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CONNECTINGNews with the National Science Education Standards

Teamwork. Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.


Quality resources and powerful connections for math and science in the middle grades.

The Middle School Portal 2: Math and Science Pathways (MSP2) supports middle grades educators with high-quality, standards-based resources and promotes collaboration and knowledge-sharing among its users. Educators use MSP2 to increase content knowledge in science, mathematics, and appropriate pedagogy for youth ages 10 to 15. MSP2 employs social networking and digital tools to foster dynamic experiences that promote creation, modification, and sharing of resources, facilitate professional development, and support the integration of technology into practice. MSP2 also includes the development of virtual learning experiences designed for middle school aged youth through which young people increase their ability to explore, discover ideas, problem solve, think critically, communicate, use technology in a productive and responsible manner, and become globally aware. These experiences will help them become aware of educational pathways that lead to careers in science, mathematics, and technology. MSP2 (http://msteacher2.org) is a project of the Ohio State University College of Education and Human Ecology, National Middle School Association, and Education Development Center, Inc., and is funded by the National Science Foundation. The partners integrate resources, tools, and services across projects, and support multiple methods of resource discovery to meet the needs of this audience.

Copyright May 2010 - The Ohio State University. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0840824. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. To contact us, email: msp@msteacher.org.


TABLE OF CONTENTS What's Happening to Polar Bears? Real Data, Claims, and Evidence By Jessica Fries-Gaither December 16, 2009, Connecting News Blog

1

Middle Level Students and ‘Abilities Necessary to Do Scientific Inquiry’ By Mary LeFever September 14, 2009, Connecting News Blog

4

Put on a Happy Face! By Mary LeFever August 27, 2009, Connecting News Blog

7

Bat Hosts Marburg Virus Party By Mary LeFever August 17, 2009, Connecting News Blog

8

Milk’s Benefits Go Beyond Healthy Bones By Mary LeFever August 3, 2009, Connecting News Blog

11

Polar Bears  and  PCs:  Technologies  Unintended  Consequences By Jessica Fries-Gaither June 1, 2009, Connecting News Blog

13

Lack of Blow Flies Leads to Truth By Mary LeFever May 12, 2009, Connecting News Blog

15

Influenza: History, Science, Strains, Detection and Protection By Mary LeFever May 4, 2009, Connecting News Blog

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Hyperlinks to online resources are embedded throughout the document. The URL addresses to all online resources are provided at the end of document. Layout and design by Margaux Baldridge, Office of Technology and Enhanced Learning, College of Education and Human Ecology, The Ohio State University.


CONNECTINGNEWS with the National Science Education Standards

What’s Happening to Polar Bears? Real Data, Claims, and Evidence.

Polar bear on ice. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

By Jessica Fries-Gaither December 16, 2009 Connecting News Blog •••

Looking for a way to incorporate real data into your science class? Or maybe you want to work on evidence-based claims and reasoning. Perhaps you need an engaging way to tackle the subject of climate change. This lesson uses polar

Pancake ice. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

bears and sea ice data to promote critical thinking within the context of an important current event.

Lesson Objectives Students will be able to visually represent data by creating meaningful graphs.

National Science Education Standards This lesson closely aligns with three of the Science Content Standards of the National Science Education Standards (NSES): Science as Inquiry,

Students will make claims based on

Life Science, and Science in Personal

graphical evidence and support those and Social Perspectives. claims with evidence-based • Science as Inquiry: Abilities reasoning.

Necessary to do Scientific Inquiry (Grades 5-8) • Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data. • Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and

Polar Bear. Photo courtesy of PocketAces, stock.xchng.

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models using evidence. • Think critically and logically to make the relationships between

evidence and explanations. • Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions. • Communicate scientific procedures and explanations. Life Science: Populations and Ecosystems (Grades 5-8) • Lack of resources and other factors, such as predation and climate, limit the growth of populations in specific niches in the ecosystem. Science in Personal and Social Perspectives: Natural Hazards (Grades 5-8) • Human activities also can induce hazards…Such activities can accelerate many natural changes.


http://msteacher2.org Engage

groups, and come up with

Begin the lesson by showing footage

explanations for the facts (or

of polar bears in Hudson Bay with

headlines). Conduct a class discussion

wildlifeHD’s Polar Bear Cam.

to share students’ explanations, and

Conduct a brief class discussion to elicit prior knowledge about the

record and post them in a central

bears. Next, share some facts about polar bears with students, such as:

location.

Virtual Bookshelves

Explore Next, group students into teams of 4

So far this fall, tour operators and

or 5 for an Idea Circle about polar

scientists have reported at least four

bears. In an idea circle, each student

and perhaps up to eight cases of

reads a nonfiction (informational)

mature males eating cubs and other

text of their own choosing on a

bears in the population around

particular subject (in this case, polar

Churchill, Manitoba. (From Hungry

bears). As each student selects his

Polar Bears Eat Young Due to Shrinking Sea Ice, Nov. 27, 2009)

own text, a variety of reading levels and formats are represented within

Ice Bear: In the Steps of the Polar Bear. Nicola Davies. 2005. Life Cycle of a Polar Bear. Rebecca Sjonger and Bobbie Kalman. 2006. Baby Polar Bear. Aubrey Lang. 2008.

each small group and within the There are increased bear-human

class. Ideally, no two students read

interactions, increased numbers of

the same text. Idea circles are an

bears on shore, and bears staying on

excellent strategy for differentiated

shore for longer periods of time in

instruction and a wonderful

the Canadian Arctic. (From Can You

opportunity to incorporate

Bear It? Churchill a Polar Pioneer,

children’s literature into a middle

November 18, 2009)

school classroom.

The IUCN Polar Bear Specialist

For an idea circle on polar bears, we’ve suggested titles from the

Group has listed eight of 19 polar bear subpopulations as currently

Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears

decreasing, three as stable, and one

virtual bookshelves (see right

as increasing. For seven, data were

column).

insufficient to assign a trend. (From Polar Bear Status Report, July 6,

Your librarian or media specialist will

2009)

be able to recommend other nonfiction titles as well.

