Ke e pi ng W ar m
Hi ghlights From Issue 17 (De cember 2009) Frozenlisa. Photo courtesy of Mike Usher, U.S. Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation.
Table of Contents
Keeping Warm, Issue 17 (December 2009) Science Content Knowledge
Cool Facts About Heat
By Stephanie Chasteen
Literacy Content Knowledge
Creating Readers Theater Scripts from Informational Text
By Jessica Fries-Gaither & Nicole Luthy
At Home in the Cold
By Stephen Whitt
Common Misconceptions About Heat and Insulation
By Jessica Fries-Gaither
Across the Curriculum: Lessons and Activities
Seeing Temperature Through Color
By Jessica Fries-Gaither
Science & Literacy: Lessons and Activities
Lessons and Activities About Heat and Insulation
By Jessica Fries-Gaither
Off the Bookshelf
Keeping Warm: Virtual Bookshelf
By Kate Hastings
Copyright May 2010. Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears is produced by an interdisciplinary team from Ohio State University (OSU), College of Education and Human Ecology; the Ohio Resource Center (ORC) for Mathematics, Science, and Reading; the Byrd Polar Research Center; COSI (Center for Science and Industry) Columbus; the Upper Arlington Public Library (UAPL); and the National Science Digital Library (NSDL). This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0733024. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Content in this document is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. Printed version layout and design by Margaux Baldridge, Office of Technology and Enhanced Learning, College of Education and Human Ecology, The Ohio State University. For more information email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Science Content Knowledge Cool Facts About Heat By Stephanie Chasteen I wrap up in blankets in the winter, hold my hands out to feel the warmth of a fire, and jump when I touch a hot stove. But what is this thing I call "heat" and what does it mean to feel cold? How can we keep from freezing in the Arctic by knowing a little bit about heat and heat transfer? Read on for a quick tour of hot stuff. WHAT IS HEAT? Consider a mug of steaming tea -- it feels warm to my fingers. If I touch it, heat flows from the mug to my hand. That's the simple story: a hot thing warms up a cooler thing by the transfer of heat or, more strictly speaking, heat energy.
Coffee Mug. Photo courtesy of Jorge Barrios, Wikimedia Commons.
Heat itself isn't a "thing" but rather a process of energy transfer -- a distinction that is difficult for students and generally not fully grasped until middle school or later. People used to think that heat was some sort of weightless thing (called "caloric") that moved from a hot object (the tea) to the cold object (my hand). But that didn't explain why, for example, two cold things can heat each other up when you rub them together. We now know that heat is a form of energy, created by the movement of molecules in an object. So, the most precise way to describe heat flow is this: The mug of tea was hot relative to my hand. When I touched the mug, the molecules in my hand moved faster as heat energy flowed from the mug to my hand. As a result, the mug had slightly less heat energy, and its molecules moved more slowly. The mug becomes "cold" over time. Cold is simply the absence of heat. Cold cannot be transferred. When I pick up an ice cube, my hand feels cold. Which way is heat flowing? The most important thing for your students to know is that warm things can heat up cooler things. Precise definitions of energy can wait, but students
[…] Heat is a form of energy, created by the movement of molecules in an object.
should understand that heat (NOT cold) is transferred, and that heat is not an intrinsic property of an object. They also need to understand that the process of heat transfer continues until everything is the same temperature. If I leave my mug of tea on the table while I check my email, heat will flow from the mug to the room, until the tea is the same temperature as the room (called "equilibrium"). Thank goodness for microwave ovens.
WHAT ABOUT TEMPERATURE? Temperature is a measure of how much heat energy an object has. When I say that "the mug of tea is hot (relative to my hand)," I'm saying: 1. The mug of tea has a higher temperature than my hand. 2. The molecules in the mug of tea are moving faster than the molecules in my hand.
Science Content Knowledge 3. Heat energy will flow in the direction from the tea to my hand (not vice versa). Those statements all mean the same thing. The distinction between heat and temperature is not important for your elementary students. Hot coals Walking on hot coals is a good example of the difference between temperature and heat. Hot coals are at a high temperature, but if you touch them very briefly, only a small amount of heat energy is transferred to your feet. Your feet are not burned (though there's a bit more to the story than that). The same is true when you sip hot coffee instead of gulping it down. Which action is more likely to burn you?
HEAT TRANSFER: CONDUCTION, CONVECTION, RADIATION There are three main ways that you can get heat from something else: conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction Put a metal spoon in a pot on the stove, and the handle gets hot. This is conduction - the handing-off of heat through a material. This happens when the molecules in one part of the substance jiggle faster as they heat up. Then they transfer this heat energy to their neighbors and so on down the line in a sort of "telephone" game. Some materials conduct heat well, like that metal spoon. If you leave a wooden spoon in a pot of soup, the handle doesn't get hot. Materials that don't conduct
Embers. Photo courtesy of Jens Buurgaard Nielsen, Wikimedia Commons.
heat well are called insulators. What are some other insulators? Ceramic, wood, plastic foam, wool, and air are all good insulators. Your students may think that some materials, like blankets or jackets, have the property of "hotness." However, these things are actually insulators, and thus good at helping to reduce conduction of heat toward or away from an object. Try wrapping one glass of ice cubes in a blanket and leaving another glass of cubes out in the air. Which one melts faster? Convection A wood stove warms the air around it, but it doesn't warm the whole house until you turn on a fan to circulate that warm air. Convection is heat transfer through the movement of liquids or gases. Convection is part of the reason that wind makes you cold - heat flows away from your body more rapidly in a wind. Remember, you don't "get" cold from the wind, you just lose heat. Radiation Even with no fan, you feel the heat from the wood stove as you bring your hand close. How is that? Invisible electromagnetic waves (called infrared light) and visible light bring energy from the hot stove to your hand. This is called radiation. This is also the
Science Content Knowledge
Heat Transfer. Photo courtesy of Wifer X, Flickr.
