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Arab-British Business Volume 36 Issue 2 Febuary 2013 Monthly bulletin of the Arab British Chamber of Commerce Investing in Jordan’s Agriculture Sector Pages 25 & 28




Monthly bulletin of the A-BCC Editorial Team Abdeslam El-Idrissi Cliff Lawrence David Morgan Dr Yasmin Husein Arab-British Chamber of Commerce 43 Upper Grosvenor Street London W1K 2NJ Tel: +44 (0) 20 7235 4363 Fax: +44 (0) 20 7245 6688 d.morgan@abcc.org.uk (English Editorial) y.husein@abcc.org.uk (Arabic Editorial) www.abcc.org.uk

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Advertising Distinctive Publishing Tel: 0845 884 2331 john.neilson@distinctivegroup.co.uk

Disclaimer Distinctive Publishing or Arab-British Chamber of Commerce cannot be held responsible for any inaccuracies that may occur, individual products or services advertised or late entries. No part of this publication may be reproduced or scanned without prior written permission of the publishers and Arab-British Chamber of Commerce. ISSN No: ISSN 0958-8116

Chamber News


Members’ News


Investment Climate


Business & Project News


Oman Education


Law Reports


Reports in Arabic




Jordan Agriculture


Business Events & Trade Fairs


NEW MEMBERS A T Generators UK Limited 5 Jupiter House, Calleva Park, Aldermaston READING, Berkshire RG7 8NN Tel: +44(0)20-7788 7917 Fax: +44(0)8444-843 304 Email: ali.t@atgen.ae Website: www.atgenerators.co.uk Contact: Mr Ali Al Tamimi - Director Business Activity: Generators and heavy equipment machinery and power plant Burges Salmon LLP One Glass Wharf, BRISTOL BS2 0ZX Tel: +44(0)117-939 2000 Fax: +44(0)117-902 4400 Email: clive.pugh@burges-salmon.com; keith.beattie@burges-salmon.com; richard.pettit@burges-salmon.com Website: www.burges-salmon.com Contact: Mr Clive Pugh - Partner Business Activity: Range of legal services in a wide variety of industry sectors with specialist lawyers CWC Group Limited Regent House, Oyster Wharf, 16-18 Lombard Road LONDON SW11 3RB Tel: +44(0)20-7978 0000 / Direct +44(0)20-7978 0020 Fax: +44(0)20-7978 0099 Email: marketing@thecwcgroup.com; esofat@thecwcgroup.com; nabdulhadi@thecwcgroup.com Website: www.cwcgroup.com Contact: Mrs Esha Sofat - Senior Marketing Manager Business Activity: International events organiser in the oil & gas industry Haniwells Properties Limited 980 Stockport Road, MANCHESTER M19 3NN Tel: +44(0)161-224 2271 Fax: +44(0)161-248 6565 Email: nihad@haniwells.co.uk Website: www.haniwells.co.uk Contact: Mr NihadSabha - General Manager Business Activity: Property developers, contractor, project management and general properties investment Indigo Gold Limited 111 Buckingham Palace Road, LONDON SW1W 0SR Tel: +44(0)20-7855 9606 Email: daniel@indigogold.com;

faye@indigogold.com Website: www.indigogold.com Contact: Mr Daniel Vacassin - Director Business Activity: International executive search and consultancy business working with organisations to strategically resource their business in order to enhance future capabilities Oxford Professionals Limited 13B Taylors Green, ACTON, LONDON W3 7PE UK Tel: +44(0)20-3290 3633 Email: khaddad@oxford-pro.com Website: www.oxford-pro.com Contact: Mr Kinan Haddad Public Accountant and Business Adviser Business Activity: Helps SMEs in the UK to become stronger and Middle East entities to cope with international standards for more power and success. Promotes business relations between Arab and British entities by providing services inboth Arabic or English. Salamon & Seaber Limited 68 Hanbury Street, LONDON E1 5JL Tel: +44(0)20-7247 6312 Fax: +44(0)20-7650 7943 Email: blotz@salamonandseaber.co.uk; ` anwar@salamonandseaber.co.uk Website: www.salamonandseaber.co.uk Contact: Mr Michael Blotz - Managing Director Business Activity: Analytical Chemistry Testing Laboratory Sharief Ibrahim Limited t/a Pdmclinic.com 16A Bowes Road, WALTON ON THAMES Surrey KT12 3HS Email: drshariefibrahim@gmail.com Website: www.pdmclinic.com Contact: Dr Sharief Ibrahim Consultant Physician, Managing Director Business Activity: Medical clinic provides general and specific group medical care as well as prevention of chronic diseases and health promotion Ward Williams Limited Belgrave House, 9-43 Monument Hill WEYBRIDGE, Surrey KT13 8RN Tel: +44(0)1932-830 664 Fax: +44(0)1932-830 733 Email: richard.hayward@wardwilliams.co.uk Website: www.wardwilliams.co.uk Contact: Mr Richard Hayward - Director Business Activity: Chartered accountants and business advisors