You may wish to share the facts orally, list them on the board or on a

After students read their individual

PowerPoint slide, or create mock

texts, they share what they’ve

headlines for students to read. Ask students to discuss the facts in small

learned with their small group, completing a graphic organizer in the

Why Don’t Polar Bears Have Stripes? Katherine Smith. 2004. A Polar Bear Journey. Debbie S. Miller. 2005. Polar Bears: Arctic Hunters. Norman Pearl. 2009. Ice Bears. Brenda Z. Guiberson. 2008. Polar Bear Alert! Debora Pearson. 2007. Polar Bears. Amazing Animals Series. Gail Gibbons. 2009. 101 Facts About Polar Bears.  Julia Barnes. 2004.

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CONNECTINGNEWS with the National Science Education Standards

process. Next, conduct another

to learn about seasonal variations

using rubrics. In addition, you may

whole-class discussion and record

and over a 25-year period to learn

also choose to assess student

information on a large chart

about longer-term trends.

understanding of polar bear

displayed in a central location. Ask

characteristics and populations.

students to revisit their explanations

Once students have completed their

from the “Engage” phase, clarifying

graphs, they will analyze the data and

Expand

and revising as needed.

make evidence-based claims that

Extend this lesson by introducing

explain why polar bear populations

global climate change and albedo.

Explain

are changing. You may wish to use a

The following resources may be

In this phase of the lesson, students

helpful as you plan extension

will work with real data to better

graphic organizer to scaffold students’ work with claims, evidence,

understand the role of sea ice loss in

and reasoning. You may also wish to

changing polar bear populations. The

model this process if students are

Windows to the Universe lesson

unfamiliar or unpracticed with these

Graphing Sea Ice Extent in the Arctic

concepts.

and Antarctic provides up-to-date sea ice data and clear procedures for

At this time, you may choose to

the lesson. You may wish to deal only with the Arctic data if your focus is on polar bear populations.

Graphing Sea Ice Extent in the Arctic and Antarctic Students graph sea ice extent (area) in both polar regions (Arctic and Antarctica) over a three-year period

activities.

Graphing Thermal Expansion of Water and Greenhouse Gases Two activities have students create

conduct another whole-class discussion to share claims, evidence, and reasoning. Student graphs and claims/evidence/reasoning graphic organizers serve as assessment for this lesson (see “Assess,” below).

Assess (Evaluate) Class discussion during the “Engage”

graphs of concentrations of greenhouse gases and observe the thermal expansion of water. You may choose to have students also plot global temperatures as well as greenhouse gas concentrations to help them see the correlation between the two.

The Shiniest Moon

phase of the lesson can serve as a

This nonfiction article is written for

source of formative assessment. Additionally, observation of

use with students in grades 4 and up. Students learn about two of

student behavior during the lessons’ activities can be

Saturn’s moons, albedo, the relationship between heat absorption

used as an assessment

and temperature, and how

tool. Formal

decreasing sea ice in the Arctic

(summative) assessment actually contributes to further melting. The article is offered in for this lesson includes evaluating student graphs and claims, evidence, and reasoning Pie graph icon courtesy of stock.xchng.

3

various formats and reading levels, and related activities are suggested.


http://msteacher2.org Other Related Resources:

Create a Graph Students will learn

WWF-Canon Polar Bear Tracker

how to create area,

For the last 5 years or

bar, pie, and line graphs. They are

so, the WWF-Canon

provided with information about

Polar Bear Tracker has followed polar

what each type of graph shows and what it can be used for. Students

bears in the Arctic. Their positions

are given an example of each type

bears’ necks, via satellite to scientists,

of graph, but they can create graphs using their own data in the

and then to this website. It allows us to get regular updates about how

interactive tool.

the polar bears behave in their arctic

are beamed from collars on the

Dot Earth Nine Billion People. One Planet. Follow climate-related news (including the latest from the climate talks in Copenhagen) with this New York Times blog.

environment and how they may be affected by climate change. The site also includes multimedia and a kid’s zone.

Middle Level Students and ‘Abilities Necessary to Do Scientific Inquiry’. By Mary LeFever September 14, 2009 Connecting News Blog •••

goals of that post were to help

scientific inquiry if one has some

teachers assist students in (a)

understanding about it.

distinguishing between questions that lend themselves to scientific

So how do middle grades teachers

investigations and those that do not;

help students meet this necessarily

(b) identifying methods one could

complex set of ideas without

use to investigate a good question

oversimplifying it? Perhaps the best

scientifically; and (c) using evidence

approach is to be transparent and

to support one’s logical argument.

explicit with students: explain your

Those goals closely align with

goal of helping students acquire proficiency in both themes through a

Content Standard A of the National

series of activities across the

Our August 28 blog entry focused

Science Education Standards (NSES), academic year, each highlighting a

on developing concepts related to

Science as Inquiry. That standard is

portion of the themes, while

the methods in and nature of

divided into two themes: abilities to

remaining strongly connected to all

science. In that post, titled “Put On a

do scientific inquiry and

the other portions of both themes.

Happy Face!,” the inspiration came

understandings about scientific

The first theme, abilities to do

from scientific investigation of the

inquiry (p. 143). In the real-world, we scientific inquiry, has eight subthemes

relationship between suggestive

cannot separate these two themes

(listed below from pages 145 and

language and involuntary

cleanly. That is, one can only conduct

148 of NSES). The second theme, understandings about scientific

contractions of facial muscles. The

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CONNECTINGNEWS with the National Science Education Standards

Questions that can be answered through:

igations t s e v n I tific

Scien

Design and conduct a scientific investigation. Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.

inquiry, has seven subthemes relating

and some non-volunteering students

to the nature of science as

to contribute, while refraining from

manifested in the subthemes of

providing corrective feedback.

abilities to do scientific inquiry: • Identify questions that can be Identify questions that can be

answered through scientific

answered through scientific

investigations. What kind of

investigations (see left

questions can students generate

column). (See blog post

related to the human appendix?

Put On a Happy Face!)

Which questions lend themselves to scientific investigation?

Pages 146-147 of NSES provide an excellent case study, using an investigation of pendulums, which addresses these subthemes. Physical

a good question, ask them how it

science seems to lend itself well to

can be tested. Students need to

these themes. But, teachers need to

think big here, with the

facilitate student proficiency with

understanding we may not have

these subthemes in the disciplines of

the capacity to carry out their

earth and life sciences too.

experiment, but if we had the

ScienceDaily published a news story

resources, as research institutions

on August 21, 2009, titled Evolution

do, the experiment could be

Think critically and logically

Of The Human Appendix: A Biological

conducted. Students can conduct

to make the relationships between evidence and explanations.

