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Christmas Truce eTwinning project 2014

http://twinspace.etwinning.net/248/home

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Contents Introduction

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Schools participating in the project

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Logo competition

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Learning about World War 1

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11 November 2014

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Poppies at the Tower of London

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Christmas carols

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Silent Night

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Video conference call

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Christmas cards exchange

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Christmas traditions

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Happy Christmas!

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Quizzes

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‘Christmas Truce’ project in the media

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Reflections on the project

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Introduction The project was designed to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Christmas Truce of 1914, when soldiers stopped fighting in World War I to exchange gifts and to sing carols together. The project was planned to include schools from a number of countries around Europe; and schools from Croatia, England, Estonia, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Ukraine took part. We shared Christmas songs on the Twinspace, including words for the carol 'Silent Night' and we all learned the songs. Pupils were able to access the songs on the Twinspace so that they could practise at home. We held a joint Carol Concert via video-conference, where we all sang the songs together, including Silent Night sung in multiple languages, on 10 December 2014. This was a very moving way of remembering the first Christmas Truce of 1914 when the soldiers are reported to have sung Silent Night and Stille Nacht together. We also shared information about Christmas in our countries via the Twinspace, including traditions and food. We made and exchanged Christmas cards between all the schools. In Slovenia, the cards were also used in an exhibition to raise money for their local lighthouse. In England, pupils programmed e-cards using Scratch, and shared these via the Twinspace. We also used the Twinspace for pupils to share what work they did in class during the project. The pupils were able to learn from each other – particularly from the World War 1 work, the songs and about Christmas traditions in each country. We used the Project Journal in the new Twinspace, which was public so it could be accessed by pupils and parents. The project was featured in a number of media stories. 3


Schools participating in the project

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Primary School, OS Ludina, Velika Ludina, Croatia

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Steeton School, near Keighley, West Yorkshire, England

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Põltsamaa Ühisgümnaasium, Põltsamaa, Estonia

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Ecole Saint Vincent, Brest, France

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Nelson-Mandela-Schule, Dierdorf, Germany

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ICS "Via Ferraironi" di Roma, Roma (RM), Italy

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Szkoła Podstawowa nr 9 im. M. Kopernika w Dzierżoniowie, Dzierżoniów, Poland

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Colegiul National Gheorghe Lazar Sibiu, Sibiu, Romania

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Cirila Kosmaca Primary school, Piran, Slovenia

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Chernivtsi School #22, Ukraine 4


Primary School, OS Ludina, Velika Ludina, Croatia www.os-ludina.skole.hr

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Steeton School, near Keighley, West Yorkshire, England Our school has 11 classes, with children aged 4-11 www.steeton.bradford.sch.uk

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Põltsamaa Ühisgümnaasium, Põltsamaa, Estonia http://poltsamaa.edu.ee

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Ecole Saint Vincent, Brest, France www.stvincent-brest.fr

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Nelson-Mandela-Schule, Dierdorf, Germany Our school is in a small town in the west of Germany. We have about 1000 pupils aged 10 - 16. www.nelson-mandela-realschule.de

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ICS "Via Ferraironi" di Roma, Roma (RM), Italy This is one of the 5 buildings that compose the Istituto Comprensivo via Ferraironi, It's the main building. www.icferraironi.it

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Szkoła Podstawowa nr 9 im. M. Kopernika w Dzierżoniowie, Dzierżoniów, Poland www.sp9dzierzoniow.edupage.org

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The Polish students created vokis to introduce themselves:

Amelia: http://www.voki.com/pickup.php?scid=10246861&height=267&width=200

Patrycja: http://www.voki.com/pickup.php?scid=10324164&height=267&width=200

Zofia: http://www.voki.com/pickup.php?scid=10246862&height=267&width=200

Natalia: http://www.voki.com/pickup.php?scid=10246860&height=267&width=200

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Colegiul National Gheorghe Lazar Sibiu, Sibiu, Romania This is the main building - built more than a hundred years ago. www.cngl.eu

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Cirila Kosmaca Primary school, Piran, Slovenia www.oskosmac.si

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Chernivtsi School #22, Ukraine School #22 is located in Chernivtsi, the administrative centre of Chernivtsi region, in the picturesque land of Bukovina in western Ukraine. There are 1141 students aged 6-17 in our school studying in 39 forms (from 1st to 11th). www.school-22.cv.ua

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Project logo competition We held a competition to find the most appropriate logo for our project. Pupils submitted designs and then they all voted for the best logo. This activity, held at the start of our work, encouraged the children to think about the underlying themes of the project, and they also found out about the other schools and countries. This was the winning logo, from a pupil in Brest, France:

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Here are all the logos which were submitted for the competition‌

Croatia

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England

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Estonia

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France

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Italy

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Poland

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Romania

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Slovenia

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Ukraine

Logo display in Ukraine

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Learning about World War 1 All the pupils in the project learned about World War 1, and about the Christmas Truce of 1914, as part of the project. Here is some of the pupils’ work.

Work from the school in Poland CHRISTMAS TRUCE 1914 DURING WORLD WAR ONE Written by Dawid Lewszyk, class 5c, Dzierżoniów, Poland. January 2015 The whole presentation is on Slideshare: http://www.slideshare.net/annaszsp9/rozejm-boonarodzeniowy-1914

(An artist's impression from The Illustrated London News of January 9, 1915: "British and German Soldiers Arm-in-Arm Exchanging Headgear: A Christmas Truce between Opposing Trenches" ) - from Wikimedia.org

Incredulity and joy – these are feelings which appeared among soldiers during Christmas Truce on 24th December 1914 during World War One.

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British and German troops meeting in no man's land during the unofficial truce. - from Wikimedia.org On December 7, 1914, Pope Benedict XV suggested a temporary hiatus of the war for the celebration of Christmas. The warring countries refused to create any official cease-fire, but on Christmas the soldiers in the trenches along the Western Front declared their own unofficial truce. The truce took place along the western front in France where the Germans were fighting both the British and the French. Since it wasn't an official cease fire, the truce was different along different points of the front. In some places, the soldiers continued to fight, but in many areas they stopped fighting and agreed to a temporary truce. In many areas, the truce began when German troops began to light candles and sing Christmas Carols. Soon British troops across the lines began to join in or sing their own carols. Brave soldiers began to make their way into the area between the two lines called "No Man's Land." They met up with enemy soldiers to exchange gifts and souvenirs.

British and German officers posing for a photo in the middle of no man's land. - from Wikimedia.org 27


All along the western front, the soldiers behaved differently. It probably depended on what their local commander allowed them to do. In some areas, the soldiers just stopped fighting for the day. In other areas, they agreed to let each other recover their dead. However, at some points along the front, it almost appeared like the war was over. Soldiers from each side met and talked to each other. They gave each other gifts, shared food, sang Christmas carols, and even played games of soccer with each other. For the most part, the Christmas Truce only lasted for Christmas Eve and Day, though in some areas it was extended through Boxing Day and New Year's. The war was going on...

