Description and Relevance
UNDP, UN Women, UNODC and OHCHR, A Practitioner’s Toolkit on
Toolkit with practical guidance on addressing the specific barriers women face in obtaining justice as victims, claimants, witnesses and offenders.
The toolkit offers programming considerations for different types of justice sector policies, including rehabilitation and reintegration measures to avoid recidivism (pp. 283 – 284). The toolkit recommends that reintegration should be a process that begins from the point of sentencing and addresses the root causes of women’s offences, through counselling for SGBV survivors, substance abuse programmes and educational and vocational training (p. 284).
Women’s Access to Justice Programming (2018)
A strategy to implement pre- and post-release reintegration programmes that address women’s specific needs must involve cooperation between prison authorities, the State and non-State service providers (p. 284). United Nations Security Council Resolution 2250 (2015) and Resolution 2419 (2018) on Youth, Peace and Security (YPS) Independent YPS Progress Study, with recommendations for effective responses at all levels United Nations Security Council Resolution 2396 (2017) on Foreign Terrorist Fighters (FTF) and Security Council Resolution 2178 (2014) The Madrid Guiding Principles (2015) produced by the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) as a practical tool for the implementation of UNSCR 2178
United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime, Handbook on Children Recruited and Exploited by Terrorist and Extremist Groups (2017)
Security Council Resolutions that outline the threats faced by youth (18-29 years old), including extremism in the areas of participation, prevention, protection, partnerships, and disarmament and reintegration.
UNSCR 2250 draws a link between gender and reintegration, encouraging those involved in planning for disarmament, demobilization and reintegration to consider the needs of youth affected by armed conflict, including in “evidence-based and gender-sensitive youth employment opportunities” (Para. 17 (a)). Aside from a mention of SGBV and a recalling of WPS resolutions, UNSCR 2419 only references the role of gender inequalities in the preamble.
UNSC resolutions on Foreign Terrorist Fighters (FTF) obliging all states to criminalize FTF-related activities and take steps to improve detection, stop FTF travel and share CT information.
UNSCR 2178 does not include comprehensive mention of the roles of women and gender. However, the Madrid Guiding Principles include references to women’s vulnerability as returnees and the importance of their inclusion as responders and peacebuilders, as and call for attention to gender-related crimes and gender-sensitive risk indicators. UNSCR 2396 is stronger on these points, emphasizing the importance of gender-sensitivity in developing strategies for assessing signs of radicalization, countering terrorist narratives in the prison system, and conducting research on trafficking in persons (Paras. 38, 40). Emphasizing the different roles women associated with FTF may have played, the resolution stresses the important of assisting women who may have been victims of terrorism, “taking into account gender and age sensitivities” (Para. 31). The resolution also calls for the leadership and participation of women “in the design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of (…) strategies for addressing returning and relocating foreign terrorist fighters and their families” (Para. 39).
The UNODC Handbook aims to provide coherent and consistent guidance to national authorities on the treatment of children recruited and exploited by terrorist and violent extremist groups, with emphasis on the role of the justice system.
The handbook includes a chapter that specifically discusses the challenges related to the reintegration of girls, including their potential exposure to violence, consequences of violence and stigma associated with their reintegration into communities (p. 109). Aside from this chapter, information on the gender dimensions of violent extremism and the need for gender-sensitivity in approaches is present throughout.
ANNEX 1: POLICY MAPPING
Gendered Dimensions of Return, Rehabilitation and Reintegration from Violent Extremism