low Emission Development Strategies ● Domestic policies and future global regime ● Land-Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry 2. Monitoring and Evaluation:

Monitoring and evaluation system ● Registry ● Carbon market 3. Capacity building and public awareness building: ● Green Investment ● Youth Camp ● Climate Change Debate Competition ● Asia Forum on Carbon Update ●

Activities pertaining to policy development have produced several studies, including: 1. Initial Study for Developing MRV Institutions: Possible Options for Indonesia Based on International Experience 2. Low Carbon Emission Development Strategy in Indonesia’s Energy Sector 3. Land-Use and Land Use Change Dynamics in Kalimantan, Indonesia (1990-2012) For public awareness building and bridging between the various government and private sectors in addressing climate change, the NCCCJICA has held a series of dialogues in the “Green Investment, Innovation, and Productivity” forum.



NCCC-UNITAR PARTNERSHIP National Council on Climate Change (NCCC) dan UNITAR (United Nations Institute for Training and Research) made a partnership in the implementation of “UN CC Learn Pilot Project to Strengthen Human Resources, Learning and Skills Development to Address Climate Change” to support emission reductions through activities on human resource capacity building by education, training and public awareness, both national and provincial level. This partnership aimed to strenghten the human resource capacity in Indonesia through strategic learning approach about climate change and skill development. UN CC Learn supported by

affiliation of 33 UN Bodies in supporting the activities. Indonesia was elected as one of the five selected pilot project countries, which are Benin, Republic of Dominika, Malawi and Uganda. This partnership has resulted the National Strategy on Human Resource Capacity Building on Combating Climate Change. This strategy was prepared based on the active contribution from the ministries/agencies, universities, research institutions and related stakeholders, and expected to support the capacity building of the Indonesian in facing climate change.

Indonesia can also be a good example for other

prerequisites for making plans and carrying out joint

countries in handling climate change through

action to anticipate or mitigate the impacts of climate

development strategies such as its national and regional

change to the social, economic and environmental

action plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.


“Without a doubt, the role of the NCCC is significant,” says Kawanishi.

Addressing climate change must involve various parties, including the central government, local governments, the private sector, civil society, the

Enhancing External and Internal Coordination

education sector, individuals and other stakeholders. Seeing the unique and cross-sectoral function of the

The issue of coordination between sectors/agencies

NCCC, Yetty Rusli hopes that the NCCC will continue to

is still a bureaucratic weak point in realizing

exist, and even strengthened. “Without the NCCC, one

comprehensive, effective and efficient development.

cannot imagine what will become of climate change

Efforts to control climate change require strong

developments in Indonesia,” she says.

cooperation between government sectors/agencies,

More specifically, Eddy Pratomo said that the NCCC

because the impacts of climate change require a rapid

must also be equipped with a legal division to strengthen

response and quick decision-making. A short

it in international negotiations. “So one day, in the future,

bureaucratic chain and rapid coordination are

I hope that the NCCC can invite along legal experts, both



Source: NCCC Archive

from the ministry of foreign affairs and other ministries,


because a legal advisor in every international convention

“If this counrty has the vision that the future

negotiations, a new regime, is always required, because

direction of Indonesia will be one of environmental

there are legal implications as we are dealing with

consciousness where green economic schemes are

international governance. International conventions or

applied, certainly the President with his NCCC will

international agreements are implemented at the

coordinate it to all ministries, so that the budget and the

national level, and the legal system is different. So there

environmentally sound programs would be actualized

should be a legal advisor to play a role there,” said Eddy

in all departments, and that will be coordinated by the


NCCC. This coordination does not mean that it would intervene, but it could provide guidance or conduct

Increasing the Budget

supervision and monitoring. So, when the NCCC speaks

Satya Widya Yudha, member of Commission VII of

to the outside world it would have a voice that

the Parliament, said that he supports the government’s

demonstrates its comprehension of internal problems

vision to strengthen sustainable development, including

or coordination issues among the different ministries,”

its handling of the climate change issues, by increasing

he added.