reason a car heats up on a sunny day - the energy from the sun is transferred to the car. Some animals, like snakes, can see in the dark by sensing infrared light. Rescue workers use infrared sensors to find people in emergency situations. KEEPING WARM How do we keep warm in an Arctic winter? People are sources of heat - the food we eat helps to fuel our body's furnace. (People in cold climates eat about twice as many calories as those in warmer climates.) We feel cold when we lose more heat energy than our body can produce. To stay warm, we must reduce the flow of heat away from our body. Blankets, coats, and houses are ways that we reduce heat transfer (from
conduction, convection, and radiation) from us to the outdoors. Evaporation is another way that we lose heat. Hypothermia is what happens when our body temperature drops because the heat flow out from our bodies is more than the body can replace. Hypothermia makes people dizzy and confused, can turn their skin blue, and can be fatal. Frostbite is when some part of the body like the fingers - freezes, because the body stops circulating blood to that area in order to conserve warmth. Warm clothing has changed over time. Native peoples wore animal skins, like seal, caribou, polar bear, wolf and fox, to stay warm. Animal skins keep people warm because the fur traps air,
and air is a good insulator. A down jacket keeps you very warm because the feathers trap air. Early explorers to the Arctic used fabrics like wool and cotton, which did not insulate them well enough and were heavy and bulky. Modern outdoor gear is made of light synthetic fabrics worn in layers: long underwear covered with a warm shirt, a jacket, and a windbreaker. Each layer traps air, providing extra insulation. We use boots, socks and mittens to protect the parts of our body that are far from our heart, which provides warmth through blood circulation. Igloos are also used to provide shelter and warmth for travelers and hunters. But how can an igloo keep you warm when it's made of snow and ice? Snow and ice are actually good insulators. The igloo blocks the wind and, more important, keeps your body heat inside the structure's air space. The snow on the inside of the igloo typically melts and refreezes, making a protective layer.
Igloo. Icon courtesy of Iconshock, Iconfinder.
Science Content Knowledge Animals also need to stay warm in polar environments. Marine mammals and penguins have a layer of fat, or blubber, under the skin that provides insulation. The hairs in a polar bear's fur are actually hollow, providing additional insulation. Other birds, such as snowy owls, have two layers of feathers. These adaptations enable survival in the harsh environments of the Arctic and Antarctic regions. RESOURCES AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy: Energy Transformations http://www.project2061.org/ publications/bsl/online/ index.php?chapter=4#E0 This section of Benchmarks for Science Literacy details what students at K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12 should know about energy transformations, including heat. AAAS Science Literacy Map: Energy Transformations
Adelie. Photo courtesy of Timothy Russer, U.S. Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation
http://strandmaps.nsdl.org/? id=SMSBMK-2042&parentmap=SMSMAP-2071 This portion of the AAAS Science Literacy Energy Transformations map illustrates the concepts that K-5 students should know about the transfer of heat energy. Temperature and Heat Online Course http://www.pa.uky.edu/ sciworks/heats.htm An online professional development course on heat and temperature for elementary and middle school teachers. NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION STANDARDS: SCIENCE CONTENT STANDARDS The entire National Science Education Standards document can be read online or downloaded for free from the National Academies Press web site. The content standards are
Snow on Snout, Polar Bear. Photo courtesy of flickrfavorites, Flickr.
found in Chapter 6, http:// books.nap.edu/openbook.php? record_id=4962&page=103. Teaching about heat energy can meet the Physical Science Content Standard for grades K-4 and 5-8: K-4 Physical Science • Light, heat, electricity, and magnetism 5-8 Physical Science • Transfer of energy Teaching about animals' adaptations to life in cold environments can meet the Life Science Content Standard for grades K-4 and 5-8: K-4 Life Science • Organisms and their Environments 5-8 Life Science • Regulation and Behavior • Diversity and Adaptations of Organisms
Orcapeeks. Photo courtesy of Jaime Ramos, U.S. Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation
Literacy Content Knowledge Creating Readers Theater Scripts from Informational Text By Jessica Fries-Gaither and Nicole Luthy Readers Theater has become a popular teaching activity in the elementary grades over the last few years. In Readers Theater, students stage a dramatic presentation of a text by reading from a script, using intonation, gestures, and facial expression to add meaning and interest to the performance. The simple format of Readers Theater (no props, costumes, sets, or memorization required) makes it easy to incorporate into a classroom. In addition, research has shown that the activity can help students develop reading fluency and improve comprehension of the performed text as well as that of new and unpracticed texts. READERS THEATER, FLUENCY, AND COMPREHENSION How does Readers Theater improve reading ability? First of all, the repeated reading of a
script during rehearsals is important in building fluency, or the ability to read text with speed, accuracy, and proper expression. Repeated reading also builds confidence and reinforces key concepts and vocabulary related to the topic being studied. The expression, gestures, and interactive nature of the performance make reading a much more enjoyable task and allow even struggling readers to access important information from what might otherwise be difficult text. Differentiated instruction is also a natural component of Readers Theater. The roles available in a typical script range from extensive narration to a character with just a single line. Scripts might also contain choral reading or lines for two voices in addition to individual roles. The variety of options means that all students are able to participate at an appropriate, yet challenging level. READERS THEATER SCRIPTS Readers Theater scripts are available commercially and online, but it is also possible to create scripts by modifying existing text. This may be done by the teacher in preparation for the activity or by the students themselves. While many existing scripts focus on fictional narratives, Readers Theater can
Research shows that proficient readers create mental images spontaneously and purposefully during and after reading.
also be quite valuable with nonfiction, such as informational text. Informational text is often more difficult and less engaging than fiction, so the use of dramatic presentation can serve as a powerful motivator and a scaffold for success in reading.
