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VISUAL

DICTIONARY


Visual dictionary is visually understanding the meaning of the words. It is an interactive way of learning. This dictionary comprises of fashion and typography terms in an interactive manner.

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FA SHI ON 2

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N O H T O L C

H T O CL

APPLIQUE B

oxy is square in shape with minimal tailoring. Most commonly seen on jackets, a boxycut lends an androgynous element as silhouettes remain undefined.

A

ppliqué is decorative design made of one piece of fabric sewn on top of another. The perfect way to do pretty, appliqué is every designer’s go-to when they want to create an artisanal effect. It’s especially prolific in couture. The term is borrowed from French and, in this context, means “applied” or “thing that has been applied.” Appliqué is a surface pattern that is used to decorate an aspect of a garment or product. It is highly used with the textiles industry, but lately is a key trend for make do mend items.

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BOXY

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Cap Slee 6

ves

Cap Sleeves are those sleeves that sits in between sleeveless and short. A flattering cut as it elongates arms and covers shoulders. Cap sleeves are still synonymous with the Nineties. A cap sleeve shirt is usually not as loose about the upper arms as the standard men’s T-shirt. The length of the sleeve is also slightly shorter than a standard short-sleeved shirt, with the average length being between 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) to about 4 inches (10.2 cm). 7


D

irndl Skirt A full, wide skirt with a tight, fitted waistline. Popular with Fifties-inspired collections, it originates from the traditional German ensemble that also comprises a bodice, a blouse and an apron. The skirt shape of the season is the dirndl.It’s belowthe-knee, full and flirty with a circular cut.

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EPAULETS

E

paulets is a decorative shoulder adornment. Usually found on military uniforms and trench coats, an epaulet lends an air of authenticity to replica styles. Balmain and Burberry Prorsum have been the greatest champions of the epaulet recently. Epaulette is a French word meaning “little shoulder” Epaulettes are fastened to the shoulder by a shoulder strap or “passant”, a small strap parallel to the shoulder seam, and the button near the collar, or by laces on the underside of the epaulette passing through holes in the shoulder of the coat.

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FILIGREE Filigree is an ornamental work of fine wire, usually in silver or gold, with the addition of tiny beads. This jewellery method has been a decorative technique since 3000 BC, favoured for its delicate, feminine finish.

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A piece of fabric worn over the shoe, extending to the ankle or the knee. Used primarily in the equestrian and military worlds for protection, they inject a heritage aesthetic to the catwalk. Gaiters are garments worn over the shoe and lower pants leg, and used primarily as personal protective equipment; similar garments used primarily for display are spats. Originally, gaiters were made of leather.

GAITER 11


INTARSIA

A V-shaped weave resembling the skeleton of a herring fish. A popular pattern for tweed and wool outerwear. a distinctive V-shaped weaving pattern usually found in twill fabric. It is distinguished from a plain chevron by the break at reversal, which makes it resemble a broken zigzag. The pattern is called herringbone because it resembles the skeleton of a herring fish.

Intarsia is a knitting technique used to create patterns with multiple colours. As with the woodworking technique of the same name, fields of different colours and materials appear to be inlaid in one another, but are in fact all separate pieces, fit together like a jigsaw puzzle. Common examples of intarsia include sweaters with large, solid-colour features like fruits, flowers, or geometric shapes. Argyle socks and sweaters are normally done in intarsia, although the thin diagonal lines are often overlaid in a later step, using Swiss darning or sometimes just a simple backstitch. There are several techniques to execute intarsia when circular knitting. Executing intarsia “in-the-round� eliminates the need for seams and, in one case, turning the piece.

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J

JABOT

abot referred to the frilling or ruffles decorating the front of a shirt. It has evolved into a decorative clothing accessory consisting of lace or other fabric falling from the throat, suspended from or attached to a neckband or collar; or simply pinned at the throat.

NIFE

PLEAT

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A sharp, narrow fold. The knife pleat was popularised by Issey Miyake in the late Eighties, not to mention being immortalised in the fashion world by tuxedo bib shirts. A type of sharply pressed pleating, especially in a skirt or kilt, in which all of the folds are turned in one direction, with each pleat being three layers of fabric thick. Knife pleats are used as decorative finishes and add fullness to a garment. The pleats are folded much like an accordion with equal space from top to bottom; this gives a clean finish, texture and space for the garment to move. We are starting with knife pleats because these are the basis of the other technique. Much like ruffles, they are not too difficult to create. Knife pleats are perfect for making A-line skirts, or a detail on a shirt.

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A small, close fitting and upright collar. Originating from traditional Chinese garments, it is used in oriental-inspired collections and to create a minimalist feel. A mandarin collar is a short unfolded stand up collar style on a shirt or jacket. Mandarin collars start at the neckline and typically rise vertically two to five centimeters. The style originated from dresses worn by Mandarins in Imperial China.

Mandarin

ettuce Hem

Collar

L

L

ettuce Hem is the result of fabric being stretched as it is sewn, resulting in a wavy hemline. Alberta Ferretti used the technique to add a feminine finish to her part flamenco, part fiesta spring/summer 2014 collection.