THERE ARE GREAT OPPORTUNITIES FOR ARAB BUSINESSES IN THE UK ‘Connecting cultures, building brands’, is the philosophy of Mediareach, the UK’s first multicultural advertising agency and of its Iraqi-born founder Saad Al-Saraf. Established over 25 years ago, the integrated agency provides comprehensive marketing solutions for targeting the UK and European markets. Saad’s tenacity, passion and energy have been evident from a young age. His business was kick started when he launched a publishing house, producing magazines aimed at the affluent Arab community in the UK. Through this experience Saad witnessed the opportunities available in targeting the ever-growing multicultural communities within the UK. This led to the birth of Mediareach which is following simple philosophy ever since, employees are not human resources, they are humans. It prides itself on the value that “work is not about commercial gain but about the impact and positive difference we make to the communities we serve”. For this reason, Saad is exceptionally proud of the strong impact and awareness Mediareach has been able to create through impressive

campaigns for the commercial sector and Government Departments.

opportunity. The Halal industry also has big business potential in the UK,” says Saad.

There are big opportunities for the businesses and companies in the UK if they want to embrace multiculturalism in their business model, the company believes.

Resourcefulness, innovation and dedication have been instrumental to the outstanding and unprecedented success of both the agency and its founder. Saad’s tenacious spirit has seen him continue to make a difference by helping develop a 2020 vision strategy for the UK’s small and medium size enterprises for the Department of Business and Investment.

“There have been great advances by Arab entrepreneurs and I am convinced that they are more than capable of doing extremely well in the UK. I have worked with a number of Arab companies and brands and I am more than happy to offer my services to others in developing a presence in the UK. They will surely enjoy a successful expansion in London. Arab construction firms can service the growing appetite for property in the UK. Fashion and food distribution are only some of the sectors that can benefit from this

Saad believes that there is a new breed of Arab entrepreneurs in the Middle East who are fearless and ready to take advantage of global opportunities. For more information, please visit www.mediareach.co.uk.

EVERYONE’S A CONSUMER OF HEALTH SERVICES IN THE NEW HEALTH ECONOMICS WORLD Who is New Health Economics? The World’s First Source of Interactive New Health-based Lifestyle Disease Prevention & Management Solutions New Health Economics designs, develops and implements interactive lifestyle disease prevention and management solutions and is a unique force in defining and optimising the new economics of population-centred healthcare design. Our expertise lies in: l The newly emerging dynamics of customer

engagement and data analytics;

l A disruptive, digitally-enabled change in

the way consumers search, access and apply information;

l The growth in multi-screen consumer

experiences – a nascent expectation that all brands and services will behave this way;

l A consistently engaged, ‘always-on’

digital generation that does not recognise conventional borders;

l Global health management and clinical care.

NHE is positioned to support governments, clinicians and services providers’ structure multi-channel engagement programmes for the greatest sustainable patient, consumer, cultural and commercial return on investment. This is achieved by integrating and optimising a blend of behavioural, transactional, social media and preferential

data sources, interactive smart devices, realtime decisioning, self-learning enablement and conventional loyalty reward mechanisms to create communities of engaged and selfaware consumers of healthcare services. Each community is defined by its lifestyle disease, (for example Type 2 Diabetes), together with the clients’ commercial, cultural and clinical objectives Contact Keith Hackett Co-Founder New Health Economics Email: keith@newhealtheconomics.com www.newhealtheconomics.com/index.html





Choosing your corporate venue is always an important decision because it sets the tone for the entire event Choosing your corporate venue is always an important decision because it sets the tone for the entire event

& Conference & ConferenceBooking Booking Contemporary yet stylish, set in the heart of Mayfair, the Arab British Contemporary yet stylish, set in the heart of Mayfair, the Arab British Chamber of Commerce business meeting rooms combine a central London Chamber of Commerce business meeting rooms combine a central London location with with complete dedication to to service and variety ofof location complete dedication service anddiscretion discretionto to suit suit a a variety corporate meetings and events. corporate meetings and events. Fully Fully equipped venues typically hold: AGM’s, equipped venues typically hold: AGM’s,Board BoardMeetings, Meetings, Conferences, Conferences, Presentations, Trade Shows, Exhibitions, Product Presentations, Trade Shows, Exhibitions,Workshops, Workshops, Lectures, Lectures, Product Launches, Professional DevelopmentSeminars. Seminars. Each Each venue venue can Launches, Professional Development can be be customized to meet the individual requirements of your event. customized to meet the individual requirements of your event. For venue enquires please contact OmarBdour Bdouron on omar@abcc.org.uk omar@abcc.org.uk For venue hire hire enquires please contact Omar +44 (0) 20 7659 4860, or visit our website for more information and the +44 (0) 20 7659 4860, or visit our website for more information and the range range of available venues. of available venues.



