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What do we mean by disengagement, rehabilitation, and reintegration? The definitions and terms used by policymakers, practitioners, and researchers vary significantly across countries and organizations, and sometimes even within them.41 As with the concept of violent extremism itself, the United Nations uses the terms “disengagement,” “rehabilitation,” and “reintegration” in the context of terrorism and violent extremism without offering a specific definition.42 Recent policy developments within the United Nations and other multilateral organizations, particularly with regard to returnees affiliated with listed terrorist organizations, have advanced the framework of screening and prosecution, rehabilitation and reintegration (PRR).43 However, there are many departures. For example, in the International Organization on Migration (IOM) partnership with the Government of Nigeria, the terms “disassociation” and “reconciliation” have replaced “deradicalization” and “rehabilitation.”44 Past work related to the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) of fighters A NOTE ON TERMINOLOGY

The IDDRS uses the definitions for DDR from the Secretary-General, Note to the General Assembly, A/C.5/59/31, May 2005. These definitions are standardized across UN agencies: Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) – A process that contributes to security and stability in a post-conflict recovery context by removing weapons from the hands of combatants, taking the combatants out of military structures and helping them to integrate socially and economically into society by finding civilian livelihoods. Disarmament – The collection, documentation, control and disposal of small arms, ammunition, explosives and light and heavy weapons of combatants and often also of the civilian population. Disarmament also includes the development of responsible arms management programmes. Demobilization – The formal and controlled discharge of active combatants from armed forces or other armed groups. The first stage of demobilization may extend from the processing of individual combatants in temporary centres to the massing of troops in camps designated for this purpose (cantonment sites, encampments, assembly areas or barracks). Reintegration – The process by which ex-combatants acquire civilian status and gain sustainable employment and income. Reintegration is essentially a social and economic process with an open time-frame, primarily taking place in communities at the local level. It is part of the general development of a country and a national responsibility, and often necessitates longterm external assistance. The 2009 UN Policy for Post-Conflict Employment and Income Generation added the following sentences to the IDDRS definition for reintegration, linking it to sustainable peace: “(...) The purpose of reintegration programmes is to contribute to building sustainable peace, the conflict affected people’s return to civilian life and improved material and social conditions. Employment and income-generation constitute one of the building blocks in the construction of the edifice not only for integrating or absorbing conflict-affected people but also for long-term peace.”

For a discussion of the terms’ inconsistent use in academic literature see: Journal for Deradicalization (2017), De-radicalization and Counterradicalization: Valuable Tools Combating Violent Extremism, or Harmful Methods of Subjugation? (available at: http://journals.sfu.ca/jd/index.php/jd/ article/viewFile/109/91).) 42 See: S/RES/2242 (2015) (available at: https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_res_2242. pdf) and S/RES/2396 (2017) on Foreign Terrorist Fighters (available at: https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/1327675?ln=en).) 43 Susan Hutchinson and Chris Crewther (2018), WPS 2018: Modern slavery and WPS (available at: https://www.aspistrategist.org.au/wps-2018-modernslavery-wps/). 44 Remarks by Dr. Mia Bloom, Professor of Communication at Georgia State University, GSX workshop April 26-27, 2018 in Oslo, Norway. 41

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INVISIBLE WOMEN

Profile for Reagan Smith

Invisible Women  

Gendered Dimensions of Return, Rehabilitation and Reintegration from Violent Extremism

Invisible Women  

Gendered Dimensions of Return, Rehabilitation and Reintegration from Violent Extremism