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N

Small socks with evenly-spaced designs. As popular with adults as they are with children, little socks constantly pop up on the catwalks of quirky labels like Miu Miu, Prada and Dries Van Noten. Here Anna Sui works the look with sandals.

EA

TS

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O

MBRE is a gradual change of one shade from dark to light (also referred to as degradĂŠ). Fendi lead the charge for spring/summer 2014, creating a watercolour effect in the lightest layers of chiffon. OmbrĂŠ describes the gradual blending of one color hue to another, usually moving tints and shades from light to dark. The technique is commonly seen as a surface treatment in fashion and art. During the early 21st century ombrĂŠ became a popular feature for hair coloring, nail art, and even baking, in addition to its uses in home decorating and graphic design.

O

MBRE 19


P le t as

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P

LEAT (older plait) is a type of fold formed by doubling fabric back upon itself and securing it in place. It is commonly used in clothing and upholstery to gather a wide piece of fabric to a narrower circumference. Pleats are categorized as pressed, that is, ironed or otherwise heat-set into a sharp crease, or unpressed, falling in soft rounded folds. Pleats sewn into place are called tucks.

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Quilting can refer either to the process of creating a quilt or to the sewing of two or more layers of material together to make a thicker padded material. “Quilting” as the process of creating a quilt uses “quilting” as the joining of layers as one of its steps, often along with designing, piecing, appliqué, binding and other steps. A quilter is the name given to someone who works at quilting. Quilting can be done by hand, by sewing machine, or by a specialized longarm quilting system.

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R

UFFLES In sewing and dressmaking, a ruffle, frill, or furbelow is a strip of fabric, lace or ribbon tightly gathered or pleated on one edge and applied to a garment, bedding, or other textile as a form of trimming.The term flounce is a particular type of fabric manipulation that creates a similar look but with less bulk. The term derives from earlier terms of frounce or fronce.A wavy effect effected without gathers or pleats is created by cutting a curved strip of fabric and applying the inner or shorter edge to the garment. The depth of the curve as well as the width of the fabric determines the depth of the flounce.

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S

EERSUCKER A thin, puckered, cotton fabric. Because of the way the fabric is stitched, it stands away from the body allowing air circulation, making it popular during summer months.

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t T

U

NITARD A skintight garment that covers the body from the neck to the wrists and ankles. Different to a leotard which doesn’t have legs. Look to Pam Hogg for the best in the business. It differs from a leotard in that a leotard does not have long legs. The garment can be considered to be a combination of a leotard and tights. The unitard is basically the wrestling singlet minus the tights, although some wrestlers do prefer to wear the tights in order to further accentuate their uniform and codpiece.

ANKINI is a bathing suit combining a tank top, mostly made of spandexand-cotton or Lycra-and-nylon, and a bikini bottom introduced in the late 1990s.This type of swimwear is considered by some to provide modesty closer to a one piece suit with the convenience of a two piece suit, as the entire suit need not be removed in order to use a toilet. Tankinis come in a variety of styles, colors and shapes, some include features such as integrated push-up bras. It is particularly popular as children’s beachwear, and athletic outfit good enough for a triathlon. According to Katherine Betts, Vogue’s fashion-news director, this amphibious sportswear for sand or sea lets users go rafting, play volleyball and swim without worrying about losing their top.

ankini 26

U

nitard

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W

elt pocket set into the garment with a slit entrance, as opposed to a patch or flap pocket. Thanks to its discreet appearance, the welt pocket is used for fuss-free tailoring: think Stella, Celine and Joseph.

VENT is a slit in a garment, as in the back seam of a jacket. A vent is a slit in the bottom rear (tail) of the jacket. There are three vent options in a jacket: center vent, side vents or no vent. A split in a garment to allow for movement. Common in Forties silhouettes and pencil skirts. Also found on trench coats and formal tailoring.

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P O C K E

WELT 29


X

-RAY fabric

X

-ray fabrics with a translucent effect. A popular trend on the spring/summer 2014 catwalks, everyone from Burberry to Giambattista Valli got on board.

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The part of the garment around the neckline on the front and the back. It is often appliquĂŠd with jewels or appears as an inserted, contrasting fabric

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ork 31


Z ori Zori is a Japanese sandal. Flipflops, toe thongs and slipon sandals all originate from the Japanese original.

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TYPOG RAPHY 34

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ASC Is the portion of a lowercase letter that extends above the mean line of a font. In typography, the upward vertical stem on some lowercase letters, such as h and b, that extends above the x-height is the ascender. The height of the ascenders is an identifying characteristic of many typefaces.

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END

ER 37


II

B OW L The round curve of letters like 'D', 'g', b', 'o'. In typography, the curved part of the character that encloses the circular or curved parts (counter) of some letters such as d, b, o, D, and B is the bowl. Some sources call any parts of a letter enclosing a space a bowl, including both parts of a double-storey g and the straight stem on a D or B.