‘Remnant’ No More, which can be

some research to learn what is known. They could dissect a rat to

Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.

Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions. Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.

integrated into a unit on body systems while providing opportunity to develop the content standards listed above in a life science context.

Use mathematics in all aspects of inquiry.

Liver

h ac

om St

How to Turn This News Event into an InquiryBased, Standards-Related Science Lesson Ask students if any of them have had appendicitis. What is it? Where is the human appendix? (You can show

Appendix

Large Intestine

students the graphic that accompanies the news story.) What does it do? Allow every volunteering

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• Design and conduct a scientific investigation. After students choose

Appendix. Illustration courtesy of Pearson Scott Foresman, Wikimedia Commons.


http://msteacher2.org • Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations. Students use knowledge gained in research and observation here. What makes their predictions from the step above reasonable? • Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions. Read the news story to students or have

x Appendi observe an appendix, and a frog to observe lack of an appendix.

them read it. Can they articulate the alternative explanations regarding the evolution of the Appendix. Photo courtesy of Nagaraju Raveender,Wikimedia Commons.

• Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence. Based on research or

• Use appropriate tools and techniques

initial observation of the single frog

to gather, analyze, and interpret data.

and rat, students should describe

Given their proposed experimental

the appearance, size, texture, mass,

design and the idea of dissection,

volume, lengths and/or context of

students should explain how, and

the appendix. They can speculate

using what tools, particular kinds of

(explain) on what might be

data would be collected, and how it

adaptive about those observations. Based on their research on the

would be organized. For example, students may propose that several

function of the appendix, students

appendix? What is the value in scientists proposing alternative explanations? What is the danger in scientists doing this? • Communicate scientific procedures and explanations. Students should recognize the ways they have already done or seen this: in their experimental design, in their model drawing, in the story they’ve read. • Use mathematics in all aspects of inquiry. How have students used, or could they use, math in their experimental design, observations

individuals of several species be

can predict what kinds of species

dissected and observed for an

might lack an appendix because the

appendix. What kinds of tools do

species’ lifestyle suggests they might

they need? Make sure you have

not need one. Or how might the

some tools on hand so students

size of the appendix vary with the

can touch them, if not use them.

Here’s a short, current background

different classes of animals?

Can they design a data table for

information article from Scientific

Students can draw and label

recording the observations? Does it accommodate the number of species as well as the individuals of

or data analysis? Why would using math in these ways improve the quality of their science?

American, What is the function of the illustrations (model) of the human appendix? Did it once have a observed appendix in the dissected purpose that has since been lost? rat or lack of appendix in the frog.

each species?

6


CONNECTINGNEWS with the National Science Education Standards

Put on a Happy Face! By Mary LeFever August 27, 2009 Connecting News Blog •••

What a great way to help put students at ease while introducing

Very soon we will meet our new

Empathize with your students by

students and their parents. Everyone

telling them you are always excited,

is excited but a bit nervous and

but a little nervous and anxious too,

perhaps anxious. Intuitively, we know

at the beginning of the school year.

smiling will help put others at ease.

Let them know you consciously try

Everyone has heard the old wives’

to smile. Ask them why they think you do this.

tale that it takes more muscles to frown than to smile; thus, smile more and decrease the energy needed!

Ask students what they think they know about the effect of smiling on

But is there more to the relationship

others. How do they know that?

between extrinsic triggers, emotion,

Upon what evidence are they basing

and physical manifestation in facial

their claims? Do they respond that

expression? Is this a question that

people often smile back when one

lends itself to scientific investigation,

smiles at them? Are there other ways

or is it somewhat mystical, outside

of getting people to smile, perhaps

the bounds of empirical evidence?

on a less conscious level? That is, one might smile as a response to some

Results of a new study indicate that when people read words associated with laughing and smiling or frowning, they have involuntary muscular contractions associated with smiling or frowning. In addition, one’s perception of how funny a cartoon is can be influenced by subliminal messages containing laugh/ smile/frown verbs.

Ask students if they’ve heard that old wives’ tale in the first paragraph

an Inquiry-Based, above and ask what it implies. Standards-Related Ask students if there is a relationship Science Lesson

them to the nature of science!

How could one test the relationship?

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How to Turn This News Event into

other, less-obvious cue than another’s smile, without being conscious of it. Male. Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.

between emotion and facial

expression. What causes facial expression? Muscle contractions, of course. Be explicit in identifying that physical aspect and how it differs from emotion. The physical aspect has a definite biological foundation. The emotional aspect is not so definite in its biological foundation, even though we can observe the biological results of emotions, such as increased heart rate. Finally, ask if the question of obvious or subliminal emotional triggers and subsequent physical manifestation of emotion through facial expression can be tested scientifically. You’ll need to be very clear here. Consider breaking this down into a couple of simpler questions, putting them in print or projecting them clearly. Make sure Teamwork. Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.


http://msteacher2.org present their arguments, a la communication in science. Then allow the other camp to respond. Have any students changed their mind or do they still believe they can conduct an empirical test? After the test descriptions have been heard, ask students to reevaluate their initial yes/no

Kids near bus. Photo courtesy of Getty Images.

each student commits to an answer of yes or no without being judgmental. For those students who answer yes, they should elaborate; how would they test the question scientifically? They can work in pairs or threes and brainstorm a while, writing out a sequence of steps they would use in their test. For those who say no, they should describe why this question cannot be tested. That is, why is the question one that falls outside the realm of science? Refrain from interfering too much here. If students ask you a question, try to respond with another question, rather than “giving” them an answer. The goals are to allow students to collaborate, to think scientifically, and to evaluate the potential of their proposed tests,

Bat Hosts Marburg Virus Party. By Mary LeFever August 17, 2009 Connecting News Blog •••

Bats, caves, danger and exotic locales. That should catch your

answer. You could ask for a

students’ attention! The big story

show of hands; how many

here is the co-evolution of viruses

students changed their

and their nonhuman animal hosts,

answers? It is not necessary for

who seem to have a harmless,

anyone to say which way they

symbiotic relationship with viruses changed, or why, at this point. But this that cause deadly outbreaks in underscores that scientific humans. Though this story is about explanations do change as new

Marburg virus and a fruit bat, the

evidence emerges.