How can informational text be reformatted as a Readers Theater script? In "Science Books + Readers Theater," Melissa Stewart describes how science-themed children's books can serve as the basis for a script. She notes that some books (such as those about a variety of animals) lend themselves to script-writing much better than others (such as texts focused on a single animal). She also explains that the text will be divided among a narrator, characters, and possibly a chorus. The script authors will need to consider what information should be conveyed by the narrator, and 7
Literacy Content Knowledge scripts for this month's Feature Story, "At Home in the Cold." The story discusses various adaptations that allow animals to survive in the cold oceans of the Arctic and Antarctic.
Readerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Theater Final Party. Photo courtesy of Ana, Picasa Web Albums.
which characters can be added to elaborate on the narrator's lines or provide new information. In either case, care should be taken to preserve the meaning and as much of the original text as possible. Some advocates of Readers Theater oppose any changes made to the original text, while others argue that the author was not writing for performance and thus changes must be made. Regardless of your position, using Readers Theater with your students in science and other content areas will motivate your students and help them deal with increasingly complex informational text. AT HOME IN THE COLD: READERS THEATER SCRIPTS Would you like to try a sciencethemed Readers Theater in your classroom? We've created
At Home in the Cold Choral Reading Script: Grades K-1 http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/ onramp:18096/choral_k1.pdf This script for choral reading was written to be used with two groups of students. At Home in the Cold RT Script: Grades 2-3 http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/ onramp:18096/rt_23.pdf This RT script includes parts for 11 students. At Home in the Cold RT Script: Grades 4-5 http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/ onramp:18096/rt_45.pdf This RT script includes parts for 8-9 students. Want to create other polar RT scripts? Browse informational text about a variety of polarrelated science topics on our Stories for Students page! RESOURCES Science Books and Readers Theater http://melissa-stewart.com/pdf/ ReadersTheater.pdf In this downloadable pdf article, Melissa Stewart provides an overview of Readers Theater and
discusses how to select and adapt science-themed children's books for scripts. She offers a sample script based on her book When Rain Falls. Her web site includes a page devoted to Readers Theater and scripts. Readers Theater http://www.readwritethink.org/ lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=172 In this lesson from Read Write Think, students develop scripts, perform in groups, and practice using their voice to depict characters from texts. Through this activity, students have the opportunity to develop fluency and further enhance comprehension of what they are reading. Internet Resources for Conducting Readers Theater http://www.readingonline.org/ electronic/carrick/ A comprehensive overview of Readers Theater, including links to supporting research, tips for implementation, classroom applications, and assessment information. Reader's Theater http:// www.literacyconnections.com/ rasinski-readers-theater.php Tim Rasinski, professor of reading at Kent State University (Ohio), shares a quick guide to Readers Theater.
Feature Story At Home in the Cold Stories for Students (and Teachers)! This nonfiction article is written for use with upperelementary students (grades 4-5). Modified versions are available for students in grades K-1 and grades 2-3, or any student needing a simplified version. As always, consider the reading level and needs of your students when selecting a version for classroom use. At each grade level, the article is available in three forms. Printable pdf files allow you to print this story in either text-only or a foldable book
By Stephen Whitt Imagine that you are in the Arctic or Antarctica. What do you see? You might have pictured either the Arctic Ocean or the Southern Ocean, which surrounds Antarctica. These oceans are cold, but full of life. Many of the living things in polar oceans actually depend on the cold water all around. What kinds of animals live in these cold oceans? Penguins, whales, and walruses, to name a few. Like you, these animals produce heat all the time. Their bodies turn energy from food into heat. We say that these types of animals are warmblooded because they make their own heat. That heat constantly escapes their bodies.
Blubber helps hold in the heat even in the coldest of waters. The system works so well that many of these creatures depend on the water to survive. If a whale is stranded on land, its blubber may cause it to overheat. Air can't remove heat fast enough to keep the creature cool. The whale may die from its own internal heat. In water, though, whales, walruses, and penguins are right at home. Not too cold, not too warm, their bodies are perfectly adapted for the chilly waters all around them. While warm-blooded animals need blubber to live in the polar waters, how could cold-blooded animals like snakes, turtles, salamanders, and fish survive? These creatures don't make their own heat. Instead they depend
format. A partnership with Content Clips has allowed us to create electronic versions of the articles. Your students can read along as they listen to the text - a wonderful way to support struggling readers! Readers Theater scripts and related activities provide suggestions for integrating this story with your science and literacy instruction.
This heat loss is a problem on land, but it is a real emergency in water. If you were plunged into the icy cold waters of the polar regions, you would quickly lose all your body heat. Yet many warm-blooded creatures are able to survive. How? The answer is insulation. These animals' bodies have a thick layer of fat called blubber.
Walruses. Photo courtesy of flickkerphotos, Flickr.