A cross, in Saint-Yves (Saint-Yvon - Ploegsteert; Comines-Warneton in Belgium) in 1999, to commemorate the site of the Christmas Truce. - from Wikimedia.org Below see what witnesses said about Christmas Truce 1914 "Altogether we had a great day with our enemies, and parted with much hand-shaking and mutual goodwill." Percy Jones of the Queen's Westminster Regiment. "It was a curious scene - a lovely moonlit (Christmas) night, the German trenches with small lights on them, and the men on both sides gathered in groups on the parapets. It is weird to think that tomorrow night we shall be at it again. If one gets through this show it will be a Christmas time to live in one's memory." Captain R Armes of the 1st North Staffordshire regiment. "It was absolutely astounding, and if I had seen it on a cinematograph film I should have sworn that it was faked." Lieutenant Sir Edward Hulse, 2nd Scots Guards. "What a sight; little groups of Germans and British extending along the length of our front. Out of the darkness we could hear the laughter and see lighted matches. Where they couldn't talk the language, they made themselves understood by signs, and everyone seemed to be getting on nicely. Here we were laughing and chatting to men whom only a few hours before we were trying to kill " Corporal John Ferguson of the Seaforth Highlanders. Sources: http://www.ducksters.com/history/world_war_i/christmas_truce.php http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-i/christmas-truce-of-1914 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christmas_truce http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwari/p/xmastruce.htm http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/christmas_1914_and_world_wa.htm https://sites.google.com/site/mrmooreswhsemesterii/historical-pictures/world-war-i/the-christmastruce---1914 28


Work by SZYMON SZTACHELEK

class 6c, SP 9 Dzierżoniów, Poland

The whole presentation is on Slideshare: http://www.slideshare.net/annaszsp9/world-war-1-by-szymon

green – Triple Entente and allies; orange – Central Powers ; grey – Neutral Countries The four years of the Great War– as it was then known–saw unprecedented levels of carnage and destruction, thanks to grueling trench warfare and the introduction of modern weaponry such as machine guns, tanks and chemical weapons. By the time World War I ended in the defeat of the Central Powers in November 1918, more than 9 million soldiers had been killed and 21 million more wounded.

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The Causes of World War One In late June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo, Bosnia. An escalation of threats and mobilization orders followed the incident, leading by mid-August to the outbreak of World War I, which pitted Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire (the so-called Central Powers) against Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy and Japan (the Allied Powers). The Allies were joined after 1917 by the United States.

The Schlieffen Plan According to an aggressive military strategy known as the Schlieffen Plan (named for its mastermind, German Field Marshal Alfred von Schlieffen), Germany began fighting World War I on two fronts, invading France through neutral Belgium in the west and confronting mighty Russia in the east.

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THE MOST IMPORTANT PEOPLE OF WORLD WAR ONE

Nicholas II – Tsar of Russia As head of state, Nicholas approved the Russian mobilisation of August 1914, which marked the beginning of Russia's involvement in the First World War, a war in which 3.3 million Russians were killed. The Imperial Army's severe losses and the High Command's incompetent handling of the war, along with other policies directed by Nicholas during his reign, are often cited as the leading causes of the fall of the Romanov dynasty.

Wilhelm II, German Emperor Wilhelm was a friend of Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, and he was deeply shocked by his assassination on 28 June 1914. Wilhelm offered to support Austria-Hungary in crushing the Black Hand, the secret organization that had plotted the killing, and even sanctioned the use of force by Austria against the perceived source of the movement—Serbia. An ineffective war leader, he lost the support of the army, abdicated in November 1918, and fled to exile in the Netherlands.

John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948), was a general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. Pershing is the only person to be promoted in his own lifetime to General of the Armies, the highest authorized rank in the United States Army, signifying service directly under the president. Because of the effects of trench warfare on soldiers' feet, in January 1918, Pershing oversaw the creation of an improved combat boot, the "1918 Trench Boot," which became known as the "Pershing Boot" upon its introduction. 31


John French Field Marshal John Denton Pinkstone French, 1st Earl of Ypres (28 September 1852 – 22 May 1925), known as The Viscount French between 1916 and 1922, was an Anglo-Irish officer in the British Army. He served as the first Commander -in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force for the first two years of World War I before serving as Commander-in-Chief, Home Forces, then becoming Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1918.

Ferdinand Foch Marshal Ferdinand Foch (2 October 1851 – 20 March 1929) was a French soldier, military theorist and the Allied Généralissime during the First World War. Marshal of France (1918), Field Marshal of Great Britain (1919), Marshal of Poland (1923).

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Trench warfare

World War 1 trenches were dirty, smelly and riddled with disease. For soldiers, life in the trenches meant living in fear. In fear of diseases (like cholera and trench foot) and of course, the constant fear of enemy attack. Trench warfare WW1 style is something all participating countries vowed never to repeat and the facts make it easy to see why.

Trenches of the 11th Cheshire Regiment at Ovillers-la-Boisselle, on the Somme, July 1916. One sentry keeps watch while the others sleep. Photo by Ernest Brooks.

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The open space between two sets of opposing trenches became known as No Man’s Land because no soldier wanted to traverse the distance for fear of attack. The climate in France and Belgium was quite wet, so No Man’s Land soon became a mud bath. It was so thick that soldiers could disappear into it never to be seen again.

1st Lancashire Fusiliers, in communication trench near Beaumont Hamel, Somme, 1916. Photo by Ernest Brooks.

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Machine Guns

U.S. Army soldiers operating the M1914 Hotchkiss gun in France, 1918.

Machine guns inflicted appalling casualties on both war fronts in World War One. Men who went over-the-top in trenches stood little chance when the enemy opened up with their machine guns. Machine guns were one of the main killers in the war and accounted for many thousands of deaths.

British Vickers gun team in action at the Battle of the Somme. Both are wearing gas masks.

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Naval warfare

SMS Rheinland, a Nassau-class battleship, Germany’s first response to Dreadnought

Naval Warfare in World War I was mainly characterized by the efforts of the Allied Powers, with their larger fleets and surrounding position, to blockade the Central Powers by sea, and the efforts of the Central Powers to break that blockade or to establish an effective blockade of the United Kingdom and France with submarines and raiders.

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The first use of tanks In World War 1 tanks first appeared at the Battle of Flers-Courcelette in September 1916. It was the first time tanks had ever been used in a military conflict.

Schneider CA1 tank – The British sent 49 tanks into the battle. WW1 tanks were very slow and couldn’t exceed 4 miles an hour. Tanks in WW1 played an extremely important role as they increased mobility on the Western Front and eventually broke the stalemate of trench warfare. The first fleets of fighting aircraft World War I was the first time that aircraft were used on a large scale.

Sopwith Camel Aeroplanes were just coming into military use at the outset of the war. Initially, they were used mostly for reconnaissance. Pilots and engineers learned from experience, leading to the development of many specialized types, including fighters, bombers, and ground-attack aeroplanes. Ace fighter pilots were portrayed as modern knights, and many became popular heroes. The war also saw the appointment of high-ranking officers to direct the belligerent nations' air war effort. 37


The first chemical warfare which led to the first gas masks The French were the first to use chemical weapons during the First World War, using the tear gases, ethyl bromoacetate and chloroacetone.

Poison gas attack One of Germany's earliest uses of chemical weapons occurred on October 27, 1914 when shells containing the irritant dianisidine chlorosulfonate were fired at British troops near Neuve-Chapelle, France. Germany used another irritant, xylyl bromide, in artillery shells that were fired in January 1915 at the Russians near BolimĂłw, nowadays in Poland.

