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Po la r Fe st iv al s

Hi ghlights From Issue 8 (No vember 2008) FLAGMOVE3. Photo courtesy of Glenn Grant, U.S. Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation.


Table of Contents

Polar Festivals, Issue 8 (November 2008) Planning a Polar Festival

Planning a Polar Festival

By Jessica Fries-Gaither

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Literacy Content Knowledge

Writing Science-Themed Poetry in the Elementary Grades

By Jessica Fries-Gaither

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Science & Literacy: Lessons and Activities

Hands-on Science Activities for Your Polar Festivals

By Jessica Fries-Gaither

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Across the Curriculum: Lessons and Activities

Polar Arts and Crafts

By Jessica Fries-Gaither

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Informal Learning

Local Partnerships: Getting the Community Involved in Your Festival

By Jessica Fries-Gaither

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In the Field: Scientists at Work

Resources from Polar Research Projects

By Jessica Fries-Gaither

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Off the Bookshelf

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Polar Festivals: Virtual Bookshelf

By Kate Hastings and Jessica Fries-Gaither

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Planning A Polar Festival Planning a Polar Festival By Jessica Fries-Gaither In a school setting, festival is a general term that can describe any number of informal, shortterm learning experiences. This type of flexible event allows teachers and schools to incorporate a specific topic, such as polar science, into a crowded schedule. Festivals are an engaging way to spark interest in science and involve the greater community. Festivals can take many forms: a full day of activities, a week with a special focus, a family night, and so on. Festivals can also range in size: a single class, a grade-level team, or an entire school. Or an elementary and middle school could pair up to host a polar-themed festival. IDEAS FOR FESTIVALS Here are just a few ideas for including a polar festival in your school's activities: • Hold a daylong event in which groups of students or classes rotate through hands-on polar science and literacy activities led by teachers or volunteers. • Dedicate a week to polar science. Each grade level studies a different,

Family Tree Project. Photo courtesy of woodleywonderworks, Flickr.

developmentally appropriate topic. The week can be repeated from year to year so that students build on their knowledge from the previous year. Hold an assembly or special celebration to kick off the week or to share knowledge at the end.

• Include a read-a-thon in your polar activities. Challenge students, teachers, and families to read across Antarctica (or to the South Pole) by equating pages or books read to miles. Display a map in the hallway, and track your school's progress!

• Plan a polar science unit (a few weeks or more) for your class or grade-level team. The final products (presentations and displays of student work) can be shared with families and the community in a culminating celebration.

Of course, there is no wrong way to plan a polar festival! You might choose to combine some of these ideas, or invent a new idea altogether! Consider your goals, school calendar, and available resources before deciding on the best fit for you.

• Hold a family science night. Invite parents, guardians, grandparents, and other family members to participate in hands-on polar science and literacy activities.

GETTING STARTED To start the planning process, decide on a format and a focus. What is the time frame for your festival? Which classes or grades will be involved? Will you 3


Planning A Polar Festival focus on polar science in general, or one specific topic such as polar animals? Once you have a time frame and theme, you may want to consult national or state standards to support your activity. Polar science encompasses a wide variety of content from the National Science Education Standards, http:// books.nap.edu/catalog.php? record_id=4962. By integrating children's literature and poetry, you can also meet several English Language Arts standards, http://www.ncte.org/ standards. A major task in planning a festival is selecting activities. We've included articles to help you choose hands-on science activities (page 10), polar arts and crafts (page 16), and a

bookshelf with activity books and teacher's guides in case you need more ideas (page 22). We've suggested children's literature and various types of poetry to integrate literacy into your event. Finally, we've provided ideas for involving the community (page 18) and a list of resources (page 20) from polar research projects that can supplement your activities. PLANNING RESOURCES Festival Tips http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/ onramp:1373/Festival_Tips.pdf A list of tips to make the process easier. Timeline http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/ onramp:1370/Timeline.pdf

Messy Science Fun. Photo courtesy of woodleywonderworks, Flickr.

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Provides a suggested timeline for planning a festival. All time frames are suggestions and may vary depending on your school and event type. Planning Checklist http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/ onramp:1371/Checklist.pdf A checklist of tasks that you may need to complete as you plan and conduct your festival. Volunteer Form http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/ onramp:1374/ Volunteer_Form.pdf A template that can be used to solicit volunteers. Evaluation Survey http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/ onramp:1372/ Festival_Evaluation.pdf A template that can be used to evaluate your festival.


Literacy Content Knowledge

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Creative writing appeals to students who might not be attracted to the subject matter. It engages linguistic and musical intelligences, and it requires students to consider the content in a new way.

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Writing Science Themed Poetry in the Elementary Grades By Jessica Fries-Gaither Although we typically focus on nonfiction reading and writing in science and other content areas, including poetry and other forms of creative writing is a good idea. Why? Creative writing appeals to students who might not be attracted to the subject matter. It engages linguistic and musical intelligences, and it requires students to consider the content in a new way. It also challenges students to think creatively - a quality necessary for scientific discovery.

Of course, some types of poetry are more suitable than others for elementary students - no sonnets here! We've highlighted a few types of poetry that could be used in conjunction with elementary science activities and have provided links to lesson plans and resources. Remember that the content or topic of these types of lessons can be easily modified to meet your instructional needs.

Elementary school classroom. Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.

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Literacy Content Knowledge

Small Group Breakout. Photo courtesy of Woodleywonderwork, Flickr.

