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Environmental Health Sciences Institute (EHSI) An interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral approach to research The Environmental Health Sciences Institute (EHSI) is a dedicated national translational research platform, uniquely based on collaboration between the Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT), the Health Service Executive (HSE) and Dublin City Council (DCC), building national and regional capacity and capability. EHSI is an all-island initiative, involving strategic partnerships with the University of Ulster (UU), Dublin City University (DCU), the Institute of Public Health (IPH) and other stakeholders. It is uniquely positioned to facilitate an interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral approach, integrating academic research with the knowledge and expertise of relevant professionals to generate collective responses to public health issues (Fig. 1). EHSI forges new ground in understanding the interactions between environment and health, in addition to developing evidence-based interventions to address environmental health problems. Factors that impact health & well being

Interventions (e.g. by the Environmental Health Sciences Institute)

The living environment and key exposure routes that impact human health & well being

Research at EHSI The research programme builds on respective and complementary expertise of Environmental Health Academics and Practitioners (EHAPs). Interdisciplinary teams pursue Specific Areas Of Research Focus (SARFs) to provide the evidence base and develop interventions consistent with the objectives of Ireland‘s National Environmental Health Action Plan (NEHAP). EHSI’s research is underpinned by Cross-Cutting Research Activities (CCRA’s):

Specific Areas of Research Focus (SARF’s) • • •

Water Energy Food Safety & Quality

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Bio-monitoring Policy & Lifestyle

Cross-Cutting Research Activities (CCRA’S) •

Teaching, Learning & Outreach

Technology Development & Commercialisation 9 Hygiene & Infection Control Technologies 9 Assistive Technology

• Fig. 1 Sphere of Environmental Health and potential Interventions by EHSI By integrating scientific and technical expertise with policy and regulatory capability in addition to relevant industry partners, EHSI bridges the science-policy-innovation gap (Fig. 2). EHSI exploits new ways of working together and offers access to the collective resources to facilitate research and training for practitioners.

9 Monitoring Technologies 9 Healthcare Technologies Maths & Computational Methods

New Research facility, Grangegorman EHSI will be central to DIT’s research hub on the Grangegorman campus and it will complement the HSE’s existing health facilities already on site. EHSI will occupy a new, dedicated research facility (2500m2); work is currently underway and the new building is targeted for occupation in 2015

Research

Science & Innovation

GAP

Policy

Fig. 2 EHSI bridging the science-policy-innovation gap The EHSI partners develop a scientific evidence base to: 1. Provide practical solutions to environmental health problems, 2. Inform environmental health policy, planning, decision making 3. Impact on health of vulnerable populations and facilitate investments to reduce the burden of chronic disease and injuries

Contact Details Dr. Noreen Layden, Head of Environmental Health Sciences Institute (EHSI) Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street,

Ultimately, the overarching mission and vision is to achieve healthier lives for children, the elderly and vulnerable populations.

Dublin 8, IRELAND Tel: +353 (0)1 402 4704 E-mail: noreen.layden@dit.ie

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F Focas R Research h IInstitute tit t CORE LABORATORIES Focas now houses an unrivalled suite of instrumentation for spectroscopic (UV to f far IR) characterisation h t i ti and d imaging i i (R (Raman, FTIR) and d optical ti l (Confocal (C f l fluorescence) scanning probe (AFM, fluorescence), (AFM conductive AFM) and electron microscopy (SEM, WDX, EDX, variable pressure/cryo SEM, TEM).

RESEARCH Focas contributes contrib tes strongly strongl to the development de elopment of self-sustaining self s staining research teams in a number of strategic areas, such as Bio and Nano technologies. Recent notable research outputs include novel technologies for cervical cancer screening and antibacterial surface coatings It furthermore underpins postgraduate research as well as undergraduate project work and undergraduate g and p postgraduate g course curriculum development. p

The Focas Research Institute, DIT, (www.focas.dit.ie) was established under the Higher Education Authority Programme for Research in Third Level Institutions, Cycle 1 (1999 (1999-2001), 2001), co co-funded funded by the EU. The facility addresses the common needs of research activities in Science and Engineering. The venture is founded on established expertise within the Institute and aims to consolidate and develop this expertise, while nurturing developing research activities within the DIT. DIT Thus it promotes Th t i t di i li interdisciplinary collaborations ll b ti within ithi the th Institute I tit t and d with ith other national and international bodies, bodies and provides a support service for national industry. The 3200m2 facility, y, to the rear of the DIT Kevin Street site in the heart of Dublin, provides state of the art core laboratory support in microscopy and spectroscopy t f a range off research for h groups and d activities. ti iti Th facilities The f iliti were consolidated under PRTLI Cycle 4 (2007 (2007-2013) 2013), co co-funded funded by the EU Regional Development Fund, through the Integrated NanoScience Platform for Ireland (www.inspirenano.ie) and the National Biophotonics and Imaging Platform, Ireland (www.nbipireland.ie) Ireland, (www nbipireland ie) and are incorporated as a pilot site in the EuroBioImaging programme (www.eurobioimaging.eu).

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Full details of available facilities are available at www.dit.ie/focas www dit ie/focas and at www.attlas.ie/

CONTACT DETAILS Prof Hugh J. Byrne: Focas@DIT.ie

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BioNanoScience

SUMMARY Funded under the Programme for Research in Third Level Institutions (PRTLI) C Ctcle 4 (2007-2013), ( ) with support from f the EU Structural S Fund, the Integrated NanoSciences Platform of Ireland (INSPIRE) networks nanoscience and nanotechnology gy research activityy nationally, y which will result in building g collaborations across the nanoscience community nationally, leveraging existing capabilities biliti and d elevating l ti th national the ti l activity ti it to t be b in i a position iti off leading l di internationally The aims of INSPIRE are: internationally. Creation of a shared national infrastructural capability that will fill the acknowledged g g gaps and be serviced effectivelyy byy trained support staff, in order to enhance the national capacity for delivering innovative research in nanoscience and d nanoscale l technologies. t h l i

The materials characterised will be screened for In vitro toxicology E t i l Ecotoxicologogy A variety of different exposure scenarios will be mimicked (inhalation, dermatological) using dispersed and aggregated nanoparticles. nanoparticles Emphasis is placed on the development of structure activity relationship as the basis of an understanding of the physico physico-chemical chemical basis of Bionanointeractions.

Development D l t off shared h d national ti l nanoscience i graduate d t programmes that th t will ill have h international appeal and will enable an increase in graduate numbers aligned with stated SSTI goals. Expansion p of existing g institutional linkages g to facilitate new collaborations,, locally, y, regionally and nationally across institutions and across disciplines.

The Bionanostrand is co-ordinated co ordinated by Prof Fiona Lyng of the Radiation and Environmental Science Centre . DIT is a partner in the FP7 EU NanoImpactNet multidisciplinary European network on the health and environmental impact of nanomaterials

Focas on INSPIRE Within INSPIRE, the DIT, through NanoLab and RESC, is undertaking a three threepronged interdisciplinary approach from the perspectives of nanomaterial characterisation, toxicological assessment and education. The programme is coordinated by Prof Hugh J. J Hyrne, Hyrne Head of the Focas Research Institute. Institute

NanoEducation/Public Awareness

The structure emphasises the development of higher throughput characterisation techniques, the physico physico-chemical chemical characterisation/toxicology interface and the feed-through from research to education and public awareness.

The technical workprogramme will be intimately linked with the Nanoeducation programme which considers

The platform adds capacity and capability to those existent within the Focas Institute in terms of personnel, equipment, and an extension to the Focas Institute and interfaces them with those nationally. Institute, nationally

Nanoeducation at the 3rd level

NanoMaterials

The Nanoeducation workprogramme explores novel pedagogical methods and transfers knowledge g to the DIT and INSPIRE Postgraduate g Education Programme as well as the DIT Science with Nanotechnology degree programme. A number b off Knowledge K l d transfer t f events t have h specifically ifi ll targeted t t d public perception and outreach, outreach both within DIT and the consortium. consortium

A comprehensive physico- chemical characterisation of a range of t h l i ll relevant technologically l t nanomaterials t i l will ill be b conducted. d t d Nanocharacterisation N h t i ti will utilize the techniques of AFM, AFM TEM and SEM to characterise the identified materials in as prepared and dispersed form. Both surface area and specific surface area are of interest. Emphasis is placed on the formulation of protocols to disperse the materials. materials A unique niq e aspect of this workprogramme orkprogramme is the effort to translate the results of the labour intensive, low throughput microscopic characterisation techniques to higher throughput methods such as light scattering, Raman and UV/vis/NIR spectroscopies. In this way routine protocols can be established to both efficiently disperse and characterise these materials. materials

Nanoeducation at the 4th level

Public perception and outreach

Several workshop and discussion for a have been organized through the Focas Institute to date. Nanotalks: Interfacing Industry, Academia and Society: December 2005 Nanotechnology: implications for human health health, the environment and food safety: Nov 2007 p g Respnsible p Development p for Societyy and the Environment BioNano: Inspiring 2009

Added materials characterization capabilities of Focas: Horiba J-Y High Resolution Multiline Raman spectroscopic microscope with dual upright i ht and d inverted i t d microscopes i A l Asylum MFP 3D Bi Atomic MFP-3D-Bio At i Force F Mi Microscope which can be fitted to the Raman instrument for simultaneous Raman and AFM measurement Aditional techniques q addd include DLS,, Zeta sizing, g, BET and SEM. NanoMaterials Research is co-ordinated by Dr Gordon Chambers of the School off Physics Ph i and d NanoLab N L b

INSPIRE II In 2011, 2011 the National NanoScience Graduate School was launched, launched funded under PRTLI Cycle y 5 ((2011-2915). ) In the opening p g academic y year,, 20 students were enrolled nationwide

Investing in Your Future

Hugh Byrne@dit ie Hugh.Byrne@dit.ie

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SUMMARY

Research

Funded under the Programme for Research in Third Level Institutions (PRTLI) C Ctcle 4 (2007-2013), ( ) with support from f the EU Structural S Fund, The mission off the National Biophotonics Imaging Platform is to provide an integrated national access and training g infrastructure in research, education, technology gy development p and industry collaboration for the State’s investment in Biophotonics and Imaging. It provides id a national ti l framework f k to t supportt and d encourage the th development d l t off centres of expertise. expertise The provision of adequate core technologies in advanced imaging greatly enhances the national research infrastructure. This ensures that the recent investment in research equipment and buildings translates to an increased efficiency of usage, usage which in turn provides a solid foundation for development p of keyy research areas. Major j objectives j of the NBIP Consortium:

Within the DIT, Research in Biophotonics and Imaging bridges the Physical and Life sciences. sciences Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytommetry is used to monitor nontargetted effects of radiation and identify associated cell signaling pathways. Spectroscopic microscopy, both infrared and Raman is employed for disease diagnostics as well as cellular analysis of the effects of radiation, nanotoxins and anticancer agents. agents The Biospectroscopy group collaborates with the National Maternityy and the Coombe Hospitals, p , as well as in a number of EU p projects. j

To provide a structured research and training framework for Ireland Ireland's s investment in advanced imaging applied to the Life Sciences (PRTLI, SFI, HRB, Wellcome Trust) To establish Graduate Training Programmes in Cell Signaling and Imaging To bridge the Physical and Life Sciences interface and, through partnership with I d t enhance Industry, h t h l technology d developments l t in i BioPhotonics Bi Ph t i and d Imaging I i

Fluorescence Imaging The Fluorescence Th Fl I Imaging i Laboratory L b t offers ff a wide id range off flow fl cytometric t t i and d microscopy techniques. techniques Microscopy lab includes light microscopes, microscopes configured specifically for wide-ranging applications such as phase contrast, fluorescence, bright field and dark field. The equipment allows the 2-D and 3-D observation and st d of physical, study ph sical chemical and biological samples. samples The Zeiss LSM confocal laser scanning microscope allows blur blur-free, free, crisp images of thick specimens at various depths. In addition, a CO2 and temperature control system is available for live cell imaging.

Focas on NBIPI The Focas Institute, DIT, provides nationally unique facilities and expertise in Spectroscopic Imaging for Diagnostic Applications to the Molecular and Cellular Imaging g g Core. The associated expertise p is based on the collaboration, since 2000, of the Radiation and Environmental Science Centre and NanoLab Research C t Centre, l di leading t the to th Biospectroscopy Bi t t team. Th Biospectroscopy The Bi t t team i the is th only group active in the use of vibrational spectroscopy for cellular and tissue analysis within Ireland. Spectroscopic Imaging is employed to characterise (i) cell signalling (ii) disease diagnostics and progress (iii) cellular response to external agents In all areas the workprogramme is linked to other Platform partners. agents. partners The workprogramme p g l demonstrates the additional dimension p provided byy the characterisation and mapping of molecular markers. The techniques are employed to complement l other h Platform Pl f i imaging i techniques. h i DIT provides id training i i and d modules in microscopy and spectroscopy to the Graduate Enhancement Programme. g

Partec CyFlow Cytometer provides analysis and sorting of single single-cell cell populations. populations The system providing an extensive range of applications such as light-scattering properties, DNA content, cell cycle, apoptosis, as well as the measure of intracellular biochemical changes such as calcium flux and pH. pH

Biospectroscopy Infrared and Raman spectroscopies have been widely used in chemistry for many years for the identification of new compounds or testing of purity. Over the last decades a new field of application has appeared, appeared utilising the techniques for disease diagnostics g and cellular analysis. y Through PRTLI Cycles 1 and 4, the Focas Institute has positioned itself at the forefront of research in this field, boasting 3 State of the art Raman imaging systems and two infrared microscopes allowing rapid imaging and analysis of tissues and cells, cells with sub cellular resolution. resolution

NBIPI iin E EuroBioImaging Bi I gi g EuroBioImaging is a large scale panEuropean research infrastructure project on the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) Roadmap. EuroBioImaging will deploy a distributed biological and biomedical imaging i f t t infrastructure i Europe in E i a coordinated in di t d and d harmonized h i d manner. By providing access to and training in imaging technologies, and by sharing of best practice and image data, data EuroBioImaging will become an engine that will drive European p innovation in imaging g g research and technologies. g

Current research in the group is targeting the development of biospectroscopy for the diagnosis of cervical cancer and precancer, the diagnosis of spectral and biological changes in human skin with exposure to UV radiation, radiation and the modeling of spectral p response p in nano- toxicology, gy, chemo-therapeutics p and radiobiology. gy In addition to development of the applications, the group continues to explore the f d fundamental t l understanding d t di off the th techniques t h i th themselves l

NBIPI is an Associated Partner of EuroBioImaging and the facilities of NBIPI at Focas were utilised as a Proof og g Concept p Pilot Access Site in 2012.

Investing in Your Future

Hugh Byrne@dit ie Hugh.Byrne@dit.ie

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Nanolab Research Centre Key Achievements PRTLI cycle 5, INSPIRE 2 Nanotechnology GREP , €309,000 SFI Research Frontiers Program “NanoFood” €198,000 PRTLI cycle 4 INSPIRE shared funding €4.1 million Seventh Framework Programme (FP7).Marie-Curie Nanotoxicology and process identification €200,000

Materials Characterisation Bio-Screening Bio-Tracking Risk Assessment

Training

Network

NanoTalks “ Public Perception of nanotechnology and its role in society”– December 2005 –Focas Institute. Nanotox “ Nanotechnology: implications for human health, health the environment and food safety”– November 2007 – Carlton Hotel. BioNano “Inspiring Responsible Development Environment”– October 2009 – Carlton Hotel

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Policy Documents –members of the research centre have sat on advisory panels namely the Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) Nanotechnology position panel and the Irish Health and Safety Authority (HSA) working group on Nanotechnology . 28 PhD and 5 MSc students supervised to completion as of 2012 Currently 8 full time and 1 part time postgraduate research students

Research Interests

Recent Publications

The Nanolab research centre was awarded DIT DRE Research Centre Status in 2010 and has unparalleled expertise in state of the art nano material characterisation and the analysis of the interaction of Nanomaterials with biological systems, both mammalian and aquatic (fresh and marine water) systems. Its researchers explore standards and methods for the characterisation of nanomaterials with respect to physical, chemical and biological properties including the toxicity and biocompatibility of a variety of nanomaterials such as carbonaceous, p polymeric, y metallic and composite p nano material systems. The centre’s emphasis is on establishing structure activity relationships governing particle uptake, trafficking, fate and organism response. Model systems are employed to improve fundamental understanding, to validate current and develop new biological testing protocols for nanomaterials, while real life exposure scenarios are explored to assess risk. Nanolab is active in promoting awareness of the impacts of nanotechnology among stakeholders through national and international workshops as well as in pedagogical research for the advancement of education in nano sciences.

Team

Over 250 peer reviewed publications to date

“Identifying and localizing intracellular nanoparticles using Raman Spectroscopy", Jennifer Dorney, Franck Bonnier, Amaya Garcia, Alan Casey, Gordon Chambers Chambers, Hugh J. J Byrne, Byrne Analyst Analyst, 137 137, 1111-1119 1111 1119 (2012)

“Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity study of silver nanoparticle on two mammalian cell lines”, Sanchali Gupta Mukherjee, Niall O'Claonadh, Alan Casey, Gordon Chambers, Toxicology in Vitro, 26, 238-251 (2012)

“Minimal analytical characterization of engineered nanomaterials needed for hazard assessment in biological matrices”,Hans Bouwmeester, Iseult Lynch, Hans J. P. Marvin, Kenneth A. Dawson, Markus Berges, Diane Braguer, Hugh J. Byrne, Alan Casey, Gordon Chambers, Martin J. D. Clift, Giuliano Elia, Teresa F. Fernandes, Lise B. Fjellsbo, Peter Hatto, Lucienne Juillerat, Christoph Klein, Wolfgang G. Kreyling, Carmen Nickel, Michael Riediker, Vicki Stone,Nanotoxicology, 5, 1-11 (2011) .

Dr. Gordon Chambers Currently a lecturer in the School of Physics of DIT and consults on the implementation and societal impacts of nanotechnology to both private industry and government bodies. Research interests include nano-bio interactions, safe use of nanotech in the food sector and bio-spectroscopy for cellular tracking. Dr. Alan Casey PhD awarded by the Dublin Institute of Technology for a study entitled “Physiochemical Indicators of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Toxicity”. Joined nanolab as research staff in 2007 and current research interests include, nano-bio interactions, drug screening, cellular uptake mechanisms and programmed cell death pathways. Prof. Hugh J Byrne Appointed to staff of DIT in January 1996, as lecturer in the School of Physics. Seconded as manager of FOCAS at DIT in 2000. Awarded Honarary Professorship of DIT (internationally reviewed), December 2008 Recent research activities have extended to biospectroscopy for diagnostics and biochemical analysis and nano-bio interactions.

“In vitro mammalian cytotoxicological study of PAMAM dendrimers -towards quantitative structure activity relationships”, Sourav Prasanna Mukherjee, Maria Davoren, Hugh J. Byrne, Toxicology in Vitro, 24,169-177 (2010)

Contact Details Dr. Gordon Chambers

Dr. Alan Casey,

Ph: + 35314022856

Ph: +35314027932

Fax + 35314024988

Fax: +35314027901

Email: gordon.chambers@dit.ie

Email:alan.casey@dit.ie

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Website: http://www.dit.ie/nanolab/


Nanolab Facilities Materials Characterisation

Biological Tracking

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With the combined equipment of the Nanolab research centre and the core instrumentation of the Focas institute, Nanolab has access to and expertise in an impressive array of materials characterisation equipment. Particles size, zeta-potential, surface area, pore size analysis, electronic and atomic microscopy's are routinely performed on materials in a variety of different environments.

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With the combined equipment of the Nanolab research centre and the core instrumentation of the Focas institute, Nanolab has access to and expertise in variety and biological and analytical techniques to aid in the biological tracking of materials upon instillation in biological systems.

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Biological Screening With an internal cell bank of 30 cell lines Nanolab routinely performs large scale in vitro cytotoxicity screening with a variety of biological endpoints of materials and chemicals for both internal and external research partners. Please contact us for further information.

Through collaborative projects with the RESC (http://www.dit.ie/resc/) Nanolab also has the capabilities to culture and test a variety of aquatic cell lines and a multi-trophic battery of freshwater and marine test species, comprising of the Microtox速 test system and several algal, copepod, and amphipod cultures for ecotoxicity tests.

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Nanolab Research Personnel CURRENT RESEARCHERS

Dr Gordon Chambers Dr. Research interests include nano-bio interactions, safe use of nanotech in the food sector and bio-spectroscopy for cellular tracking. Graduated from Dublin Institute of Technology with a Diploma in Applied Science (Physics and Chemistry) in 1997 and with a first class honours BSc in Physics and Chemistry from Trinity College Dublin in 1997. Received PhD, from Dublin Institute of Technology, in 2001 with a research thesis entitled "In situ spectroscopic monitoring of the electronic transport properties of fullerene thin films". In the past he has held a Senior Research Fellow position within the Nanostructures group in Media Lab Europe, research partner of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Working on the development of molecular electronics and nano nano-sensor sensor technology technology. After which he joined the Physics of Molecular Materials group in the DIT as Postdoctoral Researcher. At same time he held a Research Associate position in Trinity College Dublin working with the Functional Materials Group. Currently he is a lecturer in the School of Physics of DIT and consults on the implementation and societal impacts of nanotechnology to both private industry and government bodies.

Dr. Alan Casey Current research interests include, materials toxicity, nano-bio interactions, drug screening, cellular uptake mechanisms and programmed cell death pathways. PhD awarded by the Dublin Institute of Technology for a study entitled “Physiochemical Indicators of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Toxicity”. Joined nanolab as research staff in 2007. Successfully achieved status of DIT Centre of Excellence of Research from the Institutes Directorate of Research of Enterprise to Nanolab 2010. Member of the Irish Society of Toxicology. Member of the Health and Safety Authority of Ireland’s (HSAI) ad-hoc working group on Nanotechnology, Co author of the HSAI’s initial draft of a policy document on the safe usage of nanotechnology in the workplace. One of two nationally nominated Irish representatives to attend a Workshop on “Enabling Standards for Nanomaterial Characterization” in NIST, Maryland, Washington, USA. Oct 2008. Actively involved in the development of taught modules for f Graduate G Research Education Program (GREP) (G ) within DIT.

Prof. Hugh J Byrne Principle research interests are in applications of spectroscopy and the study of molecular and nano-materials. Recent activities have extended to bio-spectroscopy for diagnostics and biochemical analysis and nano-bio interactions. Received his PhD in Experimental Physics, from Trinity College Dublin, 1989 with a research thesis entitled "On the Origins and Nature of the Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic One Dimensional Polymers", supervised by Prof. Werner Blau. Held a postdoctoral research h ffellowship ll hi iin Ph Physics i D Department, t t T Trinity i it C College ll D Dublin bli ffrom O October t b 1989 1989April 1991. Research Scientist at the Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart, from April 1991-July 1995, funded in part by a Marie-Curie Fellowship. Visiting Research Scientist at the National Institute of Materials and Chemistry Research, Tsukuba, Japan, October 1995- January 1996. Appointed to staff of DIT in January 1996, as lecturer in the School of Physics. Seconded as manager of FOCAS at DIT in 2000. Awarded Honarary Professorship of DIT (internationally reviewed), December 2008.

