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DESIGN DIARY Mateusz Jakub Orzeł

Primer: Harnessing Energy/ Thesis: Energy Awareness Centre


PRIMER


Primer Harnessing energy

Today’s world would not be able to function without significant amounts of energy. Electricity and heat are among the types of energy that we can easily experience. However, what about kinetic energy that we use and produce in our everyday lives? We do not usually realize how much energy we waste during simple activities. How about flashing the toilet? What happens from the moment since we push the handle of a toilet tank? We all know where it goes... This primer is about capturing the invisible kinetic energy and displaying it in artistic ways.

Primer: the responsive surface.


Primer Harnessing energy

How much energy is wasted when flashing a toilet? Stage one - analysing the mechanism of flashing water. Toilet tank becomes a ‘source device’ for the energy harnessing machine.

Schematic sketch of a toilet tank


Primer Harnessing energy

How can the energy be transformed and displayed? Stage 2 - researching ways of using water pressure and motion in order to manipulate a responsive surface. In this stage a need of a ‘transition device’ is discovered.


Primer Harnessing energy

Further investigation. After the flash, the water goes through a series of containers and pipes connecting them.


Primer Harnessing energy

Displaying energy. Stage 3 - responsive surface. In order to display the energy a responsive surface is used to show in an artistic way the harnessed kinetic energy of the water flow.

Precedent: Computer-manipulated surface of 714 steel balls creating a shape of a car. Photo: BMW Museum, Munich


Primer Harnessing energy

Further ideas. The balls are manipulated purely by the water flow. The surface creates a wave in reference to water. The balls are a metaphor of rain drops. The excess water is used to fill in cups placed on a conveyor belt powered by the water mill.


Primer Harnessing energy

Photos of a energy harnessing machine prototype.


Primer Harnessing energy

The presentation of the machine prototype.


THESIS


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Background: Energy misuse and consequences. Probably the most tragic example of energy misuse and inability to control it’s power was the Chernobyl disaster in 1996. Looking back it is straightforward how dangerous can be the impact of generating power. Although the disaster is an extreme example, it is inevitable that today’s nonrenewable-fuelled power plants are slowly doing probably irreversible damage to the environment. It is in our generation’s hands to act now, while the world-saving opportunities are still not out of the question. Gym classroom in Chernobyl Photo: Vivo (Ben Fairless), http://www.flickr.com/photos/benfairless/


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Problem Statement - Incoming energy crisis in Poland. The chart presents the current energy production sources in Poland. It appears straightforward that black coal and lignite are crucial and almost no renewable resources are used in energy production. Such situation is easy to interpret as Poland has the biggest coal resources in Europe, and is the biggest producer and exporter of European coal. If Poland has enough of coal to suit the country’s energy needs, why not take advantage of it? Well, the fact is that all nonrenewable resources eventually run out... Source: http://www.pse-operator.pl


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Depletion of coal resources in Poland. Coal resources in Poland are decreasing rapidly and the government investigations claim that are enough to serve country’s needs for the next 2530 years only. The solution for the problem is supposed to lie in construction of 2 nuclear power plants during the next 20 years. Although it could solve the problem partially, the nuclear power generated will serve only 10% of country’s needs. Therefore, if nothing else is done, Poland will become almost completely dependant on foreign energy resources. In one of the most negative scenarios that means a serious dependency on Russian gas and Chinese coal.

Polish coal resources in billions of tonnes Source: Mining Chamber of Industry and Commerce, http://www.giph.com.pl


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Employment in mining. As can be seen from the graph, as the resources are depleting, the employment in mining is decreasing. This means that during the next couple of years Poland will face a huge unemployment amongst former mining workers.

Employment in mining in Poland in 100’s thousands. Source: http://www.giph.com.pl


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

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before 1989 Location of power plans in Poland is mostly dependant on coal resources. All but one power plants powered with black coal are located in Silesia - the area in southern Poland, traditionally a home of most of the country’s industries.

current

The upper maps show the distribution of coal mines in Silesia. The first picture shows active coal mines in 1989. The second picture shows the current distribution of active coal mines. The impact of depletion of coal resources appears straightforward. source: http://gornictwo.wnp.pl/kopalnie/


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

The site - former coal mine ‘Jan Kanty’, Jaworzno, Silesia, Poland The site is located in Silesia, the most industrialised part of Poland. The former Coal mine is located close by the intersection of two main international transport routes: Berlin Cracow - Ukraine, and Wien - Brno - Katowice Gdansk. This also proves the importance of Silesia in international means.


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

City relationships. Jaworzno is located on the suburbs of Silesian Agglomeration - The combination of 15 - 20 cities in Silesia. Also it is located approximately 60 km from Cracow. The area is home to 3 major Universities focusing on sciences such as biochemistry, geology and mining, environmental engineering etc. All within a distance of c. 60 km.

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Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

City fabric.

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site

The city of Jaworzno has c. 100,000 inhabitants. Historically it was built due to various resources, including coal. The city is organised in a specific pattern, where residential areas are spread by the bottom of a hill, nearby industrial areas. Jaworzno is woven with surrounding rail network, an important transport facility for all the local industries.