FOUND POETRY Found poetry involves mining words and phrases from existing works and recasting them in a different genre. Great for developing vocabulary, this exercise also helps students become more insightful readers. Use the polar-themed books from our Virtual Bookshelf on page 22. • A Bear of a Poem: Composing and Performing Found Poetry (Grades K-2) http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/ lesson_view.asp?id=835 Working together, students select words and phrases to create a collective class poem that they will then turn into a performance. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12. • Poetry From Prose (Grades 3-5) http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/ lesson_view.asp?id=49 Working in small groups, students compose found and parallel poems based on a descriptive passage they have chosen from a piece of literature they are reading. They pick out words, phrases, and lines from the prose passage and 6

then arrange and format the excerpts to compose their own poems. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 1, 2, 3, 11. ACROSTIC POETRY In acrostic poetry, selected letters from the poem spell a word related to the poem's topic or theme. Typically, the poem is arranged so that the first letter of each line lines up vertically to reveal the "special word." Acrostic poems are great for having students explore characteristics of a place (the Arctic or Antarctica), an animal (polar bear or penguin), a thing (ice, snow, glacier), or a phenomenon (the aurora). They also help students with spelling and phonemic awareness. • Acrostic Poems: All About Me and My Favorite Things (Grades K-2) http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/ lesson_view.asp?id=309 Students write free-verse acrostic poems about themselves using the letters of their names to begin each line. They then write an additional poem about something that is important to them, also using the letters of that word for the


Literacy Content Knowledge

Teacher in classroom. Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.

beginning of each line. The lesson can be adapted for use with other words. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 4, 5, 6, 8. • Building Classroom Community for the Exploration of Acrostic Poetry (Grades 3-5) http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/ lesson_view.asp?id=807 Students learn about acrostic poems on the Internet and write their own using an online tool. The lesson's topic is not science-related, but the tools and templates provided can be used with any content. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 4, 5, 6, 8. SHAPE POETRY In shape poetry, the words do more than convey meaning - they take the shape of the object being described. Like acrostic poetry, shape poetry is a great way to explore an object's characteristics. How about an iceberg? • Shape Poems: Writing Extraordinary Poems About Ordinary Objects (Grades 3-5)

http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/ lesson_view.asp?id=798 In this lesson, students write shape poems using their content knowledge and sensory awareness of a familiar object. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 5, 11, 12. CINQUAIN Cinquain poems are five-line poems with a twofour-six-eight-two syllable count pattern. The poem also follows this general pattern: • Line 1: One word that tells what the poem is about • Line 2: Two words that describe the subject • Line 3: Three words that describe something the subject does • Line 4: Four to six words describing the subject further • Line 5: One or two words that rename what the poem is about (a synonym) Writing cinquain poems helps students develop vocabulary and proficiency in identifying and counting syllables.

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Literacy Content Knowledge DIAMANTE Diamante poems are shaped like a diamond. Composed of seven lines, the poem begins by naming or describing one thing and ends by naming or describing another. The poem follows this format: • Noun (beginning topic) • Adjective, Adjective (about beginning topic) • Gerund, Gerund, Gerund (-ing words about beginning topic) • Four nouns -OR- a short phrase (about both beginning and ending topics) • Gerund, Gerund, Gerund (-ing words about ending topic) • Adjective, Adjective (about ending topic) Noun (ending topic)

An Inuit and the Arctic Buddies. Illustration courtesy of Daun.han, Flickr.

• Composing Cinquain Poems: A QuickWriting Activity (Grades K-2) http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/ lesson_view.asp?id=51 In this lesson, students write simple cinquain of their own as a follow-up to a subject they have been exploring in class. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 4, 6, 11, 12. • Composing Cinquain Poems with Basic Parts of Speech (Grades 3-5) http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/ lesson_view.asp?id=43 Students learn about cinquain poems and write their own. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 4, 6, 12.

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Diamante poems help students practice parts of speech and provide a simple format for comparing and contrasting two items. This type of poem is perfectly suited to describing the Arctic and Antarctica. The poem's shape even mirrors the regions' positions on the globe! • Dynamite Diamante Poetry (Grades 3-5) http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/ lesson_view.asp?id=823 In this lesson, students review nouns, adjectives, and verbs and learn about gerunds. They then practice using them as new vocabulary words by composing structured diamante poems as a class and independently using an online interactive tool. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 3, 4, 6, 8, 11, 12.


Literacy Content Knowledge HAIKU Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry composed of three lines following a five-seven-five syllable pattern. Traditionally written about the natural world, haiku is perfectly suited for inclusion in the science classroom. Writing haiku helps students with word choice and syllable counts. • Reading, Writing, Haiku Hiking! A Class Book of Picturesque Poems (Grades 3-5) http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/ lesson_view.asp?id=1072 Students create their own haiku after collecting words in their writer's notebooks. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9. • Seasonal Haiku: Writing Poems to Celebrate Any Season (Grades 3-5) http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/ lesson_view.asp?id=39 Students write and illustrate haiku depicting seasonal images.

This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9. WRITING SCIENCE POETRY This lesson plan provides strategies and suggestions for incorporating poetry into science. • Earth Verse: Using Science in Poetry (Grades 3-5) http://readwritethink.org/lessons/ lesson_view.asp?id=1141 In this lesson, students listen to the story, Science Verse, by Jon Scieszka and Lane Smith. Students then create one of three types of poems (diamante, acrostic, or shape) with illustrations. To help increase fluency, students read their poems to the class. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 3, 4, 5, 6, 12.

Writing. Photo courtesy of peruisay, Flickr.

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Science & Literacy: Lessons Hands-on Science Activities for Your Polar Festival By Jessica Fries-Gaither Engaging, hands-on science activities are at the heart of a polar festival. This type of informal learning event lends itself well to simulations, kinesthetic activities, model building, and discussion. Literacy can be easily incorporated into many activities by introducing a concept with children's literature from our Virtual Bookshelf (page 22). A poetry station also provides a creative means for students to demonstrate what they've learned about the polar regions. The article "Writing ScienceThemed Poetry in the

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Elementary Grades", on page 8, gives an overview of appropriate types of poetry and links to related lesson plans. Please note that all lesson plans would need to be modified to fit the informal nature of a festival. Finally, students could keep a journal of their festival experience. This journal could have a page for each activity where students record notes, reflections, or pictures that document their learning. We've included ideas for activities on a variety of topics: Polar Geography; Seasons, Weather, and Climate; Glaciers, Ice, and Snow; the Aurora; Polar Animals; and Peoples of the Arctic. Some ideas are presented in descriptive form while others link to formal lesson plans. Typically, lessons can be adapted to fit a festival format by modifying the written requirements or assessment

ideas. These types of follow-up activities are not usually included in festival activities, which are similar to an informal learning event or workshop. While lesson plans are often written for either primary or upper-elementary grades, most can be used with all grade levels as long as questions and directions are modified accordingly. For each science lesson, we've included the appropriate National Science Education Standards. You can read the entire National Science Education Standards online for free or register to download the free PDF. The content standards are found in Chapter 6, http:// books.nap.edu/openbook.php? record_id=4962&page=103.