 AV and PA system

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The New Economic Landscape

The potential business opportunities for British companies seeking to trade with and invest in Libya are abundant as the country moves rapidly forward with its reconstruction programmes and becoming more integrated within the global economy. To assist British businesses with accessing the Libyan market, the Arab British Chamber of Commerce in association with the Embassy of Libya, UK Trade & Investment, and Federation of Libyan Chambers of Commerce, is organizing the Libya Trade Day one day conference.

The event will bring together key business and industry executives, policy makers, diplomats, government ministers and other stakeholders. We will also welcome the Libyan Business Delegation to the United Kingdom who’s purpose of visit is cooperation with their British counterparts.


UK Trade & Investment 1 Victoria Street London, SW1H 0ET United Kingdom

10 APRIL 2013 9am – 2pm The one day conference will focus on 4 major sectors of the Libyan economy:  Session 1 Transport & Infrastructure Construction & Utilities

 Session 2

This is a high demand event and we strongly encourage you to book your place early. The online registration is now open and will last until all spaces have been filled. For more information on sponsorship opportunities please contact Cliff on cliff.lawrence@abcc.org.uk or +44 (0) 20 7659 4881

In association with:

Conference Venue:

Finance & IT Energy & Security

 Lunch  One-to-one meetings

Federation of Libyan Chambers

of Commerce, Industry & Agriculture Embassy of Libya




GCC RENEWABLES SET FOR GROWTH As the world embraces renewable energy, the Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) is also undergoing a major change in the wake of economic diversification programmes, a new report says. It forecasts the demand for power to double and reach 215 Gigawatts (GW) by 2020. Although the GCC possesses 22.5 % of the world’s proven natural gas reserves and 35% of the world’s proven oil reserves, these conventional fuel sources are not expected to match the pace of escalating power demand in coming years. Thus, in response to this growing demand, the GCC is reconsidering its energy mix and looking to incorporate renewable energy as a significant contributor. With almost limitless solar capital available throughout the year, the potential for the development of this sector is considerable. As per current plans announced for renewable energy adoption, there is a 25GW potential for the same in the GCC up to 2020. The paper titled The Future for ‘Green’ in the GCC’s Energy Sector produced by growth partnership company, Frost & Sullivan, focuses on the strong potential of renewables and smart grids in the GCC. It also emphasises the need for a focused approach to create an environment that can nurture the growth of renewable energy and smart grids in the region.

Adoption of renewables is expected to yield multiple benefits for the GCC, it argues. Apart from industrial development, renewable energy will facilitate generating jobs for skilled personnel in this sector, and thereby reduce the high unemployment rate in the GCC. Currently, the GCC is burning up expensive oil and gas at highly subsidised rates to generate power. Renewable energy will help potential export of these fuels at market rates, allowing for a windfall for the GCC countries. Highlighting the significance of moving away from conventional energy sources, Abhay Bhargava, Head, Energy & Power Systems Practice, Frost & Sullivan, stated, “Utilising oil and gas alone, or diesel, has been an option to manage peak loads; however, it is not a long-term solution to meet energy demands. While nuclear energy is an option that can be considered, it is not feasible in the current decade.” The demand-supply gap and abundant availability of sunlight as a resource in the GCC has led to solar power being considered as a viable energy source to meet emerging needs. In order to cater to peak loads, countries in the GCC have

proposed new projects to mitigate ageing power infrastructure and support new diversification plans. The global energy mix is set to change with high growth anticipated for various renewable technologies. In the period 20102020, Frost & Sullivan forecasts wind energy to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 16-20 per cent, solar photovoltaic (PV)-based generation to grow at a CAGR of 25 per cent, and concentrated solar power (CSP) to grow at a CAGR of approximately 40 per cent. Some key factors expediting this growth include heavy incentivisation of renewables by nations, enhanced bankability of renewable projects, and technology advancements that have resulted in enhanced efficiency and reduced costs. While the GCC is fast making strides towards adoption of renewable energy, a customised and focused approach can create an environment that can further nurture its growth. Intermittency is a major issue with renewables, which is likely to hinder renewable sources from taking on the role of base load power generation. The GCC requires region-specific R&D, which it is currently lacking. Additionally, continued usage of subsidised hydrocarbons is the largest issue that needs to be addressed. With the GCC Governments supporting subsidised electricity and feedstock, renewable energy faces risk of losing its momentum. The study suggests that development of supporting infrastructure is perhaps the most critical pre-requisite for renewables in the GCC. It is also important for the GCC to work towards developing an appropriately localised value chain to ensure that only relevant components are manufactured in the GCC, capitalising on offerings available locally. In addition to manufacturing, it is also important to ensure that there is sufficient focus on developing storage systems and locally relevant R&D. Additionally, the GCC needs to re-evaluate policies and related framework, to ensure that it is appropriate for highly-customised requirements of renewables. Since the GCC boasts of some of the highest per capita energy consumption and emission statistics globally, the report recommends educating the population about the benefits of conservation and clean fuel, which in turn will help in building a bottom-up support for renewables. Renewables, through underlying benefits of employment opportunities, increased export potential of hydrocarbons, enhanced industrial development, and reduced dependence on fossil fuels, can prove to be the one key stabilising factor that can support the GCC’s plans for accelerated development.