concepts apply to many virus/host/

Then share the article Smile As You Read This: Language That Puts You In Touch With Your Bodily Feelings (ScienceDaily, August 15, 2009) with the students, making sure they

human infections systems, including H1N1. On August 2, 2009, ScienceDaily published a story called ‘Ebola Cousin’ Marburg Virus Isolated From African Fruit Bats.

understand the two tests and why

While previous investigations have

the results appear to be valid. For

found antibodies to Marburg virus

assessment, ask them to defend the

and virus genetic fragments in bats, the recent study goes significantly

theory (a tested hypothesis with supporting evidence) that unconscious physical manifestation of emotions can be triggered subliminally. Don’t be afraid to use these “big” words with students; just be prepared to explain their meaning.

not to actually devise a perfect test. After the groups are satisfied with

Fruit bat exposing tip of tongue. Photo courtesy of MDL.hu, Flickr.

their responses, let the naysayers

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CONNECTINGNEWS with the National Science Education Standards

that animals can host these viruses with no negative impact to their

Livingstone’s Fruit Bat. Photo courtesy of charliejb, Flickr.

health, yet humans cannot? Students do not necessarily need to articulate the structure of the virus on a molecular level, but they should understand that the virus is not cellular, has very few parts, and cannot survive except inside the cell of another, benefiting from the host cell’s structures and activities that the virus lacks. Thus, when the virus inhabits some animal bodies, it does no harm, but when the same virus Marburg virus. Photo courtesy of Dr. Erskine Palmer, & Russell Regnery, Ph.D.,Wikimedia Commons.

Can your students construct a reasonable hypothesis to explain this observation?

further by isolating actual infectious virus directly from bat tissues in

How to Turn This News Event into an Inquiry-

otherwise healthy-appearing bats. The

Based, Standards-Related new study shows unambiguously that Science Lesson this bat species can carry live

Marburg virus. . . . By identifying the natural source of this virus, appropriate public health resources can be directed to prevent future outbreaks. (Emphasis added.) The blog MicrobiologyBytes also has a post about this finding. The writer notes that ecologists have been looking for this “natural reservoir” for forty years! Now that researchers have found the reservoir, it appears the potential for human disease outbreaks is greater than previously thought.

9

inhabits human cells it causes harm.

There have been reports of H1N1 flu outbreaks at summer camp. Ask your students who has actually had swine flu recently. How do they

Show students this eight-slide, narrated animation of how a virus infects a cell. This image, which lacks a caption, is for your information. It shows a micrograph of the virus, a labeled schematic, and the corresponding genome, consisting of seven genes. After students generate some

know? What do they know about the hypotheses about the relationships H1N1 virus and viruses in general? between viruses and their hosts, have Where do viruses come from? What are they made of? What other

them scrutinize their hypotheses by

viruses have students heard of that

What is the rationale for the

can have an even more severe

hypothesis? What evidence is there

impact on humans than H1N1?

to support the rationale? Can some

Ask if any students have seen the movie Outbreak? What was the ultimate host for that virus? How is it

engaging in scientific argumentation.

hypotheses be eliminated? How should others be modified?


http://msteacher2.org Ask students what natural selection

Mutations are relatively rare; thus, it

means. How might the concept be

takes a very long time to

related to the observation of the

accumulate many. This variation in

apparent symbiotic relationship of

the virus confers a high degree of

viruses and an animal host? Over a

fitness on it and increases the

very long time, natural selection

probability that at least one or more

selected against host animals who

of the variations will find hospitable

lacked the ability to generate

environments in which to thrive and

antibodies against the virus, leaving survivors who do produce the

reproduce.

necessary antibodies. One

H1N1 is subject to the same

assumption is that humans, who have

assumptions. Influenza is naturally

inhabited the planet for a very short

hosted by birds. Somewhere in

period of time relatively speaking,

evolutionary history, the bird flu virus

have not had enough time for natural acquired a mutation that enabled it selection to eliminate those humans to colonize swine, without killing who cannot produce the appropriate them. In more recent history, the two antibodies. And at the same time, the flu strains were probably inhabiting necessary random mutations in the human genome that would enable

the same hosts simultaneously,

antibody production have not

enabling gene mixing of the two viruses and producing H1N1, among

appeared.

other viruses. For the same reasons given earlier, humans do not produce

The Marburg virus manifests a

antibodies for the flu virus.

number of variations in gene base sequence (the order of cytosine

For assessment, have students

guanine, adenine and thymine in the

respond to these inquiries (see right

virus’s DNA), suggesting the virus has column). been around a very long time.

Electron microscope image of the H1N1 influenza virus. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

For Assessment Why do Egyptian fruit bats hosting Marburg virus? Why do you think ecologists were unable to locate the Marburg virus’s natural reservoir for over forty years? (Researchers may not have realized another mammal could host the virus without getting sick. Also, newer technologies are able to differentiate the slightest variations in gene sequences that, although containing some variation, are still the same virus. They may have believed most of these variations, though observed, were not Marburg.) Finally, as a bridge to technology and the application of science findings: What do you think can be done with the fact that the Egyptian fruit bat is a known host to the deadly Marburg virus?

10


CONNECTINGNEWS with the National Science Education Standards

Milk’s Benefits Go Beyond Healthy Bones. By Mary LeFever August 3, 2009 Connecting News Blog •••

Ask your students how much milk they’ve had in the past 24 hours. I predict the amounts will be dismally low. The Office of Dietary

It’s apparently not hip to drink milk.

a story called Longer Life For Milk

Though most students would agree

Drinkers, Study Suggests. A study out

milk is a healthy choice, they may

of Great Britain “aimed to establish

believe it also holds risks because of

whether the health benefits of

additives or processing. They may

drinking milk outweigh any dangers

believe they can get their calcium just that lie in its consumption…. The as easily from other sources.

review brought together published

However, some studies suggest that

evidence from 324 studies of milk

calcium supplements don’t confer the consumption as predictors of same benefits as calcium delivered coronary heart disease (CHD), via low-fat dairy products. Among

stroke, and diabetes.” The researchers

examples cited in a Wall Street Journal offered this conclusion: online article is a low-fat diet containing three servings of diary,