the budget for that purpose, which, according to him,

Specifically Satya thinks that the budget for the

should at least be 10 percent of the total National

NCCC must be increased because it affects the



implementation of programs and human resource

it internally will have to remain and be fought for. There

empowerment. “If the budget allocation for NCCC is small

needs to be a decision by the government and the

and the human resource is very limited as well, then what

parliament to strengthen the position of the NCCC. This

the government wants to achieve may not materialize,”

is a world problem, a global problem,” says Satya.

said the Head of the Parliamentary Environmental Caucus.

Eddy Pratomo said that ensuring the existence of the NCCC is a matter of urgency to sustain the climate change commitments and programs that Indonesia has

Strengthening the Legal Basis

made, because future governments will also be bound

Both Satya Widya Yudha as MP and Eddy Pratomo

by these commitments. Whoever will be in the

as Indonesian Ambassador to Germany say that the

government in the future, Indonesia cannot just let go

NCCC plays an important role both nationally and

of these commitments, as long as Indonesia is still bound

internationally, and as such the presence of the NCCC

by such international agreements. For that reason the

must be strengthened, not only through a presidential

continuity and sustainability of the NCCC must be

regulations but by laws too. “As long as the issue of

preserved. “There has to be intensive communication

climate change remains a world issue, the NCCC’s

between the present government and future

presence to respond to this world issue and implement

governments,” says Eddy.

Even though climate change is a new issue, Indonesia is a leader in handling climate change: 5 years of NCCC Source: NCCC Archive







Climate change awareness is now a new concern






Source: NCCC Archive

There has not been a time since Indonesia’s independence where the government, various communities, the private sector, academia, non-governmental organizations, even religious leaders, made a singular call and set into motion the joint action for the environment and climate change as they have in recent times.

In the last decades, the awareness about climate change has become a new concern of humanity. Many feel change to be something abstract, because the global impacts of climate change unfold over a long time period. However, despite occuring slowly, the impacts of climate change are certain, as has been proven scientifically. In some places, the impacts of climate change are very strongly felt and more frequent, such as extreme weather changes, flooding, landslides, changes to seasons, which have lead to an onslaught of diseases, food scarcity, transportation problems, and other secondary impacts.



Extreme climate change is an extraordinary event. It is not a natural phenomenon, but is caused by humanity’s negligence in maintaining the balance of nature, and its greed in exploiting natural resources, at a scale just as extraordinary. The efforts to overcome it must be based on the goodwill of humanity and the resolve to maintain the principle that life and the living must be preserved. This is the reason why the National Council on Climate Change (NCCC) has come into being. The Council was established as an unusual response and a manifestation of the existence of a dignified Indonesian nation which shares a serious concern to overcome global warming and climate change. The NCCC has existed for five years. Its role as a coordinator is like that of a locomotive that strives to “pull the carriages” of concern about climate change with

The NCCC was established to coordinate and prepare Indonesia’s position international negotiations



The efforts to overcome climate change are the same as the efforts to uphold the dignity of the nation: Forest and river in Pekanbaru Source: NCCC Archive

its partners and relevant sectors onto a track of Indonesian national interest and for the future of our beloved Earth. Indonesia, which has adopted a free and active foreign policy since its independence, is now more respected and is able to hold its head high as a proactive member that plays an important role in the arena of international dialogue and negotiations, along with other nations, in becoming a global citizen who has affirmed its concern and is capable of synergizing to anticipate climate change. The NCCC plays an active role therein, contributing its thoughts, reasons, philosophy and real work. The NCCC, in its coordination and preparation of the Indonesian position in international negotiations on climate change, not only has represented the nation but is also reminds other nations that the industrialized countries have changed the lifestyle of humanity and have dragged the planet into the climate crisis that we are experiencing today. NCCC’s role supported by other ministry and institutional members of NCCC, as well as other organizations, including NGOs, the private sector