Anna Murphy SFI Funded PhD Student Joined Nanolab in 2011 “The effects of bio-fluids on nanoparticle size distribution, agglomerative state and associated in vitro toxicity”

Kate Sheehy SFI Funded PhD Student Joined Nanolab in 2011 “Assessing the Biological Significance of Real – World Exposure of Silver Nanoparticles from food products”

Sanchali S h li Gupta G t M Mukherjee kh j SFI and d DIT F Foisraaigh i i h ffunded d d PhD student t d t JJoined i dN Nanolab l b in 2009 “Mechanistic Studies of Temporal Evolution of Cellular Responses upon Silver Nanoparticle Exposure to Human Cell Lines: Correlation of Dosimetric and Size Dependant effects

Maria Casado EPA funded PhD Student Joined Nanolab in 2009 “Visualisation and quantification of the interaction of fluorescent nanoparticles with ecotoxicologically relevant species”

Mark Keating PRTLI cycle 5 funded PhD Student Joined Nanolab in 2011 “Spectroscopic Imaging of Nanoparticles in Cells”

Marcus Maher DIT R&D Excellence Foisraigh Award funded PhD student joined Nanolab in 2011 “Structure Activity Relationships Governing the Interaction of Nano-Particles with Human Cells – Predictive models for Toxicology and Medical Applications”

Humza Khalid PRTLI cycle 5 funded PhD student joined Nanolab in 2011 “Toxic mechanisms of Polymer dendrimers in mammalian cells”

Karina Carey Part-time MPhil student joined nanolab in 2008 “The Determination of the Potential risks associated with Engineered Nanoparticles in Aquatic Environments”

Jennifer Dorney PRTLI cycle 4 funded PhD student joined Nanolab in 2008” Identifying and localizing intracellular nanoparticles using Raman Spectroscopy”

Website: http://www.dit.ie/nanolab/


DIT Centre for Radiation and Environmental Science RESEARCH INTERESTS

KEY ACHIEVEMENTS

Radiation Biology

In the last 5 years:

We are investigating how cells and tissues respond to radiation exposure. This helps to understand the risks associated with radiation and to work out ways to optimise patient response to radiotherapy

‰ ‘One to Watch’ Award, 2011 ‰ Over 70 peer reviewed publications

Environmental Toxicology and Testing of New Materials

‰ Over €3.5 million in research funding

We investigate toxic effects of different contaminants of environmental concern using a multi-trophic battery of freshwater and marine test species. Our current research focuses on the environmental impacts of nanomaterials.

‰ 20 PhD completions l ti

We are also screening novel anti-cancer compounds and investigating the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mechanism of action.

O'Connor M, Kellett A, McCann M, Rosair G, McNamara M, Howe O, Creaven BS, McClean S, Kia AF, O'Shea D, Devereux M. Copper(II) Complexes of Salicylic Acid Combining Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic Properties with DNA Binding and Cleaving Capabilities Display Promising Chemotherapeutic P t ti l with Potential ith Fast F t Acting A ti i Vitro in Vit Cytotoxicity C t t i it against i t Cisplatin Ci l ti Sensitive and Resistant Cancer Cell Lines. J Med Chem. 2012;55(5):1957-68

Biophotonics and Imaging We investigate the use of Raman and FTIR spectroscopy for biomedical applications such as cancer screening and diagnosis. We also use these techniques to identify novel biomarkers of cellular response to, for example, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, nanomaterials etc.

‰ 1 License, 1 patent and 4 invention disclosures

RECENT PUBLICATIONS

Kellett A, McCann M, Howe O, O'Connor M, Devereux M. DNA cleavage reactions of the dinuclear chemotherapeutic agent copper(II) bis-1,10 phenanthroline terephthalate. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012;50(1):79-81 Nawaz H, Bonnier F, Meade AD, Lyng FM, Byrne HJ. Comparison of subcellular responses for the evaluation and prediction of the chemotherapeutic response to cisplatin in lung adenocarcinoma using Raman spectroscopy Analyst. 2011 136(12):2450-63 Ostrowska KM, Garcia A, Meade AD, Malkin A, Okewumi I, O'Leary JJ, Martin C, Byrne HJ, Lyng FM. Correlation of p16(INK4A) expression and HPV copy number with cellular FTIR spectroscopic signatures of cervical cancer cells. Analyst. 2011 136(7):1365-73. Zanchetta LM, Garcia A, Lyng F, Walsh J, Murphy JE. Mitophagy and mitochondrial morphology in human melanoma-derived cells post exposure to simulated sunlight, Int J Radiat Biology 2011 87(5):506-1

TEAM The RESC team comprises an interdisciplinary group of 16 researchers including Centre Manager, Prof Fiona Lyng, Senior Researchers Dr Orla Howe (School of Biological Sciences) and Dr Aidan Meade (School of Physics), 3 postdoctoral level scientists, 1 research assistant and 10 postgraduate students, the majority at PhD level.

Lyng FM, Howe OL, McClean B. Reactive oxygen speciesinduced release of signalling factors in irradiated cells triggers membrane signalling and calcium influx in bystander cells. Int J Radiat Biol. 2011 87 (7) 683-695

CONTACT DETAILS For more details on RESC, please visit http://www.dit.ie/resc or contact Prof. Fiona Lyng at fiona.lyng@dit.ie

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Radiation Biology / RESC SUMMARY DIT research in Radiobiology has been ongoing since the 1970s with the Radiation Science Centre established in 1990. The effects of ionising and non-ionising radiation have been investigated. The main goals are to understand the risks associated with radiation exposure and to identify ways of optimising patient response to radiotherapy . Non-targeted (non-DNA) effects such as bystander effects (effects in cells not hit by a radiation track), genomic instability (effects in the progeny of irradiated cells) and adaptive responses (in cells exposed to a high challenging dose after pretreatment with a low adapting dose) have been the main focus over the last 10-15 years. Translational radiation research, involving the correlation of patient radiosensitivity with radiotherapy response and the investigation of biomarkers of radiosensitivity, is also a key focus.

KEY PUBLICATIONS

HIGHLIGHTS TO DATE

‰ Lyng FM, Howe OL, McClean B. Reactive oxygen speciesinduced release of signalling factors in irradiated cells triggers membrane signalling and calcium influx in bystander cells. Int J Radiat Biol. 2011 87 (7) 683-695

‰ Over 100 peer reviewed journal publications;

‰ Over €6 million in competitive funding; ‰ Member of EU FP6 Consortium ‘NOTE’;

‰ Nugent S, Mothersill CE, Seymour C, McClean B, Lyng FM, Murphy JE., Altered mitochondrial function and genome frequency post exposure to g-radiation and bystander factors Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2010, 86, 829–841

‰ Member of EU FP7 Consortium ‘DoReMi’

‰ Meade AD, Byrne HJ, Lyng FM, Spectroscopic and Chemometric Approaches to Radiobiological Analyses, Mutation Research Review 2010 704(1-3):108-114 ‰ Meade AD, Clarke C, Byrne HJ, Lyng FM, Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy and multivariate methods for biological dosimetry Radiation Research 2010 173(2):225-37. ‰ Howe O, O’ Sullivan J, Nolan B, Vaughan J, McClean B, Clarke C, Lyng FM. Do radiation-induced bystander effects correlate to the intrinsic radiosensitivity of individuals and have clinical significance? 2009, Radiation Research 171(5):521-9. ‰ Nugent, S.M.E. Mothersill, C.E. Seymour, C. McClean B. , Lyng F.M. and Murphy, J.E.J Increased mitochondrial mass in cells with functionally compromised mitochondria post exposure to both direct g radiation and bystander factors, Radiation Research 2007 168(1):134-42

TEAM / FUNDERS ‰ Prof. Fiona Lyng; ‰ Dr. Aidan Meade; ‰ Dr. Orla Howe; ‰ Dr. Isabel Vega Carrascal; ‰ SFI RFP, EU FP7 (DoReMi), PRTLI Cycle 4 (National Biophotonics and Imaging Platform)

‰ Maguire P, Mothersill C, McClean B, Seymour C, Lyng FM, Modulation of Radiation Responses by Pre-exposure to Irradiated Cell Conditioned Medium. Radiation Research 2007 167(4):485492

College Logo

http://www.dit.ie/resc/


Environmental Toxicology and Testing of New Materials / RESC SUMMARY

Cytotoxicity screening

The RESC has a longstanding international reputation for their expertise in the environmental and toxicological assessment of many fresh water and marine based organisms by incorporating techniques such as primary culture and battery testing mechanisms. In recent years this experience has been aligned to interdisciplinary collaborations nationally and internationally and has been extended to include toxicity screening of many novel therapeutic agents such as chemotherapeutic drugs/NSAIDS and nanomaterials by incorporating cytotoxicity and genotoxicity screening and further molecular mechanistic work to elucidate the modes of action of novel compounds/materials.

Over 60 publications have incorporated cytotoxicity screening of environmental pollutants, radiation, novel drugs and nanomaterials. An array of in vitro cytotoxicity assays on normal and tumor cells line from a central cell bank of approx 150 cell types are described. These assays measure a variety of biological endpoints such as viability, ROS induction, apoptosis etc.

Environmental toxicology There have been over 100 publications in the RESC specifically in environmental toxicology. Many of these projects were in close collaboration with the Marine Institute and more recently NIVA (Oslo). This work was done on mussels, shrimp, rainbow trout from different areas and testing has also been done using both fresh water and marine test batteries. More recently the focus has been on nanotoxicology to test the ‘Effects of environmental factors on the toxicity & bioavailability of standard manufactured nanoparticles using a battery of marine species ‘(DIT, NIVA Norway, University of Oslo [Yggdrasil funded]) and ‘Interaction of nanoparticles with ecotoxicologically relevant species’ [EPA funded].

Genotoxicity screening There has been more than 25 publications (more recently) screening genotoxicity of radiation, novel drugs and nanomaterials. This incorporates assays measuring chromosomal damage, single strand DNA damage (Comet assay), double strand DNA damage (γ-H2AX assay) and nuclease scission activity.

Fairy shrimpFluorescent SiNp Nucella lapilus

[Cu(phen)2(ph)] (1)

Fresh water Battery testing

[Cu(phen)2(isoph)] (2)

{Cu(phen)2(μ-terph)}2terph (3)

Marine water Battery testing

Decomposer

Decomposer Microtox®

Microtox®

Primary Producer

Primary Producer Chlorella vulgaris

P. subcapitata Producer

S. costatum

(Macrophyte)

Lemna minor

T. suecica

Producer (Macrophyte C. tenuicorne

Primary Consumer

Collaborators & Funders

Primary Consumer D. magna

T. platyurus

A.tonsa

T. battagliai Secondary Consumer

Secondary Consumer Fish cell lines e.g. RTG-2

Internal : Focas Research Institute, Environmental Health Sciences Institute, Nanolab, IPBRC, School of Biological Science National: Marine Institute, Dr Kellett (DCU), Dr McCann (NUIM),

C. volutator

International: NIVA OSLO, University of Leuven, Belgium Funders: SFI, EPA, PRTLI Cycle 4, Cycle 5

College Logo

http://www.dit.ie/resc/


Biophotonics and Imaging, RESC SUMMARY / ABSTRACT

KEY OUTPUTS / POTENTIAL

Biophotonics is the application of spectroscopic and optical methods to the measurement or imaging of processes in biology and medicine. It can involve the use of standard confocal imaging or fluorescence imaging technologies, or more novel technologies, such as Raman and/or Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy. These devices measure the spectrum of light inelastically backscattered from the sample in the case of confocal Raman microspectroscopy, or the spectrum of light transmitted by the sample in the case of FTIR microspectroscopy. These measurements can be made with diffraction-limited resolution using both spectroscopic modalities, which tends to the submicron level using Raman microspectroscopy and similar resolution when FTIR is coupled with attenuated total reflection (ATR). In the RESC at the Focas Research Institute, DIT we are fortunate to have access to state-of-theart Raman and FTIR imaging spectrometers. These have enabled us to pioneer the use of biospectroscopy for the development of platforms and devices for cancer diagnostics, particularly from cervical cancer tissue and smears, and latterly for use in prognostic and therapeutic applications such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Some of this work has moved to device development and commercialisation.

•Key outputs: • Licence to Raman Diagnostics, Dec 2011 • 4 PhD and 1 MPhil graduates since 2005, 3 PhD’s in progress; • Over 40 journal and proceedings publications; • Potential for expansion into development of methods for detection of food, air and water borne pathogens, imaging of materials and bio-interactions;

HIGHLIGHTS TO DATE •Prof. Fiona Lyng winner of the Enterprise Ireland ‘One-to-Watch’ award, 2011; •Over €4.5 million competitive funding secured since 2004; •Member of National Biophotonics and Imaging Platform, Ireland;

Other Key Publications

•Member of EU FP7 Consortium ‘DoReMi’;

A. D. Meade, C. Clarke, H. J. Byrne, and F. M. Lyng, "Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy and multivariate methods for radiobiological dosimetry " Radiation Research, 173, 225-237, (2010) (IF: 2.95)

Highly Cited: A.D. Meade, P. Knief, F.M Lyng, H.J. Byrne, Growth substrate induced functional changes elucidated by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy in in-vitro cultured human keratinocytes, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, C 387 ((5), ) 1717-1728, 2007 (IF: 3.5) F.M. Lyng, E.Ó Faoláin, J. Conroy, A.D. Meade, P. Knief, B. Duffy, M.B. Hunter, J.M. Byrne, P. Kelehan and H.J. Byrne, Vibrational Spectroscopy for Cervical Cancer Pathology, from biochemical analysis to diagnostic tool, Experimental and Molecular Pathology, 82(2), 121-129 (2007) (IF: 2.1)

Kamila M. Ostrowska, Amaya Garcia, Aidan D. Meade, Alison Malkin, Ifeoluwapo p Okewumi,, John J. O’Leary, y, Cara Martin,, Hugh g J. Byrne y and Fiona M. Lyng, Correlation of p16INK4A expression and HPV copy number with cellular FTIR spectroscopic signatures of cervical cancer cells", Analyst, DOI: 10.1039/C0AN00910E (2011) (IF: 3.8) K. W. C. Poon , F. M. Lyng , P. Knief , O. Howe , A. D. Meade , J. F. Curtin, H. J. Byrne, J. Vaughan,Quantitative reagent-free detection of fibrinogen levels in human blood plasma using Raman spectroscopy, Analyst, DOI: 10.1039/C2AN35042D (2012) (IF: 3.8) A.A. Shvedova, A.A. Kapralov, W.H. Feng, E.R. Kisin, A. Murray, R.R. Mercer, C.M. St Croix, M. Lang, S.C. Watkins, N. Konduru, B.L. Allen, J. Conroy, G.P. Kotchey, y, B.M. Mohamed,, A.D. Meade,, Y. Volkov,, A. Star,, B. Fadeel,, V. E. Kagan, Impaired clearance and enhanced pulmonary inflammatory/fibrotic response to carbon nanotubes in myeloperoxidase-deficient mice, PLoS One, 7(3):e30923 (2012) (IF: 4.411).

TEAM / FUNDERS • Prof. Fiona Lyng; • Dr. Aidan Meade; • Dr. Orla Howe; • Dr. Franck Bonnier; • Dr Dmitriy Dubovitskiy • Funding: • SFI RFP, EI Technology Development, EU FP7 (DoReMi), PRTLI Cycle 4 (National Biophotonics and Imaging Platform) • Colleagues at: • Department of Surgery, Trinity College Dublin;Department of Radiation Oncology, Trinity College Dublin; Department of Pathology, Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital

http://www.dit.ie/nbip/


Environmental Toxicology and Testing of New Materials / RESC SUMMARY

Cytotoxicity screening

The RESC has a longstanding international reputation for their expertise in the environmental and toxicological assessment of many fresh water and marine based organisms by incorporating techniques such as primary culture and battery testing mechanisms. In recent years this experience has been aligned to interdisciplinary collaborations nationally and internationally and has been extended to include toxicity screening of many novel therapeutic agents such as chemotherapeutic drugs/NSAIDS and nanomaterials by incorporating cytotoxicity and genotoxicity screening and further molecular mechanistic work to elucidate the modes of action of novel compounds/materials.

Over 60 publications have incorporated cytotoxicity screening of environmental pollutants, radiation, novel drugs and nanomaterials. An array of in vitro cytotoxicity assays on normal and tumor cells line from a central cell bank of approx 150 cell types are described. These assays measure a variety of biological endpoints such as viability, ROS induction, apoptosis etc.

Environmental toxicology There have been over 100 publications in the RESC specifically in environmental toxicology. Many of these projects were in close collaboration with the Marine Institute and more recently NIVA (Oslo). This work was done on mussels, shrimp, rainbow trout from different areas and testing has also been done using both fresh water and marine test batteries. More recently the focus has been on nanotoxicology to test the ‘Effects of environmental factors on the toxicity & bioavailabilityy of standard manufactured nanoparticles p using g a battery y of marine species ‘(DIT, NIVA Norway, University of Oslo [Yggdrasil funded]) and ‘Interaction of nanoparticles with ecotoxicologically relevant species’ [EPA funded].

Genotoxicity screening There has been more than 25 publications (more recently) screening genotoxicity of radiation, novel drugs and nanomaterials. This incorporates assays measuring chromosomal damage, damage single strand DNA damage (Comet assay), double strand DNA damage (-H2AX assay) and nuclease scission activity.

Fairy shrimpFluorescent SiNp Nucella lapilus

[Cu(phen)2(ph)] (1)

Fresh water Battery testing

[Cu(phen)2(isoph)] (2)

{Cu(phen)2(-terph)}2terph (3)

Marine water Battery testing

Decomposer

Decomposer Microtox®

Microtox®

Primary Producer

Primary Producer Chlorella vulgaris

P. subcapitata Producer

S. costatum

(Macrophyte)

Lemna minor i

T. suecica

Producer (Macrophyte C. tenuicorne

Primary Consumer

Collaborators & Funders

Primary Consumer D. magna

T. platyurus

A.tonsa

T. battagliai Secondary Consumer

Secondary Consumer Fish cell lines e.g. RTG-2

Internal : Focas Research Institute, Environmental Health Sciences Institute, Nanolab, IPBRC, School of Biological Science National: Marine Institute, Dr Kellett (DCU), Dr McCann (NUIM),

C. volutator

International: NIVA OSLO, University of Leuven, Belgium Funders: SFI, EPA, PRTLI Cycle 4, Cycle 5

College Logo

http://www.dit.ie/resc/


Photonics Research Centre RESEARCH THEMES

KEY ACHIEVEMENTS AND COLLABORATIONS

The DIT Photonics Research Centre undertakes research in a number of areas of photonics, with a particular emphasis on optical fibre sensing.

FIBER OPTIC SENSORS Temperature Sensors Strain Sensors Refractive Index Sensors

Multimode Fiber Singlemode Fiber

Singlemode Fiber

z axis: propagating di i direction

Displacement Sensors Voltage and Current Sensors

There are currently nine research projects ongoing in the Photonics Research Centre, funded by Enterprise Ireland, Science Foundation Ireland and others with the total external funding income in excess of 1.4 Million Euro. The PRC has graduate four PhDs in recent years with four more on-going. The Centre was recently awarded a Patent for a new form of disposable temperature sensor. The Centre has active collaborations with:  Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, UK;    

FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS FOR SENSING APPLICATIONS Passive Wavelength Measurement Systems FBG Interrogation Systems Modelling, Design and Fabrication of Fibre Filters Fibre Optic Systems for Acoustics

Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China; Warsaw University of Technology, Poland; Moscow Institute of Radio-Electronics & Automatics, Russian Federation; Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India

SMART FIBER STRUCTURES Smart Sensors for Engineering Structures Sensors for Surgical Instruments

RECENT PUBLICATIONS The Centre publishes over 30 peer-reviewed journal publications yearly. Some very recent journal papers from the last few months are:

MODELLING OF PHOTONIC DEVICES

1. Wang, P., Lee, T., Ding, M., Dhar, A., Hawkins, T., Foy, T., Semenova, Y., Wu, Q., Sahu, J., Farrell, G., Ballato, J. and Brambilla, G. “A germanium microsphere high-Q resonator”, Optics Letters, accepted for publication.

Fibre Optic Waveguides Planar Lightwave Circuits Photonic Crystal Fibres

2. Wu, Q., Semenova, Y., Wang, P., Farrell, G. “A comprehensive analysis verified by experiment of a refractometer based on an SMF28- SmallCore Singlemode fiber (SCSMF) -SMF28 fiber structure”, Journal of Optics, vol. 13, no. 12, 125401, 2011.

PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FIBRE SILICA CORE

Liquid Crystal Infiltrated PCF Devices/Sensors PCF Interferometric Sensors Sensors for Humidity and Dew-point

3. Mathew, J., Semenova, Y and Farrell, G. “Photonic crystal fiber interferometer for dew detection detection”, Journal of Lightwave Technology, Technology accepted for publication, DOI 10.1109/JLT.2011.2170815. 4. Rajan, G., Ramakrishnan, M., Lesiak, P., Semenova, Y., Wolinski, T., Boczkowska, A. and Farrell, G. “Composite materials with embedded photonic crystal fiber interferometric sensors”, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical”, accepted for publication.

NANOPHOTONICS Tapered Fibre Devices and Sensors Microresonators Surface Plasmon Resonance Devices

TEAM The Centre is in the School of Electronic and Communications Engineering at the Dublin Institute of Technology on the Kevin St. Campus. The Centre is led by its Director Prof. Gerald Farrell, supported by senior researchers, postdoctoral researchers and several doctoral graduate students.

5. Wang, P., Murugan, G. S., Lee, T., Ding, M., Brambilla, G., Koizumi, F., Semenova, Y., Wu, Q., Farrell, G. “High-Q bismuth silicate nonlinear glass microsphere resonators”, IEEE Photonics Journal, accepted for publication.

CONTACT DETAILS For further information please visit www.prc.dit.ie Email: gerald.farrell@dit.ie

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Fibre Optic Sensors for Measurement of Electric Voltage and Current ABSTRACT Researchers in the Photonics Research Centre (PRC) have developed a novel all-fibre electrical current and voltage sensor technology using a ferronematic liquid crystal (LC) infiltrated photonic crystal fibre. The operating principle of the proposed sensor is based on magneto-electric effect in the LC which results in the change of light transmittance by the optical fibre.

Photonic Crystal Fiber

Cross-Section

LCPCF Sensor Head ~ 1 mm

SILICA CORE

The resultant change in the transmittance serves as a measure of electric current in the conductor inducing the magnetic field or voltage applied to the electrodes surrounding the optical fibre. fibre

~ 125 m

HIGHLIGHTS TO DATE Due to the nature of the LC molecules, when an external electric or magnetic field is applied to the liquid crystal, the dipole molecules tend to orient themselves along the direction of the field. Recent studies of LCs doped with nanoparticles have pointed the way toward innovative improvement of the physical and electro-optical properties of LCs. Such enhancement of the electro-optical properties of LCs is dependent on the size type, size, type concentration, concentration and intrinsic characteristics of the nanoparticles used for doping. In the case of ferromagnetic nanoparticles, the large permanent magnetic moments couple with the LC director, leading to improvements in their magnetic properties. This is known as a ferronematic LC. In comparison with pure LCs ferronematic LCs are more sensitive to low electric and magnetic fields hence making these materials very attractive for sensing applications.

KEY OUTPUTS / POTENTIAL The optical fibre solution developed by the PRC offers the potential for simultaneous current and voltage sensing at multi-kHz response rates. The potential applications of the proposed technology are:  Grid monitoring/Smart grids.  Phase measurement within networks  Protection for so-called frequency convertors as a part of subsystems associated with wind turbines and other large scale electrical systems.

One possible approach to sensing which would benefit from both very high sensitivity of the doped LC materials to electric and magnetic fields and the well known advantages of the fibre optics is the use of LC infiltrated photonic crystal fibres.

Phase measurement units SEM micrograph of a PM-1550-01 PCF, Orientation of LC molecules within PCF holes below and above the threshold electric field.

Power distribution networks

Protection of frequency converters Linear transmission response of the LC infiltrated PCF PM-1550-01 in the range of voltages from 100 V to 400 V; LC infiltrated PCF probe for electric field sensing with electrodes.

Smart grids

TEAM / FUNDERS Photonics Research Centre DIT Hothouse

A similar approach is used for the design of a magnetic field sensor. As the magnetic field induced by a conductor is proportional to the current in the conductor inducing this magnetic field (Ampere’s law), the proposed structure is suitable for current sensing assuming the necessary calibration.

The Commercial Feasibility Study project is funded by Enterprise Ireland

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Contact: Dr. Yuliya Semenova yuliya.semsnova@dit.ie


Fibre Optic Sensorized Minimally Invasive Surgical Devices ABSTRACT Surgeons involved in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) rely on their sense of touch and experience to feel the interaction between their instruments/devices and the tissue structures of the patient. The use of optical fibres has proven to be a promising sensing technique to enable feedback of the instrument - tissue force interaction to a surgeon.