Sea Ice. Photo courtesy of Patrick Kelley, U.S. Geological Survey, Flickr.


Science & Literacy: Lessons POLAR GEOGRAPHY Salt Dough Maps http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/onramp:1367/ Salt_Dough_Maps.pdf Groups of students create maps of the Arctic or Antarctica using homemade salt dough. Maps could be made prior to the festival and displayed before the event, or made during the event itself. Making the maps is fairly time consuming - make sure to allot enough time for this activity! If time is an issue, paper maps of the Arctic and Antarctica could be colored or labeled instead. This activity meets the National Science Education Standards: Earth and Space Science Content Standard. Tortilla Map http://www2.umaine.edu/USITASE/teachers/ tortillamap.html In this lesson, students create a 3-D map of Antarctica using a tortilla and dough. (Scroll to the bottom of the web page for this lesson.) This activity meets the National Science Education Standards: Earth and Space Science Content Standard. GLACIERS, ICE, AND SNOW The Center for the Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed many hands-on activities related to sea-level change, glacial dynamics, water (ice) properties, and global warming. We've highlighted a few below - find all of them on the Ice, Ice, Baby page, https://cms.cresis.ku.edu/ education/k-12/ice-ice-baby-lessons. How Do Snowflakes Become Ice? https://cms.cresis.ku.edu/sites/default/files/ images/3_HowDoSnowflakesBecomeIce.pdf Students model the formation of ice with marshmallows or, if it is available, snow. Lesson

Jan. 2009 Antarctica Sail Trip. Photo courtesy of 23am.com, Flickr.

extensions suggest using snow cones or shaved ice to model the difference between snow, firn (an intermediate stage between snow and ice), and glacial ice. This lesson meets the National Science Education Standards: Science as Inquiry Content Standard, the Physical Science Content Standard, the Earth and Space Science Content Standard, and the History and Nature of Science Content Standard. Blue Ice Cube Melt https://cms.cresis.ku.edu/sites/default/files/ images/9_BlueIceCubeMelt.pdf Students experiment with blue-colored ice cubes and learn that ice can melt under pressure. This lesson meets the National Science Education Standards: Science as Inquiry Content Standard, the Physical Science Content Standard, the Earth and Space Science Content Standard, and the History and Nature of Science Content Standard. Floating a Bergy Bit https://cms.cresis.ku.edu/sites/default/files/ images/16_FloatingaBergyBit.pdf

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Science & Literacy: Lessons Students observe a simulated "bergy bit" (an iceberg the size of a small house) and discuss how much of the iceberg is above and below the water's surface. This activity meets the National Science Education Standards: Science as Inquiry Content Standard, the Physical Science Content Standard, and the Earth and Space Science Content Standard. The following activities are not from the CReSIS web site, but they also provide excellent experiences with snow and ice. Modeling Glacier Dynamics with Flubber http://bprc.osu.edu/education/lessons/ flubber_activity_grade2-3.zip This hands-on activity simulates glacial flow. The students use a glacier-modeling compound made from glue, water, and detergent ("flubber") to predict and observe glacial flow. The students discuss with the teacher how scientists determine glacial flow with real glaciers. The link opens a zipped file that contains three documents: the teacher's guide, notes, and a worksheet. To adapt this activity to a festival format, omit the worksheet

and lead the class in appropriate discussions while conducting the experiment. This activity meets the National Science Education Standards: Science as Inquiry Content Standard, the Physical Science Content Standard, and the Earth and Space Science Content Standard. States of Water: A Snow Mobile http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/explore/ice/ activities/ice_cube/ Students create a mobile on which they record facts about the solid, liquid, and vapor forms of water. The template provided is best used with upper-elementary students. This activity meets the National Science Education Standards: Physical Science Content Standard. Frozen In Time: Ice Cores http://www2.umaine.edu/USITASE/teachers/ icecores.html In this lesson, students observe and measure ice cores to simulate the study of ice cores by glaciologists. They will count the number of years of snow accumulation represented by their cores and graph their data to discover trends of annual snowfall. (Scroll to the bottom of the web page for this lesson.) This lesson meets the National Science Education Standards: Science as Inquiry Content Standard, Physical Science Content Standard, Earth and Space Science Content Standard, and History and Nature of Science Content Standard. Snow Density http://web.archive.org/web/20040219140406/ http://www.snowschool.org/teachers/ exp_density.htm If you are lucky enough to have snow, take students outside to collect snow and measure how much water is contained in snow.

ICEBERG. Photo courtesy of Peter Rejcek, U.S. Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation.

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Science & Literacy: Lessons This lesson meets the National Science Education Standards: Science as Inquiry Content Standard and Physical Science Content Standard. SEASONS, WEATHER, AND CLIMATE Seasons by the Sun http://www.nsta.org/store/product_detail.aspx? id=10.2505/4/sc05_042_08_14 This free article from the NSTA journal Science and Children describes science lessons that incorporate trade books for students in grades K-3 and 4-6. The 4-6 activity, based on Arctic Lights, Arctic Nights, is most appropriate for a polar festival. Students in grades K-3 could read the same book, but draw pictures of the various seasons instead of recording data and creating a graph (the activity for students in grades 4-6). This activity meets the National Science Education Standards: Earth and Space Science Content Standard. Greenhouse Effect in a Baggie https://cms.cresis.ku.edu/sites/default/files/ images/19_GreenhouseEffectinaBaggie.pdf Students simulate the greenhouse effect with a baggie. This activity could be used to introduce the concept of global warming before playing the game Polar Bears Go With the Floes (see next page). This activity meets the National Science Education Standards: Science as Inquiry Content Standard, Physical Science Content Standard, Earth and Space Science Content Standard, Science in Personal and Social Perspectives Content Standard, and the History and Nature of Science Content Standard.