and universities, has increasingly gained wider appreciation, and must continue to be supported. Five years is certainly too short a time to make possible an appreciation of a national council mandated to find a national, even global, response to address climate change with such wide-ranging and serious impact on the survival of humanity. In spite of that, the NCCC sees that in recent years it has gained more partners who share the concern about climate change, and this is reflected in the increasing number of allies and sectors that need to synergize and coordinate. Furthermore, by exercising its function as a coordinator, especially in climate change negotiations, the NCCC has been actively involved in our history and dynamics as a dignified nation to participate in saving this planet from damage, and bring about good for humanity. As an institution to whom many place a great hope, the NCCC needs to continue improving going forward. But we can learn together from the NCCC’s journey in the last five year, building on many important things to be developed in the future, and continuing optimism that in the right hands, history will pave the way to a brighter future.


: Assisned Amount Unit : Ad-hoc Working Group on Durban Platform for Enhance Action. : Advisory Group on Finance : Alliance of Small Island States : National Budget : Other uses Areas : The First Assessement Report : Assessment Report No 4 : Assessment Report No 5 : Ad hoc Working Group on further commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol : Ad hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention : Bali Action Plan : Bussiness as Usual : National Population and Family Planning : Agency for the Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical : Bilateral Offset Crediting Mechanism : Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology : Ministry of State-Owned Enterprises : Climate Action Network : Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities. : Clean Development Mechanism : Certified Emission Reduction : Center for International Forestry Research : Carbon Linked Incentive Scheme : Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol : Conference of the Parties : Civil Society Forum : Climate Technology Centre and Network : Delegation of the Republic of Indonesia : Designated National Authority : National Council on Climate Change : Expert Group on Technology Transfer : Economies in Transition : Energy and Mineral Resources : Emission Trading : European Union : European Union Emission Trading Scheme : Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation : Framework for Various Approach : Global Environment Facility : Green house Gases : Global Warming Potential 5 YEARS OF THE NCCC




: Indonesia Climate Change Center : Indonesia Climate Change Sectoral Roadmap : Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund : International Council of Scientific Union : Bogor Agricultural University : Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change : Bandung Institute of Technology : Intrenational Trade Log : Surabaya Institute of Technology : Joint Credit Machanism : The People’s Coalition for Fisheries Justice : Ministry of Environment : National Committee of Clean Development Mechanism : High level summit/conference : Longterm Cooperative Action : Low Carbon Action Plans : Low Carbon Growth Strategy : Least Developed Country : Least Developed Countries : Low Emission Development Scenario : Indonesian Institute of Sciences : Letter of Approval : Letter of Intent : Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Insitute of Nahdlatul Ulama : Non Governmental Organisation : Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry : Millennium Development Goals : Monitoring, Reporting and Verification : Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Commitments or Actions of Annex-1 Parties : Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions. : National Aeroautics and Space Administration : National Communication : New Market Mechanism : United Nations : Partnership for Market Readiness : Regional Action Plan for GHG emissions reduction : National action plan for climate change adaptation : National action plan for GHG emissions reduction



: National Action Plan for Mitigation and Adaptation of Climate Change


: Regenerate Burns Combustion System : Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation : Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Plus : Reference Emission Level : Reduce Impact Logging : National Forest Plan : Reference Level : Midterm Development Plan : Longterm Development Plan : REDD+ Task Force : Subsidiary Body for Implementation : Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice : Sustainable Forest Management : Small Island Developing States : National GHG Inventory System : Safeguard Information System : Nusantara Carbon Scheme : Sustainable Management of Forest : Technology Action Plans : Technology Executive Committee : Technological Need Assessments : Third World Network : Gajah Mada University : United Kingdom Agency for International Development : Small and Medium Enterprises : President’s Delivery Unit for Development Monitoring and Oversight : United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification : United Nations Conference on Environmental Development. : United Nations Environment Programme : United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change : United Nations Population Fund : Work Group : World Meteorological Organization