9 MRI compatibility, bio-compatibility, can withstand temperatures and pressures during sterilisation.

high

0.20

LMA 10

nm

0.15

autoclave

0.10

0.05

0.00

-0.05

-0.10 20

9 Miniature (~ 125 microns) design suitable for embedding in MIS devices.

Wavelength shift in PCF sensor on application of strain/force

9 Easy embedding within polymeric and metallic host structures. 9 Temperature insensitive 9 Low cost sensor, due to ease of manufacture, and sensor interrogation unit (also developed by PRC) .

30

40

50

60

Temperature C

Low temperature sensitivity of the PCF strain sensor

Strain/force sensitivity of the embedded PCF sensor

KEY OUTPUTS / POTENTIAL Some of the potential areas are within radioactive medical environments and in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems where electronic sensors cannot operate. In laparoscopic anastomosis procedures current practice relies on the judgement of the surgeon to ensure that required compressive forces are applied to the tissue during the surgery.

Positional Information

Visual Feedback

Sensorized laparoscopic surgical blade

Experimental arrangement for strain/force characterization

Wavelength shift

The Photonics Research Centre (PRC) based in DIT is carrying out research in the integration of optically based sensing schemes into laparoscopic surgical instruments As a consequence of this work new and alternative optical fibre instruments. force sensing solutions have been developed specifically for Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) with the following advantages,

End facet of PCF

Force Sensing Issues

Surgical scissor blades

Lack of FORCE Feedback

Fiber optic sensors developed by the PRC can improve the quality and reliability of instrument/tissue interaction force measurement. For intraluminal staplers, fiber optics sensors can provide small, low cost, unobtrusive force sensing transducers to facilitate the measurement of f forces at the instrument/tissue / interface, f which are then relayed to the surgeon, thereby reducing complications arising during anastomosis procedures.

HIGHLIGHTS TO DATE The Photonic Research Centre has developed fiber optic sensor technology based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and photonic crystal fiber (PCF) to provide accurate and real-time force feedback during MI surgical procedures. A FBG based strain sensing system employs a macro-bend filter based FBG g system y which eliminates the influence of temperature p and interrogation substantially reduces the cost of the entire sensing system. The measurement of interaction forces for MIS devices, sensorized with PCF interferometric sensors, has also been demonstrated. Due to the low temperature sensitivity of PCF sensors, a temperature insensitive force characterization and feedback can be implemented to assist MIS. Laparoscopic Surgical Staplers from Ethicon Endo-Surgery Telerobotic surgical system with robotic arms

TEAM / FUNDERS

Schematic of the sensing system

Partners: Photonics Research Centre (PRC), Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland School of Manufacturing & Design Engineering, DIT

Experimental arrangement for strain characterization and a surgical blade surface mounted with FBG sensor

Funders: With support from SFI/EI – Technology Innovation Development Award (TIDA) Feasibility Study (SFI) and Enterprise Ireland (EI)

Contact Prof. Gerald Farrell - gerald.farrell@dit.ie


 I   R   C   KEY ACHIEVEMENTS      

     

Members of the AIRC are involved in all aspects of academic life in DIT and beyond. Members of the centre contribute to major national and international conferences and publish their work in recognised international journals. The projects undertaken by the group

are funded by major national and

international funding agencies – e.g. SFI and Enterprise Ireland. The centre

 

     

     

also has a vibrant postgraduate student body working on a broad range of research projects – in 2012 the centre expects to produce 6 PhD graduates. The centre are also involved in a range of commercialisation activities that seek to make the research outcomes available to Irish and international industry. For example,

in

2011

the

spin-out

company

LingleOnline

Ltd

(www.lingleonline.com) was formed based on research from the centre funded

RESEARCH INTERESTS

by the NDRC (www.ndrc.ie). Finally, the centre led the development of the pioneering

The Applied Intelligence Research Centre (AIRC), a recognised R & D centre

and

successful

DIT

MSc

in

Computing

(Data Analytics)

(www.comp.dit.ie/dt285).

of the Dublin Institute of Technology, engages in researching the application of computational intelligence technologies to real world problems. The core competencies of the AIRC include data analytics, machine learning, language technologies, intelligent agents, and security. Examples of real world problems the AIRC have addressed involve spam filtering, sentiment analysis, dialogue management, custom search tools for language teachers, human-robot interaction, secure mobile financial transactions, engaging game characters, companion agents for mobile devices and the management and visualisation of large data collections.

RECENT PUBLICATIONS Delany, S.J., Segata, N. & Mac Namee, B., "Profiling Instances in Noise Reduction", Knowledge-Based Systems. (2012) Schutte, N., Kelleher, J & Mac Namee, B., "Automatic Annotation of Referring Expression in Situated Dialogues", International Journal Of Computational Linguistics And Applications, 2 (1-2). (2011) Sloan, C., Mac Namee, B. & Kelleher, J.D., "Utility-Directed Goal-Oriented Action Planning: A Utility-Based Control System for Computer Game Agents", In Proceedings of the 22nd Irish Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science. (2011) Kelleher, J.D., Ross, R.J., Sloan, C. & Mac Namee, B., "The effect of occlusion on the semantics of projective spatial terms: a case study in grounding language in perception.", Cognitive Processing 12(1). (2011) Sloan, C., J. D. Kelleher, B. Mac Namee, "Feeling the Ambiance: Using Smart Ambiance to Increase Contextual Awareness in Game Agents", In proceedings of the Sixth International ACM Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games. (2011) K. Kennedy, B. Mac Namee, S.J. Delany, "Using semi-supervised classifiers for credit scoring", The Journal of the Operational Research Society. (2011) Kelleher, J.D., Ross, R.J., Mac Namee, B. and Sloan, C., "Situating Spatial Templates for Human-Robot Interaction", In Proc. of the AAAI Symposium on Dialog with Robots. (2010) Shoniregun, Charles A., Dube, Kudakwashe, Mtenzi, Fredrick, Electronic Healthcare Information Security, Springer. (2010)

TEAM Dr. Brian Mac Namee brian.macnamee@dit.ie

Dr. Fred Mtenzi fredrick.mtenzi@dit.ie

Dr. Sarah Jane Delany sarahjane.delany@dit.ie

Dr. Robert Ross robert.ross@dit.ie

Dr. John Kelleher john.d.kelleher@dit.ie

Fredrick Mtenzi, Modified improvement heuristics for the Sparse Travelling Salesman Problem, International Journal of Software Engineering and Computing. (2009)

CONTACT DETAILS Web:

www.comp.dit.ie/aigroup

Email:

brian.macnamee@dit.ie


Antenna & High Frequency Research Centre Research Profile AHFR responds to communication technology demands for smaller antennas to provide wider bandwidths for multistandard radio platforms.

2D UWB Structures

Meeting requirements for new design approaches that exploit advances in modelling, materials and manufacturing innovation.

 Genetic Algorithm optimisation

Opportunity for the DIT to partner with other academic and industrial technologists to broaden commercialisation exploitation.

 Stable omni-directional properties

 Bézier Spline shape proposed for antenna geometries

 Extremely wide bandwidth realised 1.4–15 GHz

 Optimisation extended to groundplane shapes and produced significant advances

To build up the research team to sustain a critical level of expertise and experience.

Research on Modelling and Optimisation  Integration of Full Wave Electromagnetic Simulations with Evolutionary Global Optimisation algorithm  Suited for computationally-expensive multi-objective optimisation challenges  Wideband and multiband designs were researched to enable reconfigurable radio system technologies

Ceramic Chip Antenna

 ultra wide bandwidth

 Surface mounted UWB antenna

 stable radiation patterns

 UWB band groups 3 and 6.

 linear and circular polarization

 Efficiency >50% across 6.3–9 GHz  Very small volume of 57.6 mm3

3D UWB Structures

 Combination of the PIFA resonance and a second resonance due to the ceramic block

 Mechanically reconfigurable rolled planar monopole  Multiple bandwidths are obtained within the 2–10 GHz range  Low-profile/high efficiency  Reconfigurable band-notching

ahfr.dit.ie


Antenna & High Frequency Research Centre Industrial Liaison Taoglas

AirVOD

 AHFR antenna solutions for Long Term Evolution (LTE) machine-to-machine communications

 Antennas for aircraft seat mounted in-flight entertainment systems  Low powered receiver for in cabin movie, music, news broadcasts

 LTE/4G Flex Circuit Antenna  690-940MHz and 1720-3130MHz  High Efficiency Ultra Wide-Band Antenna  100×38×0.1mm

 WiMax communications  WiMAX 2100-4320MHz  100mm 1.13 coaxial cable IPEX MHF(U.FL)  31×53×0.2mm

decaWave

Sequoia / RPA

 AHFR antennas ship with decaWave product development/evaluation boards

 RFID antenna for Leap Card integrated ticketing reader system

 A single AHFR antenna addresses all the multijurisdictional channel allocations  Key optimisation goal to preserve signal pulse fidelity

 Deployed on Avego  Licensed for Luas, Dublin Bus, Dart / IrishRail  Increased ticket read range from 17mm to >50mm over previous solution in IrishRail gate

ahfr.dit.ie


Smart Structures with Embedded Fibre Optic Sensors ABSTRACT

Schematic of the hybrid interrogation system for embedded fibre optic sensors

ThePhotonics Research Centre (PRC) in collaboration with Warsaw University of Technology and Aero AT - Aviation Technologies (Poland) has developed technology for measurement of various physical parameters of composite materials. The technology is based on embedding optical fibre sensors in the carbon fibre-reinforced matrix composites at the manufacturing stage.

T hin F il m F il t e r

Techniques for embedding and interrogation of multiple types of fibre sensors in the composite parts developed by the project partners allow for:    

Local and average strain measurement across a composite component; Temperature monitoring; Crack detection; Measurements of amplitude and frequency of vibrations.

HIGHLIGHTS TO DATE

KEY OUTPUTS / POTENTIAL

The novel hybrid technology proposed by the PRC involves embedding various types of fibre sensors for sensing of multiple parameters and a common interrogation system which allows for real-time monitoring of the parameters of interest interest.

In aviation, transport, marine, wind turbine applications composites reduce weight without compromising strength. The next generation of airplanes, trains, yachts, racing vessels, cars, wind turbine blades etc., will be lighter and stronger g when made with carbon fibre composites. p Continuous structural health monitoring over the lifecycle of the composite parts becomes very important for minimizing inspection costs increasing aircraft/vehicle availability by improving efficiency and accuracy of maintenance. The outcomes of this project are not limited to aviation industry and will include potential licensing of IP in future commercial aerospace, transport, marine and wind energy applications.

Fibre Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fibre sensors can be used for local strain and temperature measurements, while polarimetric fibre sensors can be used for average strain, temperature and vibration measurements. While each individual sensor has drawbacks (e.g., a cross-sensitivity between temperature and strain), the proposed hybrid sensing approach offers a solution to this problem by the application of different fibre sensors in a complimentary manner to eliminate the drawbacks of individual sensors and to provide simultaneous measurements of multiple parameters. -12.5 -13.0

-28

zero deflection d fl ti 5 mm deflection 10 mm deflection

-30 -32

zero deflection 5 mm deflection 10 mm deflection

-13.5

Intensity dBm

Intensity dBm

-34 -14.0 -14.5 -15.0 -15.5

-36 -38 -40 -42 -44

-16.0

-46 -16.5

-48

1500 1510 1520 1530 1540

1550 1560 1570 1580 1590 1600

Wavelength nm

1535

1540

1545

1550

1555

1560

1565

1570

Wavelength nm

St i responses off various Strain i sensors iin iintensity, t it polarization l i ti and d wavelength l th domains: polarimetric and fibre Bragg grating sensors

TEAM / FUNDERS Sensor embedding: schematic, laboratory hand lay-up method, sensor placement in a helicopter rotor blade part PRC researchers have also developed a flexible hybrid sensor demodulation system and its fabrication technique using post lift off process for interrogation of hybrid sensors embedded in composite parts. The flexible nature of the proposed demodulator allows it to be embedded inside the host composite material together with the optical fibre sensors. Fabrication of the proposed flexible device is currently ongoing using National Access Programme facilities in Tyndall Institute, Cork.

Partners: Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Optics Division of the Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Photonics Research Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland Aero AT ltd. Aviation Technologies, Poland Funders: Enterprise Ireland Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education With the support of European MATERA ERA-NET Call on materials

Contact Prof. Gerald Farrell - gerald.farrell@dit.ie


CREST KEY ACHIEVEMENTS CREST accounted for 10% of the national total of all third level commercial licences and assignments to industry in 2011. Only Irish exhibitors at the first EU Innovation Convention in Brussels Dec. 2011 CREST funding g historyy 2004-2012: >€6M with >€1m from industry. y Secured international recognition with three FP7 awards since 2010, one of which involves two Irish SME’s in FP7 for the first time.

Bringing Innovation to the Surface

CENTRE ACTIVITIES The Centre for Research in Surface Engineering Technology (CREST) is a DIT designated research centre based in the Focas research institute that successfully provides the link between research and production. As the only dedicated surface coatings laboratory in Ireland, it serves the SMART economy by means of translating in-house fundamental knowledge from the bench-top to the market. The CREST model relies on an expert and professional coatings consultancy service to front-face its activity with over 60 years combined commercial surface coating experience. In addition to its consultancy service, CREST engages in collaborative projects with industries throughout Europe successfully securing funding from agencies including Enterprise Ireland, Ireland Science Foundation Ireland and the EU Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). Companies with a commitment to develop an innovative technology work with CREST in areas such as hygiene & corrosion control and photocatalysis. In partnership with these R&D-active companies, CREST has actively demonstrated technology translation by means of licensing to Irish manufacturing companies.

TEAM Prof. Declan Mc Cormack , Academic Director Dr. Yvonne Cadogan, Commercialisation Manager Dr. Brendan Duffy, Senior Research Manager Dr. Suresh Pillai, Senior Research Manager

Successful in the US-Ireland project, co-funded by SFI, Invest NI and NSF, USA (total value 1 million). Ten companies involved in Innovation Partnerships in 2011. Recipient p of four Enterprise p Ireland Commercialisation Awards and four DIT Hothouse Commercialisation Awards in 2011. Sixteen license agreements with two commercial products in the market (HyGen, Lo-Noise). Radical Coatings Ltd. spinout achieved in 2011.

RECENT PUBLICATIONS Nolan, T., Synnot, D., Seery, M., Hinder, S., Van Wassenhaven, A., Pillai, S.:Effect of N-Doping on the Photocatalytic Activity of Sol–Gel TiO2. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 211-212, 2012, p.88-94. S. Jaiswal, et al., Preparation and rapid analysis of antibacterial silver, copper and zinc doped sol–gel surfaces, Colloids Surf. B: Biointerfaces (2012), doi:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2012.01.035 Nolan, N., Seery, M., Pillai, S.: Crystallisation and Phase Transition Characteristics of Sol-Gel-Synthesized Zinc Titanates. Chem. Mater. 2011, 23, 1496–1504. doi.org/10.1021/cm1031688 Varma, R., Oubaha, M., Periyat, P., McDonagh, C., Duffy, B.: Application of Niobium Enriched Ormosils as Thermally Stable Coatings for Aerospace Aluminium Coatings. Surface and Coatings Technology, Volume 205, Issue 16, 15 May 2011, Pages 3992-3998.

Dr. Nigel Leyland, Research Scientist Dr. Joanna Carroll, Research Scientist Mr. Damian Synnott, y , Research Scientist

CONTACT DETAILS

Ms. Ashley Allen, Consultant Materials Engineer

Dr. Yvonne Cadogan

Mr. Paul Quinn, Senior Associate Consultant

t: 01-4027945

Ms. Swarna Jaiswal, PhD Student

m: 087-0629616

Mr. Michael Whelan, PhD Student

e: crest@dit.ie

Mr. Garrett Melia, PhD Student

w: www.crestdit.com

Mr. Craig Hicks, PhD Student Ms. Rachel Fagan, PhD Student Mr. Christopher Braiden, Intern

CREST, Focas Institute, DIT Kevin St., Camden Row, Dublin 8

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CREST CONSULTANCY SERVICES

ISO 9001:2008 ACCREDITED

CREST offers a professional consultancy service and engages with up to one

CREST operates within an ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System to

hundred companies/agencies in any one year with over 600 industrial

guarantee consistent and reliable project delivery. The adoption of the

engagements since 2003. CREST works with a wide range of companies from

standard provides a consistent framework for developing processes and a

SMEs to multinationals with an expertise in surface treatment and material

quality system that strives for continual improvement, business growth and

characterisation that comply with the requirements of international standards

both customer and employee satisfaction.

(ISO BS, (ISO, BS EN and d ASTM). ASTM) Capabilities C biliti range from f t h i l inspection, technical i ti specification, fit-for-purpose validation, corrosion control and hygiene control to the development of novel surface coating solutions for diverse industries.

ANALYTICAL FACILITIES Accelerated exposure analysis – durability/weathering Physical ys ca a analysis a ys s – hardness, a d ess, impact, pact, adhesion, ad es o , sc scratch atc etc etc. Paint application, dispersion and cure Surface area analysis Viscometry Microscopy – FESEM, AFM Spectroscopy – UV-Vis, FTIR, Raman, GC MS Material characterization - XRD and DSC & TGA CREST recently acquired an openair plasma system from PlasmaTreat with 1KW plasma l generator t and d rotating t ti jet j t

MISSION Our

mission

is

to

provide

new

opportunities

for

Ireland’s

economic growth through superior customer service, excellence in innovation, consultancy, education and training in surface coating and advanced material technologies

EXPERTISE Sol-gel coatings and testing Solvent, water-borne and powder coatings Metallic and inorganic coatings Physical & chemical testing Specification & validation Technical support

BRINGING INNOVATION

Innovation through R&D

TO THE SURFACE College Logo

Dr. Yvonne Cadogan

e: crest@dit.ie


FP7: AeroMUCO SUMMARY CREST (DIT) is participating in a EADS (Ger) led project funded through the Seventh Framework Programme developing advanced coatings for aircraft. The objective is drag reduction on the aircraft using laminar air flow concepts with multifunctional coatings. The coatings will function to provide anti-icing and anticontamination properties. properties The anti-icing research will deliver a set of resilient coatings that capable of reducing ice formation. There is also the potential to reduce the use of environmentally harmful de-icing fluids. The anti-contamination work will develop surface coatings that minimise or eliminate adhesion of biological matter from airborne insects.

IMPACT POTENTIAL

RESEARCH STRATEGY

The major impact of AEROMUCO will be on the conservation of fuel by making air transport more economic by supporting laminar flow measures.

There are different routes that will be exploited to achieve the project’s objective. These routes include

The use of efficient anti-ice coatings will lead to the potential employment of light weight devices (electric) for active de-icing and thusly to reduced energy

• Sol-gel materials providing multi-functionality

consumption. The present de-icing system using bleed air consume abound

• Freezing point suppressants that prevent ice formation

5 % of the engine power when turned on. By means of new innovative coatings, considerable savings of fuel can be realized and therefore

• Multilayered hard coatings increasing particulate impact resistance • Low surface energy coatings increasing hydrophobicity • Coatings with immobilised enzymes breaking down biological matter

contribute to the desired reduction in CO2 Enabling and improving as well as maintaining laminar flow conditions during flight by avoiding contamination and ice-formation will decrease CO2 emissions in aviation by an estimated 7 – 10 %. This correlates to 50 to 70

RESULTS TO DATE

billion tons of CO2 reduction based on the annual CO2 emission of 680 billion tons caused by aircraft.

Improved performance of anodised aluminium for leading edges

TEAM

Novel low surface energy coatings

Novel enzyme nano-reservoirs

synthesised

prepared

Insect adhesion investigated

Surface cleaning evaluated

Dr. Brendan Duffy, bduffy@dit.ie, Ph: 087-7805142


ChAT


CreativeMe


DECIPHER


FluenCi


MobiSurround


StratAG


DUBLIN ENERGY LAB KEY ACHIEVEMENTS 

O Over 30 Academic A d i Researchers R h



Ab About 30 P Postgraduate d R Researchers h and dP Postdocs d 100 journal and 200 conference papers in last 6 years €6m research funding from European, national funding bodies Patents, licenses and spin outs 





Strong industry links with SMEs, utilities and corporates Core member of the national Graduate Research Education Programme g in engineering and energy







RESEARCH INTERESTS Basic and applied research in

Access to very wide range of indoor and outdoor laboratory facilities in the areas of: f electrical l t i l machines hi and d power; materials t i l testing; t ti renewable bl technology labs; field energy monitoring; solar field trials; thermodynamics and fluids. Links with almost all Irish third-level energy gy researcher groups g p Strong relationships with other international research organisations

energy, renewable energy, energy efficiency

The Dublin Energy Lab (DEL) is an interdisciplinary research group working in the fields of energy, renewable energy and energy efficiency research It specialises in: research. • energy d device i development d l t • energy systems modelling and optimisation • policy research The DEL operates in the following main fields: • renewable energy supply (including solar) • smart networks • energy gy storage g • others (transport, behaviour, marketing) We offer research research, consulting and demonstration support support. For further information see <dit.ie/dublinenergylab/>

RECENT PUBLICATIONS McLoughlin, M L hli F F., D Duffy, ff A A., C Conlon, l M M.: Ch Characterising t i i d domestic ti electricity l t i it consumption patterns by dwelling and occupant socio socio-economic economic variables: An Irish case study. Energy and Buildings. 2012. g, M.,, Eames,, P.,, Norton,, B.,, Hewitt,, N.:Natural Convection in an Huang, Internally Finned Phase Change Material Heat Sink for the Thermal M Management t off Ph Photovoltaics. t lt i Solar S l Energy E M Materials t i l and dS Solar l C Cells, ll A Article ti l in Press Press, 2011 Ayompe L Ayompe, L., Duffy Duffy, A A., McCormack McCormack, S S., Conlon Conlon, M M.:: Projected costs of a grid gridconnected domestic PV system y under different scenarios in Ireland,, using g measured data from a trial installation. Energy Policy, 38, pp. 3731-3743. 2010 2010. Doherty, W., Reynolds, A., Kennedy, D.: Computer Simulation of a Biomass Gasification-Solid Gasification Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Aspen Plus Plus. Energy Energy, 2010,, Vol.35,, pp.4545-4555. pp Yueping Fang, Trevor Hyde, Neil Hewitt, Philip C. Eames, Brian Norton Thermal performance analysis of an electrochromic vacuum glazing with low emittance coatings Solar Energy, 84, 516-525, 2010

TEAM

CONTACT DETAILS Dr. Aidan Duffy Centre Manager Manager, Dublin Energy gy Lab, c/o School of Civil and Building Services Engineering, D bli IInstitute Dublin tit t off T Technology, h l Bolton Street Dublin 1. IRELAND t: + 353 1 402 3940 e: aidan.duffy@dit.ie aidan duffy@dit ie

in collaboration with…. with

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E gy Wizard Energy Wi d Energy gy Efficiencyy Retrofit Performance PROBLEM / MARKET NEED 1. Recent European legislation on energy efficiency and end use has shifted some off the responsibility ffor the efficient ff use off energy in the home from f the consumer to the energy supply company. company •

There is an onus on energy supply companies to reduce customer demand through g energy gy services and advice.

Energy supply companies do not know the amount and type of energy used by customers, thus presenting a barrier to energy advice.

To promote consumer investment, they y must provide confident rational advice on a dwelling specific basis.

PREFERRED ROUTE TO COMMERCIALISATION CO C S O DIT is currently working with Electric Ireland who will be using this product to supportt their suppo t e customer custo e base. base Further u t e co commercial e c a pote potential ta e exists sts for o licencing ce c g to utilities and other energy providers. Such options will be considered as the project progresses.

2. There is no accurate, impartial information for consumers regarding the fi financial i l performance f off retrofit t fit energy efficiency ffi i measures specific ifi to t their th i dwelling In the Irish energy market dwelling. market, the economic performance of such interventions is typically given by the company supplying the product and average figures are quoted to all potential customers. •

Customers are interested in the balance between the financial savings achievable hi bl through th h retrofit t fit off their th i dwelling d lli and d th the capital it l costt off the th remedial measure measure. In order to promote investment in the sector sector, the potential financial savings must be linked to the consumers demand on a case by case basis.