Samka (morse - walrus). Photo courtesy of Gattou/Lucie, Flickr.
Ice Cream. Photo courtesy of jessicafm, Flickr.
Crocodile Fish. Photo courtesy of lakshmioct01, Flickr.
on the environment to warm them up.
smooth, creamy, and delicious. Yum!
Indeed, it is rare to find any of these kinds of animals in the polar regions. On land, that is. Yet the waters near the poles are full of many different kinds of cold-blooded fish.
Other fish have even stranger adaptations than the Arctic cod. Consider the strange case of the crocodile icefish. All fish have blood. For most fish, red blood cells carry oxygen through their bodies. Their cells need oxygen to survive. In very cold water, oxygen is plentiful. This is because the colder the water gets, the more oxygen the water can hold.
Blood really is thicker than water. As blood gets cold, it becomes sluggish. Think of pancake syrup that's been kept in the refrigerator. A fish with thick, cold, sluggish blood might have a hard time surviving in the Southern Ocean. The crocodile icefish doesn't have this problem because it doesn't have any red blood cells.
What adaptations allow fish to survive in these cold waters? Some species, such as Arctic cod, actually have antifreeze proteins in their blood. The antifreeze proteins keep the fish's blood from freezing solid, even as its body temperature drops. This fish antifreeze is so good that food engineers use it in - are you ready for this? - ice cream! If ice cream freezes improperly, large ice crystals can ruin its texture. Adding fish antifreeze to the ice cream can keep it tasting
The crocodile icefish lives the cold waters of the Southern Ocean. This fish has blood, pumped by an oversized heart. But the blood isn't red! Instead, the crocodile icefish's blood is completely clear. Its blood looks just like water. In fact, the icefish's blood is seawater, with only a few white blood cells mixed in. The red blood cells are missing.
But how does the icefish live without red blood cells? The cold seawater is so rich in oxygen that the icefish doesn't need them. Instead the fish pumps seawater through its body. The icefish gets all the oxygen it needs right from the cold water. The icefish doesn't just tolerate cold water. It actually depends on cold water to stay alive. Most of us live where the weather is warmer. We enjoy the feel of the sunlight on our skin.
At Home in the Cold We like the warmth that comes with long summer days. But for animals adapted to colder climates, their icy world isn't just home; it's the only place they can survive. GLOSSARY adaptations - structures or features of an organism that help it meet a particular need in its natural habitat antifreeze - a chemical that keeps a liquid from freezing blubber - a layer of fat that helps ocean animals stay warm cold-blooded - describes an animal whose body temperature changes as the temperature of its surroundings changes insulation - a material that does not conduct heat well warm-blooded - describes an animal whose body stays the same temperature regardless of the temperature of its surroundings READERS THEATER SCRIPTS Readers Theater is an excellent way to differentiate instruction, support struggling readers, and help all students master science content, improve fluency, and enhance comprehension. For more information on Readers Theater, please see "Creating Readers Theater Scripts from Informational Text," on page 7.
We've created Readers Theater scripts for students in grades K-1, 2-3, and 4-5 from this month's Feature Story: At Home in the Cold Choral Reading Script: Grades K-1 http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/ onramp:18096/choral_k1.pdf This script for choral reading was written to be used with two groups of students. At Home in the Cold RT Script: Grades 2-3 http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/ onramp:18096/rt_23.pdf This RT script includes parts for 11 students. At Home in the Cold RT Script: Grades 4-5 http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/ onramp:18096/rt_45.pdf This RT script includes parts for 8-9 students. Want to create other polar RT scripts? Browse informational text about a variety of polarrelated science topics on our Stories for Students page, http://beyondpenguins.nsdl.org/ information.php?topic=stories.
RELATED ACTIVITIES Polar Bears: Keeping Warm at the Arctic (Grades K-2) http://www.learnnc.org/lp/ pages/3173 Students learn about the polar bear's body coverings and how the coverings help the bear survive in the Arctic climate. This lesson can be generalized to apply to other marine mammals, such as whales and seals, as well as to penguins. Polar Bears and Their Adaptations (Grades 3-5) http://www.learnnc.org/lp/ pages/2964 Students explore how a polar bear's body adapts to survive in the harsh environment in which the bear lives. This lesson can be generalized to apply to other marine mammals, such as whales and seals, and to penguins. Life in a Deep Freeze (Grades 3-5) http:// magma.nationalgeographic.co m/ngexplorer/0211/articles/ mainarticle.html This article from the children's magazine National Geographic Explorer describes the various adaptations that keep animals warm in the cold Arctic environment.
Misconceptions Common Misconceptions about Heat and Insulation By Jessica Fries-Gaither The concepts of energy and heat are challenging for elementary students. Because young students are not ready to delve into kinetic theory and molecular motion, much of the explanation of heat and energy transfer is inaccessible to them. In addition, the use of the word "energy" in popular culture may interfere with the development of scientific understanding. Nevertheless, elementary students are capable of exploring heat through observations and qualitative, developmentally appropriate explanations. In fact, the idea that heat is transferred from one object to another via conduction is a grade-level expectation according to the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996). During these initial explorations, teachers will encounter a variety of student misconceptions. Formative assessment and purposeful teaching will help prepare students to tackle more
advanced concepts in the middle grades and beyond. In this article, we've highlighted some common misconceptions about heat and insulation. Rather than provide an exhaustive list of all possible student ideas, we hope to give insight into ones that might be held by your elementary students. We've also provided tools for formative assessment and resources for teaching correct scientific concepts. MISCONCEPTIONS Students may hold a variety of misconceptions about heat, temperature, and energy. A few common misconceptions include the idea that some objects (such as blankets) produce their own heat. Students may believe this because they have experienced feeling warmer after covering themselves with a blanket or putting on a sweater. Another area of misconception deals with the words "hot" and "cold." Students often believe that heat and cold are different, and that they are substances rather than energy. Students may also believe that "cold" is transferred from one object to another their experience with coolers and refrigerators seems to confirm this misconception.