Our findings clearly show that

such as milk or yogurt that

when the numbers of deaths from

contributed to greater fat loss

CHD, stroke and colorectal cancer

around the waist than diets of equal

were taken into account, there is

The National Health and Nutrition

caloric intake per day lacking the

strong evidence of an overall

Examination Survey 1999-2000 found that average calcium intakes

dairy regiment. Causes for the observation are not known but are

reduction in the risk of dying from

were 1,081 and 793 mg/day for

suspected to lie in the combination

these chronic diseases due to milk consumption. We certainly found no

boys and girls ages 12-19 years,

of enzymes present.

evidence that drinking milk might

Supplements, National Institutes of Health, reports in its Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Calcium:

respectively; 1,025 and 797 mg/day for men and women 20-39 years; and 797 and 660 mg/day for men and women ≥60 years. Overall, females are less likely than males to get recommended intakes of calcium from food.

increase the risk of developing any Ask your students if they know why

condition, with the exception of

at least three servings of low-fat milk

prostate cancer. (Emphasis added)

are recommended daily. What does the body use it for? Most students will be able to mention bone and teeth composition. Probably few realize milk is required for muscle contraction, both voluntary and

How to Turn This News Event into an InquiryBased, Standards-Related Science Lesson The following lesson could be integrated into a skeletal system unit,

Milk. Photo courtesy of stock.xchng.

involuntary, for hormone and enzyme secretion, and for neurotransmitter success. Emerging research suggests other benefits as well. ScienceDaily recently published

11

a nutrition unit, or a science literacy unit. After orally surveying students for how much milk they recently consumed and what they believe are the pros and cons to drinking milk, have them write down a prediction regarding how much calcium is


http://msteacher2.org recommended daily for a person

5. List two forms of calcium in

their poster as a visual aid. In this way

their age. Have them express that

supplements. Which do you think

they reinforce concepts of

quantity in metric units of mass. This

is the better choice for you and

collaboration and communication in

may require some support from

why?

science.

you, such as reminding them what the base unit of mass measure is

After this point, you could assign

As a means of accountability, each

(gram) and the various prefixes.

pairs of students to sections of the

pair of students might be required to

Allow the students to decide which

document and ask them to develop

construct two questions, either

multiple choice or fill-in, that all prefix is most appropriate. Then have one or two essential questions for each section. After the students finish students will be able to respond to them write down a list of the reading their assigned section and correctly after hearing the pair’s benefits and the negatives of consuming milk. This initial list will be

constructing answers to their

presentation. You can use one of the

revisited and appropriately revised

essential questions, they should be

two questions from each group for a

later.

encouraged to find one reputable

class quiz. Part of that quiz should

resource that either confirms or

include a student reflection in which

discounts the fact sheet’s statements.

students describe how accurate their

Show students the document from the National Institutes of Health

initial predictions were and the ways

quoted above, Dietary Supplement

Finally, the student pairs should share

they have modified their conceptions

Fact Sheet: Calcium, or have them

their findings with the rest of the

of calcium and human nutrition. They

peruse it in pairs while in a computer class. They could create posters for a “gallery-hop” where students walk lab. around the room, from poster to Each student should answer these

poster, as the poster creators briefly

questions:

describe what they learned, using

should also reflect on how they may modify their lifestyle as a result of this lesson, and why.

1. How much calcium is recommended per day for a person your age? (1,300 mg) 2. List the sources of calcium that you would/could/do use. 3. What does DV stand for? Why is the given DV not directly useful to you? (Daily Value. It’s based on a 1,000 mg Recommended Dietary Allowance, or RDA)

Cow. Photo courtesy of stock.xchng.

4. Should you adjust the given DV up or down? (Down)

12


CONNECTINGNEWS with the National Science Education Standards

Polar Bears and PCs: Technologies Unintended Consequences. By Jessica Fries-Gaither June 1, 2009 Connecting News Blog •••

area with the

International Energy Agency (IEA)

least amount of

estimates that new devices such as

policies to control

MP3 players, cell phones, and flat-

energy efficiency.

screen TVs will triple energy

Total greenhouse gas

consumption. Two hundred new

emissions for

nuclear power plants would be

electronic gadgets is

needed just to power all the TVs,

currently at about

iPods, PCs, and other devices expected to be used by 2030.

500 million tons of carbon dioxide per year. If

GO

GR E

EN !

nothing is done, the IEA estimates When we talk about the problems of For example, consider televisions. The that the figure will double to about 1 IEA estimates that 2 billion TVs will global climate change, we tend to billion tons of carbon dioxide per soon be in use across the world (an focus on cars and coal-burning year by 2030. However, the agency power plants as major contributors. average of 1.3 TVs for every says that existing technologies could Yet there are other significant

household with electricity). TVs are

reduce this figure by 30-50 percent

players, including consumer

also getting bigger and being left on

at little cost. Allowing consumers to

electronics. The number of cell

for longer periods of time. IEA

regulate energy consumption based

phones, MP3 players, laptops, and

predicts a 5 percent annual increase

flat-screen TVs is increasing rapidly, and not just in wealthier nations. It is

in energy consumption between 1990 and 2030 from televisions

on the features they actually use, minimum-performance standards,

estimated that one in nine people in

alone.

Africa has a cell phone - and those numbers are expected to continue growing.

Fumes. Photo courtesy of Rybson, stock.xchng.

13

A recent report from the

and easy-to-read energy labels can help consumers make smarter

While consumer electronics is the fastest growing area, it is also the

Snow on Snout, Polar Bear. Photo courtesy of Flickr.

energy choices about their personal electronics.

Nuclear Power Plant. Photo courtesy of stock.xchng.


http://msteacher2.org benefits of technology and acknowledge that electronic gadget

How to Turn This News Event into an Inquiry-

If you have access to an electric

use will continue to grow rapidly.

power monitor such as a Kill-a-Watt,

How can science and technology

Based, Standards-Related Science Lesson

you can have students plug in

address the unintended

different gadgets and compare

environmental consequences of

power consumption. This simple

these tools? Assign small groups of

activity can give rise to a number of

students a particular piece of

inquiry-based investigations, such as:

technology and have them brainstorm ideas that would

This story connects to two National Science Education Standards domains: Science and Technology and Science in Personal and Social Perspectives.

What’s the most energy-efficient

promote energy efficiency – either

The Science and Technology content

MP3 player?; Do laptops and desktops consume the same amount

standard states: Technological

of power?; Does screen size (on an

manufacturer, or both. Have groups

solutions have intended benefits and

MP3, cell phone, laptop, or TV) affect

present their solutions to the class

unintended consequences. Some

power consumption?; and so on.

and discuss them. What common

consequences can be predicted, others cannot.