3. There are technologies available to model the thermal performance of d lli dwellings using i computational t ti l fluid fl id d dynamics i techniques t h i that th t could ld be b used d to model the performance of such technologies •

But; they are time consuming, consuming expensive, expensive require expertise with the product,, are data intensive and require p q detailed surveyy of the dwelling g in question. A simpler solution is required.

TECHNOLOGY SOLUTION The technique that is used to estimate energy demand in the dwelling for Building Energy Ratings (BERs) is called an asset rating technique. It is a heat balance approach that makes standardised assumptions regarding heating season and required internal temperature temperature. Our approach was to simplify the data requirements of the asset rating approach and calibrate it using the consumers actual annual demand. The programme is used on a dwelling by dwelling basis and multiple simulations are carried out simultaneously to represent each of the energy efficiency remedial measures considered considered.

Retrofit Measures

Attic Insulation

External Wall Insulation

Cavity Wall insulation

Internal Dry Lining

IP POSITION IP developed as part of the project is owned by DIT and ESB Electric Ireland.

High efficiency Boilers

Energy Efficient Lighting

Window upgrade

Lagging Jacket

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Daire Reilly (dairereilly@gmail (dairereilly@gmail.com) com)


ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH CENTRE KEY ACHIEVEMENTS Achieved Funding from, i) Enterprise Ireland Commercialization fund for UPQC ii) CaBS Award from Research Support Unit of DIT for Smart Grid Technology iii) Strand 1 for Power Quality in DG integrated Network with UPQC iv) HEA Equipment Grant for Real Time Simulation Laboratory Set up v) UK EPSRC collaboration Grant vi) DIT Fiosraigh research grant for Smart Microgrid International Research Collaboration: i)

Institute of Energy Technology (IET) at Aalborg University

EPRC@DIT

ii)

Purdue University

Towards a Clean, Secured and Sustainable Electricity Network

iii)

University of Ulster

iv) Durham University v)

RESEARCH INTERESTS ƒ Smart S tG Grid id and d Microgrid Mi id Networks N t k 9 Autonomous Operation p 9 Efficient and Economic Performance ƒ Integration I t ti off Renewable R bl Energy E with ith FACTS devices d i 9 Wind Energy gy 9 Solar Photovoltaic Energy ƒ Grid-tie Grid tie Inverter Topology 9 Voltage g Source Inverter 9 Z-Source Inverter 9 Control 9 Anti-islanding Technique ƒ Power Quality Monitoring, Analysis and Improvement 9 eCAR Charging Analysis ƒ Design and Development of FACTS devices 9 Active Power Filter 9 Dynamic Voltage Restorer 9 Unified Power Quality Conditioner ƒ Assessment of Urban Wind Energy Resource 9Behaviour of urban wind environment 9Interaction of microwind generation and distribution network ƒ Electric networks for Wave Energy Systems ƒ Impact of CHP on Urban Networks ƒ Vibration Analysis of Generator Stators

PhD & PostDoc Researchers: Completed - 5, Continuing – 3 Academic Researchers: 10 Published Papers in Journal and Conferences: more than 30 within last 5 years

RECENT PUBLICATIONS S K Khadem, M Basu and M F Conlon, "UPQC for Power Quality Improvement in DG Integrated Smart Grid Network – A Review, Review " International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems: Vol. 13: Iss. 1, Article 3, 2012 L Mariam, M Basu and M F Conlon, “A Review of Existing Microgrid Architectures”, SEEP Conference, Ireland, pp. 179-1184, 2012 M. Hanif, M. Basu, and K. Gaughan, "Understanding the operation of a Z-source inverter for photovoltaic application with a design example example," Power Electronics Electronics, IET, vol. 4, pp. 278-287, 2011 S. K. Khadem, M. Basu and M. F. Conlon, “Integration of UPQC for Power Quality Improvement in Distributed Generation Network – A Review”, ISGT Europe 2011 2011, Manchester UK UK, Dec 2011 L. Ayompe, L Ayompe A. A Duffy, Duffy S S. McCormack, McCormack and M M. F. F Conlon Conlon, "Measured Measured performance of a 1.72 kilowatt rooftop grid-connected photovoltaic system in Ireland," Energy C Conversion and Management, vol. 52, pp. 816-825, 2011 II. Axente, A t M. M Basu, B and d M. M F. F Conlon, C l "DC link li k voltage lt control t l off UPQC for f better b tt dynamic performance, performance," Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 81, pp. 1815 18151824, 2011

TEAM Faculty Members

UPC, Spain

Research Scholars

Axente, I., Ganesh, J., Basu, M., Gaughan, K., Conlon, M.: Development of a 12 kVA DSP-Controlled DSP C t ll d Laboratory L b t Prototype P t t UPQC. UPQC IEEE Transactions T ti Power P ( ), pp. pp 1471- 1479. June,, 2010. Electronics,, Vol. 25(6),

Dr Michael F Conlon

Shafiuzzaman Khan Khadem

Michael Farrell

Lubna Mariam

D M Dr Malabika l bik B Basu

B i hKP Benish Paelly ll

Kevin Gaughan

Fergus Sharkey

Head, Department of Control Engineering

Joseph Keraney

France Darlus Mengapche

Acting Head, School of Electrical Engineering Systems

Keith Sunderland

Stefan Geidel

Dr Jayanti N G

David Shally

CONTACT DETAILS Dr Michael Conlon Director, Electric Power Research Centre

DIT, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 Email: michael.conlon@dit.ie Ph: +353-1-4022838

College C ll g Logo


C Concentration t ti off Solar S l Energy E Using U i S it h bl Reflectors Switchable R Reflectors. fl t KEY OUTPUTS / POTENTIAL

SUMMARY / ABSTRACT Presently, effective concentration of sunlight at medium-high concentration ratios requires tracking off the diurnal and seasonal solar path changes. Such S mechanical tracking systems can be quite complex and add significant cost of material, installation, use, maintenance and repair. p A novel system y incorporating p g “switchable reflectors” has the potential to track the sun with no mechanical moving i parts t and d provide id economic i advantages. d t Pi Prismatic, ti electrochromic l t h i (EC) gasochromic, (EC), gasochromic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC or LC) and electrophoretic or suspended particle device (SPD) technologies provide switching capabilities to modulate the transmittance of the solar spectrum. Such technologies are already being used in buildings to regulate sun light transmission and consequently q y control the solar heat flow through g windows,, reducing heating and cooling requirements and the costs involved [1]. Emerging d developments l t apply l the th switching it hi capability bilit to t reflectors. fl t Th switching The it hi reflectors can be used as a transmissive or reflective window or possibly at an intermediary state. An additional advantage offered by LC, SPD and electrochromic devices is their electrical control. The combination of traditional and d switchable it h bl reflectors fl t i t the into th design d i off solar l concentrators t t could ld allow ll th the collection of solar energy at different angular ranges, as well as improve the proportion of diffuse light component to be collected [2, 3].

HIGHLIGHTS TO DATE Switchable reflectors are an innovative technology that can change from being transparent (fully or partially) to reflective to solar radiation. Four main types of switchable mirrors are available: prismatic, gasochromic, electrochromic and liquid crystal (LC). (LC) Nowadays only the LC type appears to be commercially available from Kent Optronics Inc.

SR in reflective state [[7]. ] SR semi-reflective or semi-transparent state.

p SR in transparent state.

Afternoon Sun Evening Sun

PV or PV/T module South

S R

PV or PV/T module

NonSR North

Possible configuration g to track the sun path seasonal change with switchable mirrors mirrors.

West

Presently, absorption, Presently absorption transmission and switching speed measurements have been carried out suspended p particle devices ((SPD)) and liquid p q crystal y switchable windows of 15x15cm from SmartGlass International. Ltd. Switching Off for SPD occurs in i order d off 500ms 00 to 2s 2 according di to the h wavelength. l h Switching S i hi On O occurs between 200ms and 400ms. 400ms Comparatively the On switching time for LC window is in the order of 15ms and between 25ms and 55ms for the Off switching g time. Note switching times lengthen with the window size. Similar switching speed for LC switchable mirrors are expected. This would make a solar concentrator using switchable mirrors practical to adapt to changing solar conditions, conditions maintaining the desired solar concentration and collecting a greater amount of the diffused component compared to traditional solar concentrators.

Above bo e iss tthe ee expected pected co comparative pa at e representation ep ese tat o o of so solar a e energy e gy co collected ected du during g the day for a fixed solar concentrator (eg fixed CPC), a fixed solar concentrator using switchable reflectors (eg fixed CPC with switchable mirrors) and a motorized sun-tracking solar concentrator (eg 1-axis CPC). CPC) Simulation is being carried out using the optical properties of the parts composing solar concentrators,, the choice of concentrator design, g , the absorber p properties p and the solar input conditions.

REFERENCES Morning Sun

S R

Winter Sun path th

Potential Disadvantages: x Optical losses greater than a tracking system as insolation passes through an additional dditi l transparent t t element. l t x Cost of switchable mirrors may not reduce overall cost of energy produced taking optical losses into account. x Long-term optical performance of switchable mirrors is unproven.

Pixels part in reflection state and transparent state.

At times when a solar ray in a specified angular range are incident on a switchable reflector, reflector the ray is directly reflected onto the solar absorber which could be Photovoltaic (PV), Thermal (T) or an hybrid PV/T. At other times of the day, the switchable reflector is set to be fully or partially transparent, allowing the incident beam to reach the second reflector and consequently reflected onto the absorber absorber. Mid-Day Sun Summer Sun path

Potential Advantages: x Greater amount of solar energy collected. x Cost lowered by reduced area of expensive solar energy absorber. absorber g p parts;; obviating g need for,, and cost of,, motors,, controls and x No moving associated input power. x Minimal maintenance requirement.

NonSR East

Sectional view of a possible configuration fi i to track k the h sun path h at times of the day.

1.Lampert, C. M. (1995), Chromogenic Switchable Glazing: Towards the Development of the Smart Window. Window Innovations ’95, Toronto, Canada, June 5-6 5-6, 1995,The 1995 The Proceedings. Proceedings 2.Norton, 2 Norton B B. (2009) (2009), Concentrating Solar Energy without Moving Parts Parts. CISBAT 2009,, Lausanne,, Switzerland,, September p 2009 3.Norton, 3 Norton B B. and McCormack McCormack, S S., Dublin Institute of Technology (2009) (2009). Switchable Mirrors for Solar Concentration.

TEAM / FUNDERS Myy PhD, started in Januaryy 2012, is supervised p byy Professor Brian Norton and Dr. John Doran. The project is funded by IRCSET-Graduate Research Education P Programme i Engineering in E i i (GREP-Eng) (GREP E ) and d based b d att DIT Dublin D bli Energy E L b Lab.

Construction drawing of an inward facing CPC of acceptance angle T. T

Possible IF-CPC in a W-E orientation for diurnal tracking using switchable mirrors. mirrors q acceptance p angle g is 2T The equivalent

Philippe Lemarchand Lemarchand. DEL, DEL FOCAS Institute Institute, DIT DIT. philippe.lemarchand@mydit.ie philippe lemarchand@mydit ie +35314027928


FOOD & HEALTH RESEARCH CENTRE (FHRC) RESEARCH INTERESTS Functional foods and nutraceuticals: • bio-prospecting from dairy, marine, brewing fruit & vegetables brewing, • fermentation • genetic diversity and conservation Post-harvest and non-thermal technologies: • quality and nutritional characteristics • shelf-life extension

FFoodandHealth d d H lth ResearchCentre

THE TEAM Research in the Food and Health Research Centre is interdisciplinary and applied and is both industry and policy relevant relevant. The cross-disciplinary teams of researchers focus on food safety, safety quality and nutrition nutrition, including nutraceutical research and the development of innovative foods that are health enhancing and novel technologies that ensure safety. safety It includes DIT staff, post-doctoral researchers and post graduates students from various Schools in the College S i & Health H l h & the h School S h l off Culinary C li Arts A & off Sciences F d Technology. Food T h l

• applied modelling for process optimisation

KEY ACHIEVEMENTS

Food product development and culinary innovation:

‰ Over 100 peer reviewed publications & numerous books

• sensory analysis and consumer evaluation • processing and product innovation • molecular gastronomy • cereall and d baking b ki technology t h l F d safety Food f t and d diagnostic di ti ttools: l • qualitative and quantitative, environmental and nutritional • health h lth risk i k assessmentt and d managementt

‰ 1 License & 1 patent-pending ‰ Substantial research funding g (National ( & International)) ‰ Numerous PhD, PhD MSc & MPhil completions

FACILITIES ‰ Pilot and lab lab-scale scale processing

‰ Commercial product preparation ‰ Food packaging systems ‰ Fully equipped sensory laboratory

• novel and natural antimicrobials and technologies g

‰ Fully equipped instrumental analytical suite

• metabolic t b li profiling, fili h hyperspectral t l imaging, i i sensor design d i

‰ Food Analysis

S ll molecule Small l l biotechnology: bi t h l

‰ Shelf Shelf-life life Determination

• carbohydrate y synthetic y chemistryy & enzymatic y biosynthesis y

‰ Dedicated D di t d Microbiology, Mi bi l Ch i t Chemistry, Bi h i t Biochemistry & Posthar est research laboratories Postharvest

• molecular enzymology

‰ Structural and functional genomic analysis

•p process engineering g g

CONTACT DETAILS

Human health and nutrition:

For more details on the FHRC, FHRC please contact Dr Catherine Barry Barry-Ryan Ryan, College of Sciences and Health Cathal Brugha St., Health, St Dublin 1, 1 Ireland at catherine barryryan@dit ie or 01 catherine.barryryan@dit.ie 01-4024458 4024458.

• interactions with functional ingredients • status and evidence based solutions at demographic level

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New Applications for Brewing Industry By-Products KEY OUTPUTS / POTENTIAL

SUMMARY / ABSTRACT Brewers spent grain (BSG) is the main waste product from beer production (85%) and equates to approximately 20 kg per 100 litres of beer produced. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, 160,000 tonnes of BSG are produced annually in Ireland, while across Europe the figure is about 3.4 million tonnes per annum. BSG is a valuable natural resource, containing dietary fibre (up to 70%), protein (25%), phenolic substances and carbohydrates and has potential benefits for human nutrition. However, until now it has been sold as cattle feed, composted or disposed of in landfill and has received little attention as a marketable commodity. The recycling of brewers spent grain has great potential due to its high availability, low cost and proven safety for human consumption. This project investigates the potential of BSG in generating new potential functional foods and nutraceuticals through the application of the extrusion process or by employing a number of physical and chemical methods to extract valuable bioactive compounds such as arabinoxylans.

9 Valuable information on the range of bioactive phenolic compounds in BSG as potential nutraceutical and pharmaceutical ingredients 9 A range of healthy snack prototypes have been developed by extrusion with much higher fibre level and lower Glycaemic index than typical commercial healthy snacks suggesting possible applications in the diabetic or weight control sectors. 9 “Green methods” for the extraction of arabinoxylans 9 Water extractable arabinoxylans has potential use in the food industry as food hydrocolloids. 9 Alkaline extractable arabinoxylans has potential applications in material sciences including textiles and packaging.

Dietary supplementation of arabinoxylans has been reported to have many health benefits including lower cholesterol absorption and control of type-2 diabetes.

HIGHLIGHTS TO DATE 9 Fibre content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity increased with the incorporation of up to 30% of BSG in extruded healthy snacks. 9 The insoluble fibre arabinoxylans is a major dietary fibre in BSG with significant g antioxidant activity y and offers may yp possibilities for new ingredient g manufacture. Arabinoxylans showed bifidogenic properties (promote the growth of bifidobacterium in the gut). 9 Current research is focusing on developing “Green methods” incorporating water, ultrasound and a combination treatment of pressure and temperature to enhance the levels of arabionxylans extraction from BSG for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Spent grain

Extrusion process

Freeze-dried spent grain

Figure 2 Schematic of arabinoxylans extraction procedure

TEAM / FUNDERS Dr. Nissreen Abu-Ghannam (Principal Investigator, research supervisor) Sofia Reis (PhD student) The researchers acknowledge funding from the Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine. FIRM project No. 08RDTAFRC665 Extruded snacks

Figure 1 Schematic for the generation of healthy extruded snacks

School of Food Science and Environmental Health College of Sciences & Health

E-mail: nissreen.abughannam@dit.ie sofia.reis@dit.ie

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Utilization of by-products from Cheese Industry for Quality Retention of Canned Irish Tomatoes Lubna Ahmed and Catherine Barry-Ryan

SUMMARY

KEY OUTPUTS / POTENTIAL

Tomato is a versatile vegetable that is consumed either as fresh or, mainly, as processed products (more than 65 % of the world tomato production being processed). It is considered as an important source of dietary antioxidants as it is rich in vitamins, carotenoids and phenolic compounds.

The application of DWP significantly retained the phyto-chemical and antioxidant contents and maintained firmness of canned tomato throughout the storage.

However, processing and storage of commercial tomato-based products may result in a decrease in some quality attributes, including loss of colour and nutrients. Retention of the quality and shelf-life of fresh tomato and processed tomato products is now the interest of the industry and consumers. by product of whey protein concentrate from cheese. cheese Whey Whey permeate is a by-product and whey permeate have been proposed to be used as a natural antioxidant in foods. The aim of this project is to investigate the efficacy of delactosed whey permeate (DWP) treatment on retention of the antioxidant and phytochemical contents of canned tomatoes during storage.

Since thermal processing has an adverse effect on retention of most phytochemicals, addition of natural thermo-stable antioxidants like DWP is warranted in food industries. The work described here has been published in Food Chemistry “Ahmed, L., Patras, A., Martin-Diana, A. B., Rico, D. and Barry-Ryan, C. (2012) (2012). The effect of delactosed whey permeate on phytochemical content of canned tomatoes. Food Chemistry, 134, 2249–2256”.

6

A Texture (N)

5 4 3 2

B

Irish Plum Tomatoes

Removing the skin

Tomatoes with DWP + NaCl + Citric acid

As scorbic Acid (mg/100 g DW)

1 0

160

1

2

3

4

5

6

Storage (Months)

150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

5

6

C

Storage at RT

Barriquand Steriflow canning machine

Lycopene (mg/100 g DW)

Storage (Months) 140 130 120 110 100 90 0

1

2

3

4

Storage (Months)

Figure 1. Processing of canned tomato

Colour

General Acceptability M1

M1

HIGHLIGHTS TO DATE o

DWP treatment markedly inhibited the loss of firmness (40 %) over 6 months storage.

o

DWP treated tomatoes had significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of vitamin C, lycopene and antioxidant activity compared to control samples (NaCl +Citric acid) throughout the storage.

M6

M2

DWP prevented the thermal degradation of vitamin C during canning by inhibiting oxidation as well as forming a protective layer on the tissue surface.

o

DWP also have prevented the high temperature induced oxidation of lycopene in tomatoes

o

DWP enhanced the retention of antioxidants in canned tomatoes during storage. The antioxidant activity (as measured by FRAP) of DWP treated tomatoes was higher (7 %) than the control at the end of storage. The sensory analysis showed that the colour and acceptability of tomatoes treated with DWP was higher than the control samples.

M6

10 9 8 7 6

M2

5 4

M5

o

o

D

10 9 8 7 6 5 4

M3

M4

M5

M3

M4

Figure 2. Effect of DWP on (A) texture, (B) vitamin C, (C) lycopene and (D) sensory markers of canned tomatoes over 6 months of storage.

TEAM / FUNDERS o DIT Strand I Research Project, o Glanbia (Ltd. Ingredients, Ireland), o Amcor Flexible Ltd. UK and o Sharp Interpack Ltd. UK.

Contact Details: lubna.ahmed@dit.ie ; Tel: +353 (0) 1 402-4442

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Postharvest Research on the Quality of Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) Summary The Irish mushroom industry is an important production sector that is under pressure to develop market-led, value-added products for the export market. Mushrooms are exposed to a number of environmental conditions post harvest which may affect the product quality. Loss of whiteness during storage is particularly important in the mushroom industry, depending on a white mushroom for high quality product export. Rough handling, transportation, fruiting body senescence, bacterial and viral infections are among the main causes of mushroom discoloration. There is a definite need in the mushroom industry to investigate techniques that could be used to rapidly detect/discriminate mushroom damage and also to understand the physical and biological factors involved in the loss of mushroom whiteness.

EXPERTISE o

o

12 Years of experience in research and innovation of Postharvest quality vegetables and mushrooms mushrooms o

Quality of fresh vegetables.

o

Using new sensors.

o

Cold Chain Assessment.

o

Packaging Packaging.

(2) Cold Chain assessment â&#x20AC;&#x201C; effect on quality of mushroom Ability Ability to assess a cold chain. chain Potential to interpret and assess the effect of cold chain in fresh vegetables

Figure 3. (A) Temp and relative humidity profile of the abuse and ideal condition and the effect on (B) total colour difference and (C) hardness in mushroom over 9 days of storage.

(3) HSI Systems to detect microbiological damage (brown blotch)

Washing and decontamination (chemical and physical) treatments.

o

Experience in consulting with industry in the area of postharvest technology

o

Development of Innovation Vouchers and Innovation Partnerships with industry.

Fig 4: HSI images of the mushrooms undamaged (up), bruise damaged (center) and brown blotch infected (down)

Fig 5: Diagram and image of a hyperspectral imaging system

 HSI can be used to classify mushrooms according to their damage class: Undamaged, mechanically damaged, diseased (brown blotch)  Potential to develop automated tool in industry for the detection of damage (4) FTIR-imaging spectroscopy to detect MVX Fig 1: Assessing the effect of mechanical damage (i.e. damage during transportation) on mushroom quality

KEY OUTPUTS / POTENTIAL (1) FTIR, NMR & GC/MS: The effect of mechanical damage on metabolism  Potential: Rapid techniques to identify damage  Potential: To develop fundamental knowledge of metabolic changes in mushrooms and fresh vegetables.

 FTIR FTIR-imaging imaging could discriminate between non-infected mushrooms and those that had been infected by the virus  Potential Rapid technique compared to PCR technology Fig 6: MVX infected vs non-infected mushrooms analysed by FTIR-imaging spectroscopy and the differences between their spectra

COLLABORATORS/FUNDERS o Momaghan Mushroom Research Group: John Collier and Jenna Warby. Sensors and Cold Chain Assessment. o DIT collaborations: PJ Cullen, Paula Bourke, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam, Catherine BarryRyan, Lubna Ahmed. o UCC :Pramod Mahajan, Maria Gallagher and Jorge Oliveira. Packaging. o Funders: Science Foundation Ireland, Food Institutional Research Measure, Enterprise Ireland Innovation Partnerships and IRCSET o Teagasc: Helen Grogan, Gerry Downey. Cultivation and Sensors o AFBI: Mairead Fitzpatrick Fitzpatrick. Virus MVX Fig 2: Spectroscopic techniques used to discriminate damaged from undamaged mushrooms

o UCD: Colm Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Donnell. HSI and imaging

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Contact Details: Jesus Frias; Tel: +353 1 4024459; email: Jesus.Frias@dit.ie


Development of Functional Foods based on utilisation of Edible Irish Seaweeds S SUMMARY / ABSTRACT S C The Atlantic cost of Ireland is one of the most productive seaweed growing areas in the world. The Irish coast is home to more than 500 seaweed species but research has only focused on a small number (16-18) for commercial exploitation. Irelandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s seaweed and biotechnology sector is currently worth â&#x201A;Ź18 million per annum 0 tonnes of seaweed (wild product) are harvested per year 185 full time employees 185 Seaweeds are a powerhouse of natural ingredients with potent biological properties such as anti-oxidants anti-bacterial anti-cancer and anti-diabetic. Seaweed bioactive groups are mainly polyphenols polysaccharides carotenoids polyunsaturated fatty acids proteins and peptides.  Seaweed drying is the most typical approach that seaweed processors follow in Ireland for purposes of preservation enhancing shelf-life and convenience. However the drying procedures as currently applied significantly compromises the biological content and activity of seaweeds. This research has focused on brown seaweeds due to their high antioxidant activity in comparison with other seaweed species. In particular the species Himanthalia elongata or sea Spaghetti was studies with respect to: bioactivity content optimization of the drying process to retain maximum bioactivity and avenues for incorporation in typical Irish food products with a view to enhance the functional and nutraceutical characteristic of such products.