Battles... First Battle of the Marne In the First Battle of the Marne, fought from September 6-9, 1914, French and British forces confronted the invading Germany army, which had by then penetrated deep into northeastern France, within 30 miles of Paris. Under the French commander Joseph Joffre, the Allied troops checked the German advance and mounted a successful counterattack, driving the Germans back to north of the Aisne River. The defeat meant the end of German plans for a quick victory in France.

Second Battle of the Marne The Second Battle of the Marne or Battle of Reims (15 July – 6 August 1918) was the last major German Spring Offensive on the Western Front during the First World War. The German attack failed when an Allied counterattack led by French forces and including several hundred tanks overwhelmed the Germans on their right flank, inflicting severe casualties. The German defeat marked the start of the relentless Allied advance which culminated in the Armistice about 100 days later.

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The Battle of the Somme The Battle of the Somme was an Anglo-French offensive that ran from July to November 1916. The opening of this offensive (1 July 1916) saw the British Army endure the bloodiest day in its history, suffering 57,470 casualties, including 19,240 dead, on the first day alone. The entire Somme offensive cost the British Army some 420,000 casualties. The French suffered another estimated 200,000 casualties, and the Germans an estimated 500,000.

Royal Irish Rifles ration party Somme, July 1916 The Battle of Verdun The Battle of Verdun was fought from 21 February – 18 December 1916 during the First World War on the Western Front between the German and French armies, on hills north of Verdun-surMeuse in north-eastern France.

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French trench at C么te 304, Verdun An estimate in 2000 found a total of 714,231 casualties, 377,231 French and 337,000 German, an average of 70,000 casualties for each month of the battle; other recent estimates increase the number of casualties to 976,000. The Battle of Verdun was the longest and one of the most costly battles in human history (9 months, 3 weeks and 6 days) .

The end of WW1 Bulgaria was the first to sign an armistice, on 29 September 1918 at Saloniki. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated, signing the Armistice of Mudros. The Armistice with Austria was signed in the Villa Giusti, near Padua, on 3 November.

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Men of US 64th Regiment, 7th Infantry Division, celebrate the news of the Armistice, 11 November 1918. On 11 November, at 5:00 am, an armistice with Germany was signed in a railroad carriage at Compiègne. At 11 am on 11 November 1918 - "the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month"—a ceasefire came into effect. During the six hours between the signing of the armistice and its taking effect, opposing armies on the Western Front began to withdraw from their positions, but fighting continued along many areas of the front, as commanders wanted to capture territory before the war ended. A formal state of war between the two sides persisted for another seven months, until the signing of the Treaty of Versailles with Germany on 28 June 1919.

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Aftermath of World War 1 No other war had changed the map of Europe so dramatically. Four empires disappeared: the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman and Russian. Numerous nations regained their former independence (for example Poland, Estonia), and new ones created.

http://wikipedia.org http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ http://www.aip.org/history/curie/war1.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Curie http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/tanks_and_world_war_one.htm http://ww1facts.net/the-land-war/ww1-tanks/ http://www.ducksters.com/histor/world_war_i/trench_warfare.php

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Mari a Skłodowska-Curie by Katarzyna Wielgos, Class 6D Szkoła Podstawowa Nr 9 im. Mikołaia Kopernika, Dzierżoniów, Poland The whole presentation in on Slideshare: http://www.slideshare.net/annaszsp9/maria-sklodowskacurie-ang Maria Skłodowska-Curie was a great help to soldiers on the western front. The only woman awarded two Nobel Prizes in Science. Kasia studied her life and shared the results on the Twinspace: Maria Skłodowska was born in Warsaw on 7th November 1876. She was a Polish physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and only woman to win twice the only person to win twice in multiple sciences, and was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris.

Studies She studied at Warsaw's clandestine Floating University and began her practical scientific training in Warsaw. In 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister Bronisława to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work.

Discovery of Maria Skłodowska-Curie In July 1898 Maria Curie and her husband Pierre published a joint paper announcing the existence of an element which they named 'polonium','in honour of her homeland Poland, which would for another twenty years remain partitioned among three empires. On 26 December 1898, the Curies announced the existence of a second element, which they named 'radium,' from the Latin word for 'ray.' In the course of their research, they also coined the word 'radioactivity.' She shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and with physicist Henri Becuerel. She won the second Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911.

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World War 1 During World War 1, Maria Curie saw a need for field radiological centres near the front lines to assist battlefield surgeons, which came to be popularly known as petites Curies ('Little Curies').

She became the director of the Red Cross Radiology Service and set up France's first military radiology centre. Curie directed the installation of 20 mobile radiological vehicles and another 200 radiological units at field hospitals in the first year of the war. Later, she began training other women as aides. Maria Skłodowska-Curie visited Poland for the last time in early 1934. A few months later, on 4 July 1934, she died at the Sancellemoz Sanatorium in Passy, in HauteSavoie, from aplastic anemia. Believed to have been contracted from her long-term exposure to radiation. The damaging effects of ionising radiation were not known at the time of her work, which had been carried out without the safety measures later developed. She was buried at the cemetary in Sceaux, alongside her husband Pierre. Sixty years later, in 1995, in honour of their achievements, the remains of both were transferred to the Panthéon, Paris. Bibilography http://pl.wikipedia.org/ http://www.innowacyjnystart.pl www.gogle.pl – grafiki I zdjęcia www.wyborcza.pl www.dreamer.pl 44


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Work from the school in Slovenia Isonzo Front and the World War 1 museum by Cirila KosmaÄ?a Primary school Piran, Slovenia

1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Gavrilo Princip

Isonzo Front (1915-1917)

The battles of the Isonzo were so named because they were fought along the Isonzo River (SoÄ?a).

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Soča – Isonzo River: The battles of the Isonzo were so named because they were fought along the Isonzo River(Soča)

Italian Charnel House above Kobarid (remains of 7014 soldiers)

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Kobarid World War 1 Museum

A collection of weapons from the Isonzo front:

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Helmets and wire barriers Shovels for digging trenches

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Medical supplies

Medals from World War 1

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Historical photo

View from the Kolovrat Hill (the First World War Outdoor Museum)

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The trenches are still visible

The Military map

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The Military trenches

The military trenches were very narrow

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Some trenches were covered

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It was very dark but safe in the caverns

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Scrap of military sites

The outdoor museum on the hill Kolovrat is now part of the 'Walk of peace.'

Sources: - http://www.radiosarajevo.ba/novost/117154 - http://history.howstuffworks.com/world-war-i/world-war-i-in-19152.htm - Kobarid World War I museum - Outdoor museum on the hill Kolovrat

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Work from the school in Estonia World War I and Estonia In 1914, war broke out between European powers (Germany, AustriaHungary on the one side and Russia, France, and Great Britain on the other). Soon, this had escalated into a world war. In the beginning of 1917, a revolution broke out in Russia, country that was politically and economically fell behind. These events influenced also Estonia's faith, as in spring of 1917, Estonia was granted autonomy. Radical left wing that had come to power after the October revolution, opened peace negotiations with Germany and its allies in the end of 1917. Germans initiated a general assault on the Eastern Front in February 1918, and by March, Estonia was taken. But during the short period while the Bolsheviks were retreating and the Germans advancing, Estonian nationalist announced the Republic of Estonia: on February 24, 1918. Germans did not acknowledge this state, and after the Treaty of BrestLitovsk had been signed by Soviet Russia, all of Estonia belonged to Germany.