The EU’s partner for trade, Morocco enjoys a strategic advantage over many Arab countries given its proximity to Europe as well as the MENA region. The Kingdom’s financial stability and economic reforms have been a priority of the government’s agenda since 2008, when the European Union granted it an "advanced status” strengthening its trade and political ties with the country. Since then trade between the EU and Morocco has been liberalised and new exiting opportunities have opened up for British companies. The 4 highly lucrative areas of economy that we have identified to yield strong return on investment include:

Energy Tourism Financial services Education

 Morocco’s renewable energy

sector is a thriving industry for partnership and investment

 Morocco's mix of culture and heritage has kept it a preferred destination for British tourists

 Morocco enjoys the

Greenwich Time Zone being perfectly located to work along UK’s financial institutions

 Morocco offers enormous

potential for importing and exporting of the British education system

While this list is not exhaustive it shows the great potential for economic cooperation between British companies and their Moroccan counterparts. The Arab British Chamber of Commerce is strategically positioned to give UK businesses access to most influential government officials and business executives in the Arab world, providing an excellent opportunity to find new leads in the foreign market.

HOW TO APPLY If you’re looking for a productive and cost effective way to explore the Moroccan market with the assistance and expertise of our organization, we look forward to welcoming you as a member of the Trade Delegation. To take part, participants may apply by completing the Application Form. For the full application package, please contact: Ralph on ralph@abcc.org.uk or +44 (0) 20 7659 4897



SEIZING THE POTENTIAL OF INVESTMENT The Global Investment Promotion Best Practices 2012 report produced by the Investment Climate Department of the World Bank was released on 7 February 2013. The report finds that foreign investors remain cautiously confident in the MENA markets and there is some long-term optimism assuming a return of stability. The new study was released during a regional conference in Muscat, Oman co-hosted by Oman’s Public Authority for Investment Promotion and Export Development (PAIPED) and sponsored by the Government of Spain. Speaking at the launch, H H Sayyid Faisal bin Turki Al Said, Director General of Marketing & Media, PAIPED, formerly OCIPED, pointed to the importance of Foreign Direct Investment: “From a GCC perspective, and between 2002 and 2010, FDI - both through regular channels as well as foreign stock investments - increased dramatically, at a pace that rivalled other developing, transition and emerging economies. “While FDI into the GCC constitutes a relatively small portion of global FDI flows, FDI inflows and FDI as a percentage of GDP indicate that the GCC has strong locational determinants, making its markets an attractive option for foreign investors. “Given the current global economic crisis, recent UNCTAD data reveals FDI inflows into the GCC decreased in 2011 by 35% - from approximately $39 billion in 2010 to $25 billion in 2011. However, unofficial sources indicate that countries in the region have seen increases and projections for future FDI levels are positive. “Overall, GCC governments have instituted changes to the legal and economic structures governing FDI. Today, we are a much more open market than we were 10 years ago. We are less regulated and more business friendly. “On a broader note, the full impact of the global financial crisis is being felt in every part of the MENA region, and of course investment projects will feel the effect. But what is clear is that global competition for FDI will only intensify.

“The economic downturn has only slowed it hasn’t stopped the rise of the world’s emerging economies. Indeed, supply chains continue to redefine the world’s business landscape, and the shift to low-carbon is revolutionizing our markets, how we do business, what we produce and how we supply – all of this is changing. This is a massive challenge, but also an opportunity. “In the face of that change, the MENA region will need to work even harder to attract FDI. And we must be committed to doing everything we can to make the region the destination of choice for innovative businesses to set-up and grow. “It is obvious that no successful company makes the move to invest overseas lightly. It is an expensive and long-term decision. In this regard, we must continue to address the issues I have mentioned and develop the strengths and capabilities that can make us a location of choice for FDI now and in the future. It is these investments that offer us a platform for growth, employment and innovation,” concluded H H Sayyid Faisal bin Turki Al Said. Also speaking at the launch, H E Dr Salem ben Nassir Al Ismaily, PAIPED Chairman, said “MENA has much to offer and to gain from international companies and collectively, we have most of the skills and knowledge we need to be very competitive investment facilitators.” A number of studies carried out in 2011 and 2012, cited in the report, reveal a confident attitude prevailing among foreign investors toward the MENA region. A survey of 316 senior executives from multinational enterprises investing in developing countries performed between June and August 2011 by the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) and the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) revealed the remarkable resilience of investor interest in the region despite recent challenges. Although it confirmed that the upheavals in MENA had a negative impact on FDI inflows, it also suggested that the majority of corporate investors interviewed had either not changed their investment plans (about