KEY OUTPUTS / POTENTIAL The addition of H. elongata into bakery and meat products in the development of functional foods opens up new potential for seaweed utilisation. Increased levels of dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity were observed for bakery and meat products upon the incorporation of up to a maximum of 40% of seaweeds. Extension in shelf-life and reduction in lipid oxidation for meat products incorporated with seaweeds. seaweeds The developed products scored high levels of sensory acceptability.  Reduction in the Glycemic index of bread products upon the incorporation of seaweeds. Significant potential for the exploitation and the addition of seaweeds in traditional Irish products to enhance their nutritional image and to contribute towards the population health and well being. The drying procedures as applied by seaweed producers in Ireland have been reviewed and optimized and new time and temperature conditions have been developed to maximize the retention of biological activities in seaweeds.

HIGHLIGHTS TO DATE H. H elongata l contains i hi high h llevels l off bi biological l i l activity i i off significant i ifi iimportance to h health lh including high fibre content.  Drying methods were optimized in this research to maximize the retention of biological activities as drying significantly reduces the potency of seaweed biological properties.

Figure 2 Seaweeds incorporated in bakery products

Dried and rehydrated seaweeds were incorporated into commonly consumed convenience products to enhance their nutraceutical properties (dietary fibre and antioxidants) this included bakery and meat products.

TEAM / FUNDERS D Ni Dr. Nissreen Ab Abu-Ghannam Gh (P (Principle i i l IInvestigator ti t research h supervisor) i ) Sabrina Cox (PhD student) The researchers acknowledge funding from the Dublin Institute of Technology under the ABBEST Programme.

Duileasc

Himanthalia elongata

Alaria

School of Food Science and Environmental  College of Sciences and Health Nori

Carrageen Moss

Kelp Laminaria digitata

Figure 1 Typical Irish seaweed species

College Logo nissreen.abughannam@dit.ie, sabrina.cox@dit.ie, phone: (01) 4027570


SUMMARY / ABSTRACT

KEY OUTPUTS / POTENTIAL

Current cleaning validation techniques are largely based on laborious, time consuming and expensive swab sampling techniques, whereby swabs of the cleaned surface are taken and then tested using HPLC techniques in the laboratory.

The results have shown the feasibility of such technology to be used to provide accurate information in real-time, facilitating the development of a custom-made version of the technology that will be trialed in the pharmaceutical industry as a cleaning validation tool.

Equipment can be down for days, which poses enormous economic burden in the pharmaceutical industry.

A portable imaging device will be designed and built and tested on a commonly used APIs and detergents in real pharmaceutical environments in order to validate its effectiveness and reliability.

The aim of the OPTICLEAN project is to produce an effective portable optical system for cleaning verification in the pharmaceutical industry.

The impact of the uptake of the technology will enable rapid turn-around turn around times, increased through-put and profitability in EU pharmaceutical plants, as well as increased safety standards, which are paramount to safeguarding the health and safety of EU citizens.

HIGHLIGHTS TO DATE Low limits of detection achieved  1m Compound identification and quantification Direct measurement Rapid speed of analysis Non-contact

http://www.opticlean-fp7.eu/ TEAM / FUNDERS The RTD providers are Dublin Institute of Technology DIT (Ireland)

Caffeine/lactose blend 60

g/cm2

10

g/cm2

1

g/cm2

VTT Research Centre of Finland (Finland) Innovació i Recerca Industrial i Sostenible IRIS (Spain)

The SMEs involved in the project are Innopharma Labs (Ireland) Coordinator Merrion Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (Ireland) Manufacturas Serviplast. S.A. (Spain) Kuava Ltd. (Finland) Rikola Ltd. (Finland)

OPTICLEAN is a 2-year R&D project funded by the Seventh Framework Programme of the EC under the “Research for SMEs” sub-programme. This project started in November 2011 and will end in October 2013

Contact Details: pjcullen@dit.ie

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Antioxidant Antioxidant-rich t o da t rich c apple app e peel pee extract e t act A natural t l option ti tto protect t t th the quality lit off ffoods d

PREFERRED ROUTE TO COMMERCIALISATION CO C S O

PROBLEM / MARKET NEED •

Waste prevention through resource efficiency is a top environmental priority set by the European Commission C to ensure cost savings and promote new business opportunities opportunities.

The agri-food agri food waste generated by the agriculture and food & drink industry can be minimised or recycled y in alternative to traditional disposal p routes,, such as incineration or landfill.

Apple waste left by field operations and industrial processing can be used for the preparation of plant extracts rich in bioactive compounds (e.g. phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties). properties)

Natural N t l plant l t extracts t t (botanicals) (b t i l ) can be b used d in i functional f ti l food f d applications li ti and/or in non non-food food products (e.g. cosmetics) as additives to prevent lipid oxidation and/or microbial spoilage.

In Ireland, the growing of traditional culinary apple varieties (cv Bramley’s Seedling) for home baking or processing has gone into decline at the beginning of 2000’ leading 2000’s, l di to t their th i over-production d ti att low l f farm gate t price. i

Peels P l from f processed d apples l are generally ll discarded di d d and d used d as land l d fertiliser f tili or as feed for cattle; however, however they can be valuable sources of plant compounds with already reported antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. New market opportunities can arise from their use as botanicals in food and non-food applications. applications

Short term route: Short-term The peell extract Th t t can be b used d instead i t d off synthetic th ti additives dditi ( in (or i partial ti l substitution) for the physical, physical chemical and microbiological stabilization (shelf (shelflife extension) of liquid products, e.g. water and oil-in-water emulsions (e.g. juices and beverages; vegetable soups; cosmetics).

Long-term route: The peel extract can be used as a nutraceutical or functional ingredient. DIT are currently seeking industry partners in the food ingredients or cosmetics markets to partner with in developing this novel product for the functional food ingredients market and/or cosmetics market. market

TECHNOLOGY SOLUTION •

A novel approach for the recovery, recovery purification and delivery of peel flavonoids (i.e. (i e flavan-3-ols,, flavonols and dihydrochalcones) y ) as a botanical extract from processed apples such as cv Bramley’s Seedling has been developed on the basis off preparation techniques (e.g. ( brewing methods)) widely used for f other herbal and herbal tea products. products

The brewing process uses water in alternative to organic solvents for the extraction of target g compounds p from fresh or dried-powdered p plant material,, thus p avoiding further purification steps for the removal of unwanted lipoidal material or pigments i ( hl (chlorophylls h ll and d carotenoids) id ) and d reducing d i the h disposal di l volumes l off highly flammable organic solvents and/or their final presence in the dry extract. extract

The isolated flavonoid compounds can be concentrated under vacuum by removing g water through g a sublimation p process in order to obtain the final extract in the form of a dry powder.

IP POSITION The process is patent pending. DIT are seeking licensees with a view to commercialisation.

DIT College C ll off Science S i and d Health H lth S h l off Food School F d Science S i and d Environmental E i l Health, Cathal Brugha g Street, Dublin 1 DIT Hothouse Technology Transfer Office Aungier Street Street, Dublin 2

Research: Laura Massini (PhD student – laura.massini@dit.ie) laura massini@dit ie) and Dr. Dr Catherine Barry-Ryan Barry Ryan (leading supervisor, i ph. h 01 402 4458 – catherine.barryryan@dit.ie). th i b @dit i ) Innovation: Dermot Tierney (Licensing Executive Executive, ph ph. 01 402 7128 – dermot.tierney@dit.ie). dermot tierney@dit ie)


Probiotic fermentation of Brassica vegetables SUMMARY / ABSTRACT

POTENTIAL

Brassica vegetables include a number of common vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kale and kohlrabi. These vegetables are rich in a number of bioactive metabolites such as vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids and isothiocyanates, which are associated with significant health benefits such as antioxidant and anticancer properties . Brassicas account for almost half (47%) of all field vegetable production by area in Ireland with cabbage and broccoli at 19% and 13% respectively. Recent research has shown that consumption of fruit and vegetables is positively associated with the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, hypertension and strokes. This research is exploring new processing methodologies for exploiting a range of Irish vegetables for the development of new functional foods through the application of probiotic fermentation. The products developed will capitalise on the already-established health promoting benefits of probiotics and the capacity of the fermentation process to produce new products with enhanced flavours, aromas and new textures. Products developed from this research have the potential to increase vegetable consumption in the Irish diet. diet

ƒ Bioactive compounds of Brassica vegetables may be exploited as biopreservatives in food applications, or neutraceuticals for possible applications in functional foods for health promotion. ƒ Salt-free probiotic fermented vegetables with enhanced neutraceutical properties, flavours and aromas can offer attractive new options for vegetable consumption in the Irish diet. ƒ Vegetable based probiotic juice with high concentrations of active probiotic bacteria enhanced levels of isothiocyanates with inherent polyphenols and bacteria, antioxidant properties can potentially be developed into innovative products in the health drink sector. ƒ In comparison to the dairy industry, which has a well-established market niche for probiotic fermentation products, the application of this technology to plant products is seriously underdeveloped. The research so far has pointed to significant opportunities to develop new functional foods from Irish vegetables.

HIGHLIGHTS TO DATE ƒ Optimization of extraction procedures for polyphenols from Brassica vegetables. ƒ Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Irish Brassica species. ƒ Probiotic fermented vegetable products shown to retain most of their initial polyphenol content (> 80%) and antioxidant properties (> 90%). ƒ Probiotic fermentation under conditions established in this research, using a Bioflo 415 bioreactor, successfully established methodologies for the degradation of non-nutritive glucosinolates and generation of breakdown products such as isothiocyanates, which are well known for their chemopreventive properties.

White cabbage

Bioflo 415 Bioreactor (7 lit capacity) Stalk removed

Cut cabbage

Juice preparation

KEY OUTPUTS High Probiotic bacteria

Filtration Antioxidant Activity

Longer shelf life

symposium and ƒ Results R lt were presented t d iin various i i d iinternational t ti l conferences. f

Probiotic P bi ti cabbage Juice High Organic acid content

TEAM / FUNDERS

Polyphenol Rich Low sugar content

ƒ Six papers were published in various peer reviewed international journals. ƒ Four more papers in different stages of publication.

Probiotic juice Probiotic Fermentation

Sterilization of Juice

Schematic presentation of probiotic cabbage juice preparation

Dr. Nissreen Abu-Ghannam (Principal Investigator, research supervisor) Amit Kumar Jaiswal (PhD researcher) The researchers acknowledge funding from the Irish government under the Technological Sector Research Scheme (Strand III) of the National Development Plan.

School of Food Science and Environmental Health College of Sciences & Health

e-mail: nissreen.abughannam@dit.ie, amit.kumar@dit.ie

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SUMMARY / ABSTRACT

KEY OUTPUTS / POTENTIAL

The fresh-cut industry is heavily dependent on chlorine as one of the most effective sanitizers to assure the safety of their produce. However, in light of concerns about the environmental and health risks associated with the formation of carcinogenic disinfection by-products, there is increasing pressure on the industry to eliminate chlorine from the disinfection process.

The goal of the proposed work is to optimize and validate this novel approach to reduce pathogens in fresh produce while extending shelf-life and maintaining quality.

The SAFE-BAG project aims at developing a novel continuous in-pack decontamination system for fresh-cut produce.

Once ready, the SAFE-BAG system will be extensively tested at fresh fruit and vegetable processing facilities. The performance of the prototype will be validated and the treated produce analysed to ensure its safety and to categorize it in terms of product quality and shelf-life.

Plasma (an energetic ionized gas) is widely used for industrial materials processing, and has recently shown promise as a decontamination tool for food contact surfaces.

The developers of SAFE-BAG SAFE BAG are committed to making this system affordable, robust and easy to maintain. Achieving this will make the technology accessible to the hundreds of European fresh-cut SMEs.

HIGHLIGHTS TO DATE Rapid microbial inactivation (seconds) Significant shelf â&#x20AC;&#x201C;life extensions of food Retention of product quality Plastic or glass packaging No chemical residues Energy efficient technology

http://www.safebag-fp7.eu

TEAM / FUNDERS The SME Associations involved in the project are Food Industry Association of Austria (Austria) Federation of the Food & Drink Industries of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic) Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Slovena â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Chamber of Agrcultural and Food Enterprses (Slovenia) Union of Dairy, Beef, Food Industrialists and Producers of Turkey (Turkey) Un-treated

Treated

The SMEs involved in the project are OSV Srl (Italy) N t â&#x20AC;&#x2122; B Natureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Bestt (I (Ireland) l d) Citrus Levante (Spain) Fullwell Mill Foods (United Kingdom) The RTD providers are Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland)

Listeria Un-treated

Listeria treated

Dublin City University (Ireland) InnovaciĂł i Recerca Industrial i Sostenible (Spain)

SAFE-BAG is 3 year R&D project funded by the Seventh Framework Programme of the EC under the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Research for SME Associationsâ&#x20AC;? sub-programme. grant agreement nÂş 285820

Contact Details: pjcullen@dit.ie

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Extraction of Bioactive Polysaccharides from Irish seafood waste and their potential food application CURRENT RESEARCH

RESEARCH INTERESTS Seafood processing in Ireland generates big amounts of wastes. For instance, the wastes produced by the processing of brown crab are estimated to about 64x103 tonnes annually. The local seafood market sales are expected to grow by 30% until 2015. Thus the quantity of wastes in this sector are expected to increase continuously. The interest Th i t t off this thi research h project j t is i to t find fi d alternative lt ti solutions l tii th t that aim to reduce the amount of seafood processing waste going to the landfill and also to find potential applications with scientific and economic interest in either food or pharmaceutical fields. This research aims also to extract and characterise bioactive compounds in particular polysaccharides from brown crab and Dublin Bay prawn wastes and investigate their bioactivities and also apply them as food preservatives to fresh-cut products. Extension of shelf-life of fresh produce was also one of the objectives of this research. In fact, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is active segment seg e in the e Irish s food ood industry. dus y Thus, us, the e app application ca o o off natural aua active compound to could be a promising solution to overcome the disadvantageous chemical compounds that are currently applied.

KEY ACHIEVEMENTS

Â&#x2122;All tasks in the project were completed. Â&#x2122;Currently, in the process of writing the thesis and scientific papers.

Fishing/Vessels

Processing

Waste

Currently, this project was conducted to extract, characterise chitin and chitosan from brown crab and Dublin Bay prawn waste, and also to apply the extracted chitosan to fresh-cut vegetables. Several results were achieved through the project which include:

Treatment

1- Successful development of novel method to extract chitin from brown crab and Dublin Bay Prawn waste. 2- Method of extraction is friendly to the environment and also preserve better the physicochemical properties of extracted chitosan. 3- Extracted chitin and chitosan were physicochemical and bioactive properties.

characterised

for

their

4- Novel chitosan from brown crab waste was applied to extend the shelflife of fresh-cut carrots and the results were compare to chlorine that is conventionally applied in washing treatments.

Food application

Seafood processing Waste g generation

CONTACT DETAILS Email: khadija.khouya@dit.ie

Valorisation of by-products Potential applications

Mob: +353868876241 Office: +35318146082

This project was funded by DIT under Strand 1

School of Food Science and Environmental Health, College of Sciences and Health (D.I.T), Dublin 1, Ireland

catherine.barryryan@dit.ie - khadija.khouya@dit.ie


Bioactive Compounds From Seaweed KEY OUTPUTS / POTENTIAL

SUMMARY / ABSTRACT Seaweeds, or marine macro-algae, are renewable living resources which are used as food, feed and fertilizer in many parts of the world. The consumption of seaweed as food and nutraceuticals has been well known in the East, where they constitute an alternative to vegetables in human diet. In the West, many products are manufactured with seaweeds or their derivatives, such as sauces, creams, toothpaste and milk shakes of fruits. Seaweeds are of nutritional interest as they are a low calorie food and are rich in vitamins, minerals, proteins, polyphenols, polysaccharides and dietary fibres. Nowadays, increasingly seaweeds are being investigated for the biological activity of their extracts which are finding numerous applications in pharmaceuticals, biotechnology and food preservatives. Seaweeds are an important resource of bioactive compounds as they are able to produce a great variety of secondary metabolites characterized by a broad spectrum of biological behaviour such as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, anticoagulant and antiviral properties. Recently in Europe (CE 258/97), seaweeds are considered as new foods, and they could also be considered as functional foods. This regulation, in addition to the novel bioactive compounds and potential nutritional properties of seaweeds, allows the food and pharmaceutical industry to include seaweeds as raw or semiprocessed materials in the formulation of food and health based products.

‰ A “Greener Extraction and Processing Technology” for the extraction of phenolic antioxidant-rich compounds has been developed and is ready for commercialisation. ‰ Seaweed extracts contain excellent antimicrobial and antioxidant properties providing opportunities for application as natural food preservatives or nutraceuticals, for the food and pharmaceutical industries. ‰ Due to the remarkable bioactivity and availability of essential elements in seaweeds their extracts can be utilised as an ingredients for the production of seaweeds, nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, functional foods and drinks. ‰ Due to their high thermal stability, these bioactive compounds could provide new avenues for developing new nutraceutical foods based on seaweeds with particular considerations of processing conditions. ‰ Algal polyphenols, including flavonoids and tannins in seaweeds show high antimicrobial and antioxidant potency in comparison to their counterparts in land vegetables.

S Seaweed d

CC

LLP

TLC

SPE

HIGHLIGHTS TO DATE ‰ Optimisation of extraction solvents to extract a range of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive compounds with potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.

Extracts

Various Purification Approaches

Purified Fractions

‰ Selective extracts demonstrated high potential against various food borne bacteria and free radicals, radicals which are responsible not only for the deterioration of quality and nutritional value of food products but also human health. ‰ Optimisation of purification strategies to select the individual or group of active compounds from crude extracts of seaweed.

NMR

LC-MS Characterization of Purified Fractions/Compound

HPLC

‰ Purified extracts or compounds showed highly significant antioxidant and antimicrobial activity at very low concentration. ‰ Optimisation of various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods to isolate and identify the compounds of interest.

Uses of Seaweeds

‰ Development of Hydrothermal processing approach which improved the extractability and bioavailability of bioactive compounds from seaweed matrix matrix.

Fresh Irish brown seaweed

Crushed with

Powdered

Crushed powder and extraction

liquid nitrogen

seaweed

solvents in a certain ratio

The work presented here has generated: ‰ 1 patent pending ‰ 5 full length research articles in various peer reviewed international journals ‰ 2 articles submitted with 4 new articles under preparation for publication.

Dried extract used for further chemical analysis

Evaporate the

Centrifuged

solvents

Filtered the

Incubate the flasks at

supernatant

certain conditions

‰ Work has been presented in various national and international conferences

TEAM / FUNDERS Dr Nissreen Abu-Ghannam (Principal Investigator, research supervisor) Gaurav Rajauria (PhD researcher) AND

Crude and purified extracts

Antimicrobial Activity

Antioxidant Activity

The researchers acknowledge funding from the Irish Government under the Technological Sector Research Scheme (Strand III) of the National Development Plan.

School of Food Science & Environmental Health, College of Sciences & Health

e-mail: nissreen.abughannam@dit.ie, gaurav.rajauria@dit.ie


Centre for Industrial and Engineering Optics BACKGROUND Centre for Industrial and Engineering Optics in DIT Kevin Street, and the holography group that it evolved from, has been working on novel photopolymer materials and their applications for more than two decades. Over this time span the research has evolved from separate postgraduate projects in photopolymer development and interferometric metrology systems into a range of applicationsoriented projects that exploit the various technologies that have been developed in the centre. The centre strives to strategically balance academic research with industrial applications pp and is continuously y seeking g out new opportunities pp to collaborate with industry and other academics in developing holographic systems and materials.

ACADEMIC RESEARCH Much of the Centreâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current research focuses on the unique photopolymer developed by IEO, and a great deal of the basic material and systems development is carried out by postgraduate research students. Currently the group has five graduate students. Dervil Cody is improving the photopolymer using non-toxic monomers and Mohesh Moothchancery has been carrying out studies on the fundamental properties of the photopolymer such as shrinkage. Hoda Akbari is developing applications in diffractive elements made in the photopolymer Denis Bade is developing unique holographic data writing systems and photopolymer, Viswanath Bavigadda recently completed his PhD thesis on interferometry using holographic elements. Niamh Ingoldsby is doing a graduate placement at the centre investigating speckle interferometry and Tatsiana Mikulchyk, who spent nine months in graduate placement with IEO in 2011, has been awarded an IRCSET postgraduate scholarship to re-join the group in September 2012.

COMMERCIAL RESEARCH IEO staff continue to exploit their photopolymer material and optical systems, developing a number of key applications that have commercial potential in security and sensing, and devices. For example, Dr Izabela Naydenova is developing sensing applications for photopolymer gratings, security holograms with unique identifiers and printable diffractive devices. A pressure sensitive version of the hologram which changes colour with pressure is under development by Dr Emilia Mihaylova and this has interesting applications where contact p pressure needs to be measured. Dr Suzanne Martin is developing holographic diffractive devices with applications in light manipulation and distribution and investigating moisture sensitive systems. Professor Vincent Toalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s key area of expertise is in interferometric systems and classic holography.

CONSULTANCY, SERVICES AND FACILITIES IEO offers a wide range of consultancy services in the areas of optical engineering in our facilities in Kevin Street and FOCAS. This includes: Collaborative + contract R&D projects Problem solving and consulting Optical system design and technical support 3D Surface height and surface roughness measurement 3D Holographic materials and devices

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Contact: suzanne.martin@dit.ie


Interactive Holograms Responsive Authentication SECURITY HOLOGRAMS WITH RESPONSIVE FEATURES Multi-layered authentication processes are key in the fight against counterfeiters. Whilst covert features are important for customs and forensic authentication purposes, there is an increasing need to have intelligent overt authentication methods available to end users who are at risk of unknowingly purchasing unauthentic produce. Researchers in IEO have developed, alongside the individualised holograms, environmentally sensitive holograms which have applications in the brand protection industry, alone or combined with other authentication holographic devices

HUMIDITY SENSITIVE

PRESSURE SENSITIVE

Hologram of a coin with pressure applied at two locations.

Researchers at DIT have developed a humidity sensitive hologram which is low cost, a lightweight polymer (30–70 μm) and is easily incorporated into packaging and graphics (logos, text, numerical data and three dimensional images). To authenticate a product the end user would simply breathe on the hologram which would cause a change indicating authenticity. authenticity This is of particular interest because authentication doesn’t require specialist equipment.

The hologram can also work as a straightforward humidity sensor. Currently humidity indicator cards record humidity from 5 to 90 percent in 10 percent increments. However there are several limitations; the colour range is limited to only two or three colours, the response time to show changes in humidity is slow taking up to a few hours and a colour key is needed to interpret the reading. The typical yp size of a card is 1cm so there is limited space p for g graphics. p Graphics p can be designed to change with humidity so information is displayed directly without the need for a colour key. The indicator is easily read and involves a colour change over a broad colour spectrum. One small hologram can cover the entire humidity range. The speed of response can be adjusted to suit the application with fast response times of a few seconds. Detecting the humidity range from 20 – 90 percent is useful for high value products which are sensitive to humidity, especially during transit.

Pressure sensitive holograms have also been developed at IEO. The pressure sensitive version reacts to finger pressure by changing colour locally in the holographic image. This can also be used in authentication. Pressure sensitivity can be tailored to the application and the actual colour change is related to the amount of p pressure applied pp so we are also exploring p g applications in pressure sensing for weight estimation and machine adjustment.

IP POSITION There are several patents filed in relation to the technologies.

