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№ 3. 2009

CONTENTS Aircraft 04 Recession Adjusts UAC Plans 06 An-148: First Revenue Flight 08 All Fools Day Show of Sukhoi


12 Special Assignment for Tu-214

Air Transport 20 Saving Regional Aviation 26 Art to Develop in Crisis

Helicopters 30 Lack of Competition is Way to Nowhere 34 Russia’s Helicopter Industry on Rise 42 Gas-Fueled Aircraft: a New Priority?

Engines 46 Motor Sich at Le Bourget

World Industries 50 $12-Billion Prize 58 Bricks of Cooperation

Space 62 GLONASS Equipment, a Guarantee of Technological Security

Russia’s civil presence at Le Bourget is believed to be dominated by Sukhoi Superjet 100. "The Russian Sukhoi Superjet 100 airplane will be a genuine star at our anniversary air show, primarily because it serves as a perfect example of cooperation between Russia and European countries," Gilles Fournier, Le Bourget managing director, told reporters at a press conference in Moscow. The aircraft is promised to perform demo flights at the show.



When it comes to such major events in the world aviation industry as Salon du Bourget, the world crisis and its aftermath tend to fall by the wayside. It is not that the financial downturn much spoken about all over the world is not worth mentioning this time. The economic meltdown which caught the most of the world unaware has hit the industry but has not much intervened with the air show. The 48th International Paris Air Show, which celebrates as you know its 100th anniversary, has taken off despite the crisis. So seems to do the Russian and the CIS aviation industry this year. For instance, this April Ilyushin Finance and Voronezh Aviation Plant (VASO) delivered two new aircraft of the Il-96 family to the Special Air Detachment under the Administration of the President of Russian Federation and were joined by two Tupolev Tu-214SR aircraft delivered by the KAPO plant. Meantime, VASO is completing work on the first Russianmade An-148 regional jet, expected to be delivered soon to GTK Rossiya. Another landmark is on its way. Russia's new Superjet 100 airliner is to star at Le Bourget 2009. The aircraft is even expected to perform demo flights. All these milestones seem not to have been overshadowed by significant cuts in UAC production plans set for the next four years as in the future the corporation hopes to boost productions and deliver one Tu-204, two An-148 monthly and up to 70 Sukhoi Superjet 100 annually. Will the industry’s processes live up to these expectations? Let’s see first at le Bourget! Yours faithfully, Veronika Sipeeva

Director General Evgeny Osipov Executive Director Alexander Kiryanov Editor-in-Chief Veronika Sipeeva Honorable Editor Vladimir Karnozov Editors Alexander Velovich Eduard Voytenko Svetlana Komagorova Science Editor Vladimir Ilyin Sales Director Vladimir Zilinko Marketing Director Vadim Isaev Marketing Manager Olga Kovaleva Marya Kharlova Creative Director Dmitry Bykovskiy Photo Editor Yuri Trubnikov Designers Alvina Kirillova Alexander Cheredayko Alexander Strelyaev Vladimir Osinsky Web-projects Manager Denis Zdanov IT-support Anton Pavlov Cover photo: Vladimir Karnozov Photos and graphics in this issue: Alexey Mikheev, Vladimir Karnozov, Yuri Trubnikov, Alexander Cheredayko, Alexander Velovich, Vyacheslav Zaitsev, Alexey Stefanov, “Motor Sich”, “KD avia”, “Region Avia”, UTair, Bombardier, Embraer Circulation: 10000 The magazine is registered in the Committee for Press of the Russian Federation. Certificate № 016692 as of 20.10.1997. Certificate № 77-15450 as of 19.05.2003. Any material in this publication may not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher. The editorial staff’s opinion does not necessarily coincide with that of the authors. Advertisers bear responsibility for the content of provided materials.

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ADJUSTS UAC PLANS The corporation cuts productions but forecasts resurgence.

The sharp drop in passenger traffic as well as in orders placed for the new passenger and cargo aircraft caused by the continuing economic downturn has hit the UAC's production program for 2009-2012.

The sharp drop in passenger traffic as well as in orders placed for the new passenger and cargo aircraft caused by the continuing economic downturn has hit the UAC's production program for 2009-2012. The United Aircraft Corporation reported its plans to produce 196 civil aircraft within the next four years. The figure cut by more than 50% includes 118 regional jets, 58 narrow-body airliners of the Tu-204/214 family, nine wide-body Il-96s and eleven Be-200 multipurpose amphibious airplanes. It is still unclear as to precisely how these changes will affect the Superjet 100, which rests


among the priority projects. UAC states that “despite cuts the revised production plan provides for an increase in output of new jetliners this year in comparison with the previous ones.� This year the group plans to assemble 22 civil aircraft. Thus, the number of aircraft to be produced within 2010-2012 figures up to 174 units. So, it may be assumed that during that period UAC member enterprises should on average roll out 58 airplanes annually. However, analysts believe the revised plan is more than optimistic taking into account the fact that no more than 8 civil aircrafts were delivered and some more were produced last year.

The announcement made by UAC at the Annual Shareholders Meeting sees no adjustment to military and special purpose aircraft programs, which is hardly surprising. Annual reports show military aircraft overtaking civil aircraft deliveries, which always helped Russian aviation industry tackle financial challenges and keep the ball rolling. Thus, last year may seem rather fruitful for the enterprises integrated in the corporation. The UAC statement revealed an increase in last year's production output and raise in the companies' consolidated income by 21%. According to preliminarily data, in 2008 the group of companies gained income of 85.174

Aircraft billion rubles (which stand for around 2.700 billion US dollars on the basis of the exchange rate current while writing this article) against 70.592 the corporation had a year before. In 2009 the United Aircraft Corporation expects to increase consolidated sales revenues by 39% and gain total of 119.2 billion rubles (the figure does not include JSC NAZ “Sokol”, JSC “Ilyushin Finance Ko”, “Russian Aircraft Corporation “MiG” and Kazan Aircraft Production Association (KAPO)), stated UAC president Alexey Fedorov at Aviaforum-2009 conference. In the light of the recent events the forecast is likely to prove at least by one thirds, if not by hundred-per-cent. In April Ilyushin Finance and Voronezh Aviation Plant (VASO), both members in the United Aircraft Corporation, delivered two new aircraft of the Il-96 family - one Il-96-300 passenger jet, which went to the Special Air Detachment under the Administration of the President of Russian Federation (the operator is also referred to as GTK Rossiya), and one Il-96-400T freighter that was delivered to Voronezh-based Polet airline. Meantime, VASO is completing work on the first Russian-made An-148 regional jet, expected to be delivered to GTK Rossiya. The An-148 is among the priority programs for the Voronezh plant. UAC says in the past 18 months the corporation has invested a total of 6.9 billion rubles into VASO programs, including 3.3 billion rubles into the An-148. The money was spent to purchase new manufacturing equipment and set up the An-148 assembly line. In addition, UAC is planning to invest additional 7.5 billion rubles into VASO programs this year. At the same time, another landmark is expected this year. The KAPO plant, which delivered two Tupolev Tu-214SR aircraft to the Special Air Detachment under the Administration of the President of Russian Federation this month, is promised to join the corporation by the end of this year. Despite the existing gloom in the Russian civil aviation industry the corporation aspires to boost productions and deliver one Tu-204, two An-148 monthly and up to 70 Sukhoi Superjet 100 annuA I R



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ally. The corporation hopes to launch new MC-21 aircraft by 2016. According to the development program set, by 2025 UAC plans to produce around 260-280 civil aircraft a year – one may say a rather ambitious goal can be reached just by increasing the production rate by 30% annually. Scarcely have the deliveries lived up to the expectations before. For instance, in 2007 according to UAC spokesman, the corporation delivered 7 civil aircraft, in 2008 the figure amounted to 8 and some more aircraft were assembled. At the same time, according to different sources, the corporation planned to deliver from 12 to 16 airplanes annually. The existing production rates of civil aircraft do not correspond to airlines' demand and tasks set by UAC, stated Alexey Fedorov. According to UAC report by the end of this March, the world aircarriers fleet encompasses 14386 aircraft, including 11160 narrow-body aircraft, 2664 wide-body airliners and 562 very large aircraft. Meanwhile, the corporation expects that over the next 20 years, the world's airlines will require around 27,000 new passenger aircraft with more than 100 seats, worth US$2.8 trillion. The forecast implies around 10,000 aircraft from the existing fleet will be replaced by more efficient models – a huge market

worth fighting for. Notwithstanding the deepening financial crisis that keeps hitting orderbooks and knocking sales, chances that the Russian enterprises will take the challenge are not high but still exist. The first beacon of hope appeared after Russia's President Dmitry Medvedev and Russia's Prime Minister Vladimir Putin launched a series of promising visits to Russian aircraft manufacturing facilities and offered support in fact and not it words. "The state is ready to buy into authorised capitals to preserve crucial enterprises,” Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin reported to the State Duma in April, “The MiG Corporation, for example, has received 15 billion rubles, and the Khrunichev Centre 8 billion rubles. We may take similar decisions regarding other companies, above all those who are directly responsible to the state, primarily in the defence sector. To begin with, 70 billion rubles have been allocated for industrial support, and the figure is 170 billion rubles with due account of guarantees on loans." The UAC's chief stated that in 2009 the corporation expects to receive state support of about 40 billion rubles. Whereas, the necessary support estimated by UAC till 2015 makes around 500 billion rubles, including 300 billion rubles for Research and Advanced Development.




FIRST REVENUE FLIGHT With support from Antonov, Ukraine’s largest carrier Aeroswit opened, on 2 June, a regular passenger service between Kiev and Kharkov using Antonov An-148-100B regional jet. The service calls for daily flights, with the airplane departing Kiev/Borispol at 13:30 and landing in Kharkov after 40 minutes in the air. Return flight departs at 17:50 and lands at 19:10. The An-148-100B replaces An-24s and Yak-42s that previously flew that route. AeroSwit plans opening An-148 services from Kiev to other destinations in the Ukraine, and, later, abroad. Flights will be made by joint team of Antonov and Aeroswit, using two operable An-148-100B prototypes, side UR-NTA and UR-NTB. The first aircraft was handed over to Ukraine’s state-run leasing company LizingTechTrans at Aviasvit-XXI airshow in September 2008. The UR-NTB remains an asset of Antonov design bureau. Both prototypes were reworked in 2008-2009 to reflect recent changes and in preparation to revenue services. Previously, this pair was


employed on certification campaign that was complete in February 2007, when the An-148 won AP-25 type certificate from ARMAK (Air Register of Interstate Aviation Committee, an aviation authority of the Commonwealth of Independent States). Among honorable passengers on the Aeroswit An-148 first revenue flight there were head of State Aviation Administration of Ukraine Aleksandr Davydov and general director of Aeroswit airline Kostadin Botev.

The return flight landing at Borispol airport of Kiev was greeted by Ukraine’s minister for transportation and communications Josif Vinsky and minister for industrial policy Vladimir Novitsky. During the ceremony in Borispol, Josif Vinsky said: “Today’s event carries very special importance for the Ukrainian civil aviation. The An-148 has demonstrated superb performance on its first revenue flight. I am absolutely convinced in the reliability of the new type and its ability to stay in service for long time. We have managed not just to create such a superb aircraft, but also overcome the conditions of the worldwide economic crisis and launch regular services on this new regional jet type. Now we have a new challenge, that of building a worthwhile series of not less than 80 An-148 aircraft that would serve our network of domestic routes”. His colleague minister Novitsky added: “This airplane is gamechanger for many people. It changes lifestyle of the many through the ease of transport services for both passengers and airlines”. In his turn, Antonov general designer Dmitry Kiva called the An-148 “the flying computer”, taking account of its cutting-edge design and high degree of automation. He said the aircraft is a joint product of 12 nations whose components are used on


the Ukrainian government is considering an order for some 80 An-148 aircraft to serve network of domestic routes this aircraft. “We continue working on new aircraft. Work has started on assembly of the An-158, the stretch version”. The An-158, previously referred to as the An-148-200, will seat up to 99 passengers in a stretched fuselage, compared to the maximum of 85 for the baseline An-148-100. Antonov estimates the solvent demand in the An-148 and its derivatives at 200 units by 2015. The derivatives include the An-168 business jet, previously referred to as the Sky cruiser or ABJ. The business jet version seats from 8 to 41 passenger depending on cabin layout, and has the maximum range of 7,000km. AeroSwit general director Kostadin Botev said: “The baseline An-148 and its stretch version can work successfully on the carrier’s network of routes. These says, when the Ukrainian airline industry suffers heavily from the crisis, Aeroswit finds its necessary to take part in further development of the national aviation infrastructure and fulfillment of state-run projects in this area”. He said the An-148 will fly Kiev-Kharkov, and, starting in July, from Kiev to Simferopol, Lvov and Donetsk. Established in 1994, Aeroswit is the largest Ukrainian carrier operating 60 international routes, including transcontinental to New York, Toronto, A I R



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Beijing, New Delhi and Bangkok. Following successful completion of the first An-148 revenue flight, Aeroswit and Antonov signed Memorandum of Cooperation calling for deliveries of 10 An-148 and An-158 aircraft during 2010-2012. Besides, the two companies addressed the Ukrainian government with a joint petition, asking for state support of their move. Kostadin Botev said: “We, as a carrier, need modern regional airplanes that would provide cost-effective transportation of passengers on Ukrainian inner routes. We find the An-148 and An-158 good candidates to meet this requirement of our airline”. Aeroswit is supportive of Antonov’s offer to the government on support of the An-148 production effort. The respective business plan says that 214 firms from 14 countries (of which 34 are based in the Ukraine) take part in the An-148 project. Firm orders for the type exceed 50 units, and options for 80 more. These firm orders are placed by prominent carriers of Russia (launch customers GTK Rossiya and Polet), Ukraine (Aeroswit) and Kazakhstan (Skat, Berkut). Two final assembly lines are set, in Voronezh at VASO plant, Russia and in Kiev at KiGAZ Aviant, Ukraine. VASO is processing parts for

the initial series of 34 An-148s, with the first aircraft being prepared for rollout later this month. Meantime, the first Ukrainian series An-148 is “almost ready” at KiGAZ Aviant, according to Dmitry Kiva. The An-148 program promises 16,000 additional jobs and more than Grivna 24 billion of revenues for Ukrainian enterprises. More than Grivna 8 billion would go into state treasury. These promises are written in Antonov-prepared An-148 business plan submitted to the Ukrainian government. Meantime, successful completion of the first An-148 revenue flight and high degree of readiness of deliverable examples at VASO prompted Atlant-Soyuz, the official airline of the Moscow City government, to consider a large order for the type. Newly appointed general director Eugeny Bachurin, who previously served commercial director at Aeroflot and then head of Russian civil aviation authorities, visited VASO in the first days of June. He said that the An-148 meets modern requirements to regional jets. “Most modern avionics, highest ecology standards and passenger comfort are the main requirements of the day. We find that the An-148 meets all of those requirements”. The Moscow city government is in the process of issuing approval for Atlant-Soyuz package deal with the United Aircraft Corporation, VASO and Ilyushin Finance leasing company involving firm orders for the An-148 and Tu204SM aircraft. Bachurin said the package deal is prepared for signing during An-148 rollout ceremony later this month. Vladimir Karnozov




SHOW OF SUKHOI On April 1, when the smart people of the world had much fun celebrating the All Fools Day, a certain group of Sukhoi employees, with the company’s general director Mikhail Pogosyan among them, were working hard. They were serving and pleasing media members at the long-expected ceremony of meeting Sukhoi Superjet 100 (SSJ100) operable prototypes in Zhukovsky. The SSJ100 is the main hope of the Russian aviation industry as it searches for ways to regain its once-lost status as a major producer of passenger jets. Some believe that the Superjet is the very last chance. The respective program is meant to give the Russian industry a truly competitive product able to generate sales both in the domestic market and world-wide, in competition with aviation majors. That memorable day both prototypes able to fly, sides 97001 and 97003,


were ferried from the factory aerodrome of Komsomolsk-upon-Amur (belonging to KnAAPO plant where the SSJ100 assembly line is set), to the Ramenskoye airfield of Mikhail Gromov’s Flight Test and Research Institute (LII). The airfield is located between the towns of Zhukovsky and Ramenskoye, a dozen miles off the southern arc of the Moscow’s Ring Road encircling the city. The ferry was done with a road show in Novosibirsk, Russia’s largest Siberian city. Landing in Novosibirsk was inevitable,

since a fuel stop was necessary any way. Besides, Novosibirsk houses Sukhoi’s NAPO plant that makes forward and cone sections of the fuselage for KnAAPO. Furthermore, Novosibirsk is a major hub for the S7 (former Sibir). The airline once considered itself a launch customer for Russian Regional Jet (RRJ), as the project was called before being re-branded into SSJ100. Sadly for Sukhoi, few people in Novosibirsk were interested in seeing the bird; what was meant a road show went quite uneventful.