one-third) or had adopted a “wait and see” approach (one quarter) over the following twelve months, opting to cancel their investment plans only if political instability intensifies or persists. A similar, high level of investor confidence was found in another 2011 study jointly conducted by INSEAD and PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) that aimed at assessing the short-/mediumterm outlook for the private equity industry in the region. Assuming a gradual stabilisation, general partners from leading private equity firms investing in the MENA region reported that they plan to resume investing as early as possible. A confident attitude was recently confirmed by the Deloitte Private Equity Confidence Survey carried out in 2012. The results of this survey reveal a bounce back in confidence among the private equity community from 2010; over 75% of respondents expected investment activity to increase in the region over the next 12 months. These studies suggest that, in the medium and long term, economic and demographic factors—an average GDP per capita of some US$5,500 and a combined population of about 370 million people (almost twice the size of Brazil)—will continue to attract foreign investors. Moreover, the medium-term outlook for the region looks brighter in light of the expected changes in governance and regulatory frameworks. Investors interviewed in the INSEAD/PwC study anticipate that more equitable wealth distribution and greater transparency will relax the key constraints to growth and pave the way for further FDI, entrepreneurship, and job creation. Indeed, almost 80% of the interviewees strongly or moderately agreed that, while the current regional political instability will have a short-term negative impact, it will benefit the region’s economy over the next five years. The report says that greater governmental transparency and less cumbersome business environments in the medium term are expected to foster FDI, stimulate entrepreneurship, and create jobs. As


The report was officially launched in Muscat, Oman.

Tunisia built its growth strategy on lowskilled sectors that rely on inexpensive labour. Accordingly, its national Code d’Incitations aux Investissements (the Investment Incentives Code), which dates back to the early 1990s, gives priority to supporting sectors with low technology content but high employment potential (for unskilled workers). However, even if the level of education of the labour force has substantially increased over the last decade, this fundamental change has not yet been matched by a similar trend in the demand for skilled labour.

stability is critical for persuading investors to resume investing, FDI prospects will depend on the speed of resolving the political situation in various countries in the region. Once it regains stability, the MENA region has the potential to become an attractive destination for foreign investment. Besides the ability of regional governments to improve the investment climate, investment promotion agencies can play a significant role in helping to win investment if they significantly “improve their game,” adopt best practices to present their countries’ image as a safe investment destination with a level playing field for investors, and facilitate prospective new foreign investment. The report highlights the crucial role played by investment promotion agencies and analyses their effectiveness. All agencies in the MENA region, the report says, have a properly functioning English version of their websites, easily identifiable from an Internet search. Since the last report in 2009, these websites have become easier to navigate and read; with texts better suited for web format and more effective use of visual contents, most of the region’s investment promotion agencies have increased their website performance. More than two-thirds of the region’s websites are now in the good or best practice category based on performance bands. To improve the quality of their investor facilitation services, and to increase the region’s prospects for attracting more FDI, the report encourages agencies in the MENA to adopt various initiatives: l Develop a national investment strategy that

identifies select sectors in which countries have competitive advantages and to where investors can be attracted.

l Be serious about sector priorities—develop

sector content: MENA agencies should consider the development and strategic use of sector-specific information for targeted sectors.

l Develop partnerships to gather key

information: agencies should seek to form partnerships with other government agencies, private sector associations, specialised promotional agencies, and technical bodies to help source sector-specific information.

l Websites as key promotional and

facilitation tools: It is more cost effective to reach many investors than to approach each one individually. An investment promotion agency can achieve this by presenting crucial and up-to-date information on its website.

l Pre-prepare responses to obvious investor

questions: To increase the capacity to provide high-quality responses in a timely manner, agencies should have pre-prepared materials on key issues for investors, such as labour costs, regulation and competition environment, and the advantages of their location.

l Be accessible to investors: it is imperative

that investors are able to reach staff easily and that every inquiry from a legitimate investor be processed and promptly answered in the form of a tailored response matching the investor’s specific needs.

Unleashing the region’s potential and recasting it as an attractive destination for foreign investment will depend on two main factors, the report concludes. First is the governments’ ability to improve the overall investment climate by addressing regulatory uncertainties and constraints. The second factor is how well agencies can influence foreign investor decisions. Agencies for investment promotion have a crucial role to play both in building the region’s image as a safe investment destination with a level playing field for investors, and in facilitating prospective new FDI that matches developmental priorities in their countries. The case of the Tunisian Foreign Investment Promotion Agency (FIPA) clearly illustrates not only the range of supportive initiatives an agency can implement to improve the country’s image and attract investment during a difficult period, but, more specifically, the role that information can play.