Polar Bear on ice flow. Photo courtesy of Ansgar Walk, Wikimedia Commons.

AURORA The Aurora: Inspiration for Art and Poetry Integration http://beyondpenguins.nsdl.org/issue/ column.php?date=May2008&departmentid= curriculum&columnid=curriculum!lessons This article from the May 2008 issue of Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears includes links to video clips of the aurora, nonfiction articles for students, and several art projects that could be used as a festival activity. POLAR ANIMALS POLAR BEARS • Polar Bear Story http://www.kinderteacher.com/ PolarBearActivities.htm Students listen to a story about a polar bear who changed his colors many times before deciding that white was just right. This activity could be combined with Why Polar Bears Are White (see next page). 13


Science & Literacy: Lessons This activity meets the National Science Education Standards: Science as Inquiry Content Standard and Life Science Content Standard. • Polar Bears Go With the Floes http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/explore/ice/ activities/ice_earth/polar_bears_floes/ Groups of students play a game that builds an understanding of polar bears' dependence on sea ice and how human actions impact climate change. This activity meets the National Science Education Standards: Life Science Content Standard, Science in Personal and Social Perspectives Content Standard. CAPEHALLETTADELIES. Photo courtesy of Jessy Jenkins, U.S. Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation.

This activity meets the National Science Education Standards: Life Science Content Standard. • Why Polar Bears Are White http://www.education-world.com/a_tsl/ archives/00-1/lesson0002.shtml Students learn about camouflage as they study polar bears and their habitat. This activity could be adapted for other animals, such as caribou and seals. This activity meets the National Science Education Standards: Life Science Content Standard. • Polar Bears and Their Adaptations http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/2964 Students create a "blubber glove" with plastic bags and a shortening product, such as Crisco, and test its insulation properties in ice water. The written explanation and assessment sections of the lesson can be omitted for use as a festival activity.

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PENGUINS • Move Like a Penguin http://childfun.com/index.php/activity-themes/ animals/106-penguin-activity-theme.html? start=2 This page includes suggestions for many different activities. Look for the Motor Development, Creative Movement, and Penguin Waddle Relay sections. These activities would be best conducted in the school gymnasium. This activity meets the National Science Education Standards: Life Science Content Standard. • How Do Penguins Keep Warm in Cold Climates? http://www.siec.k12.in.us/west/proj/penguins/ activity1.html Students use a Ziploc bag filled with air to simulate a penguin's down feathers. This activity meets the National Science Education Standards: Science as Inquiry Content Standard and Life Science Content Standard.


Science & Literacy: Lessons • How Do Emperor Penguins Keep Their Eggs Warm? http://www.siec.k12.in.us/west/proj/penguins/ activity2.html Students simulate a male emperor penguin's brood patch. This activity meets the National Science Education Standards: Science as Inquiry Content Standard and Life Science Content Standard. Penguin Unit: Teacher's Guides K-3 Teacher's Guide: http://www.seaworld.org/just-for-teachers/ guides/pdf/penguin-k-3.pdf 4-6 Teacher's Guide: http://www.seaworld.org/just-for-teachers/ guides/pdf/penguin-4-8.pdf These Teacher's Guides from the Sea World Education Department include a variety of activities (science, math, art, geography, and literature) about penguins. While these units were designed for use in a classroom, individual activities could be used as festival activities.

These activities meet several of the National Science Education Standards, including the Science as Inquiry Content Standard and Life Science Content Standard. PEOPLES OF THE ARCTIC Traditional Inuit Games http://www.athropolis.com/news-upload/master/ 11-frames.htm The Inuit people of the Arctic developed games and sports that often included skills needed to survive in the harsh environment. The web site includes instructions and pictures of eight traditional games. Set up stations in the gym and allow students to try each game. Ask students to reflect on how the skills in each game would have been needed for survival. Many other activities relating to Peoples of the Arctic can be found in the "Polar Arts and Crafts" article on next page. IMG_4846 Emperor penguin. Photo courtesy of ianduffy, Flickr.

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Across the Curriculum: Lessons Polar Arts and Crafts By Jessica Fries-Gaither Arts and crafts projects can complement the science and literacy activities in your polar

festival. Creative projects engage students and promote multiple means of expression. The projects could be paired with a science or literacy activity, or they could be used as an independent festival activity. Students could also complete some projects in advance and display their work at the festival.

POLAR GEOGRAPHY

GLACIERS, ICE, AND SNOW

Salt Dough Maps http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/onramp:1367/ Salt_Dough_Maps.pdf Groups of students create maps of the Arctic or Antarctica using salt dough. Making the maps is fairly time consuming - make sure to allot enough time for this activity! The maps could be made during the festival or made prior to the festival and displayed during the event. If time is an issue, paper maps of the Arctic and Antarctica could be colored or labeled instead.

Snowflakes http://www.mce.k12tn.net/reading26/ activities2.htm Make snowflakes by cutting and gluing together paper-towel rolls.

Tortilla Map http://www2.umaine.edu/USITASE/teachers/ tortillamap.html In this lesson, students create a three-dimensional map of Antarctica using a tortilla and dough. (Scroll down to the bottom of the web page to find this lesson.) SEASONS, WEATHER, AND CLIMATE Snowy Painting http://familycrafts.about.com/library/projects/ blsnowpnt.htm?once=true& Paint a snow-covered landscape with homemade puffy "paint."

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We’ve included art projects and hands-on craft activities for the same topics as our science lessons: Polar Geography; Seasons, Weather, and Climate; Glaciers, Ice, and Snow; the Aurora; Polar Animals; and Peoples of the Arctic.

Paper Snowflakes http://www.enchantedlearning.com/crafts/ christmas/snowflake/ Fold and cut six-sided snowflakes. Real Crystal Snowflakes http://www.enchantedlearning.com/crafts/winter/ crystalsnowflake/ Make crystal snowflakes from borax. The "snowflakes" must sit overnight for the crystals to form. Ice Cube Painting http://www.theholidayzone.com/winter/ arts.htm#ice Use an ice cube and powdered Kool-Aid or tempera paints to make designs.