The beginning of the World War and Estonia August 1914 In July-August of 1914, first larger mobilization of men and requisition of horses began in Estonia. By the beginning of 1917, about 100,000 men had been drafted to the Russian Army, more than 10% of those died.

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During the WWI, the National Opera House "Estonia" was transformed into a navy hospital.

To several Estonian intellectuals, the war offered a "shortcut" to officership, thus, by 1917, about 2000 Estonian officers were in the service of the Russian Army. All this set a good background for the soonto-be-free Estonia to form their own national army, after the WW had ended. After the anti-German war had broken out, the Baltic Germans living in Estonia found themselves in a difficult situation: they had to pick their way between their loyalty to a country and the loyalty to their own personal preferences. Loyalty to the country was diminished by the repressions launched against the Germans living in Russia, which began right after the war had started.

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Censorship became more strict; in the Baltic, as in a territory close to the front, majority of the power was transferred from the hands of the Baltic German local governments to that of Russian military. As the assault of the German troops began, also anti-German propaganda became more fierce, demanding for the abolishment of large land estates of the Baltic Germans. This was, however, limited to annulling the special rights the Baltic Germans had regarding hunting, fishing, markets, inns and pubs, and the production of spirits and beer. At the same time, reforms to abolish the separate local government structure in Baltic governorates were pushed forward in the capital. German propaganda used this to its advantage, inviting people to save the Baltic Germans. After the Baltic had been occupied, German friendly rearrangements began.

Veterans' Day 23rd April is the Veterans, Day in Estonia. The symbol is a liverleaf.

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The President of Estonia

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Work on World War I in England

Here are some examples of the work done in England during the project:

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11 November 2014 In England, 11 November is Armistice Day, when we remember the end of World War I, and all those who have lost their lives in war. The nearest Sunday to 11 November is known as Remembrance Sunday. A two minute silence is held at 11.00am, often ending with a trumpeter playing the 'Last Post'. At Steeton School, to mark 100 years since the beginning of World War I, all the classes in the school visited the village war memorial and laid wreaths there.

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In Poland, 11 November is a holiday National Independence Day, to celebrate the restoration of the Polish Republic in 1918. The school in Poland celebrated the occasion. Students gathered on a solemn assembly at school to remind the painful way to independence during 123 years of partition.

Some students took part in an Independence Day celebration in our town – they went to a memorial and laid flowers there.

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Poppies at the Tower of London Posted on the Twinspace in November 2014 The moat of the Tower of London is full of ceramic poppies. Each poppy represents a British soldier killed in the First World War. This 'installation' has grown over the summer and many thousands of people have visited it. There are now 888,246 poppies. After 11 November, the poppies will be removed. Some will go on a tour of the UK. The rest are being sold to raise money for charity.

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Christmas carols As part of the project, we shared Christmas carols. We recorded them and shared our videos on the Twinspace so that we could listen to and learn each other’s songs. During our video-conference call on 10 December 2014, we each sang a traditional Christmas carol, as well as Silent Night. In this way, we celebrated the diversity of our European culture and languages.

English carol Away in a manger, No crib for a bed, The little Lord Jesus Laid down his sweet head. The stars in the bright sky Looked down where he lay, The little Lord Jesus Asleep on the hay. www.youtube.com/watch?v=jtrj3oUEZQE

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Estonian carol 1. Tasa, tasa jõulukellad kajavad, üle terve ilmamaa kajab laul nüüd rõõmuga: "Jõulud tulnud ju!" 2. Tasa, tasa jõulukellad kajavad, taeva võlvil sädeleb tähekese valgushelk: "Jõulud tulnud ju!" 3. Tasa, tasa jõulukellad kajavad, kuusk see särab küünaldes, rõõm on kõigil südames: "Jõulud tulnud ju!" 4. Tasa, tasa jõulukellad kajavad, kõlab laste lauluhääl rõõmurikkal helinal: "Jõulud tulnud ju!" H.Auvinen/ A.Maasalo

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J5C-4c-sqSQ

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German carol O Tannenbaum, O Tannenbaum, Wie grün sind deine Blätter! Du grünst nicht nur zur Sommerzeit, Nein, auch im Winter, wenn es schneit. O Tannenbaum, O Tannenbaum, Wie grün sind deine Blätter! www.youtube.com/watch?v=JFBsEN8Up3Y

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Italian carol In fact, this is a carol from Sicily. We learned that traditional carols are regional in Italy as they pre-date the unification of Italy. Si partiru tri rignanti Li tri re dell' urienti Ccu la stidda 'n cumpagnia Ppi vidiri lu Missia. Susi pasturi nun dòrmiri cchiù Jemu a vidiri 'u bamminu Gesù Poi la stidda s'ha firmatu E la grutta c'ha mustratu Sfaciateddu lu truvaru Li piduzzi cci vasaru Susi pasturi nun dòrmiri cchiù Jemu a vidiri 'u bamminu Gesù https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ahy8B6Evte4

Polish carol Przybieżeli do Betlejem pasterze, Grają skocznie Dzieciąteczku na lirze. Chwała na wysokości, Chwała na wysokości, A pokój na ziemi. www.youtube.com/watch?v=sovxQ5xZZJE

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Ukrainian carol Добрий вечір тобі Добрий вечір тобі, пане господарю, радуйся! Ой радуйся, земле, Син Божий народився! Застеляйте столи, та все килимами, радуйся! Ой радуйся, земле, Син Божий народився! Та кладіть калачі з ярої пшениці, радуйся! Ой радуйся, земле, Син Божий народився! Бо прийдуть до тебе три празники в гості, радуйся! Ой радуйся, земле, Син Божий народився! А той перший празник – Рождество Христове, радуйся! Ой радуйся, земле, Син Божий народився! А той другий празник – Святого Василя, радуйся! Ой радуйся, земле, Син Божий народився! А той третій празник – Святе Водохреща, радуйся! Ой радуйся, земле, Син Божий народився! Вся наша родина, славна Україна, радуйся! Ой радуйся, земле, Син Божий народився!

https://vimeo.com/111215681

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Silent Night In the project, we shared Silent Night in all the languages of the project. We sang the carol during the conference video call on 10 December in all the languages This was to remember the Christmas Truce of 1914 when the soldiers are reported to have sung Silent Night in English and German. In Croatian: Tiha noć, sveta noć Ponoć je, spava sve Samo Marija s Josipom bdi Divno djetešce pred njima spi Rajski resi ga mir, Rajski resi ga mir.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m77T6uYtZ-U

In English: Silent night, holy night, All is calm, all is bright, Round yon virgin mother and child, Holy infant so tender and mild, Sleep in heavenly peace, Sleep in heavenly peace.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cLczu_ts-wU

In Estonian: Püha öö, vaikne öö! Puhkab maa rahuga. Joosep valvab ja Maarjal on seal Väike lapsuke põlvede peal. Uinu, patuste rõõm! Uinu, patuste rõõm! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KYSNSd8Ups4#t=25