Formative assessment and purposeful teaching will help prepare students to tackle more advanced concepts in the middle grades and beyond.
The web page Children's Misconceptions about Science, http://www.eskimo.com/~billb/ miscon/opphys.html, provides a list of misconceptions in several areas of physical science, including heat and temperature. See the chart on the right for a few that you might hear in your own classroom.
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT What do your students think? Each of the four volumes in the series Uncovering Student Ideas in Science (NSTA Press) contains 25 formative assessment probes to help teachers identify misconceptions. Volumes 1, 2, and 4 of Uncovering Student Ideas in Science contain assessment probes related to heat, insulation, and thermal energy. Purchase books at http://www.nsta.org/store/ product_detail.aspx? id=10.2505/9780873552738.
Misconceptions MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT HEAT AND INSULATION S t u d e n t s m ay thi nk ...
Thermometer. Photo courtesy of Don, Wikimedia Commons.
Ins tead o f th in kin g. ..
Heat is a substance. Heat is not energy.
Heat is energy.
Temperature is a property of a particular material or object. (For example, students may believe that metal is naturally cooler than plastic.)
Temperature is not a property of materials or objects. Objects exposed to the same ambient conditions will have the same temperature.
The temperature of an object depends on its size.
Temperature does not depend on size.
Heat and cold are different.
Cold is the absence of heat. Heat and cold can be thought of as opposite ends of a continuum.
Cold is transferred from one object to another.
Heat is transferred from one object to another. Heat moves from the warmer object to the cooler object.
Objects that keep things warm (sweaters, mittens, blankets) are sources of heat.
Objects keep things warm by trapping heat.
Some substances (flour, sugar, air) cannot heat up.
All substances heat up, although some gain heat more easily than others.
Objects that readily become warm (conductors of heat) do not readily become cold.
Conductors gain (and lose) heat easily.
Misconceptions Related formative assessment probes in Volume 1 of Uncovering Student Ideas in Science:
Related formative assessment probes in Volume 2 of Uncovering Student Ideas in Science:
Related formative assessment probes in Volume 4 of Uncovering Student Ideas in Science:
"The Mitten Problem" is designed to find out whether students believe that an insulating object produces its own heat. It elicits student ideas about sources of heat energy.”
"Mixing Water" is designed to find out whether students recognize that a transfer of energy occurs from warmer to colder objects or materials. It elicits student ideas about temperature and energy transfer.”
"Warming Water" is designed to find out whether students think that cold things can have energy. It elicits student ideas about thermal energy.”
"Objects and Temperature" is designed to find out whether students recognize that nonheat-producing objects exposed to the same ambient conditions will have the same temperature, regardless of material. It elicits student ideas about temperature.”
Purchase these books at: http://www.nsta.org/store/ product_detail.aspx? id=10.2505/9780873552738.
Ice. Photo courtesy of stock.xchng.
TEACHING THE SCIENCE While misconceptions can be persistent and tough to correct, well-designed instruction can help students move to an accurate scientific understanding of heat and energy. Each formative assessment probe in the Uncovering Student Ideas in Science series provides ideas for instruction, and in many cases, the probe itself can serve as the basis for guided (or open) inquiry experiences. In addition, here are two lessons that may help students understand that clothes and blankets do not produce heat.
Heat Misconceptions (Grades 3-5) http://www.uen.org/ Lessonplan/preview.cgi? LPid=9762 Classroom activities help students understand that gloves do not provide heat, but rather, gloves will insulate or hold in any heat that is in their hand. Warm Me Up! (Grades 3-5) http://www.uen.org/ Lessonplan/preview.cgi? LPid=2460 Students will identify and discuss the misconception that many might have about heat sources, specifically that clothes do not produce heat.
NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION STANDARDS Assessing and targeting student misconceptions about heat and insulation meet the Physical Science Content Standard for grades K-4 and 5-8 of the National Science Education Standards. The entire National Science Education Standards, http://books.nap.edu/ catalog.php?record_id=4962, document can be read online or downloaded for free from the National Academies Press web site. Science Content Standards can be found in Chapter 6, http://books.nap.edu/ openbook.php? record_id=4962&page=103.
Across the Curriculum Seeing Temperature Through Color By Jessica Fries-Gaither Differences in heat energy (as measured by temperature) can be difficult to visualize. Combining scientific data with visual information, such as color, can help. The weather map displayed on the news, Internet or newspaper, is a good example. A color scale provides information about temperature ranges across a given location (state, nation, or region). A related technology, called thermography, uses cameras to detect infrared radiation given off by an object. Infrared radiation is emitted by all objects based on their temperature, so the
Wiki Polar Bear. Photo courtesy of Arno/Coen, Wikimedia Commons.
resulting image (called a thermogram) allows one to see variations in temperature. Also known as thermal imaging, the technology has been used in a variety of ways: at airports to detect swine flu cases during the 2009 pandemic, by firefighters to see through smoke and locate persons, by maintenance workers to identify overheating parts and heat leaks, and in studies of physiological processes in humans and animals. How does one interpret a thermogram? Consider the image of an industrial electrical fuse block (above right). In any thermogram, the brighter colors (red, orange, and yellow) indicate warmer temperatures (more heat and infrared radiation emitted) while the purples and dark blue/black indicate cooler temperatures (less heat and infrared radiation emitted). In this
image, the bright yellow area indicates the electrical fault. 85.1 C 80
60 51.2 C
Electrical fuse block. Photo courtesy of Hotflashhome, Wikimedia Commons.