Across the Curriculum: Lessons AURORA The Aurora: Inspiration for Art and Poetry Integration http://beyondpenguins.nsdl.org/issue/ column.php? date=May2008&departmentid=curriculum&colum nid=curriculum!lessons This article from the May 2008 issue of Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears includes links to video clips of the aurora, nonfiction articles for students, and several art projects that could be used as a festival activity. Northern Lights Drawings http://www.mce.k12tn.net/reading26/ activities7.htm Make sparkling drawings of the northern (or southern) lights. POLAR ANIMALS Polar Bears • Polar Bear Craft http://www.thebestkidsbooksite.com/ printcraft.cfm?CraftID=138 Cut out a paper polar bear and decorate it with cotton balls, packing noodles, or tissue paper. Suitable for the primary grades.

• 3-D Penguin http://www.thebestkidsbooksite.com/ printcraft.cfm?CraftID=843 Make a three-dimensional penguin with two foam cups. • Penguin Light Bulb http://www.lessonplanspage.com/ ArtSciencePenguinLightBulbIdea35.htm Create a three-dimensional penguin from a burned-out light bulb. Best for older students with adult supervision. PEOPLES OF THE ARCTIC Inuit Activities http://www2.grand-forks.k12.nd.us/ms/iditarod/ inuitact.html This site contains Inuit recipes from Shishmaref, Alaska, as well as links to several art projects: spirit masks, finger masks, scrimshaw, goggles, sculptures, and soap carvings. Inuksuk Stone Statues http://www.crayola.com/lesson-plans/detail/ inuksuk-stone-statues-lesson-plan/ In this activity, students explore an ancient form of communication used by the Inuit people of Northern Canada.

• Polar Bear Puppet http://www.enchantedlearning.com/crafts/ puppets/paperbag Make a polar bear puppet from simple materials. Penguins • Penguin Paper Craft http://www.dltk-kids.com/animals/ measypenguin.html Paper penguin created with a template. Suitable for primary students. Penguin. Photo courtesy of Stockbyte.

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Informal Learning Local Partnerships: Getting the Community Involved in Your Festival By Jessica Fries-Gaither Local organizations can enhance your school's polar festival, providing ideas, expertise, or maybe even resources. Many organizations are pleased to "give back" to the community, so don't be afraid to ask! IDEAS FOR INVOLVEMENT We've listed just a few of the many ways in which local organizations could be involved with your festival. • A local university might have a polar researcher willing to serve as a guest speaker or put together a slide show. • Preservice teachers from a local university might welcome the chance to plan and conduct activities. • Children's librarians from the public library might provide suggestions for books, crafts, and other literacy activities.

They also might be willing to hold a polar-themed story hour for younger students and siblings at the event. • A science museum or informal learning center might provide assistance in planning and conducting festival activities. • News media (newspaper, radio, and TV) might cover the event and provide publicity. • Local businesses might be willing to donate supplies or provide a discount. • A nearby middle school might want to co-host a festival. Middle school students could research, plan, and design the activities (using, for example, ANDRILL's Flexhibit materials, at http://www.andrill.org/ flexhibit/) and elementary students could participate. These are just a few ideas for involving the greater community in your festival. There are no right or wrong ideas. Don't be afraid to be creative and to dream big! NOW WHAT? Now that you've identified possible community partnerships, how do you go about approaching them? Here are a few tips that might help:

The Larsen Ice Shelf in Antarctica viewed from NASA’s DC-8 aircraft. Photo courtesy of NASA, Wikimedia Commons.

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Informal Learning • Ask well in advance. The more time available for planning, the better. • Be specific. Instead of saying, "We'd like you to be involved," say, "We'd like to know if you'd run a 'polar story hour' session" (or whatever you have in mind). • Consider the organizations and try to identify the persons who are in the best position to help you. Not only are they more likely to agree, but you'll save time! • Use connections. Is there a parent who works for a particular organization? Ask him or her for help or for a contact.

• Communicate regularly. Keep the organization abreast of decisions or changes that might affect it. • Be organized. Make the volunteer's job as simple as possible by having procedures for check-in, setup, the event itself, and cleanup. • Follow up with a thank-you. Notes or cards from students and pictures are always appreciated! Not every organization may be able to accommodate your request. But the ones who can will make your polar festival more engaging and enjoyable! •

• Have details. Don't ask until you have a date, times, a location, and other important information. • Put it in writing. Have all important information (date, time, location, your specific request, and contact information) in writing. If you first discuss your request verbally, follow up with a letter or an email confirming the details. • Include the organization in the planning process unless it requests otherwise.

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In The Field: Scientists At Work Resources from Polar Research Projects By Jessica Fries-Gaither Education and outreach are significant components of the International Polar Year as evidenced by the wealth of resources available for teachers and for informal educators working in science centers and museums. We've highlighted projects and programs that provide polar science resources for use in your classroom - in a lesson, unit, or polar festival. International Polar Year (IPY) http://www.ipy.org/

The scientific program's web site contains information about the six research areas of IPY, news and announcements, blogs, and resources for educators. Antarctic Geological Drilling (ANDRILL) http://andrill.org/ ANDRILL is a multinational research project seeking to reconstruct Antarctica's climate history by drilling rock cores. In Project Iceberg, ANDRILL's education component, students and teachers can explore blogs, videos, photos, and postcards from a team of eight educators who worked with ANDRILL scientists. The web site, http:// andrill.org/iceberg/, has instructions and downloadable files from which students can create a "Flexhibit." The exhibit material can be used by

students to develop and host a science event for peers, families, or the public. PolarTREC http://www.polartrec.com/ PolarTREC is an educational research experience in which K-12 teachers participate in Arctic and Antarctic research expeditions. Multimedia resources include a photo gallery, podcasts, articles, and activities. PolarTREC teachers also host Live Jam IPY! events (field calls and Internet presentations). Polar-Palooza http:// passporttoknowledge.com/ polar-palooza/ Polar-Palooza's site contains videos, podcasts, soundscapes, and related resources about the

ANDRILLPIPING. Photo courtesy of Peter Rejcek, U.S. Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation.