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

sand mine

train station

City communication The diagram is a visualisation of communication between the industries and residential areas.

ironworks

The main outcome is that industries communicate through rail while people communicate by road network. Most of the residential areas are located close to the industries. Exceptions include the area by the train station and the city centre ( historically build around a not existing coal mine.

site power plant 2 city centre power plant 1

chemical industry site industries residential areas

coal mine


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

entrance reception administration

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Past, present and future of the site.

workers facilities water tanks

elevator machinery downcast shaft

upcast shaft

Many of the former coal mine’s buildings were demolished following the close-down in 2004. The ones that were left were necessary for keeping the coal mine dry before it becomes totally unused and abandoned. some buildings are also planned to be demolished in future due to their miserable state and high recovery costs.

sorting

Buildings demolished until 2004 Buildings renovated after 2004 train transport

Buildings to be demolished.


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Site section


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Site panorama


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

What happens next? Current plans of the Jaworzno city council include revitalisation of the coal mine and creation of a museum. However, by understanding the problems of Silesia and forthcoming fall of the mining industry, unemployment and energy crisis, museum will not do justice to the site. There is an opportunity of turning the site into an awareness centre, that would influence development of new industries in Silesia.

Site photo


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Programme - initial ideas. The site is quite unfortunate a location for renewable energy production. Only northern parts of Poland by the Baltic Sea are suitable for wind turbines, and on average there are only 70 sunny days per year in Silesia (4h direct sunlight/day avg.). My solution is therefore research on Biomass, as a promising renewable resource suitable for the Polish conditions. As an addition, geothermal energy research will take place, which is a response to the site and existing shafts of the former coal mine. Initial programme diagram


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Developed programme focusing on Biomass research as of 08/03/2010


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

the core

the responsive surface

control/data

laboratories/offices

Programme collage showing the character of the inside spaces.

Biomass power plant


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Design - overshadowing butterfly diagram. As a starting point for the design, I made an analysis of existing site conditions regarding direct sunlight and shadows. Collected data allowed me to mark the areas with the longest and shortest times of direct sunlight and shadows.

Shadows come directly from 3 main buildings. Each of them casts shadows of different lenghts depending on the time of year and day.


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

The site is divided into areas depending on the time of direct shadows present. The darker the hue, the more shadowed the place.


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Surface distribution strategy The responsive surface, as stated in the programme is covering the building according to the direct sunlight. The distribution of a surface is a result of the shadow diagram. Each part of the surface focuses on collecting solar energy from the directions where the biggest amount of sunshine comes. The surface parts placed in a shaded areas are lifted up and curved in order to collect more solar energy and rain water.

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Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

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Modelling the surface


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Computer modelling of the surface.


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Further surface development and seeking structural solutions.


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Further surface development sketches The surface will be double-layered. The outside layer will be responsible for collection of solar energy and water. It will consist of twistable louvers covered with translucent photovoltaic tape. The inside surface will be responsible for providing comfortable conditions inside the building. Both layers will regulate natural ventilation and lightning in the building In between the layers, the services (piping, wiring etc.) will be placed in order to provide clean spaces inside the building


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

The core In the foyer the surface will come down to the ground creating a funnel. This will be the core of the building, containing services and water collection tank.


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Proposed method of surface’s construction. 1. Using the existing elevator machinery the flat, prepared surface is connected with the ‘crane’ 2. The surface is lifted up and stretched 3. the surface is connected to the ground and the joints are made rigid.

1

2

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Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Space distribution strategy. The spaces are created through extruding the existing steel frame structure. It is the response to the programme - creating spaces for science. The programme is distributed on the site depending on light conditions necessary for each type of spaces.


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Building spaces. By using the existing structural solution, spaces are built depending on the required conditions. In the final stage of design, the building will be covered with the responsive surface carrying all the services.


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Combining the spaces and the surface Eventually the spaces are combined with the surface. Clear research spaces are left undisturbed and the surface regulates only lightning conditions and ventilation. In case of less formal spaces, the surface delves into them and adds atmosphere. On the left: rendering of a cafe space as of 05/04/2010


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Further surface development.


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

external structure

Surface layering. the suface will consist of 4 main layers, of which each is going to have separate duties.

external mesh

internal structure

internal condition control


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Main structural solution. The main structural solution is repeating the existing structure of the former coal mine buildings, extruding it and using to support the secondary structure.


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

The surface. The surface is also the secondary structure and is responsible for transforming the environmental factors into the inside conditions, water and solar energy collection, and character of the spaces.


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Imagining the scheme. The building will consist of ‘layers’ responsible for structural solutions, environmental solutions and inside conditions.


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

1st floor spaces distribution.

train station

planting

genetic development storage silo primary growth gasifiers vehicles

symposium theatre foyer

geothermal research

planting

geothermal/ biomass machinery control rooms

The 1st floor of the building focuses on research and most of the spaces remain private. The spaces are organized in accordance with a biomass production hierarchy : genetic development primary growth further growth planting harvesting gasification energy production and testing


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

2nd floor spaces distribution. The 2nd floor of the building is designed for semi-public spaces. There are teaching and conference rooms as well as cafe and a shop.

studios lecture / conference rooms

shop

viewing terrace

cafe/canteen


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Basic section. As the building is built on the former coal mine site, it is important to show the underground relationship to the scheme. The building is using an existing shaft for implementing geothermal facilities.

storage silo

cafe foyer

geothermal pumps

teaching spaces symposium theatre


Thesis Energy Awareness Centre

Shadow diagram as a base for planting distribution. Once the scheme is distributed on the site, the remaining parts of the site are tested in order to provide the best conditions for planting. The green areas are the most suitable for growing biomass, while the gray area surrounding the building will be used for communication.


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