Compare the thermograms of a lion and a polar bear (see below). The image of the lion shows that heat is released from most of the animal, excluding its thick mane. The eyes, ears, and belly of the lion release the most heat and are therefore the brightest colors. In contrast, the polar bear's extremely thick fur is an excellent insulator, so most of its body is dark. Only the face is an area where heat is released.
Wiki Lion. Photo courtesy of Arno/Coen, Wikimedia Commons.
Across the Curriculum While students don't have access to thermal-imaging technology, they can apply the same principle to study temperature differences in their classroom, school, or home and begin to investigate energy efficiency! CREATING A CLASSROOM 'THERMOGRAM' Before beginning this activity, students should be familiar with the idea that color scales can represent temperature ranges. If needed, bring in color weather maps to share with the class. Students can also create their own color weather maps using the lesson below. To create a "thermogram" of the classroom, a teacher (or students) should first create a simple map of the classroom, including doors, desks, vents, and windows. Teachers should photocopy this map so that all students have a copy. Next, students need to gather temperature data from various locations in the classroom. Teachers might elect to do this through whole class activity, small groups, or individual students, depending on the allotted time and student comfort with using thermometers. Data should
be collected from as many different points in the classroom as possible - near windows, the door, the board, computers, desks, and so forth. Teachers may wish to create a large data chart to display the temperatures. Students can then use a pencil to lightly record temperatures on the appropriate locations on their map.
Once the map has been created, ask students to analyze the data. What areas are warmest in the classroom? What are the coldest? Why do they observe these types of temperature differences? This discussion can lead into an investigation of insulators or a discussion of energy efficiency in schools and homes.
Once the data have been collected, the class should create a temperature scale and assign colors to each temperature. Students then color in the map of the classroom accordingly. If this is too challenging for students, teachers could create a single class map on butcher paper, an interactive whiteboard, or an overhead projector, or by using a document camera.
In addition, for upper-elementary students this classroom thermogram can be another introduction to the color imaging that they will encounter later in science textbooks.
Small Group Breakout. Photo courtesy of Woodleywonderwork, Flickr.
Science and Literacy: Lessons Lessons and Activities about Heat and Insulation By Jessica Fries-Gaither In the elementary grades, students begin to explore the concepts of energy and heat. They learn that the sun is the primary source of warmth and that heat can be produced by activity and machines. They also learn that heat can be transferred from one object to another and that some materials can keep objects hot or cold. Students learn to use thermometers to measure temperature, but they should not be expected to understand the difference between heat and temperature. The focus of activity and instruction during these early years should be on
Streichholz. Photo courtesy of Sebastian Ritter, Wikimedia Commons.
making observations and developing informal understandings, not on formal definitions or in-depth explanations. Elementary students tend to have many misconceptions about heat (see page 12). While hands-on activity and continued discussion may be used, teachers should know that many of these misconceptions are persistent and even developmentally appropriate. With the proper experiences and informal exploration in elementary school, students will be prepared to tackle these misconceptions in later years. In this article, we've highlighted lessons that help students answer the following questions: How is heat produced and measured? How can we "trap" heat? How do animals and people stay warm in the polar regions? Teachers may wish to
The Sun. Photo courtesy of Lykaestria, Wikimedia Commons.
combine lessons from each category to produce an effective learning cycle within a real-world context. Within each section, literacy lessons provide suggestions for incorporating reading, writing, and discussion into the science activity. We've aligned each lesson to the appropriate national standards - National Science Education Standards and the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)/International Reading Association (IRA) Standards for the English Language Arts. The entire National Science Education Standards document can be read online or downloaded for free from the National Academies Press web site. The content standards are found in Chapter 6, http:// books.nap.edu/openbook.php? record_id=4962&page=103. The NCTE/IRA Standards may be viewed online as well, at http:// ncte.org/standards.
Hot, Hot, Hot! Photo courtesy of stock.xchng.
Science and Literacy: Lessons HEAT The Warmth of the Sun (Grades K-2) http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons.php? DocID=329 To help students broaden their understanding of the sun, particularly its critical role in warming the land, air, and water around us. This lesson meets the Science as Inquiry and Earth and Space Science content standards of the National Science Education Standards for grades K-4. Using Thermometers (Grades K-2) http://www.wattsonschools.com/pdf/le-6.pdf Students will use thermometers to measure the temperature in a variety of indoor and outdoor locations. This lesson could be combined with "The Warmth of the Sun" (above) or used separately to introduce the use of thermometers. This lesson meets the Science as Inquiry and Science and Technology content standards of the National Science Education Standards for grades K-4. When Things Start Heating Up (Grades 3-5) http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons.php? DocID=330 This lesson is intended to give students a general idea of how heat is produced from human-based activities and mechanical and electrical machines. This lesson can be adapted to include other examples of heat-producing activities, such as those found in the lesson Heating Up. This lesson meets the Science as Inquiry and Physical Science content standards of the National Science Education Standards for grades K-4.