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In The Field: Scientists At Work poles and polar research. A Polar-Palooza exhibit, "Stories from a Changing Planet," is currently touring the country, http:// passporttoknowledge.com/ polar-palooza/pp04.php. Penguin Science http:// www.penguinscience.com Penguin Science is a long-term study of Antarctic penguin populations and their response to climate change. The education program offers a variety of resources, including a nest check activity. Students follow six Adelie penguin families via daily pictures, weather reports, and collar-record information in their own field books, http:// www.penguinscience.com/ classroom_home.php.

Port Side View. Photo courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey, Flickr.

result? An engaging, interactive site full of video, webcasts, articles, and images about polar research.

EducaPoles http://www.educapoles.org/ The educational site of the International Polar Foundation includes Flash animations, videos, picture galleries, quizzes, and other materials.

Center for the Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) http://www.cresis.ku.edu/ The CReSIS web site, https:// cms.cresis.ku.edu/education/ k-12, includes education resources such as iceberg and glacier lessons and activities, professional development workshops, polar links, and a teacher listserv.

Ice Stories: Dispatches from Polar Scientists http:// icestories.exploratorium.edu/ dispatches/ In honor of the International Polar Year, the Exploratorium gave polar scientists cameras and blogs, asking them to document their work. The

Polar Discovery http://polardiscovery.whoi.edu/ Explore the North Pole, the Arctic seafloor, Antarctica's penguins and lava flows, and Greenland's glaciers with the Polar Discovery site. On each expedition, photographer Chris Linder and a science writer documented the scientists, their

research, the environment, and the logistics of the fieldwork. Each expedition includes photo journals, an in-depth essay, videos and sounds, and polar fun. ARMADA Project http://www.armadaproject.org/ The ARMADA Project is a research experience for teachers. Some of the research expeditions are polar themed. The classroom activities section of the site includes lesson plans and demonstrations about sea level rise, icebergs, and sea ice, http://www.armadaproject.org/ downloads.htm. The Antarctic Sun http://antarcticsun.usap.gov/ The Antarctic Sun is the online "newspaper" of the U.S. Antarctic Program. The Antarctic Sun web site is full of news and interesting information about Antarctica and its researchers.

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Off The Bookshelf Polar Festivals: Virtual Bookshelf By Kate Hastings and Jessica Fries-Gaither We've split this month's bookshelf into two sections: activity books and children's literature.

Craft books and teacher's guides will provide plenty of creative and engaging ideas for students in every grade level. For more activity ideas, please see "Polar Arts and Crafts" on page 16. For hands-on science ideas, please see "Hands-on Science Activities for Your Polar Festival" on page 10. Children's literature can be used to introduce or develop content

knowledge for individual festival activities or stations. Or create a reading station where students can read or listen to polarthemed books of their own choosing. A polar "story hour" could involve the entire family! However you use these books, they're sure to engage students - and help them learn more about the polar regions!

ACTIVITY BOOKS GENERAL ACTIVITIES Winter Day Play! Nancy F. Castaldo. 2001. Nonfiction craft book. Recommended ages: Grades K-5. A chapter of this craft and activity book is devoted to Arctic adventures. Children can simulate the aurora by scratching through black paint to reveal crayon or pastel colors beneath. They can create a yo-yo with hacky sacks (footbags) and a shoe lace, or make snow cream after a good snowfall.

POLAR ANIMALS Animal Habitats. Judy Press. 2005. Nonfiction craft book. Recommended ages: Grades K-5. A chapter on the Arctic tundra features activities that will teach children about the animals living in this ecosystem. Students learn about camouflage by making brown 22

snowshoe hares on brown paper and white snowshoe hares on white paper. They can make snowy owl puppets and use paint and wax paper to simulate the aurora. They can even pretend to walk around like polar bears in giant paws made of tissue boxes! Kids' Natural History Book. Judy Press. 2000. Nonfiction craft book. Recommended ages: Grades K-5. Looking for some penguin activities? Look no further! Make a penguin from two paper plates, play penguin charades, walk around the room with an egg on your feet, and hold a relay race where children carry an "egg" between their knees and try to pass it to a friend.


Off The Bookshelf PM Animal Facts: Polar Animals Teacher's Guide. Mandi Rathbone and Michele Gordon. 2000. Nonfiction book. Recommended ages: Grades K-3. This teacher's guide focuses on books in the Rigby PM Animal Facts series, but the ideas and extensions are good for any classroom learning about polar animals. Children will learn to compare and contrast dogs and wolves, use Venn diagrams, create 3-D polar bears with curled paper, write stories about whales, make caribou fact "antlers" with tree branches, and much more.

PEOPLES OF THE ARCTIC Native American Crafts of the Northwest Coast, the Arctic, and the Subarctic. Judith Hoffman Corwin. 2002. Nonfiction craft book. Recommended ages: Grades K-5. Explore the arts and crafts of the Netsilik, Yup'ik and other tribes of the Arctic and Subarctic. Children can carve animals out of ivory (soap), design sealskin bracelets, and make spirit masks with paper plates, feathers and traced hands. Students can also create simple Inuit stone paintings by tracing patterns provided in the book. A game, a recipe for Aleut Ice, and a variety of poems are shared at the end of the book. 

Making Cool Crafts and Awesome Art. Roberta Gould. 1998. Nonfiction craft book. Recommended ages: Grades 3-5. Learn how to make an Inupaq yo-yo out of fake fur, dental floss, yarn and an empty spool of thread. If your students are too young to make the yo-yo, they will still have fun learning how to use it - getting one weighted end to spin clockwise, while the other end spins the opposite way. Children's Traditional Games: Games From 137 Countries and Cultures. Judy Sierra. 1995. Nonfiction book. Recommended ages: Grades K-5. Try tug-of-war with a twist. An Inuit game called Ducks and Ptarmigans divides a group into "summer birthdays" and "winter birthdays." The two teams tug at a rope over a center line. The winning team predicts if the coming winter will be cold or mild. Another game called Quaquatsewa-iu involves dropping a bundle of sticks into a hoop, seeing who can get the most sticks inside. The Yupik racing game called Uhl-ta divides children into two teams who form a circle and try to cross a finish line while keeping the circle formation.