Aircraft The final stretch of the ferry was completed on 1 April. It could have been the last day of March, though, if not for the Side 97001. The airplane did takeoff as earlier planned on the last day of March, but the crew had to return back to Novosibirsk after 1.5 hours of flying due to worsening weather conditions. It seems certain supernatural forces wanted something great to happen on the All Fool Day. The ferry was necessary from the viewpoint of flight test engineers: Komsomolsk does not have anything comparable to the superb testing equipment and experienced team available in Zhukovsky. The ferry was planned a long ago, but repeatedly postponed. Maiden SSJ100 flight occurred on 19 May 2008. It was performed by first operable aircraft that at the time carried registration RA-95001. To make it happen, Sukhoi team did a lot of work on the airframe after rollout ceremony in September 2007, busily installing numerous items of onboard systems and testing them. Second operable SSJ100 prototype went airborne in the beginning of 2009. To withstand such a long journey, the prototypes had to be tested thoroughly enough at the manufacturing plant, in order to guarantee safety of the crews. But not all of the onboard systems performed as they should, according to specification. SaM146s were blamed for surge (at least one case is rumored to have taken place) and other troubles. But time and hard work help overcome any obstacle. Finally, the engines and onboard systems were rectified to such a state when they were rendered safe enough for the ferry. Those who gathered at the Ramenskoye airfield on 1 April 2009 were surprised to see some changes in registration numbers of the SSJ prototypes. At the time of the rollout (26 September 2007), the first operable example was RA-95001; on the memorable All Fools Days (1 April 2009) it appeared without “RA” letters and with “7” replacing “5”. The second prototype was no longer RA-95003, but side 97003. The 97003 appeared over the Ramenskoye at 13:30, an hour after arrival of the 97001. The crew was not in a hurry, - their airplane came to a complete stop at A I R



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14:05. Trying to please photographers, the captain kept the nose gear long in the air after touchdown. Thank you, sir, we appreciate that! Speaking to journalists after arrival, Sukhoi general director Mikhail Pogosyan said these ferry flights were no. 142 and no. 143 done so far, “with approximately 450 flights hours of flying time”. The first operable SSJ100 went airborne for the first time in April 2007, but the initial testing phase progressed slow, affected by poor reliability of half-experimental PowerJet SaM146 turbofans, missing of certain avionics items and other negative factors. By March 2009 Sukhoi seemed to have overcome most of the early technical glitches and cured some of the teething problems of the new design. The ferry all the way from Komsomolsk to Zhukovsky, was a good test in itself. Speaking to journalists upon landing, the crews of side 97003 said they spent “four flight hours on the dot”, making their way from Novosibirsk to Zhukovsky. The cruise stretch was at altitude of 11,600m, at Mach number M=0.8. “We got airborne with 12 tons of fuel in, and landed having some 4 tons remaining”, the crews revealed. Simple calculations give the real figure of fuel burn at 2 tons per hour. The advertized figure for cruise fuel burn is 1,600-1,700 kg, but it is likely for Mach number M=0.78. Besides,

takeoff and landing operations need some fuel to be burnt. So, average fuel burn at two tons per hour is “no-fools” an achievement. “We are quite competitive, in both military and civil markets”, Sukhoi general director Mikhai Pogosayn told the media. “In the foreseeable future our competitiveness will stay. It is provided by the SSJ100 and the fighters that were escorting the first prototype as it was overflying the Ramenskoye airfield”, Pogosyan said. He was referring to the Su-35 operable prototypes, Sides 901 and 902. These were summoned from Ramenskoye to meet the arriving Side 97001. To make it look like an air show, Sukhoi sent to the air the Side 76454. This airplane is a LII test-bed employed on SaM146 flight test program. The aircraft is, in fact, a heavily instrumented Il-76 four engine transport with one of its standard D-30KP replaced by an experimental SaM146. The engine flight-testing program commenced in late 2007. The SaM146 program is 50/50 risk sharing effort between NPO Saturn of Russia and Snecma of France, founders of PowerJet joint venture. On the eve of Le Bourget 2009 Saturn general director Yuri Lastochkin said that the new certification date for the engine is set for the fourth



April the first marked arrival of SSJ100 operable prototypes in Zhukovsky quarter of 2009. The timing coincides with the new promise of Sukhoi to the airline customers, that of first delivery of fully certified SSJ100. In addition to the engine test-bed, Sukhoi demonstrated two prototypes of the heavy multirole fighters attributed to “Generation 4++”, side numbers 901 and 902. These aircraft escorted the SSJ side 97001 to the Ramenskoye airfield. Then, after the honorable guest had landed, they made a fly-past in close pair formation along the runway, to allow cameramen make some good shots. Speaking to journalists at Ramenskoye, Pogosayn formulated his strategy: “I put faith into the professionals of our team, modern technologies and a wide international cooperation. We have got all preconditions to reach our goals”. He stated that the SSJ100 is, currently, the best of “flying” aircraft in the 100-seat category available elsewhere. “This airplane is optimized for the hundred seater market. It offers the best flight control system available anywhere in the world, lowest noise and emission levels, and lowest operational costs”. He claimed a 10% advantage over “closest Embraer product” in fuel efficiency and a 15% in operating costs. “Besides, we have a wider margin in noise and emission levels. This shall allow us to stay with the


current engine for a very long time, since there should be no need to replace it even though stricter ecological regulations come into force”. Pogosyan is confident in the new product: “The SSJ100 is a game-changer. It has most modern flight control system, and superior health-monitoring system. The latter allows short time to allocate a trouble and fix it. The modern module system architecture allows easy and quick replacement of a malfunctioning item”, he stated. Head of Sukhoi company added that a broad commonality with the Airbus designs by means of similarity of the flight control and other systems (including use of the side stick) shall allow shorter times for pilots to undergo in-type training. He further stated the SSJ100 order book “is now close to one hundred units”. Pogosayn made a rider, though, that orders placed by bankrupt DalAvia and KrasAir airlines are yet to be confirmed by Rosavia, a start-up carrier that is meant to inherit assets of the bankrupts. Despite repeated shits in the delivery schedule agreed between Aeroflot and Sukhoi in December 2005 (initially it was set for November 2008), the Russian flag-carrier is still being considered the main customer for SSJ100. “Aeroflot stays our main customer,

with a firm order for 30 airframes plus 15 options”, Pogosyan said. With Aeroflot and other airline customers keeping faith in the SSJ100, KnAAPO’s production program for 2009-2011 is “completely supported by the firm orders we have received”. The Superjet is to carry its first revenue passengers “in the beginning of the next year... shortly after delivery to an airline customer that is still planned for the end of 2009”. By that time Sukhoi hopes to win Russian type certification. The baseline 95 seater will be followed by “a stretched version for 110-115 passengers and then, at a third stage, we will consider a 70-75 seater version”. Pogosyan further said that the stretch will be offered at “about 30 million dollars per unit”, which is “a bit higher that we ask for the baseline version”. Shortly after arrival in Zhukovsky, the SSJ100 was subjected to icing trials. These commenced later that month, when the side 97001 departed to Archangel area in Russia’s European North. Meantime, the Side 97003 has been operating from Ramenskoye, undergoing flight tests on control ability and flight stability. There is a lot of work still ahead of Sukhoi team, with the flight test program on the SSJ100 is some half-way through. A total of 600 flights shall be made to achieve type certification, - that figure counts only perfectly made missions in which the crew and the airplane behave completely as expected at flight planning phase.





The Kremlin selects Tu-214 as platform for special mission aircraft


Aircraft June 1, 2009, the first day of this summer, seems to be the turning point for the program of the Tupolev Tu-214 narrow body airliner. That day the Kazan Aviation Production Association named after Sergei Gorbunov (KAPO) delivered two Tupolev Tu-214SR aircraft, registration RA-64515 and RA-64516, to the Special Air Detachment under the Administration of the President of Russian Federation (the operator is also referred to as the Moscow branch of GTK “Rossiya”, GTK stands for “State




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Transport Company”). On the same day, both aircraft were ferried to Moscow Vnukovo airport, their main station, and were inspected on arrival by Russian prime-minister Vladimir Putin. Reportedly, he made some remarks about high performance and high manufacturing quality of GTK Rossiya’s new assets, and issued command to continue with the plan on more Tu-214s for governmental structures. The new aircraft are intended replacement for the morally outdated Il-22 relay

aircraft (a special mission airplane using the platform of Il-18 four-engine turboprop airliner). The Tupolev Tu-214, also known as the Tu-204-200, is the most advanced version of the baseline Tu-204, featuring higher gross weight and improved wing shape. Today, this is the best of the Soviet legacy platforms that are in production in the modern Russia. This fact prompted the Administration of the president of Russia, the Russian government and the Ministry



of defense along with their agencies to select the Tu-214 as the basic platform for a number of special mission aircraft. Exact number of airframes to be procured is still being decided upon, but it is clear today that the grand total will certainly exceed a dozen units. Firm orders already placed by Russian government structures call for delivery of six Tu-214s in 2009-2011. But this initial order placed in 2005 is to be supplemented by follow-on orders, in the view of more deliveries from 2011 onwards. The Tu-214 are considered for a wide variety of applications: relay aircraft, flying


command posts, airborne communications centers, electronic reconnaissance, radio emission analysis, VIP transport, airborne early warning and command, maritime reconnaissance aircraft etc. In Kazan, the handover ceremony at KAPO turned into a massive gathering of the plant employees, with few thousand people taking part in the event. They were elated by the fact that, after a 15-year break, the Russian government has restored itself in the status of main customer for KAPO products. The ceremony was attended by president and chairman of the executive board of United Aircraft Corpo-

ration Alexey Fedorov, prime minister of Tatarstan Republic Rustam Minnikhanov, member in the Military-industrial Commission under the government of the Russian Federation Aleksandr Bobryshev, KAPO general director Vasil Kayumov and UAC vice-president on strategic and special purpose aviation, Tupolev president and general designer Igor Shevchuk. Kayumov and Shevchuk handed over symbolic keys to the aircraft to GTK Rossiya deputy chief engineer on new equipment Vladimir Kochegarov and head of special transportation operations department of the transport department of the Russian president administration Aleksandr Zuev. Addressing the audience, UAC president said: “Respectable colleagues: workers, engineers and other employees of Kazan aviation production association! We have a great day today. Two beautiful machines, two airplanes are being handed over to our customer. These aircraft symbolize very intense and hard work of all KAPO employees. These machines are very special aircraft, they will carry out very important missions of the national defense. They are first pair in the large series of special purpose aircraft that are being built here, at Kazan plant. Our customers have been criticizing us for delivery postponements, and they were right with the very fact that the delivery date has indeed shifted. But some of their arguments did not have much ground. And now, finally, we reached the

Aircraft point when the delivery is made possible. I am sure these pair will be followed by many more as the airframes now in the final assembly shop will get completed. These new airframes come in different versions, with varying functions. I am sure these new airframes will be completed on time and with high manufacturing quality. Today I want to congratulate most heartedly the team of the Kazan plant and say: well done! I wish you to held ceremonies on new aircraft deliveries as many as possible. Thank you for your hard work!" Later on, answering questions of the mass media, Fedorov said: “the Tu-214SR is a relay aircraft that is specially designed to carry out very specific missions. Because of this, we cannot tell you in much detail about the exact differences between this new version and the baseline platform being the Tu-214 passenger jet. A few additional nonstandard antennas are visible outwardly. Those antennas reflect the functions that this new version is intended to carry out. The relay aircraft uses the Tu-214 as a platform. The baseline aircraft meets all current international requirements. It can operate from various air strips, it is allowed to fly in airspace of other countries around the globe since it meets their requirements including ecological, to noise levels, emission etc. The new version of the baseline aircraft has won approvals in the form of complimentary certificates in full accordance with the current requirements of civil aviation authorities.

The airplane has been tested thoroughly, including in extreme conditions, climatic and not only”. Answering questions on timing of next deliveries, UAC president said: “Several more Tu-214s are in a high degree of readiness. Some of them are in the final assembly shop, others are getting their components mated. Let me stress one more time that this pair of aircraft that we handed over today are the leading machines of the new, large series of aircraft that will come in a number of modifications. Production run of these special missions aircraft will be quite large. These aircraft will use the same basic platform, but

differ in functions and, hence, in onboard equipment. Outwardly, changes will be few, so that few people would be able to tell one version from another.” Answer to question on when KAPO would join UAC: “We are finishing preparations to the next emission of UAC shares so that to use this emission as a necessary step to integrate the Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG (RAC “MiG”) and the Kazan plant into the UAC corporate structure. During this summer the respective procedure shall go to completion. And this will render MiG and KAPO new, very important members in our corporate structure.


Aircraft Touching on completions of the Tu214SR cabin, Fedorov said: “the cabin design is very modern, offering high comfort. We have made all we could to ensure comfort conditions for work and rest of the crews who will fly these aircraft and operate their onboard equipment. The customer has put forward very demanding specification for the cabin. I believe we have managed to meet all of the customer requirements. On the matter of aircraft price, Fedorov conveyed the following information: “I can only say that we sell airlines Tu-214s in baseline passenger version at sticker price of just above Ruble 1 billion (approx. 33 million US dollars). The Tu-214SR is, naturally, more costly because of the expensive onboard equipment." Journalists further asked, is there any something special in the Tu-214SR that is meant to make this version luckier? “There is a whole lot of things that have been implemented into design of this version to achieve highest aviation safety standards, - Fedorov answered, - and the modern

avionics in the first place. All onboard systems and equipment are made inside the country. Our designers have applied their minds in best way to provide multiply backup for all onboard systems so that to ensure the highest level of aviation safety. Earlier, Russia did not produce aircraft that would come any near to the Tu-214SR in terms of mission performance. Aircraft that fulfilled similar missions were in production before, but they are morally and physically outdated today. The Tu-214SR will progressively replace them, brining about a new level of mission and operational performance. Prime minister of Tatarstan Republic Rustam Minnikhanov said: “Today is an important day in the life of Tupolev design house and the Kazan plant. I want to use this occasion to convey my most cordial wishes of prosperity to the team of Tupolev and Kazan plant, so that this pair of the new aircraft gives a head start for a large series of such aircraft to be built at Kazan plant! I wish the aircraft made here will operate successfully for a long time. I

"This order is our small, but very much positive contribution into recovery of Russian aircraft manufacturing industry".


hope your team will prove up to the challenges that stand before the Russian aircraft manufacturing industry in the field of civil, military and special mission aviation.” Later on, he told the members of the media: “Some of you may think that the Tu-214SR is the same as the baseline version, yet with some sort of a hat bolted to the upper fuselage. And they are wrong. This new version is a completely different aircraft by way of special missions it is intended to carry out. This machine does carry out all these new functions that were specified by the customer. As per completions of the cabin, I can tell you: everything is made very nicely. I had a chance to see it with my own eyes when inspected the aircraft, its cockpit and cabin. The new aircraft is not merely a new toy for our customer. It is also the vehicle that brought together many companies and people working on the respective project. We contributed our hearts and mind to this project and become friends when working on this project – Fedorov and myself became friends on this project”. Igor Shevchuk, UAC vice-president on strategic and special purpose aviation, Tupolev president and general designer said when addressing KAPO employees: “It is a great thing that newly built Tupolev aircraft continue being built and get delivered to their customers. Today, a new pair of these outstanding vehicles is being handed over to the Administration of the President of the Russian Federation. Sincerely, I am very grateful to all of those people who took part in development, construction and testing of these airplanes – workers, engineers, ground and flight crews. I wish these two airplanes will serve successfully for many-many years, flying high in the peaceful blue skies. Let me remind you that a month ago these airplanes proved their worth in a long-haul mission when they flew 13 hours non-stop, over the Far East, Extreme North, then Moscow and back to Kazan. That time everything worked well, and according to the specification. That was a result of our hard work. Many thanks to all of you, please accept my cordial wishes of good health and happiness”. Aleksandr Zuev, Head of special transportation operations department of the


transport department of the Russian president administration said during hand-over ceremony: “Today is indeed a very happy day for both of us, the manufacturers and the customers. Let me remind you that these two beautiful aircraft are made under the state order, according to the contract with the Administration of the president of Russian Federation and in the interests of the special air detachment of GTK Rossiya. We have been closely following the work on these aircraft, by paying visits to the final assembly shop and other workshops of the Kazan plant, working hand-in-hand with Tupolev, KAPO and equipment suppliers. We always believed that this order is our small, but very much positive contribution into recovery of our aircraft manufacturing industry, into revival and strengthening of the Kazan aviation plant. It was hard and very intense work. And here, today, we are very happy to see the work done. We are convinced that the experience obtained during creation of the relay aircraft for the GTK Rossiya special air detachment will help you reduce lead cycles on aircraft that would follow and improve their manufacturing quality. Let us promise each other that the delivery ceremonies such as this one today will become of regular occurrence and a good tradition for KAPO and Administration of the President. I wish you every success. Thank you all for your work!” Vladimir Kochegarov, GTK Rossiya deputy chief engineer on new equipment A I R



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told KAPO employees the following words: “Dear colleagues! Today is an important day for the plant, and also for us, the customer that takes delivery of these beautiful airplanes. The airlines have been waiting aircraft such as these for a long time. We all need speedy renewal of our fleets. This pair of new airplanes is just one small step in the right direction. We put our faith in KAPO, the enterprise with a history of over 70 years, the enterprise that has successfully solved many tasks set by the government and its customers. We remember well how difficult it was to create this new version of the Tu-214 aircraft. Today, on behalf of the intended aircraft operator, the State Transport Company “Rossiya”, let me congratulate the whole team of KAPO, from a worker to the general director, all of you who took part in that work, who contributed minds and hearts into creation of these nice airplanes. Nice-looking airplanes fly nicely, that’s for sure. Thank you once again”. In his turn, KAPO general director Vasil Kayumov said: “Respectable guests, dear colleagues! That’s something we have been striving for three years. We do not always have enough time to rest, we sometimes get nervous and demanded too much from each other. But this moment, the delivery, has come, finally! The kind words that customers told us today are very much a reward for us. In our turn, we say “thank you” to all people who gathered today here, at KAPO the flight test station, you

came to share our feelings of satisfaction. You have been with us in the hard times, and now, when we fell better. Let me assure you, that we will apply all of the experience amassed during creation of these two airplanes so as the follow-on orders will be fulfilled with high quality and on time. We hope the Russian government will render effective support to the domestic manufacturers. And we hope that the Tu-334, the new promising design from Tupolev, will enter mass production at our plant!” It is interesting to notice that the Tu-214 is the only type which did not suffer cuts in the revised UAC production plan that was proclaimed in the late April. Blaming the world-wide financial crisis that produced 14% decline in the Russian industrial output and expected 7-9% reduction in national GDP this year, the Kremlin revised its earlier plan for production of commercial airplanes. On 29 April, UAC council of directors at United Aircraft approved of a new industrial plan for 2009-2012. It calls for assembly of 9 Ilyushin-96 widebody quads, 58 Tupolev-204/214 narrobody twins and 118 large regional jets of Sukhoi Superjet 100 (SSJ100) and Antonov-148 types, comparing to 12, 71 and 322 units respectively. A total of 196 civilian aircraft, including eleven Beriev-200 amphibians, is to be assembled in 2009-2012, representing almost twofold reduction to the before-the-crisis aspirations. The correction is necessary because of the impact of the global financial crisis, which led to reduc-