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In French : Douce nuit, sainte nuit ! Dans les cieux ! L'astre luit. Le mystère annoncé s'accomplit Cet enfant sur la paille endormi, C'est l'amour infini ! C'est l'amour infini ! https://vimeo.com/113942347

In German: Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht! Alles schläft, einsam wacht Nur das traute, hochheilige Paar. Holder Knabe im lockigen Haar, Schlaf in himmlischer Ruh, Schlaf in himmlischer Ruh.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mIp49DL9_6M

In Italian: Astro del ciel, Pargol divin Mite agnello redentor! Tu che i vati da lungi sognar Tu che angeliche voci nunziar, Luce dona alle genti, pace infondi nei cuor! Luce dona alle genti, pace infondi nei cuor https://vimeo.com/111103085

In Polish: Cicha noc, święta noc, Pokój niesie ludziom wszem, A u żłóbka Matka Święta Czuwa sama uśmiechnięta Nad dzieciątka snem, Nad dzieciątka snem. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=373XDVi4EkE

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In Romanian: Noapte de vis, Timp prea sfânt, Toate dorm pe pământ, Doar două inimi veghează, Pruncul dulce visează Într-un leagăn de cânt, Într-un leagăn de cânt. In Slovenian: Sveta noč, blažena noč, Vse že spi, je polnoč. Le devica z Jožefom tam V hlevcu varje detece nam. Spavaj dete sladkó, Spavaj dete sladkó.

In Ukrainian: Тихая ніч, дивная ніч, Все дріма, лиш не спить, Благоговіє подружжя святе: Дивного Сина послав Бог-Отець, Радістю серце горить! Радістю серце горить! Here's a transliteration from Ukrainian: Tyhaia nich, dyvnaia nich, Vse drima, lysh ne spyt, Blahohoviie podruzhzhia sviate: Dyvnoho syna poslav Boh Otets', Radistiu sertse horyt! Radistiu sertse horyt! https://vimeo.com/111215683

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Conference call We held our video conference call on 10 December 2014. We sang the traditional carols which we have shared on the Twinspace. Pupils said what they have learned in the project and which activities they enjoyed the most. We sang „Silent Night” in all the languages of the project. Videos from the schools who couldn't join us were played so that everyone was involved. Teachers played the recording of the webex call to their classes if they hadn't been able to take part on the day.

“Silent Night” in Polish, seen from the English School.

Polish children singing "Silent Night" in Polish.

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“Silent Night” in Italian, seen from the English school.

Italian students seen in Poland.

“O Tannenbaum” being played by the German children, seen from the English school.

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The video of the French children singing Silent Night in French, seen from the English school.

Polish students talking about what they did for the project and what they learned.

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Ukrainian students.

We recorded the webex call and edited the video - here is the link (in the live call, we were able to see each of the schools on our computer screens - this is not possible with the video, but it gives a good idea of this very special event): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UDngs30rqF0

Many thanks to Max D’Innocenzo at the Italian NSS for his help in hosting the webex call.

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Christmas cards exchange On 11th November we started sending Christmas cards to each other. Children loved making cards and receiving them from partner schools.

Cards ready to send at Steeton School

Cards in envelopes from Romania

Cards ready to send at SP9 Dzier偶oni贸w, Poland 81


Cards from Estonia

Cards from Rome, Italy

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Cards received by the German school Cards received in Ukraine

From England

From Poland

From Romania

From Estonia

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Cards received by the Ukrainian school

Cards received by the Polish school: Cards from England and Ukraine

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Display in the classroom of class 6c

Display in the school corridor of SP9 Dzier偶oni贸w in Poland

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Cards received by Romanian students from Ukraine

Cards received in Poland from Romanian students Cards received in Italy

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German students sent us electronic card with Christmas wishes: Christmas greeetings from Germany

Scratch Christmas cards - England English students made fantastic cards with Scratch, which can be seen on the Twinspace: http://twinspace.etwinning.net/248/home

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Exhibition in Slovenia The school in Slovenia created an exhibition of cards received in the project, together with cards from their other international partners. This was part of a fundraising activity for the local lighthouse in Piran:

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Project display in the UK school:

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Christmas traditions Christmas traditions in England This is how we celebrate Christmas in England... Before Christmas we have an Advent calendar. We celebrate Christmas on 25th of December. We share presents with our friends. We send Christmas cards. On 24th December, we leave a carrot out for Rudolf, mince pies and a drink for Santa Claus and a stocking for the presents. Santa leaves the presents overnight and we open them on Christmas Day. We open our presents on Christmas day (25 December) in the morning. For Christmas dinner we have turkey, roast, potatoes, sprouts, Yorkshire puddings (in Yorkshire!),gravy, another vegetable, sausages with bacon, stuffing.

English Christmas pudding This is a rich pudding made from dried fruit. It is traditional to pour a spoonful of brandy over the pudding and set fire to it (with the lights turned down low). 92


We also eat mince pies, which are made from pastry and dried fruit.

Mince pies These are made from pastry and 'mincemeat' made from dried fruit and spices. They are delicious warm! This is the mincemeat used in mince pies. It is not minced meat, but made from dried fruit and spices. We also pull Christmas crackers, which have a gift, a paper crown, a joke. It makes a snap when you pull the cracker with a friend. We have a tree with baubles and lights and some people put angels. We decorate our houses and towns and put lights in our windows.

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This is the Christmas tree in the school hall at Steeton School, England.

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Christmas traditions in Estonia Jõulud Eestis

Advent The most important days in December are Christmas Eve and Christmas. The festive atmosphere can be felt right from the beginning of December – at the start of Advent. Advent calendars are bought and they are used to measure the time left until the holidays. Another tradition connected with waiting for Christmas is the lighting of Advent candles. At that time children hang a sock on the window, and elves bring them gifts each day – sweets, toys and sometimes books.

Christmas Tree In Estonia typically about a week before Christmas people bring a spruce tree into their living room. The tree is then decorated. Traditionally Estonian Christmas trees are decorated with lights and other ornaments, and they remain as such until the Feast of Three Kings (January 6th). On the 6th of January all the trees in the town are collected and burned.

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The typical Christmas food is blood pudding with lingonberry jam or boiled potatoes, sauerkraut and steak.

Father Christmas Father Christmas visits families on Christmas day (the 24th) and brings presents underneath the Christmas tree. Sometimes a male family member dresses up as Father Christmas for the kids’ amusement.

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Christmas market If you are in Tallinn during the month of December, you can celebrate with the Estonians at the Tallinn Christmas Market, where even Father Christmas likes to hang out.

President's message On 24th December each year, the president of Estonia, declares Christmas a time of peace and takes part in a ceremonial service.

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Christmas traditions in Germany German students told us about Christmas traditions in Germany in a film below: Christmas traditions in Germany

We decorate our houses. We buy presents and put them under the tree. We go to church on Christmas Eve. We eat a special meal. We bake special Christmas biscuits. We have an advent crown and light a candle every Sunday. The children have an advent calender with little sweets or presents inside. We sing Christmas songs. It often snows. Then we go outside and build snowmen. There are lots of Christmas markets. 98


Christmas traditions in Poland In Poland it is a family holiday, spent with the family. Before Christmas Polish people sent Christmas cards to their relatives and to friends. Nowadays it is ofter replace by sending emails or sms. In every Polish house before Christmas children decorate a Christmas tree. Santa Claus comes to Polish children on Christmas Eve, just after Christmas Eve dinner. Everyone loves him, children write letters to him. Santa Claus visits children at schools on 6th December and gives them presents as well. The most important Christmas meal is Christmas Eve dinner, which should be started just after the first star appears in the sky. There should be 12 dishes on the table, and usually are. The most popular are carp (fried, in jelly,... pies with mushrooms and cabbage,

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cakes: gingerbread,

and poppy-seed cake).

At the beginning of Christmas Eve dinner the whole family say a preyer, read a Holy Bible to remember Jesus Christ's birthday and then they share the holy wafer and wish all the best to each other. After Christmas Eve dinner, when everyone has his/her present, the family sings Christmas carols. At midnight Polish people go to the church to attend a solemn mass called the sheperdess. In every Polish church and in most Polish town's market squares beautiful cribs and built.

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The crib in the centre of Dzier偶oni贸w (this year)

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School and kindergarten children perform nativity plays (jasełka). Nativity play at SP9 Dzierżoniów

Students decorate their classes with Christmas trees

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Christmas traditions in Ukraine

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Happy Christmas! As part of the project, we exchanged Christmas greetings. We shared videos of the greetings on the Twinspace so that we could learn how to say Happy Christmas in the languages of the project. We included the greetings in our conference video call on 10 December too.

Sretan Božić Happy Christmas Häid Jõule Joyeux Noël Frohes Weihnachten Felice Natale Wesołych Świąt Crăciun fericit Vesel Božič щасливого Різдва

(Transliteration: Shchaslyvoho Rizdva)

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Croatian

English

Estonian

French

German

Italian

Polish

Romanian

Slovenian

Ukrainian


Quizzes At the end of our project teachers coordinators wanted to check how much students learned from the project. How the project influenced students’ knowledge. To achieve this some quizzes were created, which students like very much. They can check their knowledge not only of History of WW1,

Link to the quiz: http://photopeach.com/album/p71viw?ref=est but also of English (the names of the countries, capital cities),

Link to the quiz: http://photopeach.com/album/9clg8w?ref=est 106


Geography (countries situation, flags, capital cities)

Link to the quiz: http://photopeach.com/album/v02c3h?ref=est

Link to the quiz: http://photopeach.com/album/yt3kc4?ref=est

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and of foreign languages ( Merry Christmas and Silent Night in 10 languages – languages of all the countries participating in the project).

Link to the quiz: http://photopeach.com/album/7w9af3?ref=est

Link to the quiz: http://photopeach.com/album/xwge84?ref=est

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Students enjoyed the quizzes very much:

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On Friday 23rd January Ukrainian eTwinners met together to do quizzes and games. They organised it in the form of brainstorming among three groups. Students enjoyed this event a lot as at the end everyone was awarded with the certificate of participation.

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The children in England loved taking part in the quizzes - and it showed how much they have learned from taking part in this and other eTwinning projects!!

The English children wrote the following in the Project Journal: Thank you for taking the time to make the quizzes. We really enjoyed them! Class 5/6S Steeton, England. (06.01.15) Thank you for making the quiz. It has helped us to remember how to say 'Merry Christmas' and 'Silent Night' in different languages! We enjoyed it. We hope you had a merry Christmas. Class 3/4P Steeton, England. (07.01.15)

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‘Christmas Truce’ project in the media The project was featured in the British Council (UK NSS) News from the UK under the title: Peace on Earth:

A member of the UK NSS joined the Twinspace before running a national webinar in England about the new-style Twinspace in February 2015.

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The project was also featured in the UK eTwinning newsletter on 5 December 2014: What does project look like?

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England Our video conference call was mentioned in the online Craven Herald in England on 24 December : 2014

http://www.cravenherald.co.uk/news/11687785.Steeton_pupils_in_global_project_re membering_1914_Great_War_truce/

And was published in the Craven Herald newspaper on Christmas Day 2014:

The video call was featured in the Keighley News in England on 19 December 2014. http://www.keighleynews.co.uk/news/11679446.Steeton_pupils_in_global_project_re membering_1914_Great_War_truce/

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Poland In Dzier偶oni贸w in Poland an article about our video conference and about our project on the whole appeared in local media: http://www.dzierzoniow.pl/pl/news/mi-dzynarodowa-cicha-noc-w-sp-9

http://dtp-24.pl/miedzynarodowa-cicha-noc-w-sp-9,76570

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Ukraine "Education of Bukovina"/"Освіта Буковини" on 20 January 2015 published an article about our “Christmas Truce” project. The article is called "Christmas with European Countries".

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Reflections on the project English students' reflections

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The English children wrote reflections in the Project Journal:

We enjoyed all the things in the project! I enjoyed the conference video call. I enjoyed receiving cards from other countries. I liked making the cards. I liked singing in other languages. I enjoyed learning other languages. I enjoyed it so much I practised singing Silent Night at home. I enjoyed the logo competition. I enjoyed sending the cards. I enjoyed learning about World War 1. I liked our visit to the war memorial. I enjoyed seeing the other logos and voting for the logo. Class 3/4H England. (17.12.14)

The children's comments on our video call: I liked... singing the songs; when they sang Silent Night; when we sang O Tannenbaum; talking to the other countries; everybody singing; speaking about what we have learned; when they played the instruments; seeing people on the camera; when all the schools sang together; saying Happy Christmas at the end. (11.12.14)

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Italian students' reflections We liked very much this project! We liked cards exchange and songs. We enjoyed a lot video-conference and we told our parents what we have done on the 10th December,

After the videoconference we decide to draw some logos, to show what we understood and achieved.

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This is to represent the concert by the German school. We liked it very much and we were surprised by children playing trumpets as a real orchestra.

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This one is made with all our key words for the project.

eTwinning is a world of peace!

Music joins nations. 125


It was like a dream, music and friendship. Class 5, school via Ferraironi- Roma

German students' reflections We liked making the cards. We really liked getting the cards from our partners and working out where they were from. We liked practising the carols on our instruments. We liked making the videos of us singing. We liked playing and singing at the video conference. We learnt something about the War and about our partners. We liked playing the games and listening to the carol videos.

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Polish students' reflections I liked the project very much. Thanks to the films we watched ("War horse" and "Merry Christmas") I realized how life was difficult in those days. I found out a lot of interesting facts. I saw how trenches were built and I saw how soldiers lived and what weapons they used during World War One. Mela

By Szymon K, class 6a

I liked listening to Christmas carols in different languages and the videoconference. I learnt that during such a magic time as Christmas even enemies stop fighting. Robert

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I liked the project very much. Thanks to films and presentations, I have learnt a lot about history of ww1. I liked the atmosphere - singing Christmas carols, voting for logos, videoconference. The part of the project I liked most was the videoconference. Dawid

Project "Christmas Truce" let me know the history of World War One in an interesting way. Rafał

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For me the films "War horse" and "Merry Christmas" were very interesting and learned me about the history of ww1 a lot. Voting for our poject logo was very exciting. Paweł

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I liked singing Christmas carols together with children from another countries. The film "War Horse" was very exciting and moving and I liked it very much. I found out about soldiers and civilians' life during World War One. Marcin

Thanks to our project I realized I should respect the others more and I appreciate what I have and the way I can live. The film "War horse" was fantastic! Jakub

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By Bartosz D, class 6a

I liked making Christmas cards and receiving the cards from partner schools. We found out how to say Merry Christmas and Silent night in 9 foreign languages. I liked the quizzes which let me remember what I had learned earlier. Zosia

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Ukrainian students' reflections "We were very happy to be the part of the eTwinning project “Christmas Truce”. It was educational for us. We learned about the Christmas Truce of 1914. We also found out about Christmas Traditions in other European countries. We practiced singing carols from around the world. The project was fun. We liked drawing Christmas Truce Logos. We enjoyed making and exchanging Christmas cards with our partners."

Ukrainian students playing games about “Christmas Truce”

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Reflections from the teachers on the project Croatian teacher's reflections Pupils from Croatia made drawings for the project logo competition. They have also contributed to the project by recording a music video. Other pupils have learned a lot about WW1 - which is a great introduction to their history lessons about it they will have the following school year. About 30 pupils and 4 teachers were involved in the project and the integration of this project into the school curricula can be seen in all the school subjects for Year 4 pupils and for Year 5 pupils in their History lessons. Their level of understanding of the true meaning of Christmas Truce and WW1 has increased, especially in comparison with the recent war in Croatia they know so much about. A video conference call has been an opportunity to enhance language skills, as well as to present each other's schools. Experienced partners helping the less experienced, especially in the area of ICT - is also one of the major reasons I think this project has been very successful. Project results - with this e-book as one of the greatest project achievements is the real icing on the cake. Tomislav Pavlović Teacher, OS Ludina, Velika Ludina

English teacher's reflections Taking part in this project was a real privilege. The children learned a lot about World War I, but also about respecting other cultures and working together as an international team. We were able to link this work with our remembrance of the start of World War I and all our children visited the Steeton village war memorial and laid wreaths there.

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I strongly feel that the sharing of songs works well in international projects. For this project, where we were remembering the Christmas Truce of 1914, the sharing of the verses of Silent Night worked especially well. The video-conference call was a real highlight of the project. The schools who were not able to take part on the day still wanted to be a part of the call, and shared videos via the Twinspace so that these could be played during the call. The call was available to them afterwards so that they could share the call with their pupils. Our whole school, from Year 1 to Year 6, took part in the video call, sitting in the hall and watching the big screen for an hour, sharing in the very special event. We had practised the Christmas songs and Silent night verses well in advance of the call. I believe that the children will remember our 2014 remembrance of the Christmas Truce 1914 for a long time. At Steeton School in England, I have strong support from my headteacher, John Cooper, and all my colleagues. In this way, we are able to provide the benefits of our eTwinning projects to a large number of our pupils. For this project, all 9 of our classes from Year 1 to Year 6 (ages 5-11) were involved: learning about World War I, visiting the War Memorial, designing a logo and voting in the competition, learning Silent Night in many languages in our singing assemblies, preparing our Christmas song ‘Away in a Manger’ and taking part in the videoconference call on 10 December. It was a pleasure to manage this project – the team of teachers was very highly motivated and professional, always wanting to achieve exceptional learning outcomes for our pupils. This cross-curricular project covered history, literacy, film studies, geography, languages, music and use of IT. There was also great peer support for colleagues, through emails and from our teachers' planning video conference calls. Diana Linford, Teacher, Steeton Primary School, England and project co-ordinator

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Estonian teacher's reflections It was a great pleasure to work with this project. We had a schedule and every activity was well planned. Christmas Truce was an interesting topic for me as a teacher too. There are so many connections between different nations and people are people everywhere. The World had difficult times during WWI. It is important to remember. Our Estonian students learned a lot. Now they know that British have red poppies for veterans and Estonians have liverleaves. Video call was also an interesting event. We were very excited and our headmaster joined too. After that video call our school bought some new video cameras for video calls. Estonian students liked quizzes, making and getting Christmas cards. I hope that our World is peaceful place. Marika Viks, Teacher, Põltsamaa Ühisgümnaasium, Põltsamaa, Estonia

German teacher's reflections The project was really well organised. The plans were very clear. It was possible to fit the project into our lessons. A big Thank You to everyone involved! Anna Ost, Teacher, Nelson-Mandela-Schule, Dierdorf, Germany

Italian teacher's reflections As my class already participated in WWII project last year with some of the partners involved in Christmas Truce it was like meeting old friends and keeping on tracks of a well organized work. In Italian primary school contemporary history is not more included in national curriculum as it is carried on in traditional text books. As we work often on a project based curriculum, it was easy and rewarding to include contemporary history and reflections on peace and conflicts for younger pupils.

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Pupils were able to make connections among subjects, videos, songs related to the topic. I'd like to outline two important achievements for my class: parents were involved watching videos and movie at home and helping in finding video material, as the ads of Sainsbury supermarket on Romanian TV and the enthusiastic work of two children born in Romania (one is from a Roma family) who wanted to exchange with their friends from Sibiu in their national language. They wrote cards, recorded oral messages, talked during the videocall and translated from Romanian into Italian. Everything in this project is so well planned and organized, thank you to all! Paola Arduini, Teacher, ICS ‘Via Ferraironi’di Roma, Rome, Italy

Polish teachers' reflections Project “Christmas Truce” was a very valuable experience for us, the teachers and for our students as well. In Poland students know very little about World War One as in those days our country was under occupation of three neighbour countries: Austria, Germany and Russia. What students know is that after WW1 Poland became independent again after 123 years. While working on “Christmas Truce” students knew a lot of history of WW1 – some of them made presentations and then presented them in front of the whole class. Students watched two films “War horse” and “Merry Christmas”, which let them know that period of European history in a very interesting way. Some of the students drew pictures after watching the films.

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By Witold P., class 6a Christmas Truce 1914 itself was a historical event about which almost nobody at our school knew, exept the History teacher. Now most students of our SP 9 Dzier偶oni贸w know about it. A great experience for all of us was singing Christmas carols in foreign languages and knowing how to say Merry Christmas in so many European languages. The exhibitions we made were a excellent way to inform other students, teachers and parents about our cooperation and the results of it.

By Wiktoria G., class 6c 137


Project was a fantastic way to connect History and English as students realized that foreign language is a way of understanding the others, not a subject itself. The oldest students had some English lessons about history of World War One. For one of it, the headteacher was invited and she saw how students were talking in English about WW1 and how they understood real English making the listening task with part of “Merry Christmas” film. Students appreciated the quizzes we made as they let them revise what they had learned earlier. We can't forget about the video conference call which students liked very much. They could speak English, listen to the others speak English and sing Christmas carols in many languages what showed us that Christmas is a magic time which joins people of different nationalities and different countries. Anna Szczepaniak, English teacher Barbara Walczak, History teacher SP 9 Dzierżoniów, Poland

Slovenian teacher's reflections Being a UNESCO ASP-net school, education for peace is one of our primary goals. Christmas Truce Project was therefore a great opportunity for our pupils to learn about the events in European history and understand how difficult the path to peace is and how important it is to preserve it. In addition, our story about a Christmas ceasefire conveys an outstanding wealth because it transmits to younger generations how important the role of an individual in a particular system is, how each individual can change and shape the world and influence the events and relationships in a society. These facts give a priceless value to the project.