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Email: suzanne.martin@dit.ie


Holographic devices for illumination, solar collectors and beam coupling PROBLEM Standard optical components such as beam splitters, lenses and mirrors are used to manipulate light in a broad range of applications from illumination of large buildings to optical fibres for telecommunications, to high magnification telescopes. However, in some applications, for example those using compact optical systems, the standard optical components may be too bulky to work well or too expensive. In other case the problem is that more than one optical component is needed in a confined space, space or it would be preferable to focus some wavelengths and not others. Commercially available polymer diffractive optical elements, mass produced by stamping processes, can be a low cost alternative in some applications, but the functionality is restrictive and custom made elements are prohibitively expensive because of the high origination costs. Holographic diffractive optical elements have many advantages over stamped surface elements but to date they have not been widely available because they are difficult to fabricate with standard holographic materials. DIT’s Centre for Industrial and Engineering Optics (IEO) have developed holographic elements, fabricated in their own photopolymer. photopolymer The IEO photopolymer is a self self-developing developing holographic material with minimal shrinkage which allows the direct fabrication of the holographic elements.

Fraction of light coupled into the diffracted beam (Diffraction Efficiency) as a function of incident angle for a range of device thickness – selectivity can be tailored to requirements (data from Hoda Akbari, Dublin Institute of Technology)

TECHNOLOGY SOLUTION DIT’s Centre for Industrial and Engineering Optics (IEO) have developed photopolymer h l h l holographic hi elements, l f bi fabricated d by b direct di exposure at Dublin D bli Institute of Technology can be tailored to specific optical designs and have the design flexibility to re-direct light with high efficiency through angles greater than 90 degrees, to focus light and to divert certain ranges of wavelengths. For specific devices printing processes can also be used .

ADVANTAGES •Lightweight, planar elements – fractions of a millimetre thick •Flexible design – a large range of focal lengths, angles and wavelengths. •Multifunctional – one element can perform two or three functions, e.g focussing and beam splitting, or beam manipulation with focussing and wavelength filtering •Highly flexible manufacture – some elements printable

Diffractive lens

RESEARCH One aspect of the current research explores the potential of holographic optical elements in the collection of light from a moving source, such as the sun, and its direction into a fixed detector for application in solar concentrators. Specific applications such as up converters are of particular interest because Holographic Optical Elements can be used to separate specific sections the solar spectrum, as well as having useful focussing effects.

Split beams

IP POSITION The photopolymer is protected by a patent application. More specific IP is under development.

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Contact: suzanne.martin@dit.ie


Displacement and Vibration Measurement with Speckle Interferometry INTERFEROMETRY EXPERTISE The IEO Centre at the Dublin Institute of Technology have developed interferometric systems for non-destructive testing and measurement, including vibration analysis of materials and components. The low cost system, based on holographic technology allows wholefield measurement to sub-micron (0.01 m) precision with results displayed as video images. Current systems are optically complex and expensive to manufacture and do not normally provide wholefield or multipoint capabilities.

Static Loading – Three Point Bend

APPLICATIONS

ADVANTAGES

Non-destructive testing and measurement, including vibration analysis can be used in a wide range of industrial applications including;

• Whole field multipoint capabilities - provide a comprehensive picture of object behaviour.

• Automotive - car bodies and panels, automotive components, engines, braking systems and exhaust systems.

• Low cost - the system uses off the shelf components combined with holographic technology (estimated at one quarter of the cost of single point LDV system).

• Aerospace - turbine blades, air frames, aircraft components.

• High precision measurement

• Consumer products - sound absorption and damping materials for consumer goods such as household appliances, loudspeakers, power tools, computer equipment equipment.

• Improved Quality Control (QC).

• Medical and healthcare - eardrum diagnostics, artificial heart valves, mechanical properties of replacement joints • Environmental and hostile environmental applications - machinery in hot or high voltage or contaminated environments, measurements at long range.

•Simplicity p y – easyy to set up, p use and maintain. •Software system including detailed analysis •Video imaging showing contours of constant displacement and contours of constant phase.

Vibration 6.6 kHz – Loudspeaker

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Contact: vincent.toal@dit.ie


Centre for Industrial and Engineering Optics HOLOGRAPHIC AND OPTICAL EXPERTISE As a research centre in DIT publications, post graduate thesis and other academic outputs are key to the sustainability of the centre. In the last decade centre has produced:

Between the current staff researchers there are over 70 man years experience in the areas of holography and optics. Vincent Toal recently published a textbook on holography ‘Introduction to Holography’ (published by CRC Press), which has been very well received by academics around the world.

•8 PHD’s and 5 MPhil •43 Peer reviewed journal papers •>30 conference papers and SPIE proceedings •2 Books •“Introduction to Holography” (CRC press 2011) by Vincent Toal •“Advanced Holography” (Itech 2011) edited by Izabela Naydenova •Citations >500

Recent PhD graduates are working in a range of optics-related industries in different locations around the world including Singapore, Singapore India and the Netherlands. Netherlands IEO postgraduate students have been very successful in presenting their research at both European and International Conferences and have contributed to the IEO’s portfolio of 33 peer reviewed journals published within the past 5 years (see www.arrow.dit.ie). The centre also facilitates around six undergraduate degree and summer projects/placements per year and is increasing the direct input of research activity into the undergraduate curriculum. For example a Level 10 module in ‘Holography: Techniques and Application’ and a Level 8 module in ‘Invention, Innovation and Commercialization’ have been developed.

COLLABORATION

SUPPORT IEO has received significant support from EI to develop a range of holographic based technologies. Enterprise Ireland’s funding for the development of Photopolymer holography began in 2006. And are supported in all aspects p of commercialisation of our research byy DIT Hothouse. Postgraduate students receive funding from IRCSET and SFI. IEO labs are located in DIT Kevin Street and the FOCAS research centre.

Collaboration with other disciplines and Institutes is essential to their mission to combine academic achievement and development of commercial technologies. Within DIT, the Centre is working with the Dublin Energy Lab on holographic optical elements for applications in solar collectors and the School of Manufacturing and Design Engineering in the area of optical system design. Most postgraduate students in the Centre spend at least a few months abroad gaining experience at the laboratories of one of the IEO centre’s international partners including the University of Caen in northern France, Joint Research Centre at Ispra i northern in th It l Hololab Italy, H l l b att the th University U i it off Liege Li i Belgium in B l i and d the th Institute I tit t off Optical Materials and Technologies at the Bulgarian Academy of Science.

Also at the forefront of IEO’s activities is fostering industrial partnerships for commercial i l applications li ti off IEO’s IEO’ technologies t h l i and d consulting lti projects j t in i the th area off optics. Industry feedback is proactively sought on all technologies with strategic alliances sought in development and implementation projects. Consultancy projects have been carried out in a wide range of industries including medical device, pharmaceutical, software, and electronic device manufacturers.

Contact: suzanne.martin@dit.ie

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Anti Counterfeiting Holograms Transparent, Individualised, Mass Producible. PROBLEM Product counterfeiting is a worldwide problem which costs companies and governments billions in revenue every year with the loss of sales and tax income. Counterfeit goods are not only inferior in quality but may also be a risk to consumers as the number of dangerous products on the market increases. The pharmaceutical industry is particularly susceptible to counterfeiting. According to the World Health Organisation an estimated 10% of drugs worldwide are counterfeit costing the industry approximately $40 billion per year and some of these have even caused fatalities. fatalities The industry is continuously increasing measures against counterfeiting and the introduction of new regulations such as the Falsified Medicines Directive has led to the need for improved traceability and authentication of products. Holograms are a well accepted authentication device, but existing holograms are always identical to one another and don’t have any individual features that could be used for further verification. This is because traditionally holograms are mass produced from an expensive "master" hologram and hence it is not commercially viable to individualise them. The typical holograms a consumer sees applied to packaging are identical for each product range. These are quite easy for the counterfeiter to replicate and may not provide sufficient protection. protection

TECHNOLOGY SOLUTION DIT’s Centre for Industrial and Engineering Optics (IEO) has developed a novel hologram production technique which allows the mass production of individualised holograms. With this product consumers will be able to check the authenticity of the product they have purchased. A unique holographic code on a transparent film will be placed on the packaging of each product. When you remove and hold it up to a light source you will be able to see the code which can then be verified against a code written on the packaging. Alternatively using a web based or smart phone application or a text message you can verify the product is the genuine article. As each code is unique counterfeiters will not be able to reproduce it.

http://digitaljournal.com/article/277408

ROUTE TO COMMERCIALISATION The IEO research team, under the lead of Principal Investigator Dr Izabela Naydenova are currently assessing the commercial feasibility of creating a spin out for this novel technology which will have a significant impact on counterfeit prevention. The work is being carried out with funding from Enterprise Ireland’s commercialisation fund. The team’s mentor, Gerard Molloy (Sales Director of Label Art, Dublin) was introduced to the team by Enterprise Ireland’s commercialization specialists and is providing guidance and commercial expertise to the project. The technical work is being carried out in IEO’s printing and optical laboratories in DIT’s FOCAS Institute. Every aspect of the hologram’s production is being developed from preparation to exposure to protection. Interaction with potential customers and commercial partners is an important part of this work and the team frequently visit relevant companies to take into account their particular requirements and details of their production processes. Industry feedback has been extremely positive and the product is expected to have significant potential in the fight against counterfeiting.

IP POSITION There have been two patents filed on this technology. Licence and spin out opportunities are currently being considered. considered

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Contact: izabela.naydenova@dit.ie


MACHINE LEARNING MACHINE LEARNING

CONCEPT DRIFT

Machine Learning (ML) is about making computers learn or evolve their behaviour

The concept being modelled can change over time. There is a need to

using empirical data. Supervised Machine Learning is an area of ML which involves

develop strategies to handle concept drift â&#x20AC;&#x201C; i.e. to keep the model up to

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;learning from experienceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. A model is built from available examples of data which

date. There are two dominant approaches to handling drift: (1) assuming

can then be used to make predictions for new examples. One of the requirements

drift occurs and continuously rebuilding the model at regular intervals and

of supervised learning is the availability of labelled data examples. The AIRC@DIT

(2) waiting until monitoring the data suggests that drift has occurred and

has a number of research projects in the area of Supervised Machine Learning â&#x20AC;&#x201C;

then rebuilding the model. These approaches are complicated by the lack

specifically in the area of Active Learning and Concept Drift.

of available labelled data with which to rebuild the model. The AIRC is working on comprehensive comparisons of drift handling techniques and developing new approaches that are effective when

ACTIVE LEARNING

significant amounts of labelled data are not available [5,6,7].       

Active Learning is a semi-supervised approach that allows us to build prediction systems while minimising the effort required in manually labelling the data used to build the models.



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Selection Strategy

Example Example





 

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Example Example Example Example

  

 

Lindstrom et al al. FLAIRS 2011

The AIRC has developed new, more effective selection strategies [1,2] and identified deterministic, robust strategies for selecting the initial training data [3]. We have also developed tools that will allow the visualisation of different selection strategies on datasets [4], see below.

   

       Example Example

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Lindstrom et al. HaCDias 2012

REFERENCES [1] Rong Hu, Sarah Jane Delany, Brian Mac Namee, (2009) Sampling with ConďŹ dence: Using k-NN ConďŹ dence Measures in Active Learning, In: Proceedings of the UKDS Workshop at ICCBR 2009 p.181-192. [2] Rong Hu, Sarah Jane Delany, Brian Mac Namee (2010) EGAL: Exploration Guided Active Learning for TCBR I Bichindaritz, S Montani (eds.) In: Proceedings of ICCBR 2010 LNCS 6176 pp 156-170 Springer [3] Rong Hu, Sarah Jane Delany & Brian Mac Namee (2010) Off to a Good Start: Using Clustering to Select the Initial Training Set in Active Learning In: Proceedings FLAIRS 2010 p 26-31, AAAI Press Mac Namee et al. NIPS 2010

[4] Brian Mac Namee, Rong Hu, and Sarah Jane Delany (2010) Inside the Selection Box: Visualising Active Learning Selection strategies. In Proceedings of the Challenges of Data Visualization Workshop at NIPS 2010 [5] Sarah Jane Delany, PĂĄdraig Cunningham, Alexey Tsymbal, Lorcan Coyle (2005) A Casebased Technique for Tracking Concept Drift in Spam Filtering Journal of Knowledge Based Systems 18 (4-5) p187-195, Elsevier [6] Patrick Lindstrom, Brian Mac Namee & Sarah Jane Delany (2010) Handling concept drift in a text data stream constrained by high labelling cost In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Flairs Conference (FLAIRS 2010) AAAI Press [7] Patrick Lindstrom, Brian Mac Namee, Sarah Jane Delany (2011) Drift Detection using Uncertainty Distribution Divergence, In Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Handling Concept Drift in Adaptive Information Systems (HaCDAIS)

www.comp.dit.ie/aigroup


SECURITY RESEARCH RESEARCH INTERESTS Security issues in e-Healthcare (such as development of anonymised algorithms, security metrics for measuring and improving the security posture of e-Healthcare systems)

CURRENT RESEARCH Development of a Cyber Range or Hacker Space for educating the next generation of Cyber Security professionals.

Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Network which are energy aware. Cyber security auditing and metrics, and secure application of mobile devices in to health care. Online evidence and investigations Design of new algorithms for Anonymisation of sensitive data in order to increase its utility. Real world application e-Healthcare Data. Metrics design and Testbed development for enhancing Predictive Protection in Cyber security.

Funded by the Teaching and learning Centre. Secure mobile payment modes in low-end mobile devices and their mobile application development . Undertaking Security Audit at Tanzania Industrial Research and Development Organization (TIRDO) in order to improve the security posture of the companies web sites in Tanzania

KEY ACHIEVEMENTS Workshops Hosted: The International Workshop in e-Healthcare Information Security (e-HISec 2011) The International Workshop in Ubiquitous Computing Security Issues (UCSI 2012). Publications: The International Journal of e-Healthcare Information Systems (IJe-HIS) http:/www.infonomics-society.org/IJe-HIS/ Electronic Healthcare Information Security, 2010, Electronic Healthcare Information Security, Advances in Information Security, Vol. 53 Shoniregun, Charles A., Dube, Kudakwashe, Mtenzi, Fredrick

CONTACT DETAILS Dr. Fredrick Japhet Mtenzi School of Computing Dublin Institute of Technology Kevin Street, Dublin 8, Ireland Email: Fredrick.Mtenzi@dit.ie Web Page: www.comp.dit.ie/fmtenzi

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TEXT ANALYTICS Mining the Web for Business Insight PROBLEM / MARKET NEED The rapid growth of the Internet and the emergence of social media and user generated content poses exciting new opportunities and challenges to businesses. The opportunities arise through the incredible data resources and mass communication technologies that are now available: businesses have the opportunity to both learn more about their customersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; needs and opinions and to sell to a truly global market through targeted advertising. Although the Internet and social media are inherently multimedia, language, in the form of unstructued text, is the fabric that gives structure and meaning to this wealth of information. Consequently, for businesses to take advantage of the opportunities that the Internet and social media revolution provides they must be able to analyse

PREFERRED ROUTE TO COMMERCIALISATION The AIRC has a history in commercial research with the typical commercialisation routes being either through collaborative research projects with industrial partners, through enterprise and/or exchequer funded PhDs, or through targeted shorter term commerical projects. Researchers at the AIRC are open to all of these models and are open to working with the industrial partner through the full commercialisation pipeline: idea, feasibility and market analysis, technology development, product and business development.

unstructered text on a massive scale and across the range of forms and languages that it appears in, including emails, web pages, tweets, product descriptions, newspaper stories, social media, and scientific articles.

TECHNOLOGY SOLUTION Data analytics uses machine learning techniques to create predictive models based on patterns in large historical structured data sets. These models provide insight into large data sets, at a scale not possible through manual inspection, that supports business decision making. Text analytics differs from standard data analytics in that the data it uses is typically unstructured text. As a result, text analytics requires a tranformational preprocessing of the unstructured data, often leveraging the semi-structured nature of language, into a structured representation that standard data analytics techniques can then use. Applications and business needs where text analytics has a role to play include: customer segmentation; brand, product and reputation management; voice of

Funding for collaborative academic/industrial research is available through

the customer and customer experience management; risk management and

Enterprise Ireland and the Irish Research Council. The AIRC has experience

fraud detection; and online commerce including shopping and price intelligence.

with developing proposal for commercial research with both of these bodies.

IP POSITION By ts very nature as an academic research centre much of the IP developed in house at the AIRC is in the public domain through academic publications. The AIRC, however, has experience in developing IP in collaboration with and shared with commerical partners.

Web:

www.comp.dit.ie/aigroup

Email: john.d.kelleher@dit.ie, brian.macnamee@dit.ie, sarahjane.delany@dit.ie


On-Line Screening for Melanoma The Word’s First Auto Tele-Dermatology System The problem with Skin Cancer is that, although it is completely visible on our skin, we tend to ignore the symptoms and not seek medical advice early enough. If detected and treated in its initial stages it is not a problem. Melanoma is the most dangerous form of Skin Cancer, it usually takes up to 18 months to fully develop but once it has reached a certain depth in the skin it begins to spread and death can follow within weeks.

MOLETEST LIMITED DIT has licensed the ‘core technology’ to Moletest Limited in order to develop a global integrated on-line screening service. The Expert System at the heart of Moletest needs to be trained to recognise a number of different skin conditions in order to be an effective screening system. This training exercise is a challenge both because of the amount of work involved and the difficulty in obtaining sufficient images for each condition - this is a particular problem for ‘normal’ moles as few examples are recorded by dermatologists. The objective is to build Moletest into a powerful diagnostic aid for dermatologists as well as an initial screening system in order to detect Melanoma early and enable successful treatment.

PREFERRED ROUTE TO COMMERCIALISATION Moletest development is fully funded by Moletest Limited and commercial exploitation is underway in the UK with a view to integrating Moletest Screening into NHS pathways for patients with suspect moles. As the UK market is untypical of most countries (as it has an entirely free healthcare service), a pilot exercise is planned to test the concept of direct on-line on line screening to the public elsewhere. elsewhere Ireland is under consideration as an example of a more typical European approach to Healthcare. Skin Cancer, and, in particular, Melanoma, is the fastest growing cancer threat in the world. Early detection leads to simple and inexpensive treatment. Failure to identify and treat soon enough necessitates expensive treatment and often death. Therefore, Moletest offers an efficient and cost effective way to meet the challenge of detecting and treating skin cancer worldwide.

USER PROCESS

TECHNOLOGY SOLUTION Moletest brings together advanced image recognition and fuzzy logic. Each image of a suspect mole is analysed 42 different ways to produce a profile of both euclidian and fractal parameters. Various skin conditions are segregated into classes and examples of each class are analysed by the image recognition system to build a Knowledge Database. As the Knowledge g Database is trained with more and more examples p and the number of classes extended to include more skin conditions the fuzzy logic decides which class each image belongs to with an estimated degree of certainty. Until the Expert System can be shown to perform accurately, each analysis is checked by a qualified dermatologist. Ultimately, the process will be entirely automated to become a powerful diagnostic aid helping to not only detect Melanoma but to prevent unnecessary removal non-malignant moles.

PROCESS CYCLE

Above is the current process for users to upload images of suspicious moles for on-line analysis. An important aspect of interfacing with the public is having a means to ensure that i images off suitable it bl quality lit are submitted b itt d for f analysis. l i This Thi created t d a need d to t develop an Image Suitability system which has been incorporated into the Moletest Website.

IP POSITION Intellectual Property within the Moletest system is a mix of ‘Know-How’, protected ‘Source Code’ and a protected secret ‘Knowledge Base’ which is crucial for system y accuracy. y DIT has exclusively licensed the technology to Moletest Limited for worldwide exploitation.

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Contact Details - info@moletestuk.com Tel: +44 8717 816855


Algorithms Give Forex Traders The Edge using Fractal Market Hypothesis (FMH) Current Financial Models are based on The Efficient Market Hypothesis. But this Model is flawed â&#x20AC;Ś take a look below.

FMH based signals (The Q) give a statistical advantage to Traders with their buy/sell indicators clearly displayed on current commercial trading platforms.

TradersNow licenses these signals to Financial Trading Houses in London, London New York and Singapore. DIT in partnership with TradersNow have developed a suite of algorithms based on the FMH which produce 3 out of 4 winning trades

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APPLIED ELECTROCHEMISTRY GROUP RESEARCH AREA Electrochemistry is an important branch of physical chemistry that deals with the chemical action of electricityy and/or the p production of electricityy byy chemical reactions. The Applied Electrochemistry Group of Dublin Institute of Technology carries i outt research h in i electrochemistry l t h i t with ith special i l emphasis h i being b i placed l d on practical aspects of the subject

TECHNOLOGY A diverse range of important applications exist which include Electroanalytical y Chemistry y which enables chemical species p to be identified and quantified, for example with the development and operation of electrochemical sensors. Materials Science S and Nanotechnology involving materials performance f issues such as corrosion prevention and mitigation and development of materials found in devices such electrochromic displays p y ((which change g colour upon p the imposition p of an electrical potential). Electrical Energy production (through operation of devices such as batteries, fuel cells ll and d other h electrochemical l h i l systems)) and d Solar S l Energy E using i li h to produce light d electricity and/or to effect chemical change (through use of semiconductors and photoelectrochemistry). p y) Surface Science such as electrodeposition p and anodic film alteration ((anodising g of metals such as aluminium, magnesium and titanium and electropolishing).. Environmental Electrochemistry and Green Chemistry encompassing heavy metal remediation, industrial effluent control and the use of novel ionic liquids to replace hazardous chemicals in various processes. processes Organic and Industrial Electrochemistry (electrosynthesis) which provide a means of producing industrially important inorganic and organic chemicals. Bioelectrochemistry involves the study of electrochemical reactions in biological systems y which is of g great importance p in medicine..

SEM Image I showing h i nano-sized i d electrodeposited l d i d electrrocatalysts l l

PROJECTS Nanosilver Particles in Electroanalytical y Applications pp Tribocorrosion of Cast Aluminium Alloys C Polymers, and ionic Liquids Electrochromic Dsiplays Using Conducting Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts Electroanalytical y Method Development p for Detection of Heavy y Metals in Soils Photoelectrochemical Treatment of Waste Waters

RECENT PUBLICATIONS Development of a Novel Humidity Sensor Based on a Polymer Silver Nanoparticle Composite, p AC Power, A J Betts, JF Cassidy, y ECS Transactions, 19, 181 ((2009). ) Chemical Structure and Corrosion Behaviour of S-Phase Coatings, g , KL Dahm,, A J Betts, PA Dearnley , Surface Engineering, 26, 4, (2010) Silver Nanoparticle Polymer Composite Based Humidity Sensor, AC Power, A J Betts, J F Cassidy, Analyst, 135, 1645, (2010).

Cyclic Sweep (Voltammogram) of Ethanol Oxidation Reaction On Platinum-Palladium Alloy D Deposit it Showing Sh i Increased I d Activation of Surface with Successive Sweeps. This reaction can be used in a Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell (DEFC)

TEAM

Practical Photoelectrochemical Cell Using Non-Precious Metal Electrodes, Journal off Applied A li d Electrochemistry, El t h i t P Enright, E i ht A J Betts, B tt J F Cassidy C id 41, 41 345, 345 (2011) Non Aggregated Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy A C Power, A J Betts, J F Cassidy, Analyst, 136, 2794 (2011) Effects of High g Speed p Laser Surface Modification on Microstructure and Corrosion Characteristics of Ti-6Al-4Vâ&#x20AC;?, Surface Modification Technology XXV (ed. T S S d h and Sudashan d P Nylen), N l ) Chikarakara, Chik k AJ Betts, B D Brabazon, B b S Naher, N h (2011) Characterization and electrochromic properties of poly(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoroaniline): Progress towards a transparent conducting polymer Lavinia Astratine , Edmond Magner g ,, John Cassidyy, Anthonyy Betts, , Electrochimiica Acta 74 ,,117â&#x20AC;&#x201C;122 ((2012), ),

The AEG is directed by Professor John Cassidy and Dr Tony Betts.. Betts Current PhD postgraduate students include Ms Lavinia Astratine, Astratine (in conjunction with Professor Edmond Magner g of the MSSI Centre in the Universityy of Limerick)) , Mr Daryl Fox and Ms Caoimhe Ni Neill. Recent graduates include Dr Aoife Power , D David Dr D id Culliton C llit ( ith Professor (with P f D id Kennedy, David K d School S h l off Engineering), E i i ) Dr D Yanmei Ma and Dr Patrick Enright. Enright Collaborations are also taking place with the Advanced Processing Technology Group of DCU and Teagasc.