Tu-214 entered service with DalAvia in 2001. President of Tatarstan Republic Mentimer Shaimiev attended handover ceremony tion in passenger and cargo traffic, and, subsequently, weaker demand for new civilian aircraft. At the same time, orders for military and special mission aircraft remain strong despite the crisis. And this is what makes the situation for Tu-214 more favorable than that for other types. In future, the two plants manufacturing Tu-204 series aircraft – Aviastar-SP in Ulianovsk and KAPO – will move onto a unitary platform, the Tu-204SM. UAC president Alexey Fedorov said the following on the theme: “The Tu-204 series will stay in production for quite a long time, until the next-generation aircraft, like the MS-21, will get ready. Today, we are working on


a deep modification of the current baseline version that will have improved engines (PS-90A2), auxiliary power unit, onboard systems and a cockpit optimized for two cockpit crew members. The whole of avionics suite will be reworked as one of the measures to reduce operational expenses. We plan to introduce the Tu-204SM to the market in 2011. I believe we will be able to achieve profitability for the Tu-204 program with help of this new baseline model. Its introduction shall allow improve consumer merits of the aircraft and sell it for a higher price while cutting manufacturing costs.” Introduction of the Tu-204SM will entail

a broader industrial cooperation between Aviastar-SP and KAPO. Ulianovsk is likely to focus on manufacture of fuselages, while KAPO will concentrate on production of wing sections. In 2009 two plants combined shall assemble more than a dozen of Tu-204s and Tu-214s, with the figure rising twofold when the Tu-204SM completely supersedes earlier models. Initial series is to be assembled at Aviastar-SP, that of Tu-204-100SM1 featuring Perm PS-90A2 turbofans. These engines will replace ordinary PS-90As. Experimental examples of the A2 have been tested for over a year at Perm Motors. They are developed to specific requirements of Iran Airtour airline acting launch customer for the Tu-204SM. The Persian specification also call for two-deck-crew operations, a new APU and conditioning system and less heavier wiring. Hydrollic actuators of flaps and leading edges will be replaced by electrically operated Electroagregat devices. Besides, the SM1 will have Lazeks INS-2000MT navigation system on Russian-made laser gyroscopes and double GPS/Glonass receivers. At Farnborough’2008 UAC and Ilyushin Finance signed a firm order for 31 Tu204SMs plus 30 options. That time the lessor expected delivery of the firmly ordered aircraft in 2010-12, all from Aviastar-SP. The core contract was estimated at US dollar 1.5 billion by catalogue prices. It is meant to be launch order for the SM version featuring improved Perm PS-90A2 turbofans, better avionics and onboard system. Initial series of these machines is intended for Iran Airtour. The deal also contained option for 30 more airframes. Until the Tu-204SM gets available, the Tu-214 remains the most advanced and competitive Russian jetliner. Preparations to series production of this version began in 1994. First KAPO built Tu-214 had its maiden flight on 21 March 1996. In May 1997 the Tu-204-200 achieved type certification for the all-up weight of 103 tons, same as for the baseline Tu-204-100 launched earlier at Aviastar-SP. Urged by KAPO, Tupolev launched an effort aiming at increasing all-up weight to 111 tons (110.75 tons at liftoff). With that, the


structural weight would rise by a fraction, to some 59 tons, thus making Tu-214 the most weight efficient jetliner ever produced in Russia. The principal decision on that issue was made in March 1999. On 15 April 1999 the RA-64501 commenced flight trials to compliance to the AP-25 air worthiness requirements harmonized with FAR Part 25 and JAR 25 (the Tu-204-100 won certification to the NLGS, the Russian national set of rules written in the times of the Soviet Union). For compliance to the new airworthiness standards at all-up weight of 111 tons, a large number of structural members were strengthened, as well as the landing gears and tires. AP-25 type certification for Tu-214 was issued on 29 December 2000. By May 2007 ten Tu-214s were delivered to airline customers, including three to GTK Rossiya, five to DalAvia (including first deliverable example RA-64502), one to KrasAir (RA-64508) and one to Transaero (in April 2007). In November 2008 Transaero took delivery of RA-64549. Except for GTK Rossiya, all other deliveries went via Finance Leasing Corporation (FLC). Sadly, the crisis bankrupted DalAvia and KrasAir, and their Tu-214s, A I R



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along with other items in their fleets, have been grounded. There is a plan to return DalAvia and KrasAir aircraft back to KAPO for upgrade work so that to bring these aircraft to latest production standard before offering to other airlines. Today, only Transaero maintains high utilization rate on the Tu-214s in active service. The airline awaits delivery of three more aircraft of the type in 2009-2010 timeframe. There are two versions of the cabin available, for 210 passengers in all-economy configuration and for 164 passengers in typical two-class cabin. In the first case the range is up to 7,200km. Longer distances are achieved through decrease in payload. The Tu-214D (engineering reference) with additional fuel tanks can cover over 11,000km or stay in the air for some 14 hours. Introduction of the NK-93 geared fan engines promises reduction in specific fuel burn from 18.3 (for the PS90A-powered baseline version) down to 15 gram per km*passenger. On KAPO production line, the Tu-214 replaced the Il-62, built in 281 copies between 1966 and 1995. Of those about a hundred were exported. Some of these aircraft were temporarily hired

by Japan AirLines and Air France for trans-Siberian flights. Until March 2007, when Il-96-300 took over in that role, the Il-62M served the flagship and the main type that served the needs of the Russian government. Moving onto more technologically advanced Tupolev twin jet required KAPO to buy considerable amount of advanced manufacturing equipment in the West, including GEMCOR GSKE-4261 riveting machines (able to work with 30-m-long wing sections). Other imported items were G-5013T-XXG86/128 riveting facilitation machine, Deckel DMU 50V metal cutting machine tools and other equipment from Lorenz, Agie and other western makers. At entry into service the Tu-214 experienced numerous teething problems. Thanks for the courageous aviators of GTK Rossiya and DalAvia, the first customers for the type, the design has been rectified to such an extent that the best examples now amass over three thousand hours in the air annually. Now, with a large state order having been placed on special mission aircraft, the Tu-214 program gets a new lease of life. Vladimir Karnozov


Air Transport


Air Transport Transportation not obtainable Year by year, the regional air transportation is getting more and more unpopular with the Russia’s population. From any Russian city, one can find a way much faster, simpler, if not even cheaper, to reach the capital than the neighbor Nburg at a distance of 500 to 700 km. And the reason is that almost all the federal districts of the country have suffered the loss of air links in local and regional lines. And when people of Russia’s central regions may use some other ways of transportation, as they can choose the railway or bus for their trip, the regional aviation in the hard-to-reach areas of the European North, considerable part of Siberia and Far East, is not a luxury at all, but the only means of transportation. However, this kind of transportation is getting less and less available year after year for the majority of Russian citizens, due to both the high ticket price and the irregular flights. “Over the recent years more than 500 Russian cities and towns have lost the opportunity of using the air service”, explains Vladimir Mishanin, the Deputy Director of the Department of Transport and Communications of the Government of Moscow. According to him, as many as 90% of population of Yakutia, Buryatia, Sakhalin and Magadan Regions have virtually no access to air service. “As for the all of Russia, only 6% of population




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can resort to air service”, adds Alexandra Ochirova, member of the Public Chamber of Russia. “So what can this thing be called, but the transport discrimination?” By the way, the issue of availability of transportation is currently number one in Russia. Public leaders, officials and politicians have qualified the availability of transportation as one of the most important parameters, “rating the quality of life and the level of development of population”. Due to the unstable connection of small settlements with the more populated

and developed areas it would hardly be possible to attract an investor with business projects and offers there. Therefore, people would most probably start abandoning such places, discontinue field development, road construction, port operation, they would just stop living there. And the number of such half empty settlements in Russia is growing year by year.

Give Us Aircraft! The market members and branch-wise experts point at many reasons for stagna-

Ukraine's Dneproavia airline, started introducing air vehicles of the ERJ 145 family into its fleet in 2007. Now the air carrier uses 11 ERJ 145 aircraft in 12 line routes.


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tion of regional air transportation service. “Low efficiency of the aircraft fleet, vanishing infrastructure of aerodromes and low paying capacity of population, all these factors adversely affect the development of regional air transportation”, analyzes Pavel Chernov, the First Deputy Minister of Transport and Road Facilities of the Republic of Tatarstan. According to him, the large majority of air carriers deliver three-four flights per week using AN-24, YAK-40 aircraft. The straight loss with such a scheme is 30 to40 million rubles yearly. (Add the shocking state of airport runways to the morally obsolete air fleet, and it becomes clear why the regional air transportation is mostly unattractive and unprofitable). And what the obsolete medium range aircraft park can be replaced with is the problem that causes a real headache for air carriers. For the time being, the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) is only considering the possibility of participation in four projects concerning regional and local aircraft, such as AN-140, IL-114, Be-32 and L-410. However, everything is not going off smoothly about it. For example, the Tashkent Aircraft Production Association named after Chkalov (TAPAC), which is capable of producing 100 to 200 planes annually, has not yet started the serial production of IL-114-100 aircraft (64 seat capacity). At the moment 8 such Russian-Uzbek aircraft are operated in air companies. The BE-32 regional


the main cause of the crisis in the sector is the low economic efficiency of regional air transportation service in Russia aircraft (15 seat capacity), designed at the Experimental Design Bureau named after Beriev G.M., has not been put to the large-scale production either. “At first its serial production was planned to be started at the Irkutsk aircraft plant, then under a license in Romania, but nothing has started so far”, explains Vasiliy Prutkovskiy, the Vice-President of the UAC on the corporate development and governance. The AN-24 could have been replaced by the regional turboprop AN-140 (52 seat capacity). This aircraft, built at the Samara Aircraft Corporation, is perfect for operation in the harsh climate conditions, where the lowest temperatures go down to -55 degrees Celsius. It is for this reason that the Yakutia Air Company took interest in the plane. However, the AN-140 is being built slowly, and this year the Yakutia company will get only its third aircraft. The total number of such planes operated in Russia and Ukraine is eight. Apparently, understanding that the Russia’s aircraft industry is not able to quickly and efficiently piece out the current deficiency in the market of regional aircraft, the UAC reckons as a possible prospect the joint project with the Aircraft Industries

Czech aircraft construction company. The Czech are ready to start delivering the L-410 local line aircraft (17-18 seats) to us, promising to cheapen the maintenance repair, extend the number of cabin modification versions, etc. But, when the projects remain on paper, the Russian air carriers have to find by themselves the replacement options for the obsolete aircraft park. No draconian measures on the part of the government in the form of custom duties and VAT on the imported air vehicles, causing the 40% rise in price for the aircraft, as compared with initial cost, could influence their choice. Just as well as the issuance of a RF Government Decree 466 on the partial reimbursement of expenses on the Russian-made air vehicle lease payments for Russian air carriers. Very few air companies enjoyed this privilege, as they more often prefer to lease the more efficient and economical, though even a second-hand, foreign-made vehicles. For instance, the UTair company had been gradually acquiring the ATR-42 and ATR-72 Franco-Italian aircraft, the Polyot company of the Voronezh city had been purchasing the Swedish SAAB-2000 economical turboprop aircraft. As for the At-

Air Transport

«The market opportunity is like a big door has opened, - says ECC managing director Mark Dunnachie. - We have been coming into this market for many-many years. We had a wide range of contacts and one of the issues has been an import tax so from the 15th of March as you know 20% of import tax on 50-seaters and smaller has been removed. So we see this opportunity to look forward with our discussions with airlines we are talking to». According to Mr. Dunnachie, in due course the advantages of buying a foreign-made aircraft will become evident. As per calculations of ECC company experts, one ERJ 145 aircraft can replace

number of aircraft

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lant-Soyuz and Region Avia companies, they had finally chosen the Brazilian Embraer-120. “When choosing the aircraft producer, we were to check the aspects of further maintenance, repair, spare parts delivery, the issues of the pilot and maintenance personnel training”, comments on his strategy Denis Pavshinskiy, the Region Avia managing director, who is going to still purchase only the same type air vehicles in the future. After the nullification of custom duties on the import of foreign-made 50-seat and smaller aircraft, which came into effect in March 2009, west producers of regional air vehicles will get the chance of successfully filling the vacant niche in Russia. 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

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4 AN-24 aircraft, 1 TU-134 aircraft or 7 YAK-40 aircraft, and the fuel economy purely would be 1.5 million dollars, 1.8 million dollars, 8 million dollars respectively. A prime example for the abovementioned is the Dneproavia Ukrainian air company, which had started introducing air vehicles of the ERJ 145 family into its fleet since 2007. Now the air carrier uses 11 ERJ 145 aircraft in 12 line routes. “Using the up-to-date foreign-made vehicles of 50-seat and smaller capacity, air companies will be able to develop the route network, regenerate the passenger traffic, firm up within 3-5 years”, believes the head of Region Avia company. “As for domestic-made helicopters, Russian air carriers are not at all pressing on buying them, although in this case there would have been no need to invest in the aerodrome infrastructure, and the helicopter capacity may be 20-30 seats”, wonders Igor Pshenichny, the first deputy director general of the ‘Helicopters of Russia’ company. The ‘Helicopters’ have only one contract in Russia with the UTair company on the delivery of 40 vehicles, and, possibly, Leningrad region would purchase several helicopters for the joint programs with the Ministry of Defense, Emergency Medicine and EMERCOM. And the bulk of Russian helicopter product goes abroad. It is not proper to accuse air companies of unpatriotic attitude. As soon as Russian aircraft conforming to the international requirements of ergonomics, economical


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<=800 km characteristics, and ready for serial production, appear, then air carriers would hardly refuse such a good acquisition.

Where is the Passenger According to Alexander Filatov, director for the strategic planning and development of the Russkie Mashiny OJSC (Russian Machines), the main cause of the crisis in the sector is the low economic efficiency of regional air transportation service in Russia for private aerodrome companies and air carriers. Since the USSR time the number of operable aerodromes have decreased more than thrice, from 1302 to 330 (260 of them are actually used). The worsening of living standards has made the volume of transportation services go down. Since 1990 the passenger turnover in the domestic airlines has fallen from 71% to 43%. However, Denis Pavshinskiy, the Region Avia LLC managing director, believes that his company has its future, as long as the regional transportation market is not occupied by anyone. He has calculated that the people can potentially fly at short distances, for example, from Yekaterin-


21% >800 km

burg to Karaganda or Kustanai, from Samara to Perm, Lipetsk or Ulyanovsk, from Sochi to Rostov or Krasnodar. Nowadays about two thirds of domestic Russian flights or 67% are being carried out via Moscow. For instance, in order to reach Kazan from Perm, one has to fly first to Moscow from Perm, and then from Moscow to Kazan. Such super-extended routes result in rise in the ticket price and unpopularity of air transportation services. In the end people switch to trains or put themselves behind the car steering wheel, and the regional aviation loses its passengers and money. The effect of such a choice is the lack of money for the renewal of air fleet, impossibility to pay wages and train personnel. Nevertheless Mr. Pavshinskiy is certain that one can achieve a success in this field, if the main competitor, railway, is defeated by virtue of quality service, speed and tariff.

Government Assistance Needed The market members are sure, the problem consists in the fact that every region survives on its own, some actively and some passively. “Now the govern-

ment is allocating grants to 28 regions for the support of regional aviation, including both airports and air carriers. And all the assistance programs are so different, not standardized, and a half of them are not efficient, since they have no obvious motivator in favor of the solution of the problem”, says Alexander Filatov. According to him, the Russia’s transport strategy should be supplied with a section on the systematic development of regional aviation with the obligatory state involvement. “We need a Federal program dedicated to the development of regional aviation. As for now, the regional aviation is under local authorities. So what we have is if the government of some region is interested in the development of air transportation, it will definitely assist the process, help air carriers, update airports. And if not, then the all of aviation and infrastructure will be perished”, believes Leonid Terebnev, the chairman of the committee of transportation and transport infrastructure. “At the moment the federal government has withdrawn from dealing with that problem, whereas it is not simple to develop the aviation on its own initiative or with the help of private business. There is no way boosting aviation without money grants”. “If federal government is involved, 3-5 years are enough to create prerequisites for the development of regional air transportation in Russia, namely, the reconstruction of airport infrastructure of the key air hubs, the renewal and expansion of regional aircraft park”, assures Andrei Lebedinets, the deputy managing director of the Ilyushin Finance & Co leasing company. “And after 7-8 years the regional air transportation sector will get the sufficient scale and quality to insure the commercial effectiveness of business of participants”. Stanislav Smelov, the chief of the work group on the development of short-range aviation in the Sverdlovsk Region, expressed the same opinion with his colleagues. He is sure that supporting regional air transportation will promote the economic development of regions in general, enhance business activities of population and attract investors. And still very few regions in Russia can boast now such an involvement on the part

Air Transport if federal government is involved, 3-5 years are enough to create prerequisites for the development of regional air transportation in Russia, namely, the reconstruction of airport infrastructure of the key hubs, the renewal and expansion of regional aircraft fleet of administration. In addition to Leningrad and Sverdlovsk Regions, Samara, Novosibirsk Regions, Krasnodar Area and the Republic of Tatarstan are worth being mentioned. The Government of Moscow reconstructs regional airports of the Central Federal District, invests funds in their development. “It contributes to the strengthening of economic and cultural integration of the capital and regions and economic relations between constituent entities of the Federation”, emphasizes Vladimir Mishanin, the deputy chief in the Government of Moscow. Over 2 billion rubles have already been invested in the reconstruction and renewal of the Ivanovo-Yuzhnyi (Ivanovo-South) airport. Moscow is also going to participate in the reconstruction of 17 airports, among them Bryansk, Tver, Kaluga, Petrozavodsk, Ulyanovsk, Lipetsk and Nizhniy Novgorod. It would have




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been nice if the example of Moscow’s reviving the route network would have been followed in the whole sector, too. But this can only be a dream now.