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WEBSITE: http: //



NOTES ON CHAPTER 3. 5 YEARS OF NCCC Chapter 3 was formulated from contributions from NCCC working group. Adaptation written by Ari Muhammad; Mitigation written by Farhan Helmy; Communication, Information and Education written by Amanda Katili Niode; Land Use, Land Use Change and

Forestry written by Doddy S. Sukadri; Technology Transfer written by Widiatmini Sih Winanti; Finance written by Suzanty Sitorus; Carbon Trade written by Dicky Edwin Hindarto; International Negotiation written by Muhammad Farid; UKP-PPI dan Executive Chair of NCCC oleh Moekti H. Soejachmoen; Capacity Building written by Agus Supangat Indonesia Climate Change Center (ICCC) written by Murni Titi Resdiana

NOTES ON CHAPTER 4. CHALLENGES AND HOPES "Challenge and Hopes" reformulated from interviews and written by Fachruddin M. Mangunjaya, Yani Saloh, Nur R. Fajar, Farhan Helmy, and Agus Soetomo.



NCCC PUBLICATIONS 2009-2012 Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2009. Album Peta Informasi Tematik untuk Mengantisipasi Dampak Perubahan Iklim Terhadap Isu Prioritas Nasional Bidang Pangan, Kesehatan dan Fenomena Iklim Ekstrim. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2009. Profil Perubahan Iklim di Indonesia. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2009. Pemanasan Global dan Perubahan Iklim. NCCC bekerjasama dengan Dana Mitra Lingkungan. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2009. National Economic, Environment, and Development Studies for Climate Change – NEEDS (NCCC dan UNFCCC). Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2009. Opsi-opsi Pembangunan Rendah Karbon – Peluang dan Kebijakan Pengurangan Emisi: Sektor Manufaktur. Kerjasama NCCC, Kementerian Keuangan dan World Bank. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2009. Opsi-opsi Pembangunan Rendah Karbon – Peluang dan Kebijakan Pengurangan Emisi: Sektor Transportasi. Kerjasama NCCC, Kementerian Keuangan dan World Bank. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2010. Penyusunan Pemetaan Kerentanan Perubahan Iklim Provinsi Sumatera Utara. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2010. Rekomendasi Langkah Tindak: Pengembangan Measurable, Reportable and Verifiable (MRV). NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2010. Kurva Biaya (Cost Curve) Pengurangan Gas Rumah Kaca Indonesia. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2010. Menciptakan Kesejahteraan Rendah Karbon di Kalimantan Tengah. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2010. Strategi Pembangunan Kalimantan Timur yang Berkelanjutan dan Ramah Lingkungan. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2010. Menciptakan Kesejahteraan Rencah Karbon di Jambi. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2010. Panduan Observasi Perubahan Iklim di Indonesia. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2010. Indonesia’s Technology Needs Assessment for Climate Change Mitigation. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2010. Indonesia’s Technology Needs Assessment for Climate Change Adaptation. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2010. Policy Memo – Economic Incentive Policies for REDD+ in Indonesia: Findings from OSIRIS Model. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2010. Studi Kebijakan dan Sains Adaptasi. Kerjasama: NCCC, LAPI ITB, UK AID, British Council. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2011. Kajian Respon Masyarakat terhadap Rencana Aksi Nasional Perubahan Iklim. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2011. Soul Views on Climate Change. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2011. Pemetaan Kerentanan di Daerah Provinsi serta Inventarisasi Kebijakan dan Kelembagaan Dalam Rangka Antisipasi Dampak Perubahan Iklim. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2011. Kajian Dampak Perubahan Iklim dan Pendanaan Adaptasi. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2011. Rencana Aksi Nasional Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim Indonesia. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2011. Bumiku: Pegangan Guru tentang Perubahan Iklim. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2011. Bumiku: Pegangan Siswa tentang Perubahan Iklim. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2011. NCCC Green Review on REDD+ . NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2012.Kajian Kerentanan Perubahan Iklim di Provinsi Kepulauan Riau. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2012. Indonesia’s Technology Needs Assessment and Technology Action Plans for Climate Change Mitigation. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2012. Indonesia’s Technology Needs Assessment and Technology Action Plans for Climate Change Adaptation. NCCC. Jakarta.



Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2012. Direktori Data dan Informasi Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2012. Menegosiasikan Pendanaan: Panduan untuk Negosiator Indonesia mengenai Pendanaan Perubahan Iklim dalam Konteks UNFCCC. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2012. Pendanaan Perubahan Iklim melalui Kerjasama Pemerintah-Swasta. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2012. Kajian Penelaahan Mengenai Pendanaan Jangka Pendek (Fast-Start Finance) Perubahan Iklim untuk Indonesia. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2012. Evaluasi dan Pemutakhiran Rencana Aksi Nasional Perubahan Iklim di Indonesia. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2012. Skema Karbon Nusantara: Persyaratan dan Ketentuan. NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2012. Panduan Pelatihan Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim dan Pengurangan Risiko Bencana: “Mengintegrasikan Kemampuan Masyarakat Dalam Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim dan Pengurangan Risiko Bencana”. LPBI NU, WWF-Indonesia, NCCC. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2012. Kajian Awal Penyusunan Kelembagaan MRV: Pilihan-pilihan yang Memungkinkan untuk Indonesia Berdasarkan Pengalaman Internasional Kerjasama. NCCC, JICA. Jakarta Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2012. Land-Use and Land Use Change Dynamics in Kalimantan, Indonesia (1990-2012). NCCC, JICA. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2012. Low Carbon Emission Development Strategy in Indonesia: Energy Sector. NCCC, JICA. Jakarta. Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2012. Policy Memo: Menuju Konsensus Definisi Lahan Gambut Indonesia. NCCC, ICCC. Jakarta Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim [NCCC]. 2012. Population Dynamics and Climate Change in Indonesia: Mobilizing for a Sustainable Future. Kerjasama UNFPA Indonesia, NCCC. Jakarta.

NCCC Films and Documentaries 2009 • Lakukan Sekarang Juga 2010 • Climate Change in Our Backyards 2011 • Bumiku 2012 • The Earth Song






PRESIDENT’S SPECIAL ENVOY FOR CLIMATE CHANGE AND EXECUTIVE CHAIR OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE INDONESIA He was President of COP13/CMP3 in Bali in 2007 and Minister of Environment (2004-2009). Formerly the Ambassador of Indonesia to Russia from 1993 to 1997 after holding a seat on the National People’s Representative Council (DPR-RI) from 1971 to 1993, Rachmat holds an Honourary Degree from Griffith University where he is a visiting professor.

PRESIDENT’S SPECIAL STAFF FOR CLIMATE CHANGE, HEAD OF SECRETARIAT TO THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE, AND REDD+ TASK FORCE SECRETARY More familiarly known as Pungki, in May 2010, he was appointed to negotiate IndonesiaNorway cooperation that successfully resulted in a one billion dollar funding commitment.




COORDINATOR OF THE COMMUNICATION, INFORMATION AND EDUCATION DIVISION OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE Amanda is active as a Manager at The Climate Reality Project, part of Al Gore’s Climate Change Leadership Programme aimed to educate the public on the impacts of climate change and solutions. She is the Indonesian National Focal Point to the UNFCCC Article 6 on Education, Training and Public Awareness.

COORDINATOR OF THE ADMINISTRATION DIVISION OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE Entrusted with the administration management of the National Council on Climate Change, from internal coordination to programme development, including work programmes and is responsible for coordination of international cooperation.