Kids' Multicultural Craft Book. Roberta Gould. 2004. Nonfiction craft book. Recommended ages: Grades 3-5. This book has 35 craft ideas from around the world, but two activities featuring Tlingit and Athabascan beadwork and Inuit mittenmaking would be perfect for a polar festival. Patterns are provided in the back of the book. 23


Off The Bookshelf CHILDREN’S LITERATURE POLAR GEOGRAPHY Little Cliff and the Cold Place. Clifton L. Taulbert. 2002. Fiction picture book. Recommended ages: Grades K-2. Little Cliff lives in Mississippi. When his teacher tells his class about a cold place up north where children fish through holes in the ice - Little Cliff wants to go there now. Cliff's grandfather shows him a book instead, and takes him to see a friend who served in Alaska when he was in the Navy. Cliff gets to see pictures of Alaska, and even gets to try on a heavy fur coat. It  turns out that Cliff doesn't have to travel far at all to get a taste of the Arctic life! This book will tie-in well with a polar festival in a hot place. North Pole South Pole. Nancy Smiler Levinson. 2002. Picture book. Recommended ages: Grades K-2. Beginning readers can find a clear and concise discussion of the differences between the poles in this introduction to the geography, climate, and inhabitants of the top and the bottom of our world. Life on the Ice. Susan E. Goodman. 2006. Picture book. Recommended ages: Grades 3-5. The photographs in this book take readers on a tour of the world's ice landscapes, primarily Antarctica. The author discusses the nature of the extreme climate, the planes that fly there, the scientists who study it, and what it takes to live in this environment.

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Land of Dark, Land of Light: The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Karen Pandell. 1993. Picture book. Recommended ages: Grades K-2. Color photos show the eerie beauty of the Arctic wilderness and its inhabitants. The spare, lyrical text and the appendix, which details the habits of the animals depicted, make the book suitable for primary grades. Excellent word choice could provide an opportunity for teachers to introduce new vocabulary. Our Amazing Continents: Hooray for Antarctica! April Pulley Sayre. 2003. Picture book. Recommended ages: Grades K-2. This book uses photographs to introduce the continent of Antarctica by looking at its geography, plant and animal life, weather, and settlement by humans. While the simple, concise main ideas make the book appealing to primary graders, the additional detail found on most pages makes it appropriate for students in upper elementary as well.

SEASONS, WEATHER, AND CLIMATE Recess at 20 Below. Cindy Lou Aillaud. 2005. Nonfiction book. Recommended ages: Grades K-5. In Delta Junction, Alaska, it is recess (and school) as usual at 20 below zero. Join real students as they trudge to school in the dark, bundle up for snowy fun, and share what it is like to live in a cold and beautiful place.


Off The Bookshelf Arctic Lights, Arctic Nights. Debbie Miller. 2003. Nonfiction book. Recommended ages: Grades K-5. This book takes readers monthby-month through a typical year in the Arctic, exploring seasonal changes in daylight and the environment. Survivor's Science at the Polar Regions. Peter D. Riley. 2005. Nonfiction book. Recommended ages: Grades 3-5. This book compares and contrasts the polar regions in terms of weather; clothes you would need to wear; plants and animals; ice, water, and snow; traveling in these regions; and seasons. Each topic includes a hands-on activity suitable for use in a classroom or as at-home enrichment. The book includes a glossary and an index. Why Are the Ice Caps Melting? The Dangers of Global Warming. Anne Rockwell. 2006. Nonfiction book. Recommended ages: Grades 2-5. This book explains the science behind global warming and provides local examples to help students understand this complex subject. While the book emphasizes the serious nature of global warming, it does focus on simple actions students can do to promote change. A read-aloud for younger grades and independent reading for older students.

GLACIERS, ICE, AND SNOW Lulie the Iceberg. Takamado no Miya Hisako. 1998. Picture book (Fiction) and Audio. Recommended ages: Grades K-5. This tale of Lulie, an iceberg that journeys from the Arctic to the Antarctic, was written by Princess Hisako Takamado of Japan, assisted by Icebridge, a forum of scientists and educators dedicated to promoting knowledge about the polar regions and the oceans. While the story ascribes human attributes to ice, wind, and animals, it also blends accurate scientific information about ocean currents and the species and conditions found at various latitudes. Illustrations are by Warabe Aska. Icebergs, Ice Caps, and Glaciers. Allan Fowler. 1997. Nonfiction book. Recommended ages: Grades K-2. Extremely simple text and bright color photographs make this book appealing to young learners. The author combines facts about icebergs, ice caps and glaciers into a concise introductory book. A glossary with pictures helps students master new vocabulary. Icebergs and Glaciers. Seymour Simon. 1999. Nonfiction book. Recommended ages: Grades 3-5. Breathtaking photographs mark this introduction to a frozen world of mountaintops and polar regions.

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Off The Bookshelf AURORA

POLAR ANIMALS

Aurora: A Tale of the Northern Lights. Mindy Dwyer. 1997. Picture book. Recommended ages: Grades: K-3. A fictional tale of a young girl named Aurora who travels to find a land of darkness and understand her grandmother's mysterious story. As she travels, she collects the various colors of daylight. When she reaches the land of darkness, she scatters the colors, creating the northern lights. Rich vocabulary makes this story perfect for introducing descriptive writing to young students.

The Emperor Lays an Egg. Brenda Z. Guiberson. 2001. Picture book. Recommended ages: Grades K-2. Collages from hand-painted paper provide the backdrop to informational text about the extreme conditions in which emperor penguins live and reproduce. In addition to providing rich content, the book could be used as the springboard for an art activity. After reading the book, students could research and paint a polar animal of their choice.