Way Out Same as In The experts of the air market are sure that the political will could have been the best motivator for the development of regional air transportation. The decreasing year by year subsidies from the regional budget can hardly sustain its existence. And to attract attention to the problem and get necessary funds allocated, a Federal dedicated program, approved and signed, is needed. And not that only. “If we want to achieve something, we ought to stop considering ourselves unique”, said at parting Iolanta Strikitsa, aviation expert from the Strikitsa Consulting company. “We should start from ourselves, from business plans and actual proposals,

and not for 1-2 years, but for 20 years. We should adopt the aviation experience from those countries which possess large territories, with long distances between cities, for example, Greenland, Australia, Sweden”. “And furthermore we need to unite together our efforts, in order to create the livable regulatory legal framework, remove bureaucratic encumbrances; and not hinder the companies’ development”, asserts Evgeniy Bakhtin, the managing director of the AVCOM company. “And then the specific reasons for the revival of air transportation will come up in every district, in every entity of the Federation. Some will stick to economic reasons, like Utair or Severstal, which transport not only their personnel, but the community people as well. Some may have political reasons, like in Ivanovo. And somebody would decide to invest in a regional company, which would possibly open up new routes, become profit-making and insure the transportation availability for the Russian population”. “The ongoing economic crisis in Russia creates background for the re-orientation of economy towards the domestic market outlet, and the competitive capability and transportation availability of regional economies will be dependent on the fast and efficient air communication available”, summarizes Stanislav Solomko, the director for managing route networks of the Lufthansa Consulting company. “The regional agglomerations of Russia in their present form can be taken both as part of regional air transportation and center of attraction of feeder traffic to the trunk routes. In the long run, the establishment of the regional air transportation system will contribute greatly to the social and economic development of Russia”. Svetlana Komagorova


Air Transport

ART TO DEVELOP IN CRISIS Kaliningrad expands horizons In the first quarter of the year Russia's air traffic dropped by more than 20% compared to the same period a year earlier. According to Rosaviation data of March, Russian air carriers faced 22,3% decline in passenger traffic this March compared to the same month a year before. Whereas cargo traffic fell by 22%. However, even among a heap of these negative factors flourishing in the market one can find something positive. The existing downturn has made the government pay more attention to the inner problems of the industry not only in the central areas but also in the regions. A map of Russia will tell why more attention is drawn to a hub in Kaliningrad and to one of the major


air Russian carries “KD avia” in these latter days and especially after the crisis that hit the industry in the beginning of the year. The region has a huge geographic and logistic potential. Within a reasonable time Khrabrovo airport may become the main Russian door to Europe and at the same time a global hub on the way of transit European and Asian cargo streams. Today “KD avia”, which rests the leading operator in Kaliningrad region and the management company of the global aviation project, is in fact building up a new cargoand-passenger transit airport that meets all the modern requirements of comfort, safety, quality, cost effectiveness, customer service and cargo processing speed.

The project of the border crossing point between Russia and Europe working on the basis of “hub&spoke” principle was launched on the 15th of June 2007. The hub was aimed at offering passengers from Russian regions the ultimate air bridge between business and cultural centres of Russia and Europe. Within a very short period enormous work has been done to establish necessary conditions. The flight schedule has been arranged so as to reduce to a minimum total time transit passengers spend en route, which makes no more than two hours and a half. It is for the first time that one-time check-in has been introduced at all the routes simultaneously as well as passing though customs formalities concerning luggage on the way from Russia to Europe and vice versa without the passenger’s involvement. Significant investments have been made into technologic and technical equipment of the company. For instance, “KD avia” has acquired one of the fullest software packages named Sabre. As a result the company has become another enterprise (after the biggest national air carrier) working on the base of Sabre and the first company by a number of software products acquired. In August 2008 explosion detection system CTX5500™ DS certified by TSA was installed in the international airport of Kaliningrad (Khrabrovo). Besides, for about one year and a half “KD avia” has successfully been using «AIR CARGO» (made by Information Logistic Centre “Aerograd”) – air traffic resources management system that allows to effect automotive cargo traffic sale and on-line cargo booking as well as to manage a modern freight storage. Due to cooperation set with

Air Transport Today “KD avia”, which rests the leading operator in Kaliningrad region and the management company of the global aviation project, is in fact building up a new cargo-and-passenger transit airport that meets all the modern requirements of comfort, safety, quality, cost effectiveness, customer service and cargo processing speed. border and custom services, connecting time for bonded cargo is around 2 hours. For less than a year, one of the most efficient Russian sales network has been launched. Virtual 24-hours air ticket office project was implemented not only as rapidly growing e-commerce but also as a 24-hours call centre offering passengers apart form information services an




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opportunity to buy tickets with the help of operator. At the same time payment acceptance services has been introduced though the partner banks, terminal network and etc. The operating system of interlines, which includes more than 60 air carriers, allowed “KD avia” to effect sales in almost any place of the world. “Hub project in Khrabrovo is the only

such project that is successfully implemented in Russia,” states Regional Government Structure Minister Alexander Rolbinov. “Unfortunately, it was not possible to reach the full capacity and the growth clashed with increase in fuel prices and then with the world financial crisis. But at the same time “KD avia” shows the highest increase rates in Russia. It has been recognized on


Air Transport judging by past experience, crisis does not thwart progress, it makes some adjustments and in some measure accelerates the process the federal level that the project needs to be supported”.

4 billion support It was not long ago when Russia’s Presidential Envoy to North-Western federal region Ilya Klebanov called on the state government to speed up 4 billion rubles allocations from the state budget to Kaliningrad air carrier “KD avia”. “It is necessary to accelerate the decisions the government has taken in relation to “KD avia. The decision to allocate 4 billion rubles from the federal budget to Kaliningrad region and contribute to the charter capital was taken during a meeting headed by Russia’s Prime Minister Vladimir Putin in April, he added. Kaliningrad region administration expects to receive control stake of the company in exchange for these investments. “There is a government journal approved by Vladimir Putin. Everything is written there. The amount mentioned in the document has not come by chance but it has been calculated so as to stabilize the situation in “KD avia” and to divide the company’s activity into air traffic and airport fields. All the documents were sent to the government. Being an official myself, I would not criticize the work done. But the officials should work more intensely’, said Ilya Klebanov.

Thousands of plans to implement The company does not rest on oars and by its own means tries to develop Khrabrovo airport as a passenger-and-cargo hub of European and Asian importance and expanding its flight geography and partnership with other air carriers. Thus, starting form this June Krasnodar has joined the carrier’s route network. Today “KD avia” and “Kuban airlines” offer Krasnodar region residents convenient flights from Krasnodar to Europe and vice versa


though the international airport Khrabrovo in Kaliningrad. Thus, Krasnodar becomes involved into a hub project, which should function on the basis of “hub&spoke” at the intersection of airways between Russia and Europe. Apparently, the enlarged flight geography implies a broad aircraft fleet. Despite the global downturn, the company aspires to fulfill the tasks set and increase the existing fleet. Last year “KD avia” placed an order for 25 Airbus А319 aircraft, which the company plans to exploit at the de-

veloped domestic and international route network out of Kaliningrad. The first deliveries are supposed to take place in the first quarter of 2014. And by 2016 “KD avia” expects to increase its fleet to 60 aircraft, including 50 jets of А320 family. Besides, 6 long-range airliners and 4 regional jets АТR-42/72 type are to join the carrier’s fleet. By the end of 2009 the air company plans to add 4-6 aircraft of A320 family on the terms of operational leasing. If the company’s plans come to life, in a few years the phrase “window to Europe opened by Peter the Great” will imply another meaning and a new modern and safe hub will appear in Russia. And maybe it’ll be so. Judging by past experience, crisis does not thwart progress, it makes some adjustments and in some measure accelerates the process.

Air Transport

Once upon a time unitary enterprise “Kaliningradavia” was among hundreds of companies formed after the collapse of the only all-union air carrier. However, “Kaliningradavia” as a unitary enterprise did not last for long – inefficient management and huge debts made the company bankrupt and halted its activity. But it would be politically wrong to leave the distant Russian areas without any lines of communications. In 2002 private investors founded “Kalinigradavia” JSC, which replaced its name to shorter “KD avia” in 2005. Few people believed in the new company’s success. There was neither branching route network nor slots confirmed by Russian and moreover international airports. Besides, the company had to operate such aircraft as Tu-134 and Tu-154, “inherited’ by “Aeroflot”. But against all odds year by year “KD avia” showed growing development and increase in passenger air traffic. Today, the company’s route network covers such cities as Astana, Chelyabinsk, Omsk, Kazan, Ufa, Samara, Perm, Vol-

gograd, Rostov-on-Don, Nizhniy Novgorod, Saint Petersburg, Moscow, London, Paris, Berlin, Tyumen, Dusseldorf, Munich, Hamburg, Vienna, Sophia, Rome, Milan, Barcelona, Prague, Tel Aviv. All flights are multifriquent, which means from 3 to 18 flights a week. January results revealed that “KD avia” faced a rise in air traffic by 25% and became the sixth air carrier in Russia. In 2008 "KD avia" has transported total 1 361 570 passengers, 106% more than in 2007 when 662 241 passengers chose the company’s services. In 2006, “KD avia” the number of passengers transported by the company was equal to 583 720. The high growth indicates a strong demand in the carrier’s services among passengers. In terms of development “KD avia” is carrying out the second phase of the hub project, which is due to be put into service in 2009. It will help to start flights to new directions as well as to increase flight frequency on the existing routes.


Helicopters The consolidation of Russia’s helicopterbuilding industry has reached its final stage. Much has been done, but much is still to be completed. On the eve of the HeliRussia 2009 show, we met with Russian Helicopters General Director Andrei Borisovich Shibitov to ask him a few questions. !"Question: Mr.Shibitov, please, tell us how Russian Helicopters is developing now. !"Answer: The company is developing steadily. Enterprises of various purpose located in various regions of the country in various economic conditions have been brought together, namely design bureaus, units and assembly plants. The most important thing was to work out the company management system, which is being successfully done, I believe. In April 2008, the helicopter-building holding’s strategy was accepted including seven main directions, namely corporate, financial, production, technical, R&D, marketing and social. Tasks and goals were defined, too. At present, we are elaborating work plans till 2011 and, of course, gradually implementing current ones. The main tasks are fulfilled according to the plans and directions we have determined.

LACK OF COMPETITION – WAY TO NOWHERE !"Q: Will you dwell on the main results you have achieved? !"A: First, we planned to create an efficient management structure. At this stage, we decided to assign management functions to a management company. We have signed contracts with all enterprises for delegating these functions to Russian Helicopters. Thus, critical strategic decisions for each enterprise are taken in Moscow in close cooperation with their leadership and considering all opinions. Second, we had to determine bodies to help solve tasks provided by the


respective strategy. The tasks are quite different, so we had to focus the efforts and intellectual potential of our specialists on them. The science-technical council was set up to work out recommendations to the leadership in the respective field. Also, the council of chief engineers as well as commissions on quality and flight safety were established. Now, the IT introduction council is being created. A sole body was set up to manage the holding. Third, we determined the product range, which should be constantly specified. The consolidated production plan has been

approved. Three enterprises already have local re-equipment plans, another four ones will soon get them, too. In other words, the holding management system is really working. !"Q: At the previous HeliRussia exhibition held last year, Rostvertol’s general director asked the holding leadership if orders from Russian Helicopters would increase. You say contracts with all enterprises have been signed, but are there any exclusions? !"A: Rostvertol is fully included into the production process but, unlike other

Helicopters holding parts, the contract between Russian Helicopters and Rostvertol provides only for consultation services but not a sole executive body. Nevertheless, it does not influence the general situation. Despite such special conditions, Rostvertol has a positive approach making it a better partner than enterprises bound to us by strict contracts. !"Q: Are you going to adjust Rostvertol to the unified framework? !"A: Our relations with other enterprises are built under the unified framework. As for Rostvertol, if there are any changes in share capital, the owner will decide whether to change the existing system of relations or not. !"Q: Could you tell us how the crisis influenced your plans? !"A: Unfortunately, the crisis has influenced us, but the impact is not very sensitive. First, the crisis has slightly influenced the backlog of orders and previously achieved contracts. The companies reduced their orders, but this did not influence the production plan considerably. The cost of money and limited amount of loans affects our work much more. !"Q: Do you plan to apply or have you already applied to the government for support? !"A: We apply to the government and receive respective support. A loan accommodation mechanism has been created on the state level and we are using it. Of course, we would like to increase the share of loans and boost the process. But on the whole, I should say that the government understands our problems and does its best to help us. !"Q: Speaking about markets and rivals, you are chiefly oriented to CIS and Asian countries… There are strong rivals such as Sikorsky and Eurocopter. Does Russian Helicopters plan to enter the European market? !"A: Yes, we are planning to enter the EU market in the medium and long term. We are objectively estimating our opportunities. Now, we are mainly manufacturing helicopters designed in the Soviet era. That is why, our main task is A I R



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Unfortunately, the crisis has influenced us, but the impact is not very sensitive

Mi-38 to hold our traditional markets, namely India, China, Africa and partly SouthEast Asia. Of course, we are planning to expand our presence in Latin America, strengthen our positions in South-East Asia and by no means lose Indian and Chinese partners. As for the nearest tasks, we are going to promote our new models – the Mi-38, Ka-62, Ansat and Ka-226T. They will help us gain new partners and occupy new niches. !"Q: What are the objectives of Russian Helicopters on the Indian and Chinese markets and in the global scale? !"A: The market situation in India and China is rather complicated and we are chiefly delivering helicopters for local law enforcement bodies there. The main

task is to increase the share of Russian Helicopters on the world market from 4% to 15% by 2015. !"Q: Brazil has recently signed a contract for 12 Mi-35M helicopters. Why, do you think, Brazil has chosen this helicopter? !"A: It is a very important event as we have been talking about choosing the Mi-35M for a long time, which resulted in this decision. I am glad that a deeply modernized helicopter with a new powerplant and new rotary system has won a tender beating the Tiger advanced European helicopter. This choice was made due to a number of reasons including the helicopter’s new feature – good combat performance at night. Due


Helicopters to enhanced flight characteristics and reasonable price - the so-called cost/ efficiency factor â&#x20AC;&#x201C; we have won this tender. !"Q: What are your new plans for cooperation with foreign companies? What is the state of the joint project with Augusta Westland on the license production of the AW139 helicopter in Russia? !"A: I cannot help mentioning good rate of work, close cooperation and mutual understanding with our colleagues from Augusta Westland. Though we are competitors on the global level, the production of Augusta Westland 139 helicopters in Russia is a mutuallybeneficial project. We are going to sign a license contract soon. The site on the premises of the Moscow Helicopter Plant has already been allotted. I think this project will be implemented on schedule. !"Q: Will you tell how is the cooperation with Canadian company Pratt & Whitney developing now? !"A: There was a good working atmosphere in our relations before. But in summer 2008, our cooperation was frozen due to political reasons. As far as I know, the US influenced the decision. But I hope this joint work will be resumed.



Russian helicopter market may revive in the second half of next year The both sides do their best to solve this problem. Of course, I wish policy does not affect economic relations between business partners. !"Q: What is the situation with the Mi-38 project now? !"A: A delay in deliveries of experimental engines curbed this programme, so we have to speed up developing the helicopter version of the TV7-117V engine. The work is being implemented rather quickly and I think it will not be delayed for more than a year. !"Q: Do you think foreign companies aim to enter the Russian market alone or only jointly with a Russian company? !"A: There are several approaches. Even the same companies have different approaches in various sectors and there are various forms of cooperation. Of course, some companies directly enter our market, it is only natural. We are living in the global economy and have to compete on our territory, too. But there are spheres of cooperation that are mutually beneficial, which is proved by

projects with such companies as Augusta Westland and Pratt & Whitney. Also, we are discussing the development of a heavy helicopter with our Chinese partners. In fact, we have to adjust to the global economy and carry out considerable integration in the helicopter-building sphere as well. !"Q: And do you plan to invest into foreign companies in future? !"A: Speaking about assets, we considered such direction. But the current financial crisis has influenced these plans. We wanted to acquire some assets of European maintenance enterprises and established a maintenance enterprise providing service to Russian-made helicopter in India. Also, we are seriously considering cooperation with India on the joint development and production of helicopters. There is a project with China, which I have already mentioned. Thus, we are planning both to buy assets and create joint ventures with foreign companies in the medium and long term. !"Q: How can you estimate Russiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s helicopter market today?



!"A: The Russian helicopter market may revive in the second half of next year. It is hard to speak about the number of manufactured vehicles, I will say a few words about the quality of the market. Such helicopters as the Mi-8 and Mi-17 are widely represented on this market, while it badly lacks 3.5-, 5- and 6-t ones. It is the lack of light and medium helicopters that makes some market segments low-profitable and lossmaking. That is why, we are planning to start manufacturing the Ka-226T, Ansat and Ka-62 as soon as possible. Besides, I think the jointly-produced AW139 will occupy a deserved place on Russia’s market. !"Q: What do you think the real share of acquisitions by the UTair airline is? !"A: Now, UTair buys about 60% of civil helicopters we deliver to the internal market, which is quite much. If the crisis does not change the plans, this figure will remain almost the same for a year A I R



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or two. Although, it may decrease in the future due to joint projects with Gazprom and other Russian companies being discussed now. !"Q: You are going to present an advanced high-speed helicopter at HeliRussia 2009. Could you tell us about this project in detail? !"A: For the first time we presented the advanced high-speed helicopter project in short at the previous exhibition. Now, we are continuing this programme and want to tell other people about it. Our foreign colleagues and competitors – Sikorsky and Eurocopter – have already started such projects. We are now carrying out pre-design studies to clearly determine the requirements and main points needed for R&D works. So, this is the main thing we are going to tell about. !"Q: And who will finally choose the developer of this helicopter? !"A: There are various alternatives and we encourage such an approach as only

technical competition within the holding allows choosing the right solution. The lack of competition is the way to nowhere. We encourage the competition of ideas and technical solutions. At the current stage, we are considering projects of the Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant and Kamov Design Bureau, which can be explained by many reasons. They have different approaches and we will find the most efficient one. They offer various niches and we have to choose the right niche for this takeoff weight. The high-speed helicopter is to be created in 7-10 years. The decision-making system has been approved with the respective body taking them at each stage. The design committee considering this project is the main body. The expert council determines the technical feasibility of the project. And finally, the high technical council makes recommendations to the holding leadership on complicated technical issues.





For the last 20 years, the fleet of Soviet- and Russian-made helicopters has decreased several times. In 1992, Russia manufactured 337 helicopters and in 1998 – only 26, according to the Alliance of Aircraft Engine-Building Association (ASSAD). At present, experts say helicopter production has stabilized in Russia again. According to ASSAD, Russia manufactured 121 helicopters in 2008. At the same time, Oboronprom United Industrial Corporation General Director Andrei Reus says 169 helicopters were produced a year before.