COORDINATOR OF THE MONITORING AND EVALUATION DIVISION OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE Formerly Special Staff of the Minister of Environment Indonesia, member of the National People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR-RI), National People’s Representative Council (DPR-RI) and State Officials Wealth Audit Commission (KPKPN), he is also well known for his leadership of the National Association of Private Broadcasting Radio.





COORDINATOR OF CAPACITY BUILDING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DIVISION OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE Responsible for reviewing and formulating sciencebased adaptation and mitigation policies, designing public awareness training and has written popular science articles, published scientific articles and novels to raise public awareness of climate change.

SECRETARY OF THE ADAPTATION WORKING GROUP OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE Responsible to help strengthen and mainstream adaptation in Indonesia, he planned adaptation programs, is an active writer on environment and climate change adaptation policies and researcher.



SECRETARY OF THE MITIGATION WORKING GROUP OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE With more than 20 years of international experience in research and analysis on natural resource and environmental policy. Is currently the lead Indonesian negotiator for mitigation issues in the UNFCCC. His speciality is spatial dynamics, land use change, economic modelling and the environment (LEDs).

SECRETARY OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEGOTATION WORKING GROUP OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE In addition to her duties at the National Council on Climate Change she is also the Special Assistant at the Office of the President’s Special Envoy for Climate Change (UKP-PPI). Kuki is also active in the international climate change negotiation process.

DICKY EDWIN HINDARTO COORDINATOR OF CARBON MARKET MECHANISM DIVISION OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE With more than 12 years of experience in energy management, energy policy development, energy conservation and renewable energy, he was given the responsibility to develop the carbon market scheme for the National Council on Climate Change.

AND FORESTRY (LULUCF) WORKING GROUP OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE Farid began his career with Conservation International (CI) in 1999 and has since pursued his interest in REDD+, LULUCF, NAMAs and adaptation since 2007.

DODDY S SUKADRI ADVISOR FOR LOW CARBON EMISSION DEVELOPMENT With more than 25 years of experience in forestry, forest planning, reforestation and land rehabilitation, research and development of forestry policy as well as global climate change strategy.

NUR R. FAJAR DEPUTY ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT’S SPECIAL STAFF FOR CLIMATE CHANGE Writer and analyst on climate change reporting and is also a journalist at the Antara Jakarta News Bureau.



SUZANTY SITORUS SECRETARY OF THE FINANCE WORKING GROUP OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE Aside from supporting the programme of the Working Group on Finance through coordination of domestic climate change financing, Suzanty represents Indonesia in various international conferences and negotiations.


WIDIATMINI SIH WINANTI SECRETARY OF THE TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY WORKING GROUP OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE Her main areas of expertise are low carbon technology, technology transfer for climate change, clean production technology, energy efficiency and environmentallyfriendly technology.




ASSISTANT SPECIAL STAFF TO THE PRESIDENT’S SPECIAL STAFF FOR CLIMATE CHANGE A forestry, climate change and communications specialist, as part of the Special Staff her role is to provide input for the President and the Cabinet Secretary on national and global issues related to climate change, including forestry.

STAFF OF THE MONITORING AND EVALUATION DIVISION OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE Frans is known for the care and details he takes to handle issues to technical administration and planning.



STAFF OF THE MONITORING AND EVALUATION DIVISION OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE Specialist in meteorology and climatology, environmental analysis, remote sensing and information technology.

STAFF OF THE COMMUNICATION, INFORMATION AND EDUCATION DIVISION OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON CLIMATE CHANGE For this publication was responsible for technical administration, field visits and photographic documentation.




Writer, editor and publishing consultant for various media and publication.

Media publication consultant and event organizer.

A professional graphic design collective for publications and media promotion.



A lecturer in the Faculty of Biology at the National University and also a climate change and environmental conservation activist, as well as a published author of several volumes on the environment.

Film Producer and Climate Change Communications Consultant