CONTACT DETAILS Professor John Cassidy, Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences Tel 01-4024779 John.Cassidy@dit.ie Dr Tony Betts, DIT Directorate of Research and Enterprise, Tel 01-402-3346 Anthony Betts@dit ie Anthony.Betts@dit.ie

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Creating a uniform magnetic field for the equi-biaxial physical testing of magnetorheological elastomers; electromagnet design, development and testing”, (Co-authors D. Gorman, R. Ekins and N. Murphy), a chapter in the book Constitutive Models for Rubber VII, CRC/Balkema, Sept 2011

Centre for Elastomer Research (CER) KEY ACHIEVEMENTS  Over 1.5m Euros in Research Earnings.  100+ publications.  6 PhD completions, 5 MPhil completions. CER is currently home to 9 PhD students (3 of whom are researching in German Industry).  Hosted ECCMR VII (2011), Europe’s premier rubber research event.  Developed and optimised the unique DYNAMET equi-biaxial bubble inflation system; the leading ‘real world’ fatigue test facility for rubber. Europe.  Research partners throughout Ireland and Europe Consultancy for Irish and European Industry.

The DYNAMET Equi-biaxial Test Facility

RESEARCH INTERESTS  Rubber fatigue prediction  Biomedical applications of specialised rubber compounds  Smart elastomer, design, fabrication and testing  Advanced foams for seating applications  Continuous mixing of rubber  Optimising the determination of the dynamic physical properties of rubber  Vibration isolation  Stress concentration, flaw size and crack propagation in rubber

TEAM Professor Steve Jerrams ~ Centre Director, Principal Investigator Dr Niall Murphy ~ Principal Investigator, Dynamic Testing Dr Anthony Betts ~ Principal Investigator, Rubber Chemistry and Compounds y Duignan g ~ Principal p Investigator, g Computer p Modelling, g Advanced Foams Dr Barry Dr Ray Ekins ~ Principal Investigator, Electromagnetic Devices Dr Lin Chen ~ IRCSET Postdoctoral Researcher, Principal Investigator, Magnetorheological Elastomers (MREs) Yanfen Zhou ~ PhD Student, MRE Fabrication and Testing

An SEM image of interfacial layers between ferromagnetic particles and the rubber matrix in an MRE

RECENT PUBLICATIONS Jerrams S, Murphy N, Hanley J, The significance of equi-biaxial bubble inflation in determining g elastomer p properties, p a chapter p in the book "Elastomers", ISBN: 979-953-307-1019-5, Intech (2012) Murphy N, Hanley J, Jerrams S, The Effect of Pre-Stressing on the EquiBiaxial Fatigue Life of EPDM, a Chapter in the book 'Constitutive models for rubber VI', pp 269-273, (2009) Gorman D, Ekins R, Murphy N, Jerrams S, Creating a uniform magnetic field for the equi-biaxial physical testing of magnetorheological elastomers; electromagnet design, development and testing”, a chapter in the book Constitutive Models for Rubber VII, CRC/Balkema, ISBN: 978-0-414-68389-0 pp 403-408 (2011) Chen L L, Jerrams S, S A rheological model of the dynamic behavior of magnetorheological elastomers, Journal of Applied Physics 110, 013513, (2011) Jerrams S, Hanley J, Murphy N, Ali H, Equi-biaxial Fatigue of Elastomers – The Effect of Oil Swelling in Specimen Fatigue, Rubber Chemistry and Technology, Vol 81, Issue 4, P 638-649, (2008)

Mark Johnson ~ PhD Student, Equi-biaxial Dynamic Testing Optimisation Jenny McIntyre ~ PhD Student, MRE Optimisation Dave Gorman, ~ PhD Student, Electromagnetic Field Design for Equi-biaxial Testing Liang Jiang, Jiang ~ PhD Student, Student Dielectrical Elastomer Fabrication and Testing Robert Moore, ~ PhD Student, Gastrostomy Feeding Tube Investigation Simon Wachter ~ PhD Student, Continuous Mixing of Rubber Compounds Conor Briody ~ PhD Student, Advanced Foams for Wheelchair Seating Dr Thomas Alshuth, Advisory Supervisor (German Institute for Rubber Technology DIK) Dr Stephen Ronan, Advisory Supervisor (Continental Tyres) Professor Orla Hardiman, Advisory Supervisor (Beaumont Hospital)

CONTACT DETAILS Prof. Steve Jerrams stephen.jerrams@dit.ie 01 4022951 / 0876236887 Centre for Elastomer Research (CER) The Focas Research Institute Dublin Institute of Technology Camden Row Dublin 8

Professor Eric Abel, Advisory Supervisor (University of Dundee) Dr Olaf Skibba, Advisory Supervisor (VMI-AZ Extrusion)

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Electromagnet design for MRE applications ƒ…‰”‘—† •ȋƒ‰‡–‘”Š‡‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ‡Žƒ•–‘‡”•Ȍƒ”‡•ƒ”–‡Žƒ•–‘‡”•™Š‹…Š…Šƒ‰‡ ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ…Šƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…•‹–Š‡’”‡•‡…‡‘ˆƒƒ‰‡–‹…ˆ‹‡Ž†Ǥ•ƒ”‡ƒ…‘’‘•‹–‡ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ…‘•‹•–‘ˆ–™‘ƒ‹’ƒ”–•–Š‡‡Žƒ•–‘‡”ƒ–”‹šƒ†–Š‡ˆ‡””‘ƒ‰‡–‹… ’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡•ǤŠ‡•‡…Šƒ‰‡•ƒ”‡†—‡–‘ˆ‡””‘ƒ‰‡–‹…’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡•ȋ—•—ƒŽŽ›‹”‘Ȍ‹–Š‡ ‡Žƒ•–‘‡”‘˜‹‰–‘ƒŽ‹‰™‹–Š–Š‡ƒ’’Ž‹‡†ƒ‰‡–‹…ˆ‹‡Ž†Ǥ Š‡”‡ƒ”‡–™‘–›’‡•‘ˆǯ•ǡ •‘–”‘’‹…ƒ†‹•‘–”‘’‹…Š‡†‹ˆˆ‡”‡…‡„‡–™‡‡ –Š‡–™‘–›’‡•‹•†—‡–‘ƒŽ–‡”ƒ–‹˜‡…—”‹‰’”‘…‡••‡•Ǥ ‘” •‘–”‘’‹…ǯ•–Š‡ ˆ‡””‘ƒ‰‡–‹…’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡•ƒ”‡ƒ††‡††—”‹‰…—”‹‰ƒ†‘‡š–‡”ƒŽƒ‰‡–‹…ˆ‹‡Ž†‹• ƒ’’Ž‹‡†”‡•—Ž–‹‰‹ƒ”ƒ†‘ƒ’’”‘š‹ƒ–‡Ž›—‹ˆ‘”†‹•–”‹„—–‹‘Ǥ –Š‡ ƒ‹•‘–”‘’‹……ƒ•‡ǡƒ‡š–‡”ƒŽƒ‰‡–‹…ˆ‹‡Ž†‹•ƒ’’Ž‹‡††—”‹‰–Š‡…—”‹‰’”‘…‡•• ”‡•—Ž–‹‰‹–Š‡ˆ‡””‘ƒ‰‡–‹…’ƒ”–‹…Ž‡•‘˜‹‰‹–Š‡‰‡Ž–‘ˆ‘”ƒŽ‹‰‡†…Šƒ‹• ƒ†„‡‹‰Ž‘…‡†‹–‘–Š‹•ƒ””ƒ‰‡‡–‘…‡–Š‡…—”‹‰’”‘…‡••‹•…‘’Ž‡–‡†ƒ† –Š‡‡Žƒ•–‘‡”‹•ˆ‘”‡†Ǥ

‹‰—”‡ʹ •‹—Žƒ–‹‘‘ˆ’”‘’‘•‡†ƒ‰‡–‹…ƒ””ƒ›

Š‡ƒŒ‘”‹–›‘ˆ‡š’‡”‹‡–ƒŽ‡˜ƒŽ—ƒ–‹‘ƒ†–‡•–‹‰‘ˆǯ•Šƒ•„‡‡…ƒ””‹‡†‘—– ‘—‹ƒš‹ƒŽŽ› Ž‘ƒ†‡†•ƒ’Ž‡•™‹–Š–Š‡ƒ‰‡–‹…ˆ‹‡Ž†ƒ••—‡†–‘„‡Š‘‘‰‡‡‘—• ‹„‘–ŠˆŽ—š†‡•‹–›ƒ††‹”‡…–‹‘ƒŽ‹–›‘˜‡”–Š‡‡–‹”‡•ƒ’Ž‡˜‘Ž—‡Ǥ—‡–‘–Š‡ Žƒ”‰‡” •ƒ’Ž‡ ˜‘Ž—‡ ”‡“—‹”‡† ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‡“—‹Ǧ„‹ƒš‹ƒŽ Žƒ”‰‡”•ƒ’Ž‡˜‘Ž—‡”‡“—‹”‡†ˆ‘”–Š‡‡“—‹ „‹ƒš‹ƒŽ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ–‡•–‹‰‘ˆ‡Žƒ•–‘‡”• ’Š›•‹…ƒŽ –‡•–‹‰ ‘ˆ ‡Žƒ•–‘‡”• —•‹‰„—„„Ž‡‹ˆŽƒ–‹‘ ‰‡‡”ƒ–‹‰ƒƒ‰‡–‹…ˆ‹‡Ž†™Š‹…Šƒ‹–ƒ‹•–Š‡‡…‡••ƒ”› —‹ˆ‘”‹–›”‡“—‹”‡•ƒ‘”‡…‘’Ž‡šƒ‰‡–‹…ƒ””ƒ›Ǥ •„‘–Š–Š‡ˆŽ—š†‡•‹–›ȋ•–”‡‰–ŠȌ‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ‰‡–‹…ˆ‹‡Ž†ƒ†–Š‡†‹”‡…–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡ˆŽ—š Ž‹‡•ƒˆˆ‡…––Š‡…Šƒ‰‡‹‡…Šƒ‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ†‡–ƒ‹Ž‡†‘™Ž‡†‰‡‘ˆ –Š‡ƒ’’Ž‹‡†ƒ‰‡–‹…ˆ‹‡Ž†‹•˜‹–ƒŽ–‘–Š‡ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ›†‡˜‹…‡—•‹‰•

ƒ‰‡–‹… ‹‡Ž† ‡•‹‰ ƒ‰‡–‹… ‹‡Ž†‡•‹‰

‹‰—”‡͵ ‹‡Ž†˜’‘•‹–‹‘‰”ƒ’Š‘ˆˆ‹‰—”‡ʹ

 ƒŽ„ƒ…Š…›Ž‹†‡”‹•ƒ’‡”ƒ‡–ƒ‰‡–ƒ””ƒ›ƒ””ƒ‰‡†‹ƒ…›Ž‹†‡”–‘’”‘†—…‡ƒ —‹ˆ‘”ˆ‹‡Ž†‹•‹†‡–Š‡…›Ž‹†‡”ƒ†œ‡”‘ˆ‹‡Ž†‘—–•‹†‡ǤŠ‡ ƒŽ„ƒ…Š…›Ž‹†‡” ’”‘†—…‡•ƒˆ‹‡Ž†‘ˆ—‹ˆ‘”•–”‡‰–Šƒ†ˆ‹‡Ž†Ž‹‡•‹–Š‡”‡“—‹”‡††‹”‡…–‹‘ƒ• •Š‘™‹ˆ‹‰—”‡ͳ„—––Š‡ˆ‹š‡†ˆ‹‡Ž†•–”‡‰–ŠŽ‹‹–•‹–•—•‡ƒ•ƒ‡ˆˆ‡…–‹˜‡†‡˜‹…‡‘˜‡” ƒˆ—ŽŽ”ƒ‰‡‘ˆ–‡•–”‡“—‹”‡‡–•Ǥ

—ƒ”›Ȁ‡›ˆƒ…–• ••ƒ”‡ƒ•ƒ”–ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ™Š‹…Š—†‡”‰‘ƒ…Šƒ‰‡‹‡…Šƒ‹…ƒŽ’”‘’‡”–‹‡• ™Š‡ƒ‡š–‡”ƒŽƒ‰‡–‹…ˆ‹‡Ž†‹•ƒ’’Ž‹‡† •‘•–‘ˆ–Š‡…Šƒ‰‡•‹•’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘……—”„‡–™‡‡ͲǦͶͲͲƒ†‘‡ƒ„‘˜‡ ͸ͲͲ •‘–Š–Š‡ƒ‰‡–‹…ˆŽ—š†‡•‹–›ƒ†ˆ‹‡Ž††‹”‡…–‹‘ƒˆˆ‡…––Š‡…Šƒ‰‡‹ ’”‘’‡”–‹‡•‘ˆ• •—‹ˆ‘”ˆ‹‡Ž†‹„‘–ŠˆŽ—š†‡•‹–›ƒ††‹”‡…–‹‘ƒŽ‹–›‹•”‡“—‹”‡†ˆ‘”„‹ƒš‹ƒŽ –‡•–‹‰‘ˆ•

REFERENCES ‘…œ‘™•ƒ Ǥǡ™‹‡–Œƒ Ǥƒ”–…‘’‘•‹–‡•‘ˆ—”‡–Šƒ‡

‹‰—”‡ͳ ƒŽ„ƒ…Š›Ž‹†‡” ‰ ›

‡Žƒ•–‘‡”• ™‹–Š …ƒ”„‘›Ž ‹”‘ Ǧ ȏ•ǤŽǤȐǣ ‘—”ƒŽ‘ˆƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•…‹‡…‡ǡʹͲͲͻǤ ‡Žƒ•–‘‡”•™‹–Š…ƒ”„‘›Ž‹”‘ ȏ• Ž Ȑ ǣ ‘—”ƒŽ ‘ˆ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ •…‹‡…‡ ʹͲͲͻ Ǧ ͳͷǣ‘ŽǤͶͶǤ ͳͷ ǣ ‘Ž ͶͶ

‘”†‡”–‘’”‘˜‹†‡ƒ‘”‡…‘’”‡Š‡•‹˜‡–‡•–‹‰•›•–‡™Š‹…ŠƒŽŽ‘™•ˆ‘”ƒ˜ƒ”‹ƒ„Ž‡ ˆ‹‡Ž†•–”‡‰–Šǡƒ‡“—‹˜ƒŽ‡–ƒ””ƒ‰‡‡–‘ˆ‡Ž‡…–”‘ƒ‰‡–•‹•”‡“—‹”‡†ǤŠ‡”‡ƒ”‡–™‘ •‹‰‹ˆ‹…ƒ–’”‘„Ž‡•™‹–Š—•‹‰‡Ž‡…–”‘ƒ‰‡–•‹’”‡ˆ‡”‡…‡–‘’‡”ƒ‡–ƒ‰‡–•Ǥ Š‡•‡ƒ”‡ǡ–Š‡‡Ž‡…–”‹…’‘™‡””‡“—‹”‡‡–ƒ†’”‘˜‹†‹‰ƒ†‡“—ƒ–‡…‘‘Ž‹‰‘ˆ–Š‡ •›•–‡  ‘†‡Ž™ƒ•…”‡ƒ–‡†—•‹‰ ‹‹–‡Ž‡‡–‡–Š‘†ƒ‰‡–‹…•ǡ ͶǤʹ„ƒ•‡† ‘–Š‡‰‡‘‡–”›‘ˆƒ ƒŽ„ƒ…Š…›Ž‹†‡”™‹–Š‘†‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹‘•–‘ƒ……‘—–ˆ‘”–Š‡ ‹–‡”ƒ…–‹‘•‘ˆ‡Ž‡…–”‘ƒ‰‡–•™‹–Š‡ƒ…Š‘–Š‡”†—‡–‘‡†—…‡†‡ˆȋ‡Ž‡…–”‘‘–‹˜‡ ˆ‘”…‡Ȍ

‘‡› ǤǤǤ‡”ƒ‡–ƒ‰‡–ƒ’’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•Ǧ ȏ•ǤŽǤȐǣ Ž•‡˜‹‡”ǡʹͲͲʹǤǦ ʹͶͺȋͶͶͳǦͶͷ͸Ȍǣ ‘—”ƒŽ‘ˆƒ‰‡–‹•ƒ†ƒ‰‡–‹…ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•Ǥ ‡‡‡”Ǥȏ‘ˆ–™ƒ”‡Ž‹‡ȐǤǦ Š––’ǣȀȀ™™™Ǥˆ‡Ǥ‹ˆ‘Ǥ ‘–‰‘‡”›ǤǤŠ‡ ‡‡”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ ‹‰Šƒ‰‡–‹… ‹‡Ž†• ‡’‘”–•‘’”‘‰”‡••‹’Š›•‹…•Ǧ ͳͻ͸͵Ǥ‘ŽǤʹ͸ —”’Š›Ǥǡ ƒŽ‡› ǤǡŽ‹ Ǥǡ ‡””ƒ• ǤǡŠ‡‡ˆˆ‡…–‘ˆ •’‡…‹‡‰‡‘‡–”›‘–Š‡—Ž–‹ƒš‹ƒŽ†‡ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‡Žƒ•–‘‡”•ǣƒ›Ž‘”Ƭ ”ƒ…‹•ǡʹͲͲ͹ǤǦ ǣƒ”‹• ƒ”‰ƒ Ǥǡ ‹Ž‹’…•‡‹ Ǥǡ”Çv›‹ Ǥƒ‰‡–‹…ˆ‹‡Ž† •‡•‹–‹˜‡ˆ—…–‹‘ƒŽ‡Žƒ•–‘‡”•™‹–Š–—‡ƒ„Ž‡‡Žƒ•–‹…‘†—Ž—•ǣŽ•‡˜‹‡”ǡʹͲͲ͸ǤǦ ʹʹ͹Ǧʹ͵͵ǣ‘ŽǤ‘Ž›‡”Ͷ͹Ǥ

Š‡”‡•—Ž–•‘ˆ–Š‹••‹—Žƒ–‹‘…ƒ„‡‡•‡‡‹ˆ‹‰—”‡ʹƒ†͵‡ƒ…Š‡Ž‡…–”‘ƒ‰‡– …‘•‹•–•‘ˆͳͷͲͲ–—”•‘ˆͳ†‹ƒ‡–‡”…‘’’‡”™‹”‡ƒ†Šƒ•ƒ…—””‡–‘ˆͳͷƒ’•†… ƒ–ˆ—ŽŽ’‘™‡”

David.gorman@mydit.ie


A Novel Material for Vibration Control SUMMARY / ABSTRACT

KEY OUTPUTS / POTENTIAL

Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are smart materials that adapt to their working environment. An MRE consists of magnetic particles aligned into chains in an elastomer matrix. The cured composite is used in the presence or absence of a magnetic field where its material properties such as stiffness can be instantaneously and reversibly controlled by increasing or decreasing the magnetic flux density of an external magnetic field. The response of MREs occurs in the space of milliseconds.

It has been suggested that MREs might have an advantage over magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) in some applications, eliminating the need for a vessel to contain fluid [1] and mitigating sedimentation of particles [2]. Boczkowska and Awietjan reported that matrix viscosity should be low to allow a greater mobility of the magnetic particles thereby enhancing the MR effect [2]. The alignment of particles is hindered by matrix viscosity. This research has found that if the viscosity of an elastomer is too low, sedimentation may occur in MREs too. The best possible alignment of particle chains should be achieved prior to curing so that MR effect in the cured composite is maximised, but the cured matrix should be viscous enough to prevent any settling of the particles later on.

The magnitude of change in material properties available depends largely on the microstructure of the composite material. Good alignment of the particle chains results in a highly anisotropic material. A central theme of this work focused on identifying a suitable compound and the optimum fabrication parameters required to produce MREs with a high magnetorheological (MR) effect. In some cases, the particle surfaces were modified with silanes to improve dispersion throughout the elastomer matrix and to improve the bonds between particles and matrix. Materials with mechanical properties which can be altered rapidly to suit the operating conditions and applications are beneficial to industry. industry MREs will be useful in sensing and damping applications over a range of frequencies.

MREs are a material best suited to small strains. As strain is increased, the MR effect falls off. However, good preparation of MREs maximises the strain range over which the material can be used and ensures a better retention of MR effect as deformation is increased. Chen et al. [2] have reported a reduction in some properties such as tensile strength and tear strength but this work has found that with careful selection of raw materials these undesirable effects can be significantly reduced.

HIGHLIGHTS TO DATE Although MREs which exhibit high changes in material properties have been achieved, most of the published literature describes composites which would not be suitable for industrial use as their initial moduli has been quite low (less than 1 MPa). Such materials are quite fragile and break very easily. A main reason for choosing rubber as an engineering material is its ability to return to its original shape after being subjected to large deformations (strains), or its ‘elasticity’. M Many studies di so far f have h offered ff d results l which hi h would ld not be b attainable i bl in i reall world situations (for example, MREs based on hard magnetic materials, which exhibit remanance and may require hours for the change in properties to be reversed). Fabrication of MRE materials with suitable initial moduli (2 to 4 MPa), tensile strength (14 MPa) and elongation at break (400 %) have been achieved in this work and are suitable for industrial use. Fabrication and vulcanisation parameters have been controlled to maximise the degree to which the composite material properties can be varied.

CT scan of MnFe2O4 particles in a silicone rubber matrix

References 1. S. Kashima, F. Miyasaka and K. Hirata, “Novel soft actuator using magnetorheological elastomer,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 48, pp. 1649-1652, 2012. 2. A. Boczkowska and S. F. Awietjan, "Smart composites of urethane elastomers with carbonyl iron," Journal of Materials Science, vol. 44, pp. 4104-4111, 2009. 3. L. Chen, X. Gong, W. Jiang, J. Yao, H. Deng, and W. Li, "Investigation on magnetorheological Elastomers based on Natural Rubber," Journal off Material Science, vol. 42, pp. 5483-5489, 2007.

TEAM / FUNDERS Deutsches Institüt für Kautschuk Technologie e.V. (DIK) (German Rubber Institute), Hannover, Germany. Centre for Elastomer Research (CER) at Dublin Institute of Technology, dublin, Ireland. SEM image g of carbonyl y iron p powder in a natural rubber matrix

Jennifer.mcintyre@mydit.ie


A novel method to improve the mechanical properties of magnetorheological elastomers SUMMARY / ABSTRACT

KEY OUTPUTS / POTENTIAL

Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) belong to a family of so-called smart materials whose rheological properties can be controlled rapidly and reversibly by the application of external magnetic fields [1]. In MREs, micro-sized magnetizable particles are added to a polymeric base material. When subjected to a magnetic field, changes in mechanical properties result. MREs have numerous potential applications, such as automotive bushing [2] and MRE based adaptive tuned vibration absorbers (ATVAs) [3].

Fig.1 depicts the FTIR spectra of TEOS coated CI particles. Compared with the FTIR spectrum of pure CI particle, several new absorption peaks appeared in the spectrum of TEOS coated CI particles. The appearance of these peaks showed that the CI particles were encapsulated by polysilanes.

However, for engineering application, However application the incompatibility of magnetic particles and elastomeric matrix used in MREs often leads to poor stability and diminished mechanical properties of MREs. Hence, to improve the rubber/magnetic particles interaction is an effective method to improve the mechanical properties of MREs. The main aim of the proposed research is to explore the coating technology for effective design of interfacial layers in MREs, leading to development of intelligent composites having practical applications in vehicle vibration control.