Helicopters produced in Russia

Untangling Figures


Interestingly, there are some differences in calculations of vehicles manufactured. According to Oboronprom General Director Andrei Reus, the Kamov Plant manufactured 55 Mi-8/17 helicopters and Rostvertol – 44 ones (20 Mi-24/35M and Mi-28N combat ones and also modernized 24 Mi-2s that were calculated as new-made), the Ulan-Ude Aircraft Plant – 59 Mi-8/17s, Kumertau Aircraft Plant – 11 Ka-27/28/32s. The total result is 169. But why does ASSAD give other figures? Russian Helicopters OJSC clarified that the figures are being constantly specified. For example, 24 modernized Mi-2s are

Bar graph (according to ASSAD report of March 26, 2009)

considered as produced in 2008. The authors say “considering the type and scope of work carried out by Rostvertol to upgrade 24 Mi-2 light helicopters to the Mi-2M version as well as significantly renewed service life of their main parts, it is reasonable to call these vehicle newmade ones.” Anyway, the both figures make it clear that Russia’s helicopter-building industry has gained a small momentum. This relative prosperity is chiefly achieved due to Mi-8/17 helicopters enjoying stable demand abroad – they are used in over 50 countries. 12,000 such helicopters have already been produced. Unlike the civilian aircraft-building industry, which manufactures about 10 times less vehicles, one can say that Russia produces helicopters in series. By the way, it allows loading subcontractors supplying helicopter-building plant with parts rather steadily. With that, Russia practically did not produce new types of helicopters last year except several Mi-28N, Ansat and Ka-226 combat ones. Nevertheless, it tested and manufactured pilot models of such new vehicles as the Ka-52, Ansat-U, Mi-38, Ka-60, upgraded Mi-24, Ka-27M, Ka-28M and Ka-31 versions. The year 2008 is called a milestone, when the nearing crisis still failed to influence the production schedule. Preliminary data proves that Russian Helicopters OJSC

the year 2008 saw accelerating consolidation of many enterprises by Russian Helicopters as part of the Oboronprom United Industrial Corporation received over 40 billion roubles of income – 20% more than a year before. At that, the holding’s profit reduced by 240 million roubles against 2007 and totaled 1.56 billion roubles. It is hard to say how successful this year will be. Experts mention a number of significant reasons curbing the development, namely the still existing decentralization of some enterprises and the lack of the united development programme. Despite this, attempts to gather and direct helicopter builders in the right way are being constantly made.

Course is Chosen The year 2008 saw accelerating consolidation of many enterprises by Russian HeliA I R



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copters as part of the Oboronprom United Industrial Corporation. It has already worked out the Helicopter Industry Development Strategy up to 2020, which was approved by the Russian government. Russian Helicopters has already chosen helicopter types to be produced in two stages.

Ambitious Programme The Russian Helicopter Industry Development Programme is divided into two stages up to 2015: From 2008 to 2011, it is planned to raise the production of existing types of helicopters, implement modernization projects, design new helicopters, put them

Мi-35M into series production and form the sciencetechnical reserve. In 2011-2015, the new types are to be produced in series. Russia’s helicopter production is to triple and reach 500 vehicles a year. Thus, it will account for at least 15% of the world market and helicopter sales will increase up to 400 billion roubles. The programme contains plans for the development of helicopter engine building. The programme provides for continuing series production of the following helicopters: Mi-34 light sport helicopter, Ka-226 and Ansat light multipurpose helicopters, Mi-8/17 medium transport and multipurpose helicopters, Mi-26 heavy transport helicopter, Mi-24/35 transport/combat helicopter, Mi-28N and Ka-52 attack helicopters, Ka-27/28/29/31/31-family deckbased and multifunctional helicopters.


Helicopters At the same time, designers are to create radically new base models and upgrade the existing ones including promising unmanned helicopters based on previous developments by the Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant and Kamov Design Bureau, the Aktai light multipurpose helicopter as well as Mi-38, Mi-54, high-speed helicopter, etc.

Infinite Plans This year, Russia will manufacture 231 civil and military helicopters for the domestic market, Defense Ministry and foreign customers. Experts say the increase of production from 169 to 231 vehicles in 2009 is quite real. The Defense Ministry alone plans to acquire about 40 Mi-28N and Mi-8 helicopters. 2009 will see the further consolidation of industry enterprises as well as their re-equipment to raise labour efficiency, focusing financial and real assets on the most important modernization projects and creating promising models and science-technical reserve. Now, it is still early to speak about the prospect of main helicopter plants – the Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant, Kamov Design Bureau and Kazan Helicopter Plant. The latter revealed its plans not long ago – it will


manufacture Ansat and Aktai helicopters. Anyway, it is clear that all helicopter production and modernization projects can be corrected by the current crisis in Russia and the world. The main trends on these enterprises can already be seen.

Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant Mi-2 At present, Russia has about 600 Mi-2 helicopters, of which about 170 ones are actively working. A small number of Mi-2s are in service with the Russian Air Force. Last year, 22 Mi-2s were overhauled and slightly modernized. They were sent to the Syzran Military Helicopter College. There are two ways of upgrading the Mi-2 – the Mi-2A receives new transmission parts and the Mi-2M – old VR-2 reductors. Rostvertol is carrying out the modernization on its own initiative and at its own expense, which affects the terms badly. Informal sources prove new engines were being installed on the test helicopter in late April, but their type is still unknown.

Mi-8/17 According to some estimates, about 2,000 Mi-8 helicopters work in Russia and the same number – abroad. Its modernization should increase the maximum and cruise speeds and flight range without extra fuel tanks. It is planned to raise the cruise speed up to 290 km/h, but there is a chance to make it more than 300 km/h. With that, the flight range will increase from current 630 to 800 km. Telling the truth, all Mi-8/17 helicopters seem to be upgraded no sooner than in 8 years.

Mi-24/35M This year, the plant will continue to manufacture Mi-24PN modernized (limited number) and more advanced Mi-35M export helicopters as well as to carry out R&D works on improving both Mi-24 combat (the Mi-24M version) and Mi-35M export ones.

Mi-26 According to the Mil plant’s General Designer Alexei Samusenko, the modernization of the Mi-26 to the Mi-26T2 version slated for 2010 firstly allows for renewing avionics and reducing the crew down to 2-3 members.

NIGHT HUNTER The helicopter will get advanced radionavigation and flight equipment – all information will be shown on multifunctional LCD monitors, while pointer instruments will become reserve ones.

Mi-28N In December last year, the state tests of the Mi-28N were successfully completed. This helicopter will be produced for the Russian Air Force in series since 2009 (Rostvertol has manufactured only 20 Mi28Ns so far). In April, the first 6 Mi-28Ns were delivered to the Budyonnovsk, Stavropol Territory-based 487th Separate Helicopter Regiment of the North Caucasus Military District.

Promising Models Mi-34 The helicopter powered by the M14V26V piston engine was manufactured in Arsenyev (25 vehicles have been built A I R



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including 3 pilot models) but did not have sufficient demand. That is why, it was decided to improve it by raising the service life of its parts up to the world level. The demand for various Mi-34 modifications is estimated at 355-402 vehicles. The manufacturer hopes the payback period will last 6-7 years. The Mi-34 has a considerable advantage over other promising helicopters – the Ministry of Transport ordered 20 helicopters already at the development stage.

Mi-38 The R&D programme for the Mi-38 helicopter powered by two Pratt & Whitney turboshafts is, perhaps, the largest in the Russian helicopter industry. Pilot helicopter No.1 (OP-1) has already been made and is undergoing plant testing. Interestingly, real test results exceeded design calculation – its maximum speed reached 320 km/h instead of 290


km/h. The cruise speed equalled 300 km/h and dynamic ceiling – 8,200 m, thus surpassing even the best foreign light helicopters. In the end of 2008, pilot model No.2 (OP-2) was built but does not have engines for it as Pratt & Whitney has not delivered them after South Ossetia events due to strange formal obstacles. At the same time, the OP-3 is being constructed at the Kazan Helicopter Plant. Certification of the Mi-38 under the AP-29 standard was scheduled for 2011 and its series production – for 2012. But delays in engine deliveries by Pratt & Whitney Canada (and even their full termination) may affect certification terms and its series production badly. After this pressure, Russia is seriously considering powering the Mi-38 by the Russian TV7-117V turboshaft, which is almost similar to the Canadian engine and even more powerful. But this will require extra 1.5-2 years.




Ka-31 Despites its deliveries to India, little is known about the Ka-31 deck-based helicopter. At present, works on its landbased version designed for the Land Forces are underway. A year ago, the tests were considered to be over in 2009. About 12 Ka-31 helicopters are known to have been built so far, of which 9 are in India and the rest – in Russia. With that, we can expect that their production will be resumed and at least 9 Ka-31s will be made for India.

Ka-32 For a number of years, the Kamov design bureau is developing a helicopter

Mi-54 There are plans to create the Mi-54 helicopter with a takeoff weight of 4.5 t. Russia has almost no vehicles of such type. The helicopter will be powered by two advanced Klimov-designed VK-800 turboshafts. The preliminary design was reported to be fulfilled last spring. It will take several years to design this helicopter and another 1.5 years – to certify it.

KAMOV OJSC Ka-27/28 The Ka-27 deck-based antisubmarine helicopter and its export version dubbed Ka-28 are being modernized and flighttested now. The fleet of Ka-27s is to be upgraded to the Ka-27M version by 2015. Kamov General Designer Sergei Mikheev thinks the Ka-27 will remain a deck-based antisubmarine and rescueand-search helicopter in the heavy-lift class in the future. Ka-28s are to be upgraded, too, particularly in India. At 2008 year-end, it was reported that India planned to upgrade 12 Ka-28 helicopters and buy another 11 vehicles worth $129 million. According to Kamov General Designer Sergei Mikheev, there are plans to make a new antisubmarine helicopter, which will be lighter than the Ka-27.



BLACK SHARK with increased cargo and passenger capacity, manifold structure, a large sliding door and extended cabin dubbed Ka-32-10 (initial designation – Ka32AM). In fact, this version is the deeply modernized Ka-32A11VS. It is planned to raise the helicopter’s lifting capacity up to 4-5 t in the body and up to 6-7 t on the external pod.

Ka-50-52 The Arsenyev Progress plant is continuing to manufacture the pilot batch of Ka-52 helicopters for operation testing. In December last year, the first stage of Ka-52 state tests was successfully completed, which allows the aircraft plant to start the production of the initial batch. Last year, building three Ka-50s was finished (8-10 Ka-50s are now in operation), of which one was delivered to Torzhok. Another two Ka-50s were at the plant in early 2009 and this year they will be given to the Defense Ministry, too. In addition, two Ka-52 helicopters were built in 2008 (five Ka-50s and Ka-52 were manufactured in 2008). Three Ka-52s from the initial batch will be delivered to the Defense Ministry in the first A I R



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half of this year and another batch of Ka-52s – after state tests in 2009-2010. Thus, 20-25 helicopters can be yearly produced by 2011-2012 for domestic and export purposes.

Ka-60/62 Russian Helicopters is carrying out R&D works on the Ka-60 designed for the Russian Air Force and intended for transporting an infantry squad and its civilian version dubbed Ka-62. Two almost identical helicopters have already been built, namely Ka-60 and Ka-60U. At present, their factory testing is underway and state tests are to begin later this year. In the end of last year, Russia’s Defense Ministry specified its requirements for the Ka-60 – it plans to buy 300-400 Ka-60 helicopters. Their commissioning is possible since 2011-2012. The Ka-60’s powerplant, however, aroused big questions, so it was decided to equip it with Russian RD-600 engines. The Ka-62 will be probably produced in small batches since 2012 and the Progress plant will be able to manufacture 30-40 vehicles a year by 2014. According to Kamov’s pessimistic estimates, Russia will need some 350 Ka-62s


by 2020, the same number can be sold abroad. Thus, we receive about 700 helicopters.

Ka-226 The Ka-226 multipurpose seven-seat helicopter powered by two 460-hp RollsRoyce 250-С-20R/2(SR) turboshafts is manufactured in small batches on two plants – the Orenburg Strela Production Enterprise and Kumertau Aircraft Industrial Enterprise. Last year, these plants manufactured two and four helicopters, respectively. Less than 20 helicopters have been made so far. Russian Helicopters have included the Ka-226T (T means Turbomecca) version powered by two 730-hp Turbomecca Arrius 2G1 turboshafts into the model range. The Ka-226T project is known to be funded by a $100 million 8-year investment loan. Its sales to the Emergency Ministry, Federal Security Service and Gazprom are being discussed. At the same time, this model will take part in the Indian tender for about 200 light helicopters. Experts say the plant will reach a design output of 70 helicopters a year (20 Ka-226s and 50 Ka-226Ts) by the end of 2011.




But the first flight model will be made in about seven years. For this time it is necessary to specify the main requirements, conduct the contest of designs, choose one design (and, perhaps, two), build demonstrators and only after their tests decide whether to build the helicopter or not. Such a helicopter is already required in remote areas of Siberia and Far East as well as for operations at the Shtokmanovskoye field. High-speed helicopters are now designed by two bureaus – Mil and Kamov. The both versions will be powered by turboshaft engines. The Mil Mi-X1 project provides for VK-2500 engines. It is considered that additional development of the pusher is needed to reach speeds of 450-500 km/h. The Ka-92 project allows for two VK-300 turboshafts. The rear pusher will be driven by both of them. The Kamov helicopter is to have a flight range of at least 1,400 km and a speed of about 450 km/h given that 15-30 passengers will be carried at a distance of 700 km and return to the initial point without refueling.


Kazan Helicopter Plant Ansat As of now, the Kazan Helicopter Plant has produced over 20 light (takeoff weight up to 3,300 kg) Ansat helicopters propelled by two 630-hp Pratt and Whitney РW-207К turboshafts, of which five were exported to South Korea. The plant is preparing the Ansat’s series production – 10-15 helicopters a year and later reach the output of 25 vehicles a year. In December last year, state tests of the Ansat-U combat trainer were successfully completed. According to the Defense Ministry’s requirement, this machine will have wheeled chassis unlike other Ansats. A contract for shipping only three AnsatU helicopters in 2009 has been signed, though it was initially planned to order 12 aircraft. According to various sources, the Russian Air Force needs 25-100 Ansat combat


trainers. These helicopters will be delivered to helicopter flight colleges in 2009-2010.

Aktai It is planned to equip the 1,240-kg Aktai three-seat light helicopter designed by the Kazan Helicopter Plant with one Swiss Mistral G-300-H powerplant using AI-92 fuel. Two helicopters were put into production a year ago and in 2011, their series manufacturing should begin with the aim of 60 vehicles a year. Now, ground tests of the test model are underway. The Kazan Helicopter Plant, Oboronprom and Russian Helicopters estimate the demand for Aktai helicopters at 1,600 items for 30 years given the current price of $350,000.

Reaching New Speeds A high-speed helicopter combining high speed and STOVL capability is a conceptual project promoted by Russian Helicopters.

The capacity of Russia’s market for unmanned helicopters is estimated at several thousand aircraft. According to the Unmanned Helicopters Programme, four types of UAVS are required on the military and civil markets, namely close-range (up to 20-50 km), small-range (up to 100 km), medium-range (up to 400 km) and long-range (over 400 km). Each helicopter plant will set up a design bureau for unmanned helicopters – Kamov will have 4 projects and Mil – 3 ones. The main Kamov’s project is a helicopter drone with a weight of up to 300 kg. Also, UAVs based on the Ka-115 helicopter (its weight is 1,500 kg and the range 500-600 km) will be created. Most probably, Ka-115-based helicopters will be made for the Navy. At the same time, the Mil plant will develop small range helicopter drones (up to 100 km) weighing from 50 to 70-80 kg and flight endurance of up to 6 hours. Dmitriy Kozlov


Russiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s helicopters will take at least


of the world market production


World Industries Helicopters



World powers are constantly seeking alternative fuels, as aviation kerosene and air transportation prices highly depend on free market oil price fluctuations. Last year, oil sold at $147 a barrel, making scientists step up their search for an alternative to aviation kerosene.


Helicopters World powers are constantly seeking alternative fuels, as aviation kerosene and air transportation prices highly depend on free market oil price fluctuations. Last year, oil sold at $147 a barrel, making scientists step up their search for an alternative to aviation kerosene. Frequent mass media reports on first test flights of aircraft using alternative fuels also indicate this. Some of them are given below: “Qatar Airlines is planning to convert its aircraft from kerosene to natural gas. The company’s Commercial Director Ali Al Rais told local media Qatar Gas, Royal Dutch Shell and Qatar Airlines are negotiating an action plan for this project which could make the major Middle East air carrier the first to give up traditional fuel”. “The Airbus A380 was the first commercial aircraft to fly with Shell synthetic jet fuel processed from gas…” «The U.S. company AeroVironment successfully tested the world’s first unmanned airplane fueled with liquid hydrogen …»

What is Aviation Liquefied Fuel? Actually, the first flights of aircraft fueled with alternative fuel, namely liquid hydrogen, liquefied natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas, were performed over 20 years ago in Russia. It was here, and not in Europe or America, that scientists, seeking a replacement for aviation kerosene, sent the first gas-fueled airplanes and helicopters into flights totaling dozens and hundreds of hours. The idea to use propane-butane fuels to run helicopters emerged in the late 1970s. A few years later, Russian aviation and oil&gas scientists suggested using a more environmental and cheap aviation liquefied propane and butane fuel ALF (Aviation Liquefied Fuel, in Russian: ASKT) (specification ТU39 1215-87), which, according to N. Bashchenko of the Scientific Research and Design Institute for Gas Processing (NIPI Gazpererabotka), can be derived from associated petroleum gas (APG) or combination gas. This type of fuel is less corrosive towards bearing and stuffing materials, while its production cost is far less than that of aviation kerosene and comparable to the production cost of propane motor fuel. A I R



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Liquefied gas was first used in 1987 to fuel one of a Mil Mi-8TG helicopter’s engines, while the other power unit was running on traditional fuel. The helicopter crew tried all the usual flight modes, showing excellent results. In the early 1990s, the specification for ALF was adjusted (ТU39 1547-91), and Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant in cooperation with Interaviagaz designed the first Mi-8TG prototype and put it through initial tests. This helicopter had both engines capable of running on either aviation kerosene or ALF, or on a mixture of both at any ratio. The helicopter performed demonstration flights at the MAKS-96 air show in Zhukovsky outside Moscow.