Share some of the figures from the IEA report with students. Discuss the

The Science in Personal and Social

idea that making technology (cell

Perspectives content standard

phones, laptops and Internet access)

includes resource use and depletion,

available to more people is a good

human-induced and naturally occurring hazards, and science and

thing, but there are intended and unintended consequences. Greater

technology in society.

access to technology enables widespread communication and

Ask students to consider electronic

promotes education, but also

gadgets – cell phones, digital cameras

requires more energy – most of

and video cameras, MP3 players, flat-

which comes from fossil fuels.

screen TVs, laptops, and so forth. Have students brainstorm the

Burning those fossil fuels releases

benefits of these devices. Easier

atmosphere, accelerating climate

communication, access to data,

change and causing Arctic sea ice decline.

entertainment, and mobility will

more greenhouse gases into the

on the part of the consumer or the

solutions were raised? What can students and their families do now to use their electronic devices in a responsible manner? The October 2008 issue of the free online magazine Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears included articles about natural resources, the NEED project, and energy efficiency activities for home and school. The U.S. Department of Energy’s web site includes links to energy efficiency and conservation lesson plans at a variety of grade levels.

probably come up. Then ask students to brainstorm “costs” or negative

So all those iPods do impact polar

characteristics. Expense will certainly

bears after all.

be mentioned, but will the energy cost?

Rather than leave students discouraged, present them with a challenge. Remind them of the many

Polar Bear. Photo courtesy of James Seith, Flickr.

14


CONNECTINGNEWS with the National Science Education Standards

Lack of Blow Flies Leads to Truth. By Mary LeFever May 12, 2009 Connecting News Blog •••

Forensic science is always interesting to students. The mystery and puzzle solving are hard to resist. Here’s a real case you can use to get students thinking scientifically while integrating knowledge of insect life cycles—a timely topic for spring. The NYtimes.com reports how the unsolved cause of death of a woman in Las Vegas was solved based on

Life cycle of a blow fly. Illustration courtesy of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Visible Proof :Technologies.

insect life cycles in this story, The Truth, Revealed by Bugs:The Case of

they were shoved into a trash can in

Here we connect to two National

Brookey Lee West.

a storage garage.

Science Education Standards domains: Life Science and Science as Inquiry.

The graphic from the National

This evidence and subsequent

Present the scenario to students as

Institutes of Health (credited to the

inference contradicted the victim’s

perhaps hypothetical. Friends and

Cleveland Museum of Natural

daughter’s story regarding the death.

neighbors of a woman in Las Vegas

History), illustrates

This contradiction then led

notice that they have not seen her

how the blow fly

to suspicion that the

much recently. Her daughter tells

is a natural clock

daughter was guilty of

them her mother has gone to

telling the time of death, since

murder. While no blow flies were found, scuttle flies were.

California to stay with the woman’s

the body’s death (see graphic

son. Some people wondered if there See Decomposition:What Happens was more to this story, since it was to the Body After Death for details on known that the mother was an this insect’s life cycle and behavior as alcoholic and the daughter and

illustration above). In this case, no

related to solving murder mysteries.

they lay eggs in a body within 24 hours of

mother did not always get along.

blow flies were found, indicating that

How to Turn This News Event into an Inquiryseason when blow flies are absent or Based, Standards-Related that the person was still alive when either the time of death was during a

Science Lesson

15

Some three years later, the woman’s body is found stuffed in a garbage can in a storage unit in Las Vegas. Upon this discovery the daughter


http://msteacher2.org admits to putting the body there

Have them collect information on

time to help students learn more

after her mother died of natural

the two species mentioned here, the

about influenza. But where do you

causes and she panicked, she didn’t

blow fly and the scuttle fly. The NIH

start? I have put together some

know what else to do.

page,Visible Proof:Technologies

highly regarded resources on the

contains an informative slide show

web, designed to provide you with 1)

Ask students if there is any way to

specific to blow flies and forensics.

solid background knowledge and 2) a

determine if the daughter is telling

The Australian Museum has a nice

variety of teaching resources.

the truth. They’ll have some creative

page on scuttle flies, http://

ideas including a lie detector test or

www.deathonline.net/decomposition/

administering a truth serum. Students corpse_fauna/flies/coffin.htm. could be asked to research those for their reliability. Ask students if they know what happens to a body in nature. What happens when a deer or raccoon dies? Do they suppose there are any patterns in body decomposition? Such as? They might mention dehydration or bacteria or fungal growth and activity. Are there more easily observed organisms that move in? With enough cues, they should be able to mention flies. What do flies do then? Why are they attracted to the body? They lay eggs, reproduce. You could review a generalized insect life cycle with students. See this page from University of Wisconsin

Life Science standards of the

was examined, there was no

National Science Education

evidence of blow flies, however

Standards as well as the notion of

scuttle flies were found. What could

systems thinking. Perhaps the best

be inferred regarding season of and/

pedagogical approach would be to

or place of death? Was the daughter telling the truth regarding a natural

start with personal and social

cause of death? How do they know?

the somewhat familiar and then

Influenza: History, Science, Strains, Detection and Protection. By Mary LeFever May 4, 2009 Connecting News Blog •••

graphic and written explanation:

Every middle school student has

http://manduca.entomology.wisc.edu/ about/lifecycle.html.

heard of the flu. They may even

conditions have to be to allow for the flies to move in? Well it wouldn’t be below freezing out, and they would need access to the body. Is there only one species of fly? No.

the Science in Personal and Social Perspectives, Science as Inquiry, and

Finally, tell them that when the body

Entomology department for a nice

So what would the environmental

A study of influenza aligns well with

perspectives. That way we start with bridge to the unfamiliar, more abstract notions of virus and epidemiology.

What Is the Flu? Open this question up to the class and record all student responses on the board or, better yet, chart paper that can be saved and revisited later. The responses can serve as a preassessment or benchmark. Do not

have had it, or more likely, they have had some other virus described as the flu. Most students would consider the flu unpleasant, but probably not

Influenza Virus. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

potentially fatal. Now is a good

16


CONNECTINGNEWS with the National Science Education Standards

History and Society: What Is a Pandemic?