As a result, Tunisia’s FIPA is seeking to spur economic growth and address the problems of high youth unemployment by targeting and channelling FDI into high value-added sectors. FIPA has undertaken various promotional initiatives to attract foreign investors to sectors such as the aerospace supply chain and offshoring/nearshoring, including the posting of dedicated sector profiles on its Web site of what the country has to offer. FIPA also emphasised the new, emerging system of values which will finally allow a level playing field and thereby unlock the country’s full potential. According to the latest data disclosed by FIPA, despite recent upheavals, the amount of FDI in the service sector increased by 11.5% in 2011. Examples of good practice cited in the report include: l In Morocco, the Agence Marocaine de

Développement de l’Investissement (AMDI) was established in February 2009 as a financially autonomous public institution to replace the Investment Directorate. Its board of directors includes representatives of business associations, such as the Fédérations des chambres professionnelles and the Confédération générale des entr eprises du Maroc.

l In Kuwait, at the time this report was

produced, the cabinet was considering the draft of a new law for foreign investments, which includes the establishment of an independent investment promotion agency.

l Comprehensive changes have also recently

been introduced in Yemen, where the new Investment Law, passed in August 2010, strengthened the main functions of the Yemeni General Investment Authority (GIA).

l In Egypt, GAFI has undergone a full

reorganisation of the staff responsible for handling inquiries since early 2011.

The Global Investment Promotion Best Practices 2012 report can be found here: http://www1.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/ corp_ext_content/ifc_external_corporate_ site/ifc+news/news/globalinvestmentpracti cesreport_2012




GLOBAL SURVEY SHOWS POPULARITY OF GULF FOR INVESTORS Qatar, along with Saudi Arabia and the UAE, is increasingly becoming popular as investment destination in the Middle East and North Africa region due to the rise of localised liquidity pools and growing sophisticated collateral and risk management techniques, according to a FTSE global survey. The survey of 90 institutional investors across 12 countries in the Mena region also found rapid shifts in market and asset allocation, which up to now have favoured bonds and private equity investments, to growing cross section of investible product, including mutual funds, hedge funds, exchange-traded funds and money market instruments. “Markets such as Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the UAE appear increasingly popular as investment destinations,” said the Mena asset management survey, which is being undertaken in conjunction with the Qatar Financial Centre Authority (QFCA). Clearly, a paradigm shift in the mobilisation of capital is underway in the region, influenced by political risk, the rise of localised liquidity pools (but not necessarily residing in national stock exchanges) and a growing adherence to sophisticated collateral and risk management techniques, it said. The latest survey shows how investor sentiment towards the region is influenced by global as well as regional trends such as shifts in flows of trade and capital.

At a time of immense market change in the global investment market as new institutions and regulations impinge on national and regional investment regimes, and a global economy still mired in the aftershocks of the 2008/09 financial crisis, the asset management industry in the Mena region is poised on the brink of a new era, the survey said. “This important survey monitors the increasingly rapid evolution of the asset management industry in the wider Mena region, looking at how macro and regional factors continually exert their effects on the asset allocation, business solutions and business infrastructure,” it said. One of the survey’s most important findings is investors’ assessment of risk in the region. The first quarter 2013 survey showed that investor sentiment is increasingly factoring in heightened risk. “It is no surprise then that in the more stable markets in the GCC investors are increasingly looking at equity-based investments and in the riskier markets in the North Africa and Levant bonds seem to be the investment vehicle of choice, particularly the relatively safe haven of sovereign bonds,” said Andrew Neil, head of research and new media, FTSE Global Markets. Gulf Times, 20/02/2013

LEBANON TO LAUNCH NEW TENDER FOR MOBILE OPERATIONS Lebanon will launch a tender to run its two state-owned mobile phone operators, currently managed by Kuwait’s Zain and Egypt’s OTMT, as part of a plan to revamp the telecoms sector, a senior government adviser said. The Telecoms Ministry wants to award contracts for an extended three to five year period to manage the two state-run mobile phone operators, touch and Alfa. The government also plans to create a submarine cable link to Cyprus to increase bandwidth and spin off mobile telecom transmission towers into a separate state-owned business that could also be managed by a private company. “We want to transform Lebanon into a digital hub,” Karim Kobeissi, senior adviser to the Telecommunications Ministry, told Reuters in an interview. The existing contracts of Zain and OTMT to run touch and Alfa ran their course at the end of January but have been extended to end-February to allow the Cabinet to consider the revamp. Kobeissi said new companies could win the tender, but there were no plans for a third mobile company to operate alongside touch and Alfa. “It will be open for qualified telecom operators,” he said. “It’s still early to see if other companies are interested.” The Daily Star, 15/02/2013

VISITBRITAIN SEEKS GULF TOURISTS, PARTNERS WITH EMIRATES AIRLINE VisitBritain, the UK's national tourism agency, wants to attract more visitors from the Gulf to Britain by entering into a marketing deal with Emirates Airline. About 500,000 people from the Gulf visit the UK every year, with half from the UAE. Visit Britain aims to increase the number by 30% by 2020. The agency already has a partnership with British Airways in the region to promote Britain as a destination with the carrier offering deals on flights.

"We do plan to step up our activity in the region," VisitBritain's chief executive, Sandie Dawe, said during a sales mission to Abu Dhabi. "We've been very focused on Dubai and Abu Dhabi, but we do want to be doing more in the region as a whole. We are quite confident we will get something up and running with Emirates." London has always been a popular destination for Gulf visitors. VisitBritain is now trying to convince Middle Eastern tourists to explore more of the country.

Representatives from Ireland, Scotland, Manchester, Oxfordshire and the Cotswolds accompanied Ms Dawe on her trip. Ms Dawe also said VisitBritain planned to increase its use of social media in Arabic. VisitBritain already has 10,000 users following its Arabic Twitter feed. The National, 21/02/2013


SAUDI HOSPITALITY SECTOR TO REACH $18.1BN BY 2016 A rise in the number of pilgrims visiting Saudi Arabia for Haj and Umrah, are boosting domestic tourism growth, with Saudi residents making 22.5 million overnight trips per annum. Tourism receipts for Hajj and Umrah currently account for around 3% of GDP and, according to tourism officials, the country gained a reported $16.5 billion from tourism in 2012, representing a 10% increase on the previous year.

infrastructure projects including airport expansion, railways and roads, is pegged at around $80 billion between now and 2022, with investment into major tourism initiatives forecast to grow at a CAGR of 6.9%.

The largest hospitality market in the GCC, Saudi Arabia also accounts for the bulk of international tourist arrivals, at 46%, Alpen Capital said in its GCC Hospitality Industry Report last October, representing a 50% year-on-year increase against 2011 figures.

According to the Alpen report, tourist arrivals are expected to grow at a CAGR of 4.0% between 2012 and 2022, driven by strong growth across all sectors, with occupancies set to jump from 67.5% in 2011 to 74.2% by 2016 and a $30 increases in ADR to $258.4.

“The Kingdom is investing heavily in its infrastructure as expansion plans for the new $7 billion Jeddah airport project move ahead, with the airport projecting annual passenger volume of up to 80 million passengers within the next two decades,” said Mark Walsh, Portfolio Director, Reed Travel Exhibitions, organiser of the Arabian Travel Market.

“In tandem demand for hotel rooms means that aggressive development and expansion plans for a number of major international hotel groups is also on the short-term agenda. InterContinental Hotels Group has said that Saudi Arabia is one of the markets representing the most opportunity for its Middle East business to grow in 2013, with two new properties set to open in Riyadh this year, and a total of eight hotels by 2018,” said Walsh.

The Red Sea port of Jeddah is the gateway to Makkah and Medinah, a favoured destination for domestic tourism in the summer, as well as a commercial trading hub for the west coast of Saudi Arabia. In addition, Riyadh the capital city and seat of the government, is also experiencing increased demand from business travellers. Saudi government investment into key

Hotel room supply in the Kingdom is expected to increase at a CAGR of 1.5% between 2011 and 2016, increasing from 243,117 rooms in 2011 to 262,049 in 2016, with 69 properties currently in the planning or construction phase. Saudi Gazette, 19/02/2013

LEBANESE WINE EXPORTS TO UK IN 2012 RISE 33% Lebanese wine exports to the United Kingdom in 2012 soared by 33% to reach $4.3 million, according to Britain-based online magazine Harpers. It added that the increase is the second double-digit rise for the country, which grew sales to the UK by 26% to $3.2m in 2011. Lebanese wine has gained international reputation and recognition over the past few years as more investments have been poured into this promising sector. The magazine said that the UK was one of the fastest growing export markets for Lebanese wines, with total exports up 7.9% to $14.3m.

Lebanon’s association of wine producers, the Union Vinicole du Liban, has funded a marketing programme in the UK since 2010. The Wines of Lebanon campaign won an award at the International Wine Challenge last year for raising awareness of Lebanon as a wine producing country.