BASELINE is the invisible line that all the characters sit on. In typography, the baseline is the imaginary line upon which a line of text rests. In most typefaces, the descenders on characters such as g or p extend down below the baseline while curved letters such as c or o extend ever-so-slightly below the baseline. 38

I

CROSSBAR are horizontal strokes, as found on the uppercase “A” and “H” The (usually) horizontal stroke across the middle of uppercase A and H is a crossbar. The horizontal or sloping stroke enclosing the bottom of the eye of an e is also a crossbar.

CROSSBAR

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D

ES

C

DESCENDER are the parts of a lowercase character that drop below the baseline, such as in a “p”, “q” or “g”. The portion of some lowercase letters, such as g and y, that extends or descends below the baseline is the descender. The length and shape of the descender can affect readability of lines of type and is an identifying factor for some typefaces.

E

ND 40

ER 41


One weight, width, and style of a typeface. Before scalable type, there was little distinction between the terms font, face, and family. Font and face still tend to be used interchangeably, although the term face is usually more correct. In hand-set type, the term font described a single point size of a particular typeface design. Because digital-typesetting technol- ogy enables scalable fonts, the size defining a font is no longer applicable.

EAR small stroke extending from the upper-right side of the bowl of lowercase g; also appears in the angled or curved lowercase r.

EYE ismuch like a counter, the eye refers specifically to the enclosed space in a lowercase ‘e’.

EYE

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G

L

Y

H P

Hairline

G

LYPH is used differently in different contexts. In the context of modern computer operating systems, it is often defined as a shape in a font that is used to represent a character code on screen or paper. The most common example of a glyph is a letter, but the symbols and shapes in a font like ITC Zapf Dingbats are also glyphs.

H

AIRLINE is the thinnest stroke found in a specific typeface that consists of strokes of varying widths. Hairline is often used to refer to a hairline rule, the thinnest graphic rule (line) printable on a specific output device. Hair or hairline is also a type of serif, the minimum thickness for a serif.

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A slanting or script-like version of a face. The upright faces are often referred to as Roman. While roman typefaces are upright, italic typefaces slant to the right. But rather than being just a slanted or tilted version of the roman face, a true or pure italic font is drawn from scratch and has unique features not found in the roman face.

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JUSTIFIED In typography, text is justified if it is flush on both the left and right margins. Text that is flush-right or flush-left, in other words aligned on only one margin, is some- times described as being rightjustified or left-justified. Text that is aligned at both the left and right margins.

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ERNING The adjustment of horizontal space between pairs of characters to create a per- ception of uniformity; critical where large typefaces are used, as in headlines. The letters Ty would require kerning to tuck the y under the wing of the T.

L The lower, down sloping stroke of the K and k is called a leg. The same stroke on R as well as the tail of a Q is sometimes also called a leg.

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eg

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MEAN LINE

Most used version of Roman font, also called “Regular”.

The line on which the top parts of most of the lowercase letters set (not the ascenders). Also called x-height. The top (imaginary) point of all lowercase characters without ascenders. Imaginary line running along the top of nonascending, lowercase letters. The meanline falls at the top of many lowercase letters such as “e,” “g” and “y.” It is also at the curve of letters like “h.”

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oint PSize

In typeface design, the overshoot of a round or pointed capital letter (like O or A) is the degree to which it extends higher or lower than a comparably sized “flat� letter (like X or H), to achieve an optical effect of being the same size.

O

vershoot 52

The common method of measuring type. The distance from the top of the highest ascender to the bottom of the lowest descender in points. In Europe, type is often measured by the cap-height in millimeters.

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Q

uaint

Roman In Macintosh font menus, this is called Plain meaning text that has no style applied to it (i.e., Italic, Bold, Boldltalic). Roman fonts are upright thick-and-thin weighted, and usually serifed type. The classical Roman letter style began in A.D. 114 with letters chiseled in the stone of the Trajan Columns in Rome.

An antiquated sort or glyph, used to recreate the typographic flavor of a bygone age.

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st A serif is the little extra stroke found at the end of main vertical and horizontal strokes of some letterforms. Serifs fall into various groups and can be generally described as hairline (hair), square (slab), or wedge and are either bracketed or unbracketed.

In typography, the descending, often decorative stroke on the letter Q or the descending, often curved diagonal stroke on K or R is the tail. The descender on g, j, p, q, and y are also called tails.

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ail 57


A letter or group of letters of the size and form generally used to begin sentences and proper nouns. Also known as “capital letters�.

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The outside point at the bottom or top of a character where two strokes meet. Where the stems join at the lowest joint of a character.

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W

ord rap

When a word in a line of text automatically moves to the next line as it approaches the righthand margin of the text block.

The height of lowercase letters reach based on height of lowercase x; does not include ascenders or descenders. The height of those lowercase letters such as “x”, which do not have ascenders or descenders. The lowercase ‘x’ is used for measurement since it usually sits squarely on the baseline.

X

-height

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DIVYANGANA AGARWAL RADHIKA AHUJA PDFC 2014-15 PEARL ACADEMY

Visual dictionary  

Visual dictionary is visually understanding the meaning of the words. It is an interactive way of learning. This dictionary comprises of fas...

Visual dictionary  

Visual dictionary is visually understanding the meaning of the words. It is an interactive way of learning. This dictionary comprises of fas...

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