To the right are three articles, all published up to four years before

1918 Influenza: The Mother of All Pandemics

the recent swine flu outbreak, that will familiarize you with the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. You may

Spanish Flu of 1918: Could It Happen Again?

choose to use one of these, in perhaps a modified form, to help

Flu Pandemic of 1918. Photos courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

The 1918 Flu Killed Millions. Does

students get a concept of pandemic, It Hold Clues for Today? its impact on society, and what was learned from it.

pass any judgment or offer any

recognize the puzzle-solving aspect

that viruses are much smaller than

corrective feedback at this point.

of science. Observations inspire

bacteria. Be mindful that bacteria

When students have run out of

hypotheses, which are tested and

are, in turn, much smaller than

ideas, tell them it’s time to do a little

tweaked as more observations are

our body cells.

research to find out whether what

gathered.

they know is accurate and complete.

Epidemic!

Antibodies Neutralize Multiple Flu Strains

National Institutes of Health. Page 2

This simple simulation illustrates how This March 2009 page quickly a virus spreads and how from the National Institutes of

is a Spanish version. Most students

scientists use observations to track

Health reports that two separate

will be able to relate to the listed

its origin.

scientific teams have discovered

symptoms. While both colds and the

The Big Picture Book of Viruses

antibodies that attach to a vulnerable

flu are caused by a virus, they are

This site contains more information

region in a broad range of influenza

distinctly different. Is vomiting or

than almost anyone would want.

A viruses, including the H5N1 avian

nausea on the list? Are antibiotics listed as a treatment? Do students

However, scroll down to see several

virus, the 1918 pandemic influenza

electron micrographs of various influenza strains.

virus, and seasonal H1N1 flu viruses. The finding could potentially help

Begin with this concise PDF from the

want to revise their chart paper list?

scientists develop tools to prevent or These resources will familiarize you

Image of bacteria cell covered in viruses

with the more technical aspects of a

Although this is not an image of a flu

virus, how the body responds, and

virus attacking a human cell, it does

The Science of Influenza

how antiviral drugs work. You will

17

treat the flu during an outbreak or pandemic.

Antiviral Drugs and H1N1 Flu give the viewer the sense of scale — (Swine Flu)


http://msteacher2.org that with the fact

against bacteria, and up until recently

What Is the Swine Flu?

we were told there was nothing we

These resources

and very young

could do about viral infections but

focus on the current

children are more

wait them out. In April of this year,

H1N1 strain.

often victims of the

We know that antibiotics don’t work

the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention described the benefits of some antiviral drugs: “There are four influenza antiviral drugs approved for use in the United States (oseltamivir, zanamivir, amantadine and

that older people

flu, most dying of

A labeled, schematic

pneumonia. That is

image (illustration shown to the right) of the influenza virus.

cause for concern. H1N1 (Swine Flu) The official page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with

rimantadine). The swine influenza A

Q&A: Why Is Swine Flu Such a Big

updated confirmed cases and their

(H1N1) viruses that have been

Deal?

locations. A discussion with students

detected in humans in the United

This article points out that this

of the science of epidemiology would

States and Mexico are resistant to

particular strain is killing young,

be appropriate here.

amantadine and rimantadine . . .”

otherwise healthy people. Contrast

WEBSITE LINKS What's Happening to Polar Bears? Real Data, Claims, and Evidence By Jessica Fries-Gaither, December 16, 2009, Connecting News Blog http://expertvoices.nsdl.org/connectingnews/2009/12/16/whats-happening-to-polar-bears-real-dataclaims-and-evidence/ • National Science Education Standards - http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=4962 • Polar Bear Cam - http://www.wildlifehd.com/polarbearcam/index.html • Hungry Polar Bears Eat Young Due to Shrinking Sea Ice - http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/ Environment/2009/11/27/11957551-cp.html

18


CONNECTINGNEWS with the National Science Education Standards

WEBSITE LINKS • Can You Bear It? Churchill a Polar Pioneer - http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/life/can-you-bearit-churchill-a-polar-pioneer-70353062.html • Polar Bear Status Report - http://www.polarbearsinternational.org/polar-bear-status-report/ • headlines - http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/onramp:18258/polar_bear_headlines.doc • idea circle - http://www.bridgew.edu/Library/CAGS_Projects/LDUBIN/idea%20circles.htm • virtual bookshelves - http://beyondpenguins.nsdl.org/browse/column.php? departmentid=literacy&columnid=literacy!bookshelf • graphic organizer - http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/onramp:18261/polar_bear_idea_circle.doc • Graphing Sea Ice Extent in the Arctic and Antarctic - http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/ teacher_resources/graphs/teach_sea_ice_extent.html • graphic organizer - http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/onramp:18259/ claims_evidence_reasoning_graphic_organizer.doc • graphs - http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/onramp:18262/GRAPHINGRUBRIC.doc • claims, evidence, and reasoning - http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/onramp:18260/ claims_evidence_reasoning_rubric.doc • Graphing Thermal Expansion of Water and Greenhouse Gases - http:// passporttoknowledge.com/polar-palooza/pp0902.php • global temperatures - http://onramp.nsdl.org/eserv/onramp:18263/ co2_and_temperature_data_tables.doc • The Shiniest Moon - http://beyondpenguins.nsdl.org/issue/column.php? date=October2008&departmentid=literacy&columnid=literacy!feature • Create a Graph - http://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/graphing • WWF-Canon Polar Bear Tracker - http://www.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/arctic/area/ species/polarbear/polar_bear/ • Dot Earth - http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/

19


Middle Level Students and ‘Abilities Necessary to Do Scientific Inquiry’ By Mary LeFever, September 14, 2009, Connecting News Blog http://expertvoices.nsdl.org/connectingnews/2009/09/14/middle-level-students-and%e2%80%98abilities-necessary-to-do-scientific-inquiry%e2%80%99/ • Put On a Happy Face! - http://expertvoices.nsdl.org/connectingnews/2009/08/27/put-on-a-happyface/ • National Science Education Standards - http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=4962 • Put On a Happy Face! - http://expertvoices.nsdl.org/connectingnews/2009/08/27/put-on-a-happyface/ Evolution Of The Human Appendix: A Biological ‘Remnant’ No More - http:// www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/08/090820175901.htm • graphic - http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/2009/08/090820175901.jpg • news story - http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/08/090820175901.htm • What is the function of the human appendix? Did it once have a purpose that has since been lost? - http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=what-is-the-function-of-t