Northern Lights: A to Z. Mindy Dwyer. 2007. Picture book. Recommended ages: Grades K-3. The book's 26 facts and legends - one for each letter of the alphabet - explain both the science behind the aurora (solar winds hitting the earth's magnetic fields) and the legends it has inspired, such as the fascinating Makah Indian myth that pots of boiling whale blubber created it. The Blizzard's Robe. Robert Sabuda. 1999. Picture book. Recommended ages: Grades K-3. A fictional story of a young girl whose kindness toward Blizzard earns her people his greatest gift: the northern lights. Colorful batik illustrations evoke traditional folk art and complement the poetic text.

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A Penguin's World. Caroline Arnold. 2006. Nonfiction picture book. Recommended ages: Grades K-2. Cut-paper illustrations encourage children to read on and discover more about Adelie penguins. Suitable for student research or for a collage art project. Watching Penguins in Antarctica. Louise and Richard Spilsbury. 2006. Nonfiction book. Recommended ages: Grades 2-4. Follow emperor penguins as they gather in rookeries, toboggan over the ice and hunt in the ocean. Color photographs accompany the straightforward text. Boldfaced words and a glossary help students learn about behaviors such as preening. After reading, students could observe the birds in a zoo or a video and watch for examples of the described behaviors.


Off The Bookshelf Life Cycle of a Polar Bear. Rebecca Sjonger and Bobbie Kalman. 2006. Nonfiction book. Recommended ages: Grades 3-5. This book describes polar bears, their habitat, and their life cycle as well as the threats of melting ice caps, pollution, and human settlement. This book would fit well with a unit on mammals, life cycles, or the polar regions. Ice Bear: In the Steps of the Polar Bear. Nicola Davies. 2005. Picture book. Recommended ages: Grades K-5. Oil paintings accompany simple text that describes polar bears and their adaptations - small ears close to their heads and out of the wind, fur coats four fingers thick, adults weighing more than two lions. In addition to developing science knowledge, the book could be a springboard for an art project in watercolor or in oil pastels.

PEOPLES OF THE ARCTIC The Lamp, the Ice and the Boat Called Fish. Jacqueline Briggs Martin. 2001. Nonfiction picture book. Recommended ages: Grades 4-5. Scratchboard art illustrates this account of the voyage of the Karluk, a ship carrying scientists of the Canadian Arctic Expedition in 1913. An Inupiaq family sailed with the scientists until the ship became icebound and eventually sank. Because of their familiarity with the world of ice and snow, members of the Inupiaq family hunted for food and made clothing for the crew. For eight months they led the scientists over the ice to the solid land of Wrangel Island. A pronunciation key helps with

Inupiaq names and terms. Photographs from the actual expedition are shown on the last page.

POETRY Midnight Dance of the Snowshoe Hare: Poems of Alaska. Nancy White Carlstrom. 1998. Poetry book. Recommended ages:  Grades 2-5. A collection of poetry focusing on the long summer days in the Arctic when the sun barely sets. Rabbits turn from white to brown, poppies burst from the ground, ice melts and rivers of water rush through the hills. This is not the freezing, desolate wasteland of winter. Polar Bear, Arctic Hare: Poems of the Frozen North. Eileen Spinelli. 2007. Poetry book. Recommended ages: Grades K-5. Acrylic paintings accompany short poems that introduce a variety of Arctic animals. From snow fleas to narwhals and musk ox and bees - rhymes tell us their stories. Facts about each animal are presented at the end of the book. This collection is sure to please children of all ages. Songs are Thoughts: Poems of the Inuit. Neil Philip, ed. 1995. Poetry book. Recommended ages: Grades K-5. Songs and poems of some Inuit artists are translated into English and accompanied by simple oil paintings. Some are humorous, like the poem about a lazy man who is hungry but does not want to hunt. Some are reflections on daily life - a mother inside a quiet house during a blizzard. Many are about hunting. What sort of poems can your students write about their lives?

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Abo u t U s Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears is an online professional development magazine for elementary teachers. It prepares teachers to integrate high-quality science instruction with literacy teaching. The magazine is available for free at http://beyondpenguins.nsdl.org. Twenty thematic issues link polar science concepts to the scope and sequence of elementary science curricula. The result is a resource that includes issues devoted to day and night, seasons, plants and mammals, erosion, and other physical, earth and space, and life science concepts. Some issues are also interdisciplinary, focusing on polar explorers, the indigenous people of the Arctic, and the challenges of doing science in the polar regions. To browse the complete archive of issues, visit http://beyondpenguins.nsdl.org/archive.php. Other project features include a companion blog (http://expertvoices.nsdl.org/polar) about polar news and research, a polar photo gallery (http://beyondpenguins.nsdl.org/photogallery/index.php) and a podcast series (http://beyondpenguins.nsdl.org/podcast/index.php). Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears is funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0733024 and is produced by an interdisciplinary team from Ohio State University (OSU), College of Education and Human Ecology; the Ohio Resource Center (ORC) for Mathematics, Science, and Reading; the Byrd Polar Research Center; COSI (Center for Science and Industry) Columbus; the Upper Arlington Public Library (UAPL); and the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Core Integration team at Cornell University and University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR).

Copyright January 2011. Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears is produced by an interdisciplinary team from Ohio State University (OSU), College of Education and Human Ecology; the Ohio Resource Center (ORC) for Mathematics, Science, and Reading; the Byrd Polar Research Center; COSI (Center for Science and Industry) Columbus; the Upper Arlington Public Library (UAPL); and the National Science Digital Library (NSDL). This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0733024. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Content in this document is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. Printed version layout and design by Margaux Baldridge, Office of Technology and Enhanced Learning, College of Education and Human Ecology, The Ohio State University. For more information email: beyondpenguins@msteacher.org.

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Polar Festivals  

Looking for an exciting way to incorporate polar science into your curriculum? A polar festival might just be your answer! Festivals are fle...

Polar Festivals  

Looking for an exciting way to incorporate polar science into your curriculum? A polar festival might just be your answer! Festivals are fle...

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