Page 1

SK2


Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2

Full scientific name Alcanivorax borkumensis Yakimov et al. 1998

ORIGIN Sea water sediment, Isle of Borkum, North Sea, 1991

1


(nickname)

“hydrocarbonoclastic� bacterium

The reason is because A.borkumensis SK2 uses exclusively petroleum oil hydrocarbons as sources of carbon and energy


Scanning electron micrograph of an Alcanivorax borkumensisSK2 mutant overproducing polyhydroxyalkanoate during growth on n-octadecane. Photo courtesy of Heinrich LĂźnsdorf, HZI Braunschweig

(Copyright Š 2006, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.)

Scanning Electron Microscopy


Phase-contrast Microscopy

A. borkumensis with characteristic oil emulsifying vacuoles clearly visible http://insidesurgery.com/2010/06/oil-eatingbacteria/ posted on June 3, 2010 11:02 pm by Editor


Phase-contrast Microscopy

MIGHTY MICROBES: Tiny bacteria, such as Alcanivorax borkumensis pictured here, will ultimately clean up the ongoing Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Image: Courtesy of Heimholtz Center for Infection Research (HZI)


taxinómi̱ si̱ ( classification ) KINGDOM

Bacteria PHYLUM Proteobacteria CLASS Gamma Proteobacteria ORDER Oceanospirillales FAMILY

Alcanivoracaceae GENUS Alcanivorax SPECIES

borkumensis STRAIN

SK2


perigrafí̱̱

( description )

Rod-shape bacterium

Gram negative

~No flagella~

Cell width (µm ) 0.4-0.7 Cell length (µm ) 2-3 [ Dworkin et. all ]

aerobic,halophilic obtains its energy primarily from eating alkanes


oikologĂ­a ( ecology )

unpolluted in s r e b m u n d in low n u o f is m e dominant iu th s e m o c e b This bacter it quickly t u b , ts n e 80–90% . m n to p u e enviro is r p m d area, co te u ll o -p il o in e microb

s worldt a t i b a h e n i r any ma m n i d e t c e Ocean, t e c i d f i s c i s a n P e e m h t u , k A.b o r ean Sea n a r r e t i d e c Sea i M t c g r n i A d e u l h t c n d i n wide e Seas a s e n i h C d n a the Japanese Genome analysis yielded bacteria capacity: bolism, a t e m g in d lu ion, inc t a d a r g e d ormation f e n m il f io n-alka b d n uction a d o r p t n a t c a f biosur

rs in o t c a f o c d n a ients r t u n f o g n i g ment n o r i scaven v n e e n i r c ma i h p o r t o g i l o the cific e p s t a t i b a ious h r a v h t i w Coping rs. o t c a f s s e r st


Its genome encodes for a broad spectrum of efficient oildegrading enzymes that can be used in bioremediation of oil spills: nzymes e e h t s e c u d p ro umensis SK2

A bork

2 B k l A d n a 1 AlkB

nched a r b r o r a e n i l s e AlkB1 oxidiz five to twelve carbons e of g n a r e h t n i s e n alka

AlkB2

the in s e n a lk a d e h c n bra oxidizes linear or carbons n e te ix s to t h ig e f range o

This provides A. borkumensis SK2 with a competitive advantage

can consume a wider variety of alkanes than other known species and thus become the dominant population in an oil-contaminated area


metavolism贸s

(Metabolism)

Use n-alkanes, aliphatic hydrocarbon, volatile fatty acid and pyruvate as carbon and energy sources.

Picture shows Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2 feeding on oils


Oil to t s in leak aq he

sp pho ing e s aus nt c increa me ron ion to t nvi ic e ntra uat conce

e, s a cre w n i o e t r n g e i s utr e and ncrea n of oliz to i s, y t b m i l n l a i t o fi dii e b o t a i a l m l b ad s. vai ensis popu m f r a o e fo ent te i h e m t d s h u t n a uitm ated As bork use h c r ed n a i c z t A. r, ca i t e m id e s a in r onta x t i o s s 2 il fa en help he c o B m k e l ku ilms to t th A r g o d an lyzin A.b biofi cteria 1 B ata ks k a l . e c this nal ba br ails; A efore ation s e t it o n il av m er d a a y t r z c h fa ke o en ne, t deg r u e s o o ma is Th alka i b t ens f o n ion ulsio rkum t c d u r e m .b o o r e p wate e to A h T nd abl a oil

o nitr nd us a hor

gen


Mechanism of how A.borkumensis SK2 metabolize

alkane


Colour schemes

alkane degradation inorganic cations Inorganic anions Amino acids/peptides/amines/purines/pyrimidines and other nitrogenous compounds carboxylates


si̱ mantikós

( significant )

higan’s ic M in r cu oc at th s ill sp l oi e dg Enbri Kalamazoo River in July 2010. Due to ruptured pipe lined cause 900,000 gallons of crude oil leached in to the water.

crease in to n tio la pu po s si en m ku or .b A Discover rated. le ce ac n io at ad gr de l oi e ud cr d an

If not, the wildlife and marine population wou ld have been in danger.


iro

e as nf ob ;I ica Am er

of

es Na g 8. v Am tur radi Gr ., a n eP eric ea Ne g M t ub nm a; A Br w, a l r ish ine ita Hy TC en i ng in; dr C. B ta a Gr cte 19 oca lS o 98 rb up rium cie on . ;2 A 00 nc De 6. lcan eE gr ivo ad xp ra x ing er a nd im Su en rfa t. cta Un ntite Pr d od St uc ing ate s

T Ele revor, J. xan , Jea der, n-Pa M Su M i crob ul, V N.G san AT M . Pe t M i ne, C , Y o Hir CÂŽ l ari ak o r. M S g osh .A y,2 nd .e ne im icrob t T i o b C a N. M Ba v, ork l. G E C iolog d 7 . [O cte et um 006 e i y. Pa n c a riu rob ens om nlin l 51 ris; E m. . Al e i i A a e s lca ] . N Seq l ; B In can ditio 2 niv iote atu 007 ue t. J iv n Te o n r o c r . e B ces ax .o h [ chni n A o b f S ra x b iot v of l ork a o p; 20 i g e y labl chn the um y, F st. ork Pa 08. e e U u B o u n from log biq sis n ac me Pu m, W d Yak ter ns y. : ht amen bl Vo uitou iol is g i m tp:/ t ish ., E s ov l2 og /goo als of 4(8 Hyd et a y. en. n in lai App ) 9 ro c 48 l. U g; .gl/ n 97 , 3 ov., arb n I 20 e, W t i ted kVr lied 39 sp 10 10 04 on-D S -34 . no 0] . tat . e E .

anaforĂŠs (references)

ca Al

n

ivo

r bo x ra

is ns e um

-

E 2. K S

on vir

n

k

ab ail v . [A

06

uly

31

0 ,2

nv

]J e n nli oil] g O [ B n. own lk a a ric ak-d of e s i s Am -bre c aly i f n ti tists A n 763 l ax e i ien a vor 11); 3 c i n n c S ( o lca 8 e. id=s cti in A 06; 18 b s n n o 0 o u e] 2 tati icr cfm? d F 4). dap [Onlin 905/] M A . n a 00 lic g le y. 482 tabo riolog MC1 2 tin artic e ( g a M P te eE m/ R in 97 nto f Bac rticles/ i t l n s n t i o gh lo 1-1 al c/a O n.co rre u Insi Journ v/pm n c . C . 19 C i o l a . om a on h.g ow eric als; rote ilizati lm.ni t D et biol P e . t n l . . k m o eU A cbi et a n -M . o rea ifica F., Alkan ww.n a, icr , l N r e B //w 11 nu by of 0 st ient Ha nt M n i Ma uced : http: 2 t , o . ; S d c n iati Press , S. me s In from d cie ww.s e ulia mensi ilable J S a ku orem demic B. ://w i bor 3. [ Av , B 7 ial er Aca -37 vid ttp b o ful. i r t t Da m: h u c s i a i . M m; Ca he Be fro (ed) and t in es n e

o Bad, i K Kingd e n i h t r 12. , I 0 n d 2 g i a ; e l t e ben kwel Ann h. Uni h c a T l , B a c ileycteri a W B sear ; . a d , M.W Cana y d u r T

le


My thoughts

Alhamdulillah, the last page of my e-scrapbook. I’ve finish the ‘Adopt a Microb’ project, which I started it on 6 October 2013 until 12 December 2013. I learned a lot of things about my adopted microb, Alcanivorax borkumensis. Before this, I never know that there is so many good microbs out there that keeping environment clean, balance and safe. I choose A.borkumensis because it is not so well known, so I must search, digging deep into books, article and journal in order to know it better and find more information about it.

Diyana feat Alcanivorax borkumensis  

my adopted microb project for BMY3101, Alcanivorax borkumensis, Dr Wan Zuhainis