Put on a Happy Face! By Mary LeFever, August 27, 2009, Connecting News Blog http://expertvoices.nsdl.org/connectingnews/2009/08/27/put-on-a-happy-face/ • Smile As You Read This: Language That Puts You In Touch With Your Bodily Feelings http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/08/090807103923.htm

20


CONNECTINGNEWS with the National Science Education Standards

WEBSITE LINKS Bat Hosts Marburg Virus Party By Mary LeFever, August 17, 2009, Connecting News Blog http://expertvoices.nsdl.org/connectingnews/2009/08/17/bat-hosts-marburg-virus-party/ • Marburg virus - http://www.stanford.edu/group/virus/filo/2005/photos.html • fruit bat - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_fruit_bat • H1N1 - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/h1n1flu/htm/_yes_50_no_0.htm • Ebola Cousin’ Marburg Virus Isolated From African Fruit Bats - http://www.sciencedaily.com/ releases/2009/08/090801185900.htm • MicrobiologyBytes - http://www.microbiologybytes.com/blog/2007/08/24/deadly-marburg-viruslinked-to-fruit-bat/ • natural reservoir - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_reservoir • summer camp - http://www.kimt.com/content/health/story/Summer-Camp-H1N1-Virus-Concerns/ z6LUyVxJz0KB9DIYdCdF3Q.cspx • Outbreak - http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0114069/plotsummary • eight-slide, narrated animation of how a virus infects a cell - http://www.health.harvard.edu/ flu-resource-center/virus/how-a-virus-infects-a-cell_3.htm • image - http://www.nature.com/nri/journal/v3/n8/images/nri1154-f2.gif • natural selection - http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/natural-selection/ • antibodies - http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=19101

21


Milk’s Benefits Go Beyond Healthy Bones By Mary LeFever, August 3, 2009, Connecting News Blog http://expertvoices.nsdl.org/connectingnews/2009/08/03/milks-benefits-go-beyond-healthy-bones/ • Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Calcium - http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/calcium.asp • examples - http://www.circlepeakcapital.com/press/healthjournal.pdf • Longer Life For Milk Drinkers, Study Suggests - http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/ 2009/07/090722083720.htm • prefixes - http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/prefixes.html • Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Calcium - http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/calcium.asp

Polar Bears and PCs: Technologies Unintended Consequences By Jessica Fries-Gaither, June 1, 2009, Connecting News Blog http://expertvoices.nsdl.org/connectingnews/2009/06/01/polar-bears-and-pcs-technologys-unintendedconsequences/ • consumer electronics - http://dispatch.com/live/content/business/stories/2009/05/18/ greener_gadgets.ART_ART_05-18-09_A9_TMDSJR8.html?sid=101 • report - http://www.iea.org/Textbase/press/pressdetail.asp?PRESS_REL_ID=284 • National Science Education Standards - http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php? record_id=4962&page=103 • Kill-a-Watt - http://www.thinkgeek.com/gadgets/travelpower/7657/ • issue - http://beyondpenguins.nsdl.org/issue/index.php?date=October2008

22


CONNECTINGNEWS with the National Science Education Standards

WEBSITE LINKS • natural resources - http://beyondpenguins.nsdl.org/issue/column.php? date=October2008&departmentid=curriculum&columnid=curriculum%21knowledge • NEED project - http://beyondpenguins.nsdl.org/issue/column.php? date=October2008&departmentid=curriculum&columnid=curriculum%21development • energy efficiency - http://beyondpenguins.nsdl.org/issue/column.php? date=October2008&departmentid=curriculum&columnid=curriculum%21activities • lesson plans - http://www1.eere.energy.gov/education/lessonplans/

Lack of Blow Flies Leads to Truth Mary LeFever, May 12, 2009, Connecting News Blog http://expertvoices.nsdl.org/connectingnews/2009/05/12/lack-of-blow-flies-leads-to-the-truth/ • The Truth, Revealed by Bugs: The Case of Brookey Lee West - http://www.nytimes.com/ 2009/05/12/science/12file-fly.html?ref=todayspaper • Decomposition: What Happens to the Body After Death - http://www.deathonline.net/ decomposition/corpse_fauna/flies/coffin.htm • National Science Education Standards - http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php? record_id=4962&page=103 • http://manduca.entomology.wisc.edu/about/lifecycle.html • Visible Proof: Technologies - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/galleries/technologies/blowfly.html • http://www.deathonline.net/decomposition/corpse_fauna/flies/coffin.htm

23


Influenza: History, Science, Strains, Detection and Protection Mary LeFever, May 4, 2009, Connecting News Blog http://expertvoices.nsdl.org/connectingnews/2009/05/04/influenza-history-science-strains-detection-andprotection/ • National Science Education Standards - http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php? record_id=4962&page=103 • PDF - http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/topics/Flu/PDF/sick.pdf • 1918 Influenza: The Mother of All Pandemics - http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/ vol12no01/05-0979.htm • Spanish Flu of 1918: Could It Happen Again? - http://abcnews.go.com/Health/AvianFlu/story? id=1183172 • The 1918 Flu Killed Millions. Does It Hold Clues for Today? - http://www.nytimes.com/ 2006/03/28/science/28flu.html • Epidemic! - http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/teach/lost/lesson3.html • The Big Picture Book of Viruses - http://www.virology.net/Big_Virology/BVRNAortho.html • Image of bacteria cell covered in viruses - http://www.washington.edu/alumni/partnerships/ biology/200710/images/kerr_ecoli2.jpg • Antibodies Neutralize Multiple Flu Strains - www.nih.gov/researchmatters/ october2009/10052009india.htm • Antiviral Drugs and H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/antiviral.htm • labeled, schematic image - http://blog.newsweek.com/photos/levelup/images/original/Diagram-ofthe-influenza-virus_2C00_-courtesy-Chris-Bickel_2F00_Science.aspx • Q&A: Why Is Swine Flu Such a Big Deal? - http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/30423369/ • H1N1 (Swine Flu) - http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/index.htm

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CONNECTINGNEWS with the National Science Education Standards

http://msteacher2.org Copyright May 2010 - The Ohio State University. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0840824. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Connecting News to the National Science Education Standards 2009  

This issue contains the best 2009 posts from the Connecting News With the National Science Education Standards blog which is written for mi...

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