Is It Hot in the Light? (Grades 3-5) http://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/preview.cgi? LPid=9757 In this activity, students will make observations that things in direct sunlight are warmer than things that are not in as much sunlight. Also, they may notice that there may be more heat near asphalt, brick, or cement because heat can be stored and radiated from these, also. This lesson meets the Science as Inquiry and Earth and Space Science content standards of the National Science Education Standards for grades K-4 and 5-8. Integrate literacy into these lessons with the following: I Wonder: Writing Scientific Explanations With Students (Grades K-2; modify for Grades 3-5) http://readwritethink.org/lessons/ lesson_view.asp?id=872 This lesson encourages second-grade students to ask questions about a specific topic, choose a particular question to explore in detail, and research the question using a variety of resources. Students organize their information on a "What we think we know," "What we have confirmed we know," and "New facts we have learned through research" (TCF) chart. They then collaborate to write a scientific explanation. Teachers could easily modify this lesson to focus on heat. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 12.
Science and Literacy: Lessons INSULATION In these lessons, upper-elementary students investigate the properties of insulators by testing a variety of materials. Teachers may choose to modify these lessons to include other materials or create an inquiry experience for students by allowing them to select materials and plan their own testing procedure. Teach Engineering: What is the Best Insulator? (Grades 3-5) http://www.teachengineering.org/ view_activity.php?url=http:// www.teachengineering.org/collection/wpi_/ activities/wpi_the_best_insulator/ the_best_insulator.xml In this lesson, students will investigate the properties of insulators in attempts to keep a cup of water from freezing, and once it is frozen, to keep it from melting. This lesson involves qualitative observations of which cups freeze (or melt) first.
Integrate literacy into these lessons by having students plan investigations, record data, link claims to evidence, and draw conclusions in a science notebook. Science Notebooks: Integrating Investigations http://beyondpenguins.nsdl.org/issue/ column.php? date=August2008&departmentid=professional& columnid=professional!literacy This article from the August 2008 issue of Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears provides an overview of science notebooks and how they can be used in the elementary classroom. Using science notebooks meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12.
This lesson meets the Science as Inquiry and Physical Science Content Standards of the National Science Education Standards for Grades K-4. Insulation Experimentation (Grade 5 and up) http://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/preview.cgi? LPid=21569 In this lesson, students test a variety of insulators and relate their knowledge to energy conservation. Experimental design is involved, but the lesson is written in such a way that allows students to design their own investigation. This lesson meets the Science as Inquiry and Physical Science Content Standards of the National Science Education Standards for Grades 5-8. Tundraurpiainen-The Arctic RedpollCarduelis hornemanni. Photo courtesy of Juho Holmi, Flickr.
Science and Literacy: Lessons KEEPING WARM In these lessons, students explore how animals and people can stay warm in cold environments. Teachers may choose to tie these lessons to those addressing insulation by testing fur or cloth in the lessons described above. Animal Coverings (Grade K) http://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/preview.cgi? LPid=629 Discuss the different kinds of animal coverings and how each covering protects the animal or keeps it warm. This lesson meets the Life Science Content Standard of the National Science Education Standards for grades K-4. Dressing for the Season (Grade K) http://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/preview.cgi? LPid=613 For each change of season, students will observe the weather and then dress a cut-out doll appropriately for a field trip outside. This lesson meets the Life Science Content Standard of the National Science Education Standards for grades K-4.
How Animals Prepare for Winter (Grades 1-2) http://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/preview.cgi? LPid=5720 This lesson teaches students that some animals migrate and others hibernate during the winter months. This lesson meets the Life Science Content Standard of the National Science Education Standards for grades K-4. Polar Bears: Keeping Warm at the Arctic (Grades K-2) http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/3173 Students learn about the polar bear's body coverings and how the coverings help the bear survive in the Arctic climate. This lesson can be generalized to apply to other marine mammals such as whales and seals. This lesson meets the Science as Inquiry and Life Science Content Standards of the National Science Education Standards for grades K-4. Dress Like a Polar Bear (Grades K-2 and 3-5) http://www.wildeducation.org/programs/ below_zero/activity/drspolbr.asp Students discuss the polar bear's adaptations to an arctic climate, then apply what they've learned
Science and Literacy: Lessons as they design a winter outfit for themselves. The activity includes modifications for both grade ranges. This lesson meets the Life Science Content Standard of the National Science Education Standards for grades K-4. Polar Bears and Their Adaptations (Grades 3-5) http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/2964 Students explore how a polar bear's body adapts to survive in the harsh environment in which the bear lives. This lesson can be generalized to apply to other marine mammals such as whales and seals. This lesson meets the Science as Inquiry and Life Science Content Standards of the National Science Education Standards for grades K-4 and 5-8. Staying Warm in Antarctica (Grades 3-5) http://www.polartrec.com/resources/lesson/4711 Students will explore the three different types of heat transfer and gain a better understanding of how this transfer affects both scientists and animals that inhabit polar regions. This lesson meets the Science as Inquiry, Physical Science, and Life Science Content Standards of
the National Science Education Standards for grades K-4 and 5-8. Integrate literacy into these lessons by pairing them with the following article and lesson: Creating Question and Answer Books through Guided Research (Grades K-2; modify for Grades 3-5) http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/ lesson_view.asp?id=353 As students investigate a topic (the sun and its energy), they use nonfiction texts and the Internet to generate questions and gather information. Students use KWL charts and interactive writing to organize their information. Periodic reviews of gathered information become the backdrop to ongoing inquiry, discussion, reporting, and confirming information. The lesson culminates with the publishing of a collaborative question-andanswer book, which reports on information about the chosen topic, with each student contributing one page to the book. This lesson meets the following NCTE/IRA Standards: 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 11, 12 Life in a Deep Freeze (Grades 3-5) http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ ngexplorer/0211/articles/mainarticle.html This article from the children's magazine National Geographic Explorer describes the various adaptations that keep animals warm in the cold Arctic environment.