Those interested are welcome Vyacheslav Zaitsev, one of the masterminds behind the gas-fueled helicopter concept, said at a round table meeting during the HeliRussia exhibition in May 2009: “Modification of Mi-8 helicopter as well as its engines is rather simple and can be managed at any repair base within two or three weeks.” The physical properties of ALF allow using for its transportation any equipment aimed at propane-butane fuels. Engineers therefore won’t have to face complicated technical tasks and the production costs will be comparable to that of a standard refuelling complex”. A trial refuelling complex had been built in accordance with the specifications provided by InterAviaGaz and agreed with Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant and Gromov Flight Research Institute, and bench-tested in summer and winter conditions with both kerosene and liquefied gas at a Central Institute of Aviation Motors branch in Lytkarino outside Moscow. Designers say a gas-fueled helicopter could be used in oil and gas production areas and hard-to-reach parts of Russia’s Far North and West Siberia. Replacing liquid fuel with ALF could save $100,000 a year per aircraft, as the price of LAF is several times lower than that of aviation kerosene, which significantly decreases a flight hour’s cost. Additionally, this type of fuel increases the range of aircraft. Professor Valentin Malyshev, deputy chief designer at Tupolev Design Bureau, highlighted the



According to various sources, the annual APG waste totals between 20 and 50 billion cubic meters. high safety of ALF, giving three examples: “1. On kerosene-fueled aircraft, we are able to determine a fuel leak only after the plane catches fire. Gas is different, and, in case of leakage, vapors to form a concentration measurable for gasometry instruments. 2. Gas tanks don’t explode, as they have no connection to the atmosphere. In other words, kerosene-filled tanks are more explosion-dangerous. 3. If kerosene flows out of the tank and catches fire, severe consequences can seldom be avoided, while a gas leak leaves the crew a better escape probability”. “ALF exceeds kerosene by performance, as it has a higher combustion value than the latter, which could improve the weight characteristics of aircraft,” Alexei Baikov of Baranov Central Institute of Aviation Motors says. “The ALF can be a far better coolant for the aircraft engines than the traditional fuel, which makes ALF very promising for advanced aviation”, Mr. Baikov added.

Confined to compliments 44

Back in 1995, a gas-fueled helicopter displayed at the MAKS air show drew attention of Russian aviation authorities, the latter, however, confined themselves to compliments and appreciation only. That helicopter is grounded now, ageing along with its developers. For many years, nobody tried to promote this program or take up the innovation technology. This looks really strange, as aviation gas fuel technology was included in the federal target program for the development of Russian civil aviation for 2002 through 2010 and until 2015. Weird, but the propane-butane aviation research and gas-fueled helicopter tests disappeared from the federal program without a trace. Sergei Postoev of State Civil Aviation Research Institute says: “We are trying to revive this technology, but there’s little time left, as we are losing people who have been burning with this idea. Last year, Vladimir Andreev, the developer of the Tupolev Tu-155, and Chief Designer Pyotr Izotov of the Klimov Plant, who led the ALF-fueled gas turbine development, passed away”.

Soon, the last of the Mi-8Ts, (the project was initially started for these helicopters), will wear out. Engineers and scientists don’t give up, however, hoping that ALF could be used to fuel other helicopter models, including the Mi-8MTV, Mi-171, Mi-38 and others, as well as regional aircraft like the Ilyushin Il-114 or the “immortal” Antonov An-2. The cheaper gas fuel could make air transportation more affordable, revive regional aviation and boost cargo and passenger traffic in hard-to-reach areas. An increase in helicopter and airplane operation through the introduction of ALF would facilitate regional industry and employment growth as well. Anatoly Belov, Chief Designer of Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant, says this goal is feasible, but requires significant investments, dozens of millions of rubles, to tweak the TV3-117 gas turbine, compose new manuals for Mil helicopters, perform flight tests etc. No law, no order Meanwhile, APG is still being flared, polluting the atmosphere. According to various sources, the annual APG waste totals between 20 and 50 billion cubic meters. A cubic meter of associated gas contains between 15 and 300 grams of easy-to-condensate hydrocarbons, which means Russia flares over 6 million tons of hydrocarbons, which is comparable with the amount of kerosene consumed by all of the country’s civil aircraft.

Only a few Russian oil companies recycle associated gas, like they do in Nefteyugansk, using it to heat buildings and fuel specialized machinery. In YamaloNentsk and Khanty-Mansiisk autonomous areas, as well as in the southern Tyumen Region, oil producers don’t care about recycling, and go on with associated gas flaring. They say, there’s no demand, no equipment, no infrastructure, while transportation would raise the gas price by many times. “If they gradually converted aircraft and ground vehicles to ALF и LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) in these areas, as well as small-scale thermal power generation units and household systems, there would emerge an efficient hydrocarbon gas market”,

Helicopters Vyacheslav Zaitsev says. “This would also facilitate the resolving of another important issue, the utilization of associated gas, cutting transportation costs sharply. Producers and consumers of ALF и LHCG (liquefied hydrocarbon gases) could get significant benefits!” he adds. According to the Natural Resources Ministry, “The integrated effect from the procession of this amount of gas could make up over 350 billion rubles per year. Clearly, this is lost benefit!” Gazprom experts lament: “We could have made lots of useful things from the currently wasted gas. And nobody knows the health damage done to people by gas flaring”. “Such mess happens due to lack of appropriate legal framework”, say Russian Oil and Gas Producers Union president Gennady Shmal and Vladimir Sosnovsky, vice president of Gas Fuel Consumers Union (SPGT). “Russia needs to introduce a law on alternative fuel, introducing preferences for both developers of new materials and producers of alternative fuel”, Moscow mayor Yuriy Luzhkov said at the first international conference “Alternative energy sources for big cities” back in 2005. Draft laws on alternative fuels usage and on associated gas, however, haven’t been passed so far. Both drafts have been in the State Duma since 2000, and deputies haven’t gone back to them since 2006. In 2007, Russian Natural Resources Ministry submitted a draft action plan to enhance the efficiency of associated petroleum gas disposal, setting a 95% APG utilization goal for 2011 and suggesting introduction of progressive scale payments for excessive APG emission starting from that year. According to the plan, companies incapable of recycling the required percentage of associated gas would have to pay off huge fines. The government should have amended its 2003 executive order on payments for atmospheric pollution. Up to now, however, nothing has been done about this issue. This year, according to a governmental directive, the Energy Ministry and The Ministry of Justice were to cooperate with federal executive authorities to resume the development of measures to enhance the efficiency of APG use. Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, whilst on a visit to Kirishy, A I R



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reiterated that the government is determined to reach 95% APG disposal, this time the goal set for 2012.

L et there be gas!

“The problem is that petroleum-associated agents keep lobbying their interests,” says Vladimir Sosnitsky of SPTK. “So far there are oil reserves, they won’t let alternative fuels out. Hardly any one of them would wish to lose his incomes. Despite the oil prices plunging by several times, the price for motor petrol went down by just a few per cent. They actually prevented it from falling”, he adds. “Converting transport, including aviation, to alternative fuels, will require strong political will”, says Alexei Ablazov, head of Russian Transportation Ministry’s department for government policy on civil aviation. It appears that no government agency can cope with oil companies alone. Nevertheless, alternative fuels will continue to exist despite any trouble, almost all industry’s experts say, citing the April summit, where G20 leaders received a strict message from the International Commission on Climate and Energy Security stating that a shift to an environmentally friendly economy belongs to the most important steps of the anti-crisis strategy. If this kind of restrictions is introduced, fuel consumers will have to put environmental

friendliness first, with affordability and benefit coming secondary. “The oil reserves will last for only 50 to 100 years”, says Grigory Koryukin, geochemical gas and oil field detection director at Pangea Inc. “It’s time we stopped thinking Russia is an “oil power”. We don’t have to wait until oil is out, and only then rush to find new types of fuel. We need to develop gas fuel technology and nanotechnology. Sure, this requires huge investments in research, infrastructure development, construction of gas-filling stations, batch production of engines and equipment for a variety of fuels”, he added. Meanwhile, the current raw material reserves suitable for ALF production are encouraging. According to Sergei Fyodorov, head of Russian Natural Resources Ministry’s department for government policy and geological and mineral resource regulation, the APG reserves alone exceed 2 trillion cubic meters. Besides, natural gas, especially combination gas, contains a significant number of propane-butane admixtures. Propane-butane is produced through oil processing, gas condensate stabilization or coal oil extraction. There are plenty of ideas, but experts say without government support, all the discoveries and developments would remain ink on paper.



MOTOR SICH AT LE BOURGET Zaporozhye based Motor Sich JSC, which in 2007 celebrated its centenary, is one of the largest manufacturing outfits that perform the whole cycle of the advanced aero engine development from marketing studies, design, and manufacture to in-service support and overhaul. The company has gained respect and prestige among its customers over the 100 years of its activity and now it collaborates successfully with leading companies from both CIS countries and countries world over. Now, the company produces and commercializes aero engines of various types and purposes for aircraft made by famous fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft manufacturers, with their total over 60 models and modifications of advanced and reliable engines.

Vyachaslav A. Boguslayev Chalrman of the Board of Directors, Motor Sich JSC


quality and reliability of the company-made products are confirmed with their successful operation in more than 120 counties all over the world The main advantages of Motor Sich made engines are high reliability, low specific fuel consumption, low engine weight to thrust/power ratio, environment friendliness, maintainability, high effectiveness of control system and troubleshooting, and low operation costs as well. Quality and reliability of the companymade products are confirmed with their successful operation in more than 120 counties all over the world. Motor Sich JSC follows the policy of partnership and mutually beneficial cooperation. Therefore, now we participate in the most globally prestigious Paris Air Show. The initial period of the Motor Sich JSC history is closely related to the French aircraft companies that founded Snecma company in the postwar years. Also, it was the licensed manufacture of HispanoSuisse 8FB (M-6) engine followed by acquisition of the license from Gn么meRone company to produce Bristol Jupiter VI (M-22) engine and Mistral Major 14K (M-85).

The activities to develop a number of high power engines (from 850 h. p. in 14K engine to 2000 h. p. in M-90 engine) on the basis of 14K engine have contributed to formation of company design team known currently as SE Ivchenko-Progress. Now the list of our engines commercialized and those under development for passenger, cargo and military cargo aircraft cover turboprops and turbopropfans of 400 to 14000 shp, as well as by-pass engines of 1500 to 23400 kgf. D-436-148 engine for An-148 family passenger aircraft should be highlighted. This engine is a modification of D-436T1 engine. It meets ICAO requirements for emission and provides a noise level lower than that required. In terms of its performances, the engine in question is not inferior to its foreign competitor products still under development. Motor Sich JSC has developed AI-450-MS two-shaft auxiliary gas turbine engine for various An-148 modifications and other passenger and cargo aircraft



powered by D-436 family propulsion engines. The engine is intended to start propulsion engines as well as to apply compressed air and power supply to aboard systems with propulsion engines inoperative. High efficiency of using AI-450-MS two-shaft auxiliary gas turbine engine is achieved due to low specific fuel consumption sequent of high thermodynamic cycle parameters, high unit performance indexes, and the pattern of air bleed from

the compressor that provides aboard consumer needs, as well as low run costs. Various An-148-100 aircraft modifications can carry up to 80 passengers, with high comfort level and the distance range of 2000 to 5.200 kilometers. With regard to cost/quality ratio, it is superior to all the competitor products. Excellent aircraft performance characteristics, the possibility to operate it on the substandard quality airfields due to a high engine location over the runway, and a low

life cycle cost allow us to hope that the aircraft in question will draw customersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; attention. Now work is under way to develop cargo and military cargo aircraft on An-148 platform, which are able to carry a 20-tone cargo at a distance of up to 2.000 km or a 15-tone cargo at a distance of up to 3.200 km. The growing military aviation role sets higher requirements to training new pilots, keeping up flight competence of acting military aviation personnel to apply airborne weaponry. In this respect, trainers and combat trainers are of a crucial importance in the Air Force on all the five continents. Aircraft performance characteristics are greatly determined by aircraft engine performances. For 80 years, A. Ivchenko Scientific Production Association Corp. that includes Motor Sich JSC and SE IvchenkoProgress state-owned design agency has focused primarily on designing and developing aero engines for trainers and combat trainers. From 1927 to 1953, this company supplied piston engines for Po-2, UT-1, UT-2, SH-2, YAK-18 and other aircraft, and RD-45, AI-25TL/TLK jet engines for MiG15UTI, L-39, and K-8J aircraft further on. DV-2 engine was developed for Czech L-59 combat trainer and lately it was commercially manufactured in Slovakia. Now, more than 3.000 trainers and combat trainers powered by Motor Sich-

D-436 In terms of its performances, the engine in question is not inferior to its foreign competitor products still under development. A I R



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made gas turbine engines are operated in 39 countries. To keep this tradition, we are currently cooperating with SE Ivchenko-Progress in developing AI-222 family engines. The engines provide the maximum thrust between 2200 and 3000 kgf and up to 5.000 kgf provided the afterburner is installed. Nowadays, this company has launched the production of AI-222-25 engine with the maximum thrust of 2500 kgf for YAK-130 combat trainer that in the upcoming future will be supplied to pilot training centers in Russia and Algeria. We hope the air display at Paris Air Show will demonstrate clearly that high AI-222-25 engine performances along with perfect YAK-130 aerodynamics ensure maneuvering aircraft capabilities

AI-222-25 High AI-222-25 engine performances along with perfect YAK-130 aerodynamics ensure maneuvering aircraft capabilities corresponding to those of the 4th and 5th generation fighters 48

corresponding to those of the 4th and 5th generation fighters. Moreover, we hope that military experts of other countries will chose YAK-130 aircraft powered by AI-222-25 engines as the best trainer solutions for their Air Forces to provide better pilot training that allows the pilots to acquire piloting skills to the full extent and keep them up. In 2007, Motor Sich JSC was granted the Certificate of Type for a new ТVЗ-117VМА-SBМ1V helicopter engine developed by the company designers. The engine is intended as a substitute for previous TV3-117 family engines. Its takeoff power depends on the helicopter type and can be adjusted between 2000 and 2500 shp by the automatic control system that can keep the takeoff power specified

up to higher environment temperatures. So the takeoff power of 2200 shp is kept up to the temperature of +44°C. In case of one engine failure, a second one will start operating in 2.5-minute power setting whose power is 2800 shp, with its power in 30-minute power setting equal to takeoff power. The engine also can be restarted and fly at higher altitudes (between 6000 and 9000 m) than its precursors. ТVЗ-117VМА-SBМ1V engine life indexes are enlarged: its first run life is 3000 hours/cycles and its projected life is 9000 hours/cycles. Now, work is to be finalized to extend its first run life and TBO up to 4000 hours/cycles and projected life up to 12000 hours/cycles. ТVЗ-117VМА-SBМ1V engine weight and dimensions are equal to those of engines installed on Mi and Ka helicopters, as well as its mount dimensions to be connected to the helicopter structures. When overhauling at Motor Sich JSC, previously manufactured TV3-117 family engines can be upgraded to the ТVЗ-117VМА-SBМ1V standards. It allows us to re-engine Mi and Ka helicopters without reworking helicopter airframes and systems, with expenditures low and terms short. Re-engining makes it possible to improve substantially helicopter performances when operating them at higher altitudes and temperatures.

Engines High performance products offered by Motor Sich JSC to the global market are manufactured on a certified production basis. The manufacture of new state-of-the-art engines and overhaul of previously manufactured ones have been certified by the Aviation Register of Interstate Aviation Committee (AR IAC) and Aviation Administration of Ukraine. The company Quality System meets the requirements of ISO 9001:2000 international standards, which was confirmed with the Certificate by Bureau Veritas. Motor Sich JSC has accumulated a wealth of experience in providing engine support over its whole operation life. The company keeps in touch with its regional representative offices that operate all over the world on a permanent basis.


ТVЗ-117VМА-SBМ1V In case of one engine failure, a second one will start operating in 2.5-minute power setting whose power is 2800 shp, with its power in 30-minute power setting equal to takeoff power.

We also have accumulated wide experience in working with foreign customers both from CIS countries and countries word over, and we can offer a wide range of brand-new products for cutting-edge promising engines for fixedand rotary-wing aircraft. Our main goal is to manufacture durable, reliable, and user-friendly products that meet fully customers’ requirements. We are keen to cement the exiting positive image of Motor Sich JSC as a wellestablished and dependable partner.

Motor Sich JSC

15, Motorostroiteley Avenue, Zaporozhye 69068, Ukraine Tel.: +38 (061) 720-48-14 Fax: +38 (061) 720-50-05 E-mail: A I R



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$12-BILLION PRIZE All leading world aircraft makers producing advanced combat planes consider the tender for delivering 126 fighters to the Indian Air Force under the MMRCA (Medium Multirole Combat Aircraft) programme the most important and the largest of all present-day tenders. The contract is estimated at $11-12 billion. The Russian MiG-35, US Lockheed-Martin F-16 and Boeing F/A-18, French Dassault Rafale, European Eurofighter Typhoon and Swedish SAAB Gripen are going to compete for this prize. In April, some mass media reported that Rafale refused to participate, but then it was denied and now the French fighter seems to take part in the tender.


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МiG-35 Most market analysts think there are no evident winners. The winner will be chosen after comparative tests of all participating fighters that should start in April-May. To this end, each participant should present two aircraft – a single- and double-seat one. Indian Air Force pilots will carry out tests in two stages. At the first stage, they will estimate their flight performance and applicability for the Indian climate and terrain including high-level airdromes. The second stage scheduled for this autumn will probably take place at test bases of manufacturing countries – the Indians will compare characteristics of on-board equipment and armament. After flight tests, India is going to bolt out three or four outsiders. The choice from the resulting short list of 2-3 fighters will be made considering many factors. India will take into account the cost and financing structures, amount of technologies transferred, offset programme for compensation deliveries, which should account for at least 50% of the contract price and local production options. 108 of 126 fighters should be assembled and manufactured at a growing rate at Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) enterprises in India. Foreign policy trends will be important, too. It was initially planned that the Indian Air Force will get MMRCA aircraft in 2012. Speaking at the Aero India show, A I R



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however, Indian Air Force Chief of Staff (this post corresponds to Commanderin-Chief in Russia) Chief Air Marshal Fali Homi said that fighters deliveries would start in 2013 if everything was al right. India’s Air Force is going to raise the number of its combat squadrons from the current 32-33 (each having 14-18 aircraft) to 39.5 by 2017 and to 42 by 2020. These plans also envisage important modernization programmes, firstly relating to the MiG-29. At the press briefing devoted to the MiG-35 at Aero India 2009, RSK MiG Engineering Center Chief Vladimir Barkovskiy said the company had started fulfilling the modernization contract

worth about $1 billion. Six Indian MiGs (four MiG-29s single-seat fighters and two MiG-29UB two-seat combat trainers) have already arrived in Moscow. Mr.Barkovskiy said that “India has now 62 MiG-29 fighters in total”. Another 56 aircraft will be upgraded at the Indian 11th aircraft maintenance base. “We have visited this enterprise and concluded that Indian specialists would cope with this task”, noted the chief of RSK MiG Engineering Center. Well-known Indian newspaper The Times of India announced some other information in its local Bangalore edition on February 13. It reported that India has 69 MiG-29s and all of them should be modernized already by 2011. The contract for upgrading 51 Dassault Mirage 2000 may be signed soon, too. But no doubt that Su-30MKI fighters are the beauty and pride of the Indian Air Force. The contracts for their deliveries and license production totally cost about $8.5 billion. About 100 aircraft have already been put into service, while India totally ordered 230 Su-30MKIs. By the way, the MMRCA project (126 aircraft) costs 41% more than the Su-30MKI one (230 aircraft) given the 1.8 times less number of aircraft. The military-technical cooperation between Russia (the Soviet Union) and India started as early as 1963 from the contract of the then-advanced MiG-21 fighter. Of course, the 45-year military-technical cooperation between our countries raises


World Industries the chances of the MiG-35 in the tender. The Zhuk-AE AFAR radar designed by Fazotron-NIIR and new missile equipment may play the decisive role, too. The Vayu Show Daily issued at Bangalore’s show reported that the MiG-35’s armament includes Kh-59MK2 air-to-surface missiles with a range of up to 285 km and 300-kg penetrating or cluster warhead. The missile works by the fire-and-forget principle, has terrain recognition and correlation guidance capability and can engage targets lacking radar, optical and IR signature. The MiG-35 can be also armed with the Kh-38 modular missile that has modifications with laser, active radar and IR homing devices as well as satellite navigation system. The 520-kg missile has a warhead weighing 250 kg. The Kh-59MK2 and Kh-58 are developed by Tactical Missiles Corporation. The MiG35’s air-to-air missiles will be renewed, too. The fighter will get RVV-MD and RVVSD advanced short- and medium-range missiles that outperform the well-known RVV-AE and R-73. But India has some reasons not to choose the MiG-35. The main one is that it does not want to put all the eggs in one basket buying foreign military equipment, which is a consistent and firm position. As it was already told, the Su-30MKI is the main aircraft of the Indian Air Force. In

no doubt that Su-30MKI fighters are the beauty and pride of the Indian Air Force these conditions, the expected consolidation of RSK MiG and Sukhoi companies that has already started when Mikhail Pogosyan became their sole chief will not only make Russia the monopoly supplier of combat aircraft to India if it chooses the MiG-35 but will leave no choice even among manufacturers. By the way, two US companies – Boeing and LockheedMartin – are participating in the tender and the US is not afraid of the so-called internal competition, which Rosoboronexport is actively trying to get rid of.



AFAR and PR But there is another side of the problem, which is traditionally underestimated by Russia. It is the PR support of our contract

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LOCKHEED MARTIN bid. Russia sent only one MiG-35 to the Aero India show held in February this year. At first it seemed to send two fighters but did not manage to prepare the second one, while the US sent there as many as five F-16s. They included two F-16E/F Block 60s of the UAE Air Force and three F-16C/D Block 50s of the US Air Force. Lockheed-Martin offers India a special modification dubbed F-16IN Super Viper, which, however, differs from the UAE’s F16E/F chiefly by the name. But there is a special sense in the name, too! In Russian, Super Viper does not sound very good, but it raises the respects for the fighter and its aggressiveness by the Indians who have a special attitude to poisonous snakes. Index IN also proves that the model was created specially for the client. By the way, Sweden was the first to use this designation offering their Gripen IN. How could we surpass the invasion of Falcons that turned to Super Vipers in Bangalore? Indeed, we have an excellent Strizhi pilot team with six MiG-29s. Why not send them to India to show their skills over the Yelahanka air base? Of course, it is expensive but it is a trifle against $12 billion to be received by the winner. Another PR solution of Lockheed-Martin was the demonstration flight of India’s-first individual Olympic champion Abkhinava Bindra in F-16’s dual cockpit. During the 45-min flight, he even had hold of the A I R



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control stick. The popularity of the 26-year air rifle shooter can be compared with that of Yuriy Gagarin in the Soviet Union in the 1960’s. With that, Indian newspapers and even Russian and international mass media using Lockheed-Martin’s press releases to tell about this advertisement flight forgot that the first India’s Olympic gold was won by its field hockey team at Moscow 1980 Olympics. To tell the truth, Russia gave as good as it got, too. A day before Bindra’s flight, RSK MiG’s test pilot Mikhail Belyayev piloted the MiG-35 with retired Air Marshal Kharish Masand, who was the chief of the Indian Air Force 28th Squadron, which was the first to get MiG-29s. The

India does not want to put all the eggs in one basket buying foreign military equipment, which is a consistent and firm position Fali Homi Major


World Industries 62-year Masand highly appreciated the MiG-35’s flight performance, “One can only imagine what younger Indian pilots can do on this aircraft!” Interestingly, the pretty 30-year Indian journalist Suman Sharma was the first Indian citizen to fly on both the MiG-35 and F-16. So, the score of demonstration flights is 2 to 2, but the US surpassed us by the attention in Indian mass media due to a better choice of a passenger. The agreement of Northrop Grumman with two Indian companies Bharat Electronics and Dynamatic Technologies for manufacturing in Bangalore components for US APG-68(V)-9 radars installed on F-16s was not accidental, too. Though these radars have mechanical scanning and the F-16IN employs the APG-80 AFAR radar of the same producer, one can say that well begun is half done. By this step, the US proved that it is ready to cooperate with Indian electronics industry. AFAR equipment plays an important role in the MMRCA. The Indian Air Force stress they want to have this breakthrough technology on delivered fighters very much. The US installs Northrop Grumman APG-80 AFAR radars on F-16E/F fighters of the UAE Air Force and Raytheon APG-79 one – on F/A-18E/F Block 2 fighters of the US Naval Air Force. These very radars are offered to India. The French Rafale can be equipped by a new Thales-made AFAR radar. Sweden also has an AFAR radar on their newgeneration Gripen NG, which can be called the dream of the Indian Air Force meeting all their requirements. Indeed, the Gripen has achieved everything and even more that India has been fruitlessly trying to do for about twenty years developing their own LCA Tejas fighter. But unfortunately, Sweden does not produce its own tranceivers – the basis of AFAR. To test the technology, Sweden bought US-made tranceivers and combined them with well-reputed blocks of their own PS05/A radar. By the way, Fazotron has chosen the same method of combination with tried-and-true blocks. But then the Swedes were disappointed. It turned out that the US did not want to sell tranceiv-


ers for series production offering the radar only in block. Thus, Sweden would have to ask the US permission for every export contract. The Swedes did not agree with it and signed a contract for tranceivers with French company Thales. But this had happened before Thales and Dassault received a state order for the development and production of AFAR radar for French Rafale fighters. Later on, Dassault bought a large block of Thales stock thus getting a possibility to influence its decisions. But the most important thing is that the Gripen became the main Rafale’s rival not only in India, but in Brazil, too. France told Sweden that it would deliver tranceivers only for the test model but not for series ones. So, Swedish designers had only two possible transceiver suppliers left – Scotland and Russia. In the author’s opinion repeatedly expressed in his articles for a number of years (he is an expert in the Swedish

aircraft and electronics industries) the Russian-Swedish cooperation in this field would have been fully mutually-beneficial. After getting a denial by Russia, Sweden turned to Edinburgh-based company SELEX S&AS UK. At first, this Scottish company was called Ferranti, then – GECMarconi, after that – BAE Systems and now, in the era of total globalization, this is a division of Italian holding FINMECCANICA. SELEX has the Vixen AFAR radar, which won tenders for equipping the US Coast Guard HC-130 patrol aircraft and US Customs and Border Service Cessna Citation. And what about Eurofighter Typhoon? This company has a unique position relating to the AFAR radar. They are trying to convince Indian Air Force authorities that their fighter’s Captor mechanical scanning radar is better than expensive and not well-proven AFAR ones. To confirm

the pretty 30-year Indian journalist Suman Sharma was the first Indian citizen to fly on the MiG-35

World Industries this position, three Typhoons and chiefs of staff of the German, UK, Italian and Spanish air forces arrived in India. Notably, the Russian MiG-35 did not receive such a support from the Russian Air Force. Europeans noted that 167 Typhoons have already been built and there are firm orders for 707 aircraft, which will load production lines up to 2020. By the way, orders for the F-16 will soon end, while any country wants to have an aircraft still being manufactured in series. The fleet of Typhoons has already amassed 57,000 flight hours – 10,000 by the German Luftwaffe and 25,000 – by the Royal Air Force. The main advantage of the EU bid is, perhaps, compensating for the lack of an AFAR radar. The European consortium offered to help India in testing and finishing the long-suffering Tejas including the installation of Typhoon’s Eurojet EJ200 powerplant on the next Tejas Mk2 version. India is attracted by the reduction of operational costs by unifying engines



Еuropeans are trying to convince Indian Air Force authorities that their fighter’s Captor mechanical scanning radar is better than expensive and not well-proven AFAR ones on the both types of aircraft in service. They also say that the newer Tejas with European engines could be exported to third countries jointly with the Typhoon as light and medium fighters with the same engine. It is not clear which markets are meant, but they are probably represented by poor African states still armed with MiG-21s and F-5s. By the way, the modification of the Russian RD-33 engine can also power Tejas and the latter can be unified with MiG-29K and MiG-35 aircraft. Rosoboronexport’s press release says “The development of the Kaveri national aircraft engine for the LCA Tejas light combat aircraft is the main task for India.” India plans to deliver at least 150 A I R



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LCA fighters to its Armed Forces. It is the Kaveri that should make this aircraft a multifunctional fighter able to engage ground and aerial targets. Powered by this engine, the Tejas LCA can be used as a deck-based fighter, too. Considering the changed requirements for the engine, Russia said it was ready to participate in the Kaveri programme or upgrade it to the level of an advanced Russian aircraft engine. As for finishing the Kaveri that has already been developed for 20 years, the hero of Pavel Luspekayev in a wonderful movie “The white sun of the desert” said “It will hardly happen…” But “East is a complicated matter” (a quotation from the same film), so the cooperation with Indian

engine manufacturers may raise the MiG35’s chances, too.

Many-sided cooperation The cooperation between Russia and India is developing in many directions. The AERO INDIA 2009 airspace show proved that Moscow and Deli have strategic relations in the military-technical sphere. This was repeatedly stressed by Indian Defense Minister Arakkaparambil Kurian Entoni, who said “Our joint projects on BraMos missiles, 5th-generation combat aircraft and multifunctional transport aircraft have became the forerunners of new heights to be achieved by our countries in the military-technical sphere. India is interested not only to maintain but to strengthen this interaction as well.” Rosoboronexport considers that at this new stage, the Indian-Russian cooperation remains long-term and mutuallybeneficial. Previously we had only ‘sellercustomer’ relations, but now our countries are actively cooperating in the field of joint developments and production. Rosoboronexport, Irkut Research and


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Production Enterprise, Ilyushin Aircraft Corporation and Indian corporation HAL are jointly developing the MTA RussianIndian medium-range transport aircraft initially positioned as a dual-purpose aircraft. It should both meet requirements of the military and have commercial prospects. This project is carried out on technical and financial risks sharing conditions. The new aircraft is to replace obsolete Indian Air Force C-130 and An-12 aircraft. India has already confirmed its plans to buy 45 aircraft with an option for the same number. Russian military sources say Russia is going to acquire at least 100 aircraft by 2025, which is quite enough for the project’s financial feasibility. Notably, Brazilian company Embraer is planning to create almost the same aircraft. The C390 project is supported by the Brazilian Defense Ministry, besides Embraer aircraft will be based on a successful E190 passenger liner. Brazil


has directly told that it wanted to unite efforts on the transport aircraft programme. But Russia and India seem to be unwilling to join efforts with Brazil. The author of this article feels sorry for this unwillingness. The MTA project allowed accumulating a rich experience of implementing joint international projects that will be further used to create combat aircraft, particularly the 5th-generation fighter. According to Indian Air Marshall Fali Homi Major, the Russian-Indian 5th-generation fighter is to make its first flight in 2015 and probably even sooner. This project is being realized according to the intergovernmental agreement on the joint development and production of the 5th-generation fighter signed in October 2007 in Moscow at the 7th meeting of the Russian-Indian Intergovernmental Commission on Military-Technical Cooperation. The advanced aircraft will employ a completely new platform with

cutting-edge solutions including stealth technology. The fighter will combine extra maneuverability and supersonic speed, long range and high anti-air defense capability. It will be equipped with advanced communications systems as well as multifunctional intelligence information accumulation equipment with optical, IR, laser and radar sensors. In Bangalore, Indian mass media repeatedly asked when the prototype of the Russian 5th-generation fighter (PAK FA) will make its maiden flight. So, Sukhoi and RSK MiG General Director Mikhail Pogosyan answered that this will happen within a year. Notably, Russia and Brazil have signed a memorandum on military-technical cooperation about a year ago, in which Russia said it was ready to talk with Brazil on the 5th-generation fighter. But nothing has been heard about this project so far. If Russia, India and Brazil start cooperating both on the MTA and PAK FA, Brazil will surely include the Su-35 into their tender. The Su-35 left this Air Force tender last year as it was out of the final short list. The acceptance tests of the new AL-55I engine made by Russia for the HJT-36 Indian combat trainer on order of the HAL corporation have begun following engine testing on the Russian flying platform, which proved its main flight characteristics. Russia and India signed the respective protocol in Moscow on October 16 last year. The next stage allows for the AL-55I’s certification tests on Indian HJT-36 aircraft. At present, Rosoboronexport is actively helping to organize manufacturing the pilot batch of AL-55Is, their certification and license production in India. Speaking about the results of the show, Chief of Rosoboronexport delegation, Deputy General Director Viktor Komardin said “We are fully satisfied with the results of AERO INDIA 2009. In Delhi and Bangalore, we have conducted a number of serious marketing events, useful negotiations and meeting. We think the Indian airspace forum is much more important than European ones and we are going to do our best to raise the prestige of the AERO INDIA show.” Alexander Velovich

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BRICKS OF COOPERATION There is a consensus of opinion between experts of world economic development that the countries that will boost global economy in the 21st century are Brazil, Russia, India and China. The LAAD-2009 (Latin America Aero & Defence) exhibition of aviation and defense systems in Rio-de-Janeiro acquires ever-increasing importance for the Russian industrial production sector. The organizing party of the Russian exposition in the LAAD-2009 was the ‘Rostekhnologii’ (Russian Technologies) state-owned corporation. Under its guidance, 10 companies and organizations of Russian defense industry presented information on their products at an area of 206 square meters. It is for the first time that the Sukhoi company and MiG Russian Aircraft Construction Corporation, being the core of the future ‘Combat Aviation’ division of the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC), had a joint showcase in the international exhibition. Officially, the Su-35 super-maneuverable fighters had to withdraw from the FX-2 program tender on the delivery of new aircraft to the Brazilian Air Force as early as in last October, however, the Russian plane makers and politicians are still trying to swing into the train that has already started going, and the LAAD exhibition was to play an important role for that. Moreover, Russian fighters are successfully operated in Venezuela (a full squadron of Su-30MK2) and in Peru (MiG-29), so the other countries of the region have their eyes on our air materiel. A modernization program, also presented at the LAAD, is offered by the MiG makers for Peruvian MiGs. The Helicopters of Russia Company presented all the plants that it includes and its full lineup for the first time, too. Just a few months ago the Russian helicopter makers and the Rosoboronexport state-run company celebrated a very important victory


in a tender for the delivery of 12 combat helicopters to the Brazilian Air Force. The Mi-35M vehicles, produced by the Rostvertol (Rostov helicopter plant) will start being delivered to the customer in 2011. Fairly good prospects of promotion in the Latin America are attributed to other models as well, both military and civil.

The nine enterprises of the Roscosmos group, united under the auspices of the International Association of Space Activity Members, were represented in a respectable showcase covering an area of 180 square meters. The most notable thing there was an energetic promotion of the GLONASS Russian satellite navigational

for the first time the Sukhoi and MiG being the core division of the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC), had a joint showcase in the international exhibition

World Industries system by specialists of the Russian Scientific Research Institute for the Space Instrument Making. The Information Satellite Systems, OJSC, named after Academician Reshetnev, showed for the first time the fullscale ТСН-О N 2 nanosatellite. The State Space Research and Production Center named after Khrunichev attracted the attention of specialists by models of the advanced family of ‘Angara’ carrier rockets. It was for the first time in Brazil that the Russian Ministry of Emergencies demonstrated its potential. The presentation of the video commercial on the Be-200 amphibious aircraft capabilities gathered a considerable number of viewers every time. In order to insure the consolidated participation of the Russian Federation in the exhibition work, the Federal Service for the Military and Technical Cooperation (FSMTC) has formed a Russian delegation under the guidance of Alexander Fomin, the first deputy director of the Service. The exhibition as a whole occupied an area of 30 thousand square meters and accommodated more than 314 exhibitors from 30 states. 20 countries formed their national expositions (the largest of them being those of Brazil, Israel, Turkey, Spain, France, India, Russia, South African Republic, and Germany). The LAAD-2009 hosted official delegations from more than 50 countries, headed by ministers of defense, commanders-in-chief of armed services, chiefs of the directorates ordering arms deliveries or their deputies. The exhibition organizers covered the transport and hotel accommodation expenditures for all the official military delegations. The Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Air Force three-star general Alexander Zelin was expected to arrive; however, neither he nor anyone of his deputies ever came, which is quite a regretful fact indeed. That was by far not a solitary case when

the Russian Ministry of Defense and the General Command were not able to coordinate their attendance at international exhibitions and support the efforts of the Rosoboronexport and FSMTC promoting Russian-made armament at world markets. Though such a promotion is the habitual practice of all the producer countries. During the press-conference of Russian participants in the exhibition the head of the delegation Alexander Fomin underscored the following: “The Latin America is our essential partner not only within the framework of the general economic cooperation. The region has been and will continue to be our partner in the field of military and technical cooperation”. According to him, the LAAD-2009 exhibition provided one more chance to show the innovative Russian developments to the region, which becomes one of centers of the multi-pole world. According to Yuri Baluyevskiy, the deputy secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation,

the increasing interest of the world’s leading countries to the market of armament in the Latin America is confirmed by the exhibition entry list. “When competition is there, it is good, it is boosting the progress, and Russia has something to show against such a background”, said Baluyevskiy. The statement issued by the Rosoboronexport’s press-service at the exhibition, said: “The Latin America countries took much interest in Russian aircraft, helicopters, air defense systems, radars, ships, armored vehicles, small arms. As well as technical teaching aids, which help considerably reduce expenditures for the training of military personnel”. Viewed as a separate aspect of development of the military technical cooperation, “the possibilities of starting the licensed or assembly production in a number of countries are being actively discussed”. “A great interest on the part of Latin America countries was aroused by a Rosoboronexport’s offer of alternative payment for deliveries of arma-

As a bonus annexed to the Russia’s offers, Brazilians were invited to join the program of development of the fifth generation fighter, within the framework of which Russia had already started collaborating with India. A I R



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World Industries ment and materiel by counter deliveries of the nationally exported goods or through allowing quotas for resource development”, reports the press-service. In order to discuss current and prospective contracts in the field of military and technical cooperation in the course of the LAAD-2009 exhibition, Sergey Svechnikov, the head of delegation of the Rosoboronexport Federal State-owned Unitary Enterprise and chief of department of analysis and long term planning, met high-ranking representatives of the military and political leadership of Brazil and other partner states, as well as some foreign companies. Brazil is our strategic partner; we regularly participate in the exhibition in Rio-de-Janeiro and are very glad to have such an opportunity. Expanding the scale of military and technical cooperation with Brazil and other countries of Latin America, offering our partners the unique products of Russian defense companies on conditions attractive for them, we fulfill the main mission of progressive development of our relations”, Svechnikov said. At the Rosoboronexport’s showcase one could get acquainted with export versions of armament and materiel: Mi-35M, Mi-171Sh, Ka-52 helicopters, radars, fire control systems, shipboard artillery mounts, mobile coastal missile complexes, Tor-M2E air defense complex and other air defense means, army assault and patrol boats, destroyer of the 21956 project, frigate of 11356 and 11541 projects, T-90S tank possessing very powerful arms, excellent agility and reliable armor, BMP-3 and BMP-3M combat infantry vehicles. Armored personnel carriers (BTR-80, BTR-80A, BTR-90), Vityaz two-section fully-tracked carrier vehicle, GAZ-2330 ‘Tiger’ special police vehicle, 9K58 ‘Smerch’ multiple launch rocket system of 300-mm caliber, Metis-M and Cornet-E antitank missile systems, various types of world-wide know Kalashnikov assault rifle, sniper rifles, grenade launchers, machine guns, flame throwers, ammunition to all the weapons presented, as well as personnel training technical aids were presented to visitors.


the tender list has now the U.S. F/A-18Е/F, French Rafale and Swedish Gripen aircraft Are there still grounds for hope in fx2 tender? The Su-35 multifunctional fighter was not included to the short-list of participants in the Brazil’s tender for the delivery of more than one hundred combat aircraft, issued in October last year. The list has now the U.S. F/A-18Е/F, French Rafale and Swedish Gripen aircraft. “At present we do not take part in the tender, since our offers to the Brazilian party were not sufficiently elaborated, as per the tender terms”, stated at the pressconference Alexander Fomin, the first deputy director of the Federal Service for the Military and Technical Cooperation of the Russian Federation. However, he added that at the moment the Russian party was preparing the needed offers. “And if we were lucky enough to have got the positive willing on behalf of the Brazilian party and Brazilian government, and if our new offers meet the detailed requirements of the tender, we’d like to be hopeful that this tender is still not closed

for us”, said the first deputy director of the FSMTC. According to him, there has not been yet and could not be at all any answer from the Brazilian government, since Russia had not handed over the relevant offers. “The answer of the Brazilian party can be negative, neutral, and may still be affirmative”, Fomin added. He also noted that it is still unclear whether there is a procedure of returning into the tender. As a bonus annexed to the Russia’s offers, Brazilians were invited to join the program of development of the fifth generation fighter, within the framework of which Russia had already started collaborating with India. “Russia will be ready to collaborate with Brazil in the field of design and development of a combat aircraft of fifth generation, as the defense industry plants are prepared for it”, Fomin stated. “I can bindingly assert that the Russian government will be ready to issue such a license (to Brazil) on condition that the industry should be ready in aspects of technology, personnel, etc.” explained

World Industries Fomin. In addition he underscored that the fifth generation aircraft “has not been made by anyone in the full scale for the time being”. Some have vehicles of 4+, 4++ generation, as well as does Russia, specified the deputy director of the FSMTC. He added that those are the transient stages leading to the development of a fifth generation aircraft. It is evident that Alexander Fomin’s opinion as such is different from a fairly concurrent point of view of the majority of international experts, who refer the US Air Force F-22 Raptor, which is already in service, and F-35, which is under test now, to the fifth generation. The additional motivator for the Brazilians to return to the consideration of Su-35 purchase option could have been the collaboration of our countries in the development of a new medium transport aircraft. The Russian Indian program for the Multi-role Transport Aircraft (MTA) on the basis of IL-214 has been in the pre-implementation phase for about eight years. In the current year the Russian budget is to allocate 2 billion 156 million rubles for it. The aircraft of 19 ton load-lifting capacity is to replace the veteran An-12. Nevertheless, the Russian Indian joint venture for the MTA program, despite repeated affirmations that all the organizational issues are about to be solved, had not been established by the middle of May 2009. As for the Brazilians, they officially celebrated at the LAAD the issuance of the contract of $1 billion dollars by their government for the development of an aircraft of exactly the same type, Embraer КС-390. And it does not matter that the Brazilians are not experienced in creating such planes. Till the present day they have been successful in all the tasks they had set for themselves. Moreover, according to the officially unproved information, in the course of the LAAD the Embraer had talks on collaboration with the delegation of the Ukrainian ANTK (Aviation Research and Technology Complex) named after Antonov, and Kiev is known world-wide for its richest experience in the design A I R



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of cargo aircraft with a loading ramp. However, the medium cargo aircraft topic deserves a special article, and our magazine is going to deal with it in one of the nearest issues. Commenting the results of the Russian participation in the exhibition in Rio-de-Janeiro, the Rosoboronexport press-service published the following statement: “From year to year, the LAAD exhibition becomes the more and more popular ground, where the dedicated experts share their experience and discuss the prospects of military and technical cooperation. In 2009 members of the Russian delegation took part in more than 50 meetings with high-ranking political and military officials of Brazil, as well as with heads of national delegations from Argentine, Guatemala, Columbia, Uruguay, Chili and other countries of the region and the world. The cooperation issues brought up in Rio-de-Janeiro ranged

from deliveries under the contracts in force, to prospects of joint development and licensed production of armament and materiel”. “The results of work meetings and talks held in Rio-de-Janeiro confirm the trend of strengthening the relationship between the Russian Federation and Latin America countries in general, as well as in the field of military and technical cooperation”, said Sergey Svechnikov, the head of the Rosoboronexport delegation. According to Mr. Svechnikov, Brazil, being the organizing party for the exhibition, appears for the Rosoboronexport as a “unique partner, the good relation with which is very dear to Russia”. This country has an active influence on the military and technical policies formation in the region, therefore, our participation in the LAAD exhibition proves very useful”, summarized Svechnikov. Alexander Velovich


Space There are two fully fielded satellite navigation systems, the GPS of the United States and the GLONASS of Russia. Conceived for military purposes, both systems have steadily been entering into everyday lives of the many ordinary consumers. At this time the GPS holds leading positions in the consumer sector of the market. But the Russian system still has a chance to catch up and take its own market niche. The M2M telematics company of Russia is a leading developer and supplier of user-end equipment that uses navigation signals of both systems. The general director of the company, Aleksandr Gurko, spoke to Air Fleet journalists. The place where the meeting took place features a large map of Russia and neighboring countries all marked by dots.

GLONASS EQUIPMENT, A GUARANTEE OF TECHNOLOGICAL SECURITY !"Q: What are these dots all about? !"A: They mark cities and regions where the equipment supplied by M2M telematics is in use. The territory where the company, its dealers and official partners work covers 80 regions of the Russian Federation, as well as Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan and Belarus. The results of the year 2008 indicate that the company keeps leading positions in the market for transport telematics and navigation, judging by numbers of commercial, federal and domestic clients and the number of projects materialized in the territory of Russia and other countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States. !"Q: How many end-user devices have you delivered to customers? !"A: The total number of navigation devices made by M2M telematics accounts for a few dozens of thousands. Number of sales of navigation devices generated annually in the Russian territory is estimated at some one million copies. Therefore, M2M telematics and its partners on the GLONASS/Global Satellite Navigation System Forum


(“GLONASS/GNSS Forum”) Association have plans for increasing their sales up to 500 thousand units yearly, and, better, further up to a million. Further increase in sales is not supported by the volume of the Russian market. Therefore, earlier this year M2M telematics began searching for ways to sell its production worldwide. !"Q: How are you going to generate sales in the global marketplace? !"A: During 2008 we made some preparatory work, to make our products suitable for sales in foreign countries. Next step was to present our products at CeBIT 2009 that was held in Hannover, Germany, in March. There we exhibited the M2M-Cyber GLX telematic user terminal that uses navigation GLONASS and GPS signals. It is the only such equipment produced in numbers by the Russian industry. The device is intended for transmission of information on location and movement of road vehicles, as well as current state of their main onboard systems. !"Q: Did you exhibit your famous tracking collar in Hannover?

!"A: Yes, we did. This collar is Russia’s first portable device with compact and energy saving GLONASS/GPS module. It has generated much interest. This compact device can be worn by a dog so that its movements will be made known to its owner through information on a display screen. The dog will never get lost. Chairman of the Russian government Vladimir Putin was one of the people who received this device as a gift, - for his Labrador dog, Koni. The respective technological platform will serve as base for a number of applications in different areas. !"Q: What else have generated interest of CeBIT visitors? !"A: One more new product was exhibited in Hannover, called SHTURMANN Link 300 Pro. This device belongs to a new generation, combining functions of personal navigator, telematic terminal and software for message exchange with a dispatcher. Besides, CeBIT 2009 visitors demonstrated much interest in the «М2М-BusinessSolution» partnership program. It is a solution for setting up an independent business for a company

Space this year we forecast stronger sales of equipment using GLONASS technologies

M2M-Cyber GLX telematic user terminal

that is a telematic operator specializing in delivery of automated systems for monitoring and control over moving objects, using GLONASS/GPS navigation, and in delivering a comprehensive set of services to users. In addition to navigation systems, M2M telematics makes use of GSM (GPRS/ SMS) cellular phone equipment, Inmarsat and Iridium satellite-based communication systems in its software packages on moving object monitoring. !"Q: How many people are employed by your company? !"A: M2M telematics has a workforce of 200, mostly young, energetic specialists aged 30 years on average. High professionalism and dedication of our team has been the key to our success story. Certain of our employees spent over 160 days last year in trips on errand. !"Q: Could you please tell us some success stories of your company? !"A: In 2008 M2M telematics successfully entered new markets, that of oil&gas industry and power generation, agriculture and A I R



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construction business. In December 2007 the committee for production at TNK-BP (joint venture between Tyumen Oil Company and British Petroleum) in Russia made decision to introduce onboard monitoring system on road vehicles belonging to TNK-BP and contractors working on company’s sites. Equipment supplied by M2M telematics passed tests and rendered compatible to “parameters of Transport Security standards” and suitable for use on TNK-BP sites. There is a huge interest to our systems on monitoring and control for road vehicles using Glonass from local administrations of administrative units of the Russian Federation. Last year our company’s Project Management team completed a total twenty four major projects, six times more than in 2007. Managing so much work became possible through a considerable increase in the number of company workforce and our professional team able to solve complex scientific technical and organizational issues. In particular, the team developed solutions and introduced them into service, using baseline software package “Regional Navigation and Information System of Transport” (М2М- REGION) in the city of Sochi, in Moscow and Astrakhan regions, Krasnoyarsk region, Republic of Northern Osetia – Alania and other territories of Russia. Our company achieved another milestone with materialization of the project “Control system for mobile detachment of Moscow police”. All of the above mentioned systems and projects make use of GLONASS/GPS user equipment. !"Q: Is there any increase in solvent demand for devices using GLONASS? !"A: This year we forecast stronger sales of equipment using GLONASS technologies. This comes as a reflection of better capability of the Russian satellite navigation system and active steps made by the Russian government in encouraging use of the systems in the Russian economy. The government allocates more funding for development of chipsets able to process

signals of the two constellations (GPS/ GLONASS). Such chipsets can provide a base for development of portable units for a wide circle of users. Another positive move was the order of the Russian government issued in August 2008, which recommends local authorities and their structures to outfit road vehicles, other means and assets with GLONASS or GLONASS/GPS navigation devices. We are confident that the local authorities will widen the scope of employment of GLONASS devices in their everyday practice. !"Q: The issues of chipsets for the double receivers have been discussed for quite a long time. How much money is needed to develop such a chipset? !"A: Development of a modern chipset for the double receivers does not require that much money, - the investment needed is some 200 to 300 million Rubles. But this investment is needed right now, when there is a window of opportunity of some twothree years, the opportunity to enter the global market at a right time. If we miss this opportunity, there will be, in all likelihood, no a “second chance”. In the end, we may end up competing head on with the Galileo system of Europe. !"Q: Have you been effected by the global economic downturn? !"A: Yes, we felt the crisis. Our earlier prognosis for twofold increase in sales in January-February 2009 (we used to have that growth rate before) did not materialize. There was a 30% ruse by Ruble volumes, while in dollar terms our turnover remained the same. Yet we believe the time of crisis is the time when new opportunities get opened for our business. !"Q: You said you are targeting global marketplace. Are your employees prepared to communicate with clients in foreign languages? !"A: Making preparations for global market entry, the company carries out intensive training of its employees in English language skills. It goes without saying that



in the Jazz style

the stand of M2M telematica features unusual design attracting exposition visitors all software interfaces and user manuals are made multi-lingual. !"Q: What prospects do you see for promotion of M2M telematics products in European markets? !"A: In 2008 the geography of M2M telematics presence in Russia and Commonwealth of Independent States expanded by almost two times, judging by the number of new clients and by the number of new partners. The company opened regional dispatcher centers in Kostanai, Archangel, Magadan, Omsk, Tambov, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Barnaul, Ulan-Ude, Gomel, Baku and many other cities. Our products and solutions using GLONASS/GPS have proved their merits for the customers. Our customer base has been expanding, finding new clients among commercial companies, state structures etc. Our wide and growing regional network, coupled with the high quality of our produces, gives M2M telematics major competing advantages necessary for entry into the European market. Importantly, our company acts both developer and manufacturer of user equipment packaged with relevant software. This, among other things, helps us maintain our positions of the Russian market leader. This makes possible plans for the export. We have already reached cooperation agreements with our traditional partners on satellite-aided tracking systems in the United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, India, South African Republic, Australia etc. The Euro-


pean market promises huge perspectives before our company. But it is not much of a secret that the worldwide economic crisis has produced negative impact on the European market. The governments of the European countries understand the importance of satellite-based navigation technologies and try to encourage their implementation. There is no doubt that GLONASS equipment will enjoy solvent demand in the European market simply because using two satellite constellations is better than using only one. Larger number of satellites whose navigation signals are being processed allows better solutions in the conditions of densely populated urban areas where high-storey buildings are closely located, and in the mountain terrains. Besides, a single failure or a failure in the single given satellite system may result in fatal consequences for somebody. Navigation becomes very important for the business sector, as well as for state establishments. Europe is not an exclusion from the general rule. The Europeans have plans for a satellite navigation system of their own, GALILEO. But the financial instability, as I mentioned before, entails postponements in fielding of this system. Today, we are working on new navigation services, so called LBS. This is a very modern and promising product that we develop jointly with our partners from Belgium, France, Germany, - we develop brand-new sorts of navigation services. Initial results are planned

for publicity towards the end of 2009. I think M2M telematics can offer demanding European consumers something attractive, including navigation products and services. !"Q: Please share you assessment of NAVITECH-2009. !"A: In my view, the third international forum on satellite navigation held earlier this year became the most important event for the industry. In comparison with the event of the previous year, the forum made a new step forward, in terms of managerial, numerical participation and importance for the national economy. The government demonstrated its intent to develop GLONASS further, including implementation of the system in everyday use. The very fact that deputy chairman of the Russian government Sergei Ivanov attended the forum is self explanatory. Equipment using GLONASS gets more popular and becomes a standard for navigation in Russia. Foreign manufacturers and service providers demonstrate growing interest in GLONASS and related equipment. This yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s forum gave us more evidence that convinces us in that our earlier decision for wider participation in GLONASS development was the right one. M2M telematics grows and develops together with the forum. The company has been acting the senior expert and main sponsor of the event for three years now. We take active part in the conduct of the forum. Being leading exports in satellite information technologies, M2M telematics employees made ten speeches before forum participants this year. Also, our company took part in the Navitech-Expo-2009 exhibition, where it demonstrated the whole spectrum of our products, from software on road vehicles monitoring and control, to various personal navigation devices. The stand of M2M telematics features unusual design, in the Jazz style, attracting exposition visitors. During a few working days of the exposition, M2M telematics team held hundred of negotiation sessions. The high interest in our products and the willingness of business community and state establishments to cooperate with us have once again proved the status of M2M telematics in the market for road vehicle monitoring and control, as well as the market for navigation equipment.

AirFleet #3 2009  

AirFleet #3 2009