HIGHLIGHTS TO DATE

The surface morphologies of pure and coated CI particles were shown in Fig.2. It was found that the surfaces of untreated CI particles are of spherical shape with high resolution. However, the surfaces of the coated particles were distinctivelyy different. The coating g layer y resulted in a q quite different texture and morphology. Fig.3 shows the fractured surface morphologies of MREs fabricated using unmodified and TEOS modified CI particles respectively. It can be noted that pure carbonyl iron agglomerate in the silicone rubber matrix. The interface between carbonyl iron particles and silicone rubber is very clear, which indicates the interaction between the two phases is weak. Whereas in contrast, the carbonyl iron particles treated by TEOS have a better dispersion in the rubber matrix. The improved dispersion should be attributed to the coating layer derived from the hydrolysis and condensation of TEOS can be acted as the interfacial layer to bond the carbonyl iron particles and the silicone rubber and increase their interaction. interaction

The conventional procedure to prepare MREs was by directly mixing the magnetizable particles with the rubber and then conducting the vulcanization in the same way as in the manufacturing process of carbon black-filled rubber. The problem with this is the dispersion of magnetizable particles in the rubber matrix [4]. The problem with this is that the incompatibility between both materials often leads to phase separation. In order to achieve adhesion and promote the formation of finely divided inorganic domains into polymer matrices, it is common to introduce adhesions promoters in the product formation. These molecules, also called compatibilizer or coupling agent are capable of reacting with both the inorganic filler and the polymer matrix, thus creating chemical bonds between the two components and better homogeneity of the blends results. In this project, the magnetic particles (Carbonyl Iron, CI) were coated with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) through a sol-gel method. Chemical structure analysis of the coated particles was carried out by FTIR and microstructures of the coated particles was observed with SEM. Coated particles have been used to fabricate isotropic MREs using room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber as matrix. The fracture surface morphologies of the MREs were observed with SEM.

a

b

Fig.3 Fracture Surface morphologies of MREs fabricated by CI (a) and TEOS coated CI (b)

References Transmittance (%)

Fig.1 FTIR spectra of pure and TEOS coated CI particles 787 1632

antisymmetric stretching 3353

969

1059 3000

2000

vibration ; 969cm-1 and 787cm-1:

Pure CI particles TEOS coated CI particles

4000

1100-1000cm-1: Si-O-Si,

Si-O-Si, bending vibrations.

1000

[1] J. D. Carlson, M. R. Jolly. MR fluid, foam and elastomer devices, Mechatronics, 2000, 10(4-5), 555-569 [2] J. R. Watson. Method and apparatus for varying the stiffness of a suspension bushing, U.S. Patent 5609353, 1997 [3] A. A. Lerner, K. A. Cunefare. Performance of MRE-based Vibration Absorbers, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 2008, 19(5), 551-563 [4] N.Kchit, and G. Bossis, Electrical resistivity mechanism in magnetorheological elastomer, Journal of Physics D D-Applied Applied Physics, 2009, 42,105505(8pp)

TEAM / FUNDERS Centre for Elastomer Research (CER), Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland. Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (IRCSET)

College Logo Fig.2 Surface morphology of pure and TEOS coated CI particles

yanfen.zhou@mydit.ie


Communications Network Research Institute (CNRI) KEY ACHIEVEMENTS C S • Research funding secured to date over €2.9 million • 3 PhD graduates • 6 MPhil graduates • 2 patents awarded (WLAN Probe) • EPO patent (EP1608104) granted January 2008. • US PTO patent (US 7664031) granted February 2010. • 1 patent filing (Realtime VoIP Call Quality Estimator) • British Patent Office filing (Application 0921806.6) December 2010. • 7 licenses • 6 invention disclosures • WLAN Resource Monitor • WLAN Resource Controller • EQUAL (VoIP Call Quality Estimator) • VIDAS (Statistical Video Quality Analyzer) • ConTPC (Conservative Transmit Power Control) • WLAN Link Adaptation

RESEARCH INTERESTS The Communications Network Research Institute (CNRI) specialises in developing innovative technologies to support the delivery of real-time services such as VoIP and video streaming on wireless networks, specifically IEEE 802.11 802 11 WLAN (or ( more popularly l l known k as Wi-Fi Wi Fi ) networks. k To this end the CNRI has adopted a cross-layer philosophy where we seek to use information obtained at one particular layer in the communications protocol stack to support and enhance the operation at another layer. To date, the CNRI has addressed a number of the challenges for WLAN mesh networks where it has investigated resource aware routing techniques, passive measurements of the characteristics of IEEE 802.11 wireless links, interference mitigation, multi-radio hardware platforms, rate selection, output power optimization, and fragmentation threshold tuning. Currently, the CNRI is conducting projects in the area of optimizing VoIP call quality, mobile data offload, packet aggregation to improve network throughput, dynamic channel selection on WLAN networks, and detecting DDoS attacks on WLAN mesh networks.

TEAM

KEY PUBLICATIONS • Miroslaw Narbutt, Narbutt The E-model E model based quality contours for predicting speech transmission quality and user satisfaction from time-varying transmission impairments, ITU-T Recommendation G.109 Appendix I, January 2007. • Miroslaw Narbutt et al., Adaptive VoIP Playout Scheduling: Assessing User Satisfaction, IEEE Internet Computing Magazine, July/August 2005. • Mark Davis, Tristan Raimondi, A Novel Framework for Radio Resource Management in IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs, International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks (WiOpt’05), April 2005, Riva del Garda, Trentino, Italy • Mark Davis, A Wireless Traffic Probe for Radio Resource Management and QoS Provisioning in IEEE 802.11 WLANs, ACM Symposium on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWiM’04), October, 2004, Venezia, Italy.

CONTACT DETAILS

Dr. Mark Davis

Director

Dr. Mark Davis

Dr. Miroslaw Narbutt

Postdoctoral Researcher (VoIP telephony)

CNRI Office, FOCAS Institute, DIT Kevin Street, Dublin 8.

Dr. Tanmoy Debnath

Postdoctoral Researcher (Video streaming)

Tel: +353-1-402 7950

Dr. Mustafa Ramadhan

Postdoctoral Researcher (Mesh routing)

Fax: +353-1-4027901

Jianhua Deng

PhD student (Packet aggregation)

Email: mark.davis@dit.ie

Fuhu Deng

PhD student (Dynamic channel selection)

Yi Ding

PhD student (Detecting DDoS attacks)

Web site: www.cnri.dit.ie

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Enhanced QUALity (EQUAL) VoIP Quality Optimisation Software PROBLEM / MARKET NEED In recent years the telecommunications industry has witnessed the emergence of packet-based or voice over IP (VoIP) communication. For example, the phenomenal success of Skype with over 170 million subscribers has pointed to the future of this industry. However, despite the widespread take up of these new systems there still remains concerns regarding the quality of service (QoS) afforded by these systems. The source of these QoS concerns lies in the nature of the underlying IP network which is usually characterized as best-effort and consequently suffers from transmission impairments such as loss, delay and delay variations. In VoIP systems, large delay variations (jitter) hinder the proper reconstruction of the speech signal at the receiver. In order to compensate for jitter, a typical VoIP application buffers the incoming voice packets before playing them out. This allows slower packets to arrive on time in order to be played out. However, if the buffering delay is too short, the slower packets will not arrive before their designated playout time and are effectively lost causing the voice quality to suffer. On the other hand, if the buffering delay is too long, it impacts on the interactivity of the speech communication. Consequently, there is a trade off between packet loss and delay and one of the major challenges in VoIP systems is to find the optimal operating point that maximizes the conversational speech quality.

PREFERRED ROUTE TO COMMERCIALISATION The commercialization route envisaged for the VoIP optimisation software is primarily through licensing although the formation of a start-up company may be an alternative route should it emerge as a more compelling option. EQUAL technology is protected through a patent filing which further enhances its licensing potential. Currently, Dublin Institute of Technology is seeking companies such as VoIP Currently service providers, network operators, and networking equipment manufacturers to license the EQUAL technology. DIT has already signed a contract with one global VoIP service provider to integrate this technology with a number of commercial softphones.

TECHNOLOGY SOLUTION Researchers at DIT have developed a method that estimates user satisfaction regarding VoIP transmission quality based upon objectively measurable metrics (i.e. transmission impairments such as packet delay and loss). This method has been adopted by the ITU-T as Appendix I to the ITU-T G.109 Recommendation and consequently now enjoys a standards acceptance. VoIP optimisation software is a real time implementation of this method in VoIP terminals and provides predictions of user satisfaction.These predictions are used as the input to any adaptive tuning scheme that seeks to optimize VoIP transmission quality. The technology can also be used for VoIP transmission quality monitoring, pre-deployment testing, and network troubleshooting. VoIP optimisation software has been successfully integrated with a real VoIP softphone (PJSIP) that can run under Windows, Linux, and Symbian OS. The software seeks to find the optimal operating point between packet loss and packet delay that minimises the effect of transmission impairments and thus maximises user satisfaction. The improvement in quality is comparable with that between mobile (MOS=3.9) and landline telephony (MOS=4.3). Furthermore, a particularly ti l l attractive tt ti feature f t off this thi tool t l is i that th t it is i based b d upon a method th d that th t has been accepted as part of an ITU-T Recommendation G.109.

EQUAL+ comprises software modules designed for easy integration in VoIP endpoints, i.e. soft-phones, IP phones, and VoIP gateways. For more information, please visit:

http://www.cnri.dit.ie/research.multimedia.equal.html

IP POSITION The technology is protected by a patent application, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Real-Time VoIP Transmission Quality Predictor and Quality Driven Adaptive Playout Bufferâ&#x20AC;?, UK Patent Office, (GB 0921806.6);

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Dr. Miroslaw Narbutt, +353-1-402 7959 or narbutt@cnri.dit.ie

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Optimizing The Performance of Wi-Fi Networks Supporting Mobile Data Offload PROBLEM / MARKET NEED The explosion in the growth of mobile broadband data is being described by mobile network operators (MNOs) as a â&#x20AC;&#x153;data tsunamiâ&#x20AC;? that is threatening to overwhelm 3G networks. This growth in traffic has been attributed to the advent of the smartphone and the popularity of video applications. Already some mobile networks are crumbling under the increased traffic, particularly in densely populated urban areas. Moreover, the next generation of 4G (e.g. LTE/LTE+) networks are unlikely to meet the exponentially growing demand for capacity. MNOs desperately need solutions that help them reduce network congestion. MNOs are increasingly relying on mobile data offload to fixed wireless networks to alleviate their traffic congestion problems and Wi-Fi is rapidly becoming the dominant wireless technology for mobile data offload. However, currently Wi-Fi cannot reliably support quality of service (QoS) with video traffic being particularly problematic owing to its large bandwidth requirements coupled with the QoS expectations of end users. Delivering video traffic over Wi-Fi networks has been an active research area for the last ten years or so and the same challenges still remain, namely how to provision bandwidth for video traffic in order to guarantee QoS.

PREFERRED ROUTE TO COMMERCIALISATION The preferred route to commercialisation for the OptiWifi solution is a startup company. Currently, it is the subject of Enterprise Ireland Commercialisation Fund project whose objective is to prepare the OptiWifi solution for commercialisation via an investment ready startup company. This will necessitate a number of market validation trials in order to quantify the commercial benefits of the OptiWifi solution for network operators. The results from the market validation trials will be used to develop and refine the business plan for the startup prior to investor engagement. A feasibility study was undertaken prior to the Commercialisation Fund project that sought to identify the commercial opportunity presented by this technology and to clarify the IP landscape surrounding the technology. This study concluded that there is a clear commercial opportunity for the OptiWifi solution in the mobile data offload space. However, there is some further technological development required in order to introduce the type of network management features and functionalities that would normally be expected of carrier grade telecommunications equipment.

TECHNOLOGY SOLUTION The CNRI has developed a piece of Wi-Fi optimization technology (OptiWifi) that leverages the IEEE 802.11e/WMM QoS enhancement functionality that is now a standard feature in all modern Wi-Fi equipment. Despite its widespread availability few applications actually utilize this functionality, due primarily to there being too many parameters to configure and furthermore it is not clear what values should be used for these parameters. The standard recommends a set of fixed default parameter values, however the performance benefits from using default values these have been poor as there is a complex relationship between the configuration f parameters and QoS Q S performance. f The OptiWifi solution is based upon an mathematical framework that accurately models this complex relationship. This mathematical framework is the basis of control algorithm that has been incorporated into a bandwidth/QoS provisioning application. The unique feature of the OptiWifi solution is that it adaptively adjusts the configuration parameters in response to changing traffic load conditions in order to deliver the required bandwidth/QoS. The OptiWifi solution can increase the volume and reliability of mobile data delivered across Wi-Fi networks. The OptiWifi solution allows service providers manage their Wi-Fi networks with far greater certainty than currently exists. This will ill provide id for f greater t assurance in i managing i the th QoS Q S experienced i d by b users.

A number of preliminary trials of the OptiWifi solution have already taken place on public Wi-Fi networks or hotspots. Specifically, two busy city centre coffee shops were used for the OptiWifi trials. The results from these trials have indicated a clear improvement in the performance of the hotspot in terms of a dramatic reduction in the level of bandwidth congestion being experienced by users. For more information, please visit http://www.cnri.dit.ie/research.wrrm.html

IP POSITION The technology underpinning the OptiWifi solution is protected by a patent US PTO No. 7664031 (granted February 2010) that covers the mathematical framework that models the interactions of the various WLAN processes and that lies at the heart of the control algorithm.

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Dr. Mark Davis, +353-1-402 7950 or mark.davis@dit.ie

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Development Technology in the Community Research Group

INNOVATIONS IN ZERO DISCHARGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS SUMMARY

KEY OUTPUTS

Key Drivers: • EU judgment – “Ireland has failed to fulfill its obligations as regards domestic wastewaters disposed of in the countryside through septic tanks and other individual wastewater treatment systems” .

• Legislation - Water Services (Amendment) Bill 2011 - introduces a system of inspection of individual wastewater treatment facilities and places the primary responsibility for any remediation works on the owner.

DTC Research Sites • Research studies carried out by DTC in the last ten years have shown the appropriateness of willow bed facilities as a polishing unit for small scale community reed beds (4 – 60 p.e.).

Key Research Finding: DTC has developed design criteria for zero discharge wastewater treatment systems appropriate to the Irish climatic conditions.

Science: Zero Discharge

Innovation: Design Criteria

• Design and sizing has evolved over this period to achieve “zero discharge”. Design Innovations • Present and future studies are focused on developing reed bed-willow bed 10 systems for new build and retro fit septic tanks.

Industry: Potential solution for individual septic tank systems 10

HIGHLIGHTS TO DATE RESEARCH STUDY 1: COLECOTT REED AND WILLOW BED FACILITY, FINGAL COUNTY COUNCIL, CO. DUBLIN. The first Irish municipal application of a hybrid reed bed treatment system (RBTS) was designed and constructed at Colecott for Fingal County Council 1996-2002. Phase 1 investigated the efficiency of the hybrid h b id reedbed db d system. t Phase Ph 2 investigated i ti t d a tertiary t ti treatment t t t system comprising a willow bed receiving the effluent from the reedbed. RESEARCH STUDY 2: LYNCHES LANE HYBRID REED AND WILLOW BED FACILITY, SOUTH COUNTY DUBLIN COUNTY COUNCIL. This study monitored the performance of a hybrid reed willow bed facility at Lynches Lane, for South Dublin County Council (SDCC). Monitoring included influent and effluent parameters, rainfall, potential evapotranspiration, and soil classification.

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

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DTC RESEARCH GROUP AIMS TO DEVELOP AND PROMOTE A DECENTRALIZED SYSTEM OF WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION WHICH ENCOURAGES SELF RELIANCE WITHIN COMMUNITIES IN BOTH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.

FUNDERS RESEARCH STUDY 1: Colecott Reed and Willow Bed facility, Fingal County Council. RESEARCH STUDY 2: Lynches Lane Hybrid reed and willow bed facility, South Dublin County Council. The authors would like to acknowledge the help and assistance of Michael Hannon of the Parks Department, South Dublin County Council and Don McDonald for all his help and advice.

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Development Technology in the Community Research Group

DTC Research Group School of Civil & Building Services Engineering,

www.dit.ie/dtc


Development Technology in the Community (DTC) Innovations in Sustainable Environmental, Water & Sanitation Technologies

DTC RESEARCH INTERESTS

DTC CURRENT RESEARCH

Strategic Objective: The Development Technology in the Community (DTC) Research Group was established to develop and promote innovations in Sustainable Environmental, Water and Sanitation Technologies.

Zero Discharge WWT Systems – Research studies carried out by DTC Research Group in the last ten years have shown the appropriateness of willow bed facilities as a polishing unit for small scale community reed beds. Our design and sizing has evolved over this period to achieve zero discharge. Present and future studies are focused on developing reed bed willow bed systems for new build and retro fit septic tanks.

DTC Research & Advisory Services: • Pilot Demonstration Projects

Sustainable Water Infrastructure – Current research is focused on innovations in rainwater harvesting design to improve efficiencies and reduce system costs for domestic, domestic agricultural, agricultural industrial and school applications. applications

• Innovations in Appropriate Technology • Rainwater Harvesting

Technology Transfer– DTC are currently partnering with product developers in Bolivia and the UK to develop working aids, guidelines and methodological toolboxes for innovative technology transfer programs in developing countries..

• Zero Discharge Wastewater Treatment (WWT) Systems • Low cost water quality testing • Training Courses & Applied Research Programs Research Partners: DTC provides technical advisory and research services to the Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government (DOEHLG), Local Authorities, International Non Government Organisations, Private Business, Community Based Organisations g and Educational Institutions.

Innovations in Low Cost Water Quality Testing – DTC are currently assessing low cost water quality methodologies for use in developed & developing countries.

KEY ACHIEVEMENTS • Innovation in Rainwater Harvesting Design

RAINWATER HARVESTING

• Pilot Rainwater Harvesting Study 2005 – 2009, DOEHLG

Rainwater Harvesting System

• School Rainwater Harvesting Study 2009-2012, DOEHLG

1

1.

Roof surface

2.

Rainwater Filter

3.

• Zero Discharge Wastewater Treatment Systems

Rainwater Storage Tank

4.

• Reed Bed WWT System, 1996-2002, - Fingal Co. Co.

Supply Management System

5.

Marking & Labelling

6.

Overflow to surface water drainage

ZERO DISCHARGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT

• Hybrid Reed Willow Bed WWT System, System 2007-2012 2007 2012 - South Dublin Co Co. Co Co.

5 4

2

3

• Appropriate Technology 6

• Sierra Leone , 2010-2012 – EU Funded Program

6

• Water, Wastewater, Solar, Wind, Pump technology, 2011, EMAS, Bolivia, • Low Cost Pump Design , 2012 CANZEE, UK • Training Courses • TECSPAR Technology Transfer Project, 2005-2008 EU Alfa Programme in association with Polytechnic University of Catalunia, Spain and the University of Padua Italy and University of Medellin, Padua, Medellin Colombia Colombia, University of San Luis Potosi Potosi, Mexico and the University of Conception, Chile.

DTC RESEARCH GROUP AIMS TO DEVELOP AND PROMOTE A DECENTRALIZED SYSTEM OF WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION WHICH ENCOURAGES SELF RELIANCE WITHIN COMMUNITIES IN BOTH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.

DTC CONTACT DETAILS Community Managed Water Source

Liam McCarton , email: liam.mccarton@dit.ie Tel: 087-7722225 Dr. Sean O’Hogain, email: sean.ohogain@dit.ie

SIERRA LEONE DTC ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE CENTRE

Catriona Walsh, Walsh email: catriona.walsh@dit.ie catriona walsh@dit ie Anna Reid, email: anna.reid@dit.ie John Turner, Head of School of Civil & Building Services Engineering,

Training / Water Testing

email: john.turner@dit.ie DTC / EMAS WORKSHOP 2011 TECHNOLOGY INNOVATIONS

DTC Research Group, School of Civil & Building Services Engineering, Dublin Institute of Technology, Bolton Street. Website: www.dit.ie/dtc

Development Technology in the Community Research Group

DTC Research Group School of Civil & Building Services Engineering

www.dit.ie/dtc


Construction Materials Laboratory INTRODUCTION The Construction and Materials Laboratory in DIT Bolton Street is involved in a wide range of research into construction materials, many with industry collaboration. Companies wishing to make use of the facilities to solve technical problems they are experiencing with new and existing construction materials are invited to discuss their issues with staff so an appropriate research project can be planned and delivered. The laboratory has a long tradition of carrying out testing of materials for industry while utilising the expertise and experience of the academic and technical staff. Previous private and commercial work carried out in the laboratory includes: ‰ Concrete strength testing ‰ Stone staircase load assessment ‰ Aggregate testing ‰ Concrete drying monitoring ‰ Structural assessment of timber ‰ Concrete lintel tests

STAFF RESEARCH INTERESTS Staff using the laboratory are research active in the following areas: ‰ Concrete durability and performance behaviour ‰ Bridge dynamics and loading ‰ Structural steelwork behaviour and analysis ‰ Concrete impact and confinement ‰ Coastal engineering and wave energy ‰ Hempcrete as a building material ‰ Seismic loading of steel structures ‰ Post-buckling behaviour of steel plate girders ‰ Structural finite element modelling ‰ Drying concrete slabs

‰ Structural steel beam testing ‰ Shear testing of bolts ‰ Vibration analysis and monitoring ‰ Concrete durability analysis ‰ Lifting eye pull-out tests ‰ Life-cycle analysis of wet-room products ‰ Tensile and compression load measurement capability in building materials ‰ Wireless monitoring

TEAM / FUNDERS Academic and technical staff would be delighted to discuss any research project. Principle investigators active in the laboratory include: o Dr. Niall Holmes (niall.holmes@dit.ie) o Mr Henry Mullen (henry.mullen@dit.ie) o Mr David Thompson (david.thompson@dit.ie) o Mr Joe Kindregan (joseph.kindregan@dit.ie) o Mr Ronan Hogan (ronan.hogan@dit.ie)

Funding for projects has been obtained from both private

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and public sources including Enterprise Ireland Innovation vouchers and feasibility studies

Dr. Niall Holmes, Department of Civil & Structural Engineering, niall.holmes@dit.ie


New hand held moisture meter to assess the moisture content through the depth of concrete slabs SUMMARY As part of an Enterprise Ireland feasibility study, this project investigates the possibility of developing a new hand-held instrument that will non-destructively measure the moisture condition through the depth of drying concrete slabs. The instrument will use 4-point electrical resistivity and impedance technology calibrated with moisture contents in the concrete.

KEY OUTPUTS â&#x20AC;˘ Confirm the science of 4-point electrical resistivity is applicable on drying concrete slabs for the ultimate measurement of the internal moisture content through the depth. â&#x20AC;˘ Following an extensive experimental programme, develop accurate calibration curves between the electrical resistivity and moisture content at depth.

Currently, the moisture condition through the depth is assessed by drilling a number of holes into the concrete, inserting a plastic tube to trap a pocket of air and placing relative humidity (rh) probes. This approach can be time consuming and is partially non-destructive. The aim here is to develop a low cost, non-destructive apparatus that will measure the moisture content directly without the need for drilling etc. The instrument will be suitable for onsite measurements and data will be presented via a digital and graphical display. The instrument, which will be lightweight and durable, will be capable of measuring the moisture content through the depth of concrete slabs and walls based on approximately 550 hours of experimental testing and analysis. These calibrations can be incorporated into a commercial prototype in a follow on full Enterprise Ireland innovation grant application between the partners.

BACKGROUND Applying an alternating electrical field to concrete placed between a pair of electrodes yields a response which will be largely dictated by the water distribution within the matrix and pore continuity between electrodes. This instrument, through variations in the spacing of the electrodes and the voltage applied, will transmit the electrical current deeper into the concrete and a measurement of the resistance will be made. This resistance measurement will then be calibrated with moisture content readings from drilled dust samples through the depth of the slabs over time. The instruments output will be the moisture content through the depth using these calibrations. The feasibility study will be used to confirm if the proposed approach can be successfully employed in a real sense, capable of measuring the moisture condition through the depth of concrete slabs and walls. The findings from the experimental programme as part of this will yield initial calibrations between the electrical resistivity and moisture condition in the concrete and confirms if the theory is applicable. These findings will then be used in a full innovation partnership project to widen the experimental programme using a range of appropriate concretes as well as develop numerical models which will add confidence to the initial results.

TEAM / FUNDERS The project is funded by an Enterprise Ireland Feasibility Study under their Innovation Partnership Programme and is supported by Tramex Ltd, an Irish company that manufacturers and sells hand-held concrete moisture meters and inspection kits (www.tramex.ie).

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Dr. Niall Holmes, Department of Civil & Structural Engineering niall.holmes@dit.ie

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