Far Left: MOMBABY2. Photo courtesy of Steven Profaizer, U.S. Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. Middle: Arctic Hare. Photo courtesy of James Seith Photography, Flickr. Right: 2009-11-10 (2). Photo courtesy of James Seith Photography, Flickr.
Off The Bookshelf: Polar Oceans: Virtual Bookshelf By Julie Moran
Survival in the polar regions requires year-round residents to find a way to stay warm in bitterly cold conditions. Surprisingly, few animals hibernate to survive winter. Polar bears feast during the winter as they hunt on the ice. Whales and seals pack on pounds of blubber
for insulation. Humans wear layers of clothing and avoid wet and windy conditions as much as possible. In this issue, students will learn how heat is generated and conserved - and you might be surprised at how easy it can be to overheat yourself in the middle of winter!
Recommended Books: Keeping Warm Temperature: Heating Up and Cooling Down. Darlene Stille. 2004. Nonfiction. Grades K-2. This book encourages children to think about what they already know about temperature and how thermometers are used to measure heat. Simple explanations are given for why things stay warm or cold and where heat energy comes from. The book also includes directions for making a simple thermometer. Keeping Warm, Keeping Cool. Thomas Sheehan. 2006. Nonfiction. Grades K-2. A basic introduction to how humans and animals stay warm or cool off in extreme temperatures. It includes adaptations such as body fat, fur, thin bodies, and big ears.
Magic School Bus In the Arctic. Joanna Cole. 1998. Nonfiction. Grades K-4. When Miss Frizzle takes her class to the North Pole, they learn about heat as they struggle to stay warm. They learn about insulation by using paper as insulation inside their coats. They learn about heat-energy radiation, how blubber and fur keep animals warm, and how an igloo can help conserve heat in an emergency. The book includes a simple experiment to investigate various insulators. Life in the Arctic. Sheldon Brooks. 2004. Nonfiction. Grades 3-5. Chapter 3 discusses how Arctic animals are different from their warm-weather counterparts by being heavier, reducing their fluid intake, and having shorter limbs (less surface area). Surprisingly, most year-round Arctic dwellers do not hibernate to conserve heat and energy.
Keeping Warm Keeping Warm. Peter Riley. 2008. Nonfiction. Grades 4-5. This comprehensive look at heat energy explains heat sources, heat measurement, heat movement, and more. Students learn about conductors and insulators, the purpose of sweating and shivering, what clothes do to help us stay warm, and what animals have done to adapt to cold conditions. Diagrams and pictures show how our homes can be made more energyefficient. Each section includes real data for students to analyze.
Extreme Survival Polar Regions. Sally Morgan. 2004. Nonfiction. Grades 4-5. Illustrated with high quality, captioned photographs woven into the text, this book touches on the ways all Arctic and Antarctic dwellers-wildlife, humans and plants - live in their extreme environment. Colorful boxes with a penguin logo add more facts and interesting tidbits to each section. Glossary and sources of more information included.
Survivor's Science at the Polar Regions. Peter Riley. 2005. Nonfiction. Grades 4-5. Hypothermia and frostbite are two dangers humans face in extreme cold conditions. Both can be prevented by staying out of the wind, protecting all parts of the body, and dressing in warm, dry, insulated layers. Easy classroom experiments show the difference between wetness and dryness and also the benefits of different layers and types of cloth.
Recommended Books: Penguins & Polar Bears Plenty of Penguins. Sonia W. Black. 1999. Easy reader. Grades K-1. Part of the Hello Reader series, simple rhyming text helps children learn about penguins while they learn to read.
101 Facts About Polar Bears. Julia Barnes. 2004. Nonfiction. Grades 3-5. Engaging, full color photos accompany factual information about polar bears. The short, numbered facts will engage students who may struggle with longer passages.
Abo u t U s Beyond Penguins and Polar BearsÂ is an online professional development magazine for elementary teachers. It prepares teachers to integrate high-quality science instruction with literacy teaching. The magazine is available for free at http:// beyondpenguins.nsdl.org. Twenty thematic issues link polar science concepts to the scope and sequence of elementary science curricula. The result is a resource that includes issues devoted to day and night, seasons, plants and mammals, erosion, and other physical, earth and space, and life science concepts. Some issues are also interdisciplinary, focusing on polar explorers, the indigenous people of the Arctic, and the challenges of doing science in the polar regions. To browse the complete archive of issues, visit http:// beyondpenguins.nsdl.org/archive.php. Other project features include a companion blog (http://expertvoices.nsdl.org/polar) about polar news and research and a social networking site (http:// beyondpenguins.ning.com) for elementary teachers to communicate and collaborate with colleagues across the country and around the world. Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears is funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0733024 and is produced by an interdisciplinary team from Ohio State University (OSU), College of Education and Human Ecology; the Ohio Resource Center (ORC) for Mathematics, Science, and Reading; the Byrd Polar Research Center; COSI (Center for Science and Industry) Columbus; the Upper Arlington Public Library (UAPL); and the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Core Integration team at Cornell University and University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR).