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Gendered perspectives remain absent despite past experience to draw from

Civil societygovernment collaboration across all sectors is vital

Questioning the citizenship of returnees threatens de facto statelessness

Civil society actors are front-line responders, but face profound legal risks

The role of the media

Political expediency, public sensitivities and gaps in the law

Evidence for prosecution is hard to find

A public voice, a personal risk

Gendered (dis)empowerment

Religious legitimacy

Legislation exists but is inadequate or counterproductive for reintegration

Women’s and girls’ experiences in detention and rehabilitation

Training journalists

Purpose, meaning and belonging: What do we offer? What are we for?

Trauma healing for victims of sexual and gender-based violence

Engaging the security sector to address lack of trust

Gender in intelligence and analysis

The role of women-led community organizations

Aspiring to affluence

Psychosocial interventions for returnees

Security sector and civil society cooperation; the added value of working with women

Raising awareness of stigma

More than material well-being

Psychosocial support for security actors and service providers

The necessity of mental health infrastructure

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

The Policy Gaps and Challenges Law, Redress and Reconciliation Security from and Security for Women and Girl Returnees Addressing Public Attitudes of Stigma and Fear Transforming Ideology and Restoring Identity Socioeconomic Empowerment and Sense of Purpose

Coping with Trauma

Figure 4. The multisectoral landscape of holistic and gendered disengagement, rehabilitation, and reintegration ■ Chapter 1 draws attention to the existing policy frameworks, gaps and challenges related to addressing disarmament, reintegration and rehabilitation of people associated with violent extremist groups, with attention to the gaps related to women and children in particular. ■ Chapter 2 on legal processes and issues includes discussions on repatriation, prosecution, sentencing, citizenship rights, restorative justice measures, and access to legal aid for returnees. ■ Chapter 3 addresses security issues both from and for returnees. It addresses measures needed to mitigate the risk of recidivism while avoiding further marginalization and potential secondary or re-radicalization. It also touches on the protection needs of returnees from retributional violence and SGBV, and the role of state security actors and civil society organizations in this process. ■ Chapter 4 highlights the importance of public awareness and community sensitization, including the role of the media and local leaders to combat retribution, stigma, fear and mistrust, and enable successful reintegration. It also highlights the risks that individuals face when seeking to raise such sensitive issues. ■ Chapter 5 focuses on the need for ideological transformation through religious or other forms of counselling and mentoring for those who have been convinced of violent extremist narratives, with attention to the needs of women who often have less opportunities for deepening their religious literacy. ■ Chapter 6 addresses the importance of providing socioeconomic support (including access to education, relevant livelihoods skills and job training, employer sensitization and job placement) and enabling economic independence not only as a practical necessity but also as a path to rehabilitation and resilience against the ideologues of violent extremism. ■ Chapter 7 draws attention to the need for psychosocial support, such as trauma healing, tools to cope with stigma, and family therapy, for returnees and their families whether they are victims, perpetrators, or both. Given the propensity of sexual violence among women and girls, the need for reproductive health services and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases is noted, as well as the unique dynamics of newly femaleheaded households. 18


Profile for Reagan Smith

Invisible Women  

Gendered Dimensions of Return, Rehabilitation and Reintegration from Violent Extremism

Invisible Women  

Gendered Dimensions of Return, Rehabilitation and Reintegration from Violent Extremism