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Before the start of the project, the planned content and activities were presented to the parents, who were also kept posted about the progress of the work. The project involved various teachers and their subject areas; they all greatly contributed to the realization of the goals. The project was actively monitored by the directing staff of our school. The highlight of the project was in singing Christmas carols that offered an insight into different cultures and thus brought them closer to our pupils. It was very interesting to them to listen to widely known Holy Night in a number of languages. The song is a really great way to connect people and music actually created a bond. The First World War played an important role in our environment because heavy battles took place in unforgiving mountainous areas of the western Slovenia. The Soča Frontline left behind a lot of unnecessary victims, thereby it etched an indelible bloody seal both in our as well as in common European history. We paid tribute to those losses at 100th anniversary of the war and voiced our hope that such events would never happen again. The future will be created by our children and we hope that through the Christmas Truce Project we produced a tiny contribution to the education for peace and to a fresh view of the world - for a better tomorrow. One of the activities our school is particularly proud of is the exhibition of Christmas cards. We invited our partner schools, with which we work together on various projects, to participate and we are pleased that many schools responded to our invitation and enriched the exhibition with traditional Christmas cards. The exhibition revived a special international atmosphere. Thanks to the positive response, we decided that we will continue with organizing similar exhibitions. Christmas Truce Project has come to an end, it gave us new knowledge and skills and integrated the children and teachers from different cultural areas. We learned from each other, helped each other and cooperated in the best possible way … The centennial story continues, Christmas truce re-unites people. Mojka Mehora Lavrič, Teacher, CIRILA KOSMAČA PIRAN PRIMARY SCHOOL, SLOVENIA 139


Ukrainian teachers' reflections Right from the beginning we were interested in the theme of the project “Christmas Truce 1914”. Because of the dire circumstances in the east of our country we considered the historical phenomenon of the Christmas Truce 1914 as something that can give hope and faith in a better future to our pupils. So the team of 15 enthusiastic teachers of our school decided to get involved in it. The Project integrated such subjects as Cross Curricular, History, Music and English. The project activities made it possible to engage students with different levels of English. In total 128 students were eager to participate. The project participants got acquainted with interesting historical facts about the Christmas Truce of 1914, learned how students in other countries commemorate the victims and shared information about the traditions of celebrating Christmas in different European countries. They also designed and exchanged Christmas cards. While participating in the Christmas Truce logo contest Ukrainian students expressed their hopes for peace in our country in their drawings. The most important event for the students was a video conference call on December 10th. They worked really hard learning carols and Christmas greetings in nine foreign languages. These particular activities had a great practical value for our students. The project also promoted the personal development of teachers in the field of ICT, while they worked in the new Twinspace. Personally I found mastering Vimeo a rewarding experience. Tetiana Valko, Teacher, school 22, Ukraine

Thanks to my colleague Tetiana Valko (Makhnevych) for enthusiasm, guidance and making us, Ukrainian teachers and students, the part of the project ‘Christmas Truce 1914’. Participating in the project gave my students an opportunity to reveal their talents and imagination in drawing the logos and greeting cards and to demonstrate their singing skills too in performing carols. Also students got known about the historic fact of Christmas Truce 1914 and expressed their faith in peace in Ukraine and all over the world. It was a great opportunity for the students to share with the world how 140


Ukrainians celebrate Christmas and how we are proud of our traditions. Besides, students got interested in traditions of celebrating Christmas in other foreign countries and even learned some carols in other languages. In general a great amount of work was done to follow all the steps of the project ‘Christmas Truce 2014’. But the vivid drawings of Christmas Truce logos and greeting cards and sparkling faces of the students while performing Ukrainian carol in the concert have proved the fact that it was worth doing all these. Uliana Ivaniuk, teacher, school 22, Ukraine

I am very pleased that I decided to participate in this project. Looking back over my last months, I have no doubt that my participation in the project was useful and interesting. Furthermore, I had luck to enrich my life with fun, happiness and wisdom. It was great to meet so many new people all around Europe and to work closely together with them! The thing that attracted me in the project was its exclusive team of young enthusiastic teachers as me. These people, my colleagues, became my friends and support. Sharing experiences, going out together and just working together was very pleasant for me. It is not a common thing when you can work within such atmosphere, with all those talented and smart individuals who share a lot in common even having completely different backgrounds. I chose this project because it is a unique organization with unparalleled goals in using cultural diplomacy in the fight for justice, peace and human rights. After my experience here, I just can wish all the best to the project coordinators and I hope they will continue talking, discussing and reflecting about Culture for a long time, and being a joining point for people from different countries and cultures from all over the world. My participation has given me the chance to explore a variety of roles allowing me develop valuable skills, has been a great and inspiring experience, research implementation, the confidence and interpersonal skills. One of the most memorable highlights of my time in the project were interesting debates on different topics. I feel that this project actively encourages and supports its participants to develop their own initiatives, giving them access to its extensive range of contacts with 141


rich history and culture. As for me, an international project is a must for every pupil. My pupils and I've learned a lot and got practical and enriching experience. We've learned how to: implement knowledge, conduct reports and research, prepare interviews, organize events in general, interact with personalities. It was here where we have gained valuable experience in communicating in English. Of course, the project is demanding and exciting only if you want it to be like that. I always believed that self-motivation is very important and wish you all the best for the future! Tetiana Ivaniuk, Teacher, School 22, Ukraine

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Teachers involved in this project Croatia Ivana Pavlović Marina Perak Marijana Rešetar

Tomislav Pavlović Tanja Petters-Stanić

England Diana Linford - teacher and project co-ordinator Elinor Badminton - Y1/2 teacher Jim Daft - Y1/2 teacher Fiona Magill - Y1/2 teacher Wendy Hardcastle – Y3/4 teacher John Perry - Y3/4 teacher Jade Wilson - Y3/4 teacher Daniel Paton - Y5/6 teacher Rachel Sherwood - Y5/6 teacher Sue Whitford - Y5/6 teacher Nick Hiles - Teaching Assistant and Scratch programming teacher John Cooper - Headteacher Estonia Marika Viks (teacher) Meeli Nõmme (music teacher) France Delphine Coquereau Germany Sally Ost Italy Paola Arduini Susanna Serpe

Antonietta Larocca Matilde Tomassetti

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Poland Anna Szczepaniak - English and class teacher Barbara Walczak - History teacher Waldemar Koprowski - Music teacher Romania Daniela Bunea Slovenia Mojka Mahora Lavrić Tatjana Uršič Nataša Kozlovič Lakošeljac Svetlana Bogatinov Katarina Petrič Karmen Munda Ukraine Tetyana Makhnevych Tetyana Ivaniuk Ihor Dushenko Iryna Verbovska Nadia Mospan Nadia Kondria Alina Stangret Natalia Duduk

Vika Kuštrin Pocrnič Zlatka Knez Zorica Matovič Milva Vukovič Senja Rojc Lorena Lovrečič

Sophia Voytolovska Uliana Ivaniuk Hanna Horditsa Yulia Dariychuk Yulia Fedyk Iryna Zavatska Zhanna Bilokryla

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