KUWAIT FIRM TO START OIL EXPLORATION IN BASRA A Kuwait Energy-led consortium and the Iraqi Ministry of Oil recently signed the final service contract for the exploration, development and production of Basra’s “block 9”. “Block 9”, which spans over an 866km2 area in the Basra province, was awarded to the consortium during Iraq’s fourth bidding round in May 2012. The contract was signed on behalf of the Iraqi Ministry of Oil by the Deputy General of South Oil Company Faisal Wadi, and from Kuwait Energy by Chief Executive Officer Sara Akbar. The Kuwait Energy-led consortium for “block 9” includes Dragon Oil, an independent international oil and gas exploration, development and production company. Kuwait Energy will be the operator of the block with a 70% working interest, while Dragon Oil will hold the remainder 30% working interest. Zawya, 07/02/2013

SAUDI ECONOMY TO GROW 230% BY 2030 Saudi Arabia’s economy is to more than treble to $3 trillion by 2050, making it the 18th largest economy in the world, according to analyst PricewaterhouseCoopers in its biannual, The World in 2050 report. It forecast that the Kingdom will grow by 230% to $1,582 billion by 2030 before doubling in the following 20 years.

“The figures demonstrate that in markets where we as wineries invest significant time and money, we are beginning to reap the benefits,” said Faouzi Issa, owner of Domaine des Tourelles.

Saudi Arabia had the 20th largest economy in 2011, but PwC expects the country to record an average annual growth of 4% over the years to 2050, making it the seventh fastest growing market worldwide.

The Daily Star, 02/02/2013

Saudi Gazette, 07/02/2013




BAHRAIN’S GROWTH SEEN AT 6% IN 2013 Bahrain’s economy has been fairly resilient to external shocks and the Kingdom’s real GDP growth is currently estimated to exceed 6% this year, said a report. The annual pace of economic growth in the first three quarters of 2012 was 4.4%, led by a strong rebound in the non-oil sector of the economy, with overall growth for the year estimated at 3.9%, according to the latest economic quarterly report from the Bahrain Economic Development Board (EDB). The 2012 has been a year of steady consolidation for the Bahraini economy with progress across all main sectors recording positive growth, the report stated. Growth is likely to pick up further in 2013 due to planned large-scale industrial investments and growth in infrastructure spending, it added.

MIDDLE EAST FIRMS ‘FAVOUR OF INNOVATION’ Companies in the Middle East are more inclined than ever to adopt innovation in order to achieve business goals and growth sustainably, according to PwC’s Middle East Innovation Survey. The survey reveals that there is a clear call for organisations to drive the engine of innovation and growth as opposed to past models where companies were led by large government innovations initiatives. Despite companies having significant growth ambitions, they still require confidence and true understanding of their ability to achieve impact through innovation. Some 26% of the survey respondents are pleased with the success of their innovation efforts and results show that 91% of respondents are expecting their growth strategies to change considerably in the next 12 months with nearly four in 10 expecting fundamental changes. The vast majority (80%) is expecting to step up their innovation investment and more than half of the respondents (57%) are anticipating ‘breakthrough’ or ‘radical’ changes that include technical and business model innovation. Gulf Daily News, 20/02/2013

The rebound in economic activity has been supported by a significant increase in lending by Bahraini retail banks. The country’s retail banks are in generally robust health and have been working to remobilise their liquidity after a period of elevated risk aversion, said the EDB report.

chief executive of EDB, said: “The latest economic quarterly report demonstrates that Bahrain’s economy continues to strengthen and after achieving solid growth in 2012, the economy is well-positioned to continue to achieve steady and sustainable expansion in 2013 and beyond.”

The strengthening of the short and long-term picture for the Bahraini economy has been reflected in the fact that Standard & Poor’s recently revised its outlook on the Kingdom from ‘negative’ to ‘stable’.

The economy will benefit this year from major industrial investments, including a $4.8 billion oil refinery upgrade and the building of a $2.2 billion production line at Aluminium Bahrain.

According to EDB, the Kingdom’s growth is also likely to pick up further in 2013 due to planned large-scale industrial investments and growth in infrastructure spending. Commenting on the report, Kamal bin Ahmed, the Minister of Transportation and the acting

Most of the non-oil private sector grew solidly last year and bank lending began to pick up, setting the sector up for strong growth in 2013, the board added. Reuters, 14/02/2013

JEDDAH’S 1KM TOWER TO BE MANAGED BY LONDON FIRM The builder of The Shard skyscraper in London will be the project manager for the planned $1.2bn, 1,000m Kingdom Tower skyscraper in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Mace will manage the development in a joint venture with construction consultant EC Harris, part of Dutch group Arcadis, and the tower will be built by Saudi construction firm Bin Laden Group. The tower’s height will exceed a kilometre and will take over from Dubai’s 828m tall Burj Khalifa as the world’s tallest building. Plans were unveiled 18 months ago by Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal as the centrepiece to the Kingdom City development in Jeddah, a major Red Sea port.

“One of the reasons we hired them is they are going to use the same team that was on The Shard,” Waleed Abduljaleel Batterjee, CEO of developer Jeddah Economic Company, told the UK’s Building magazine. Firms will “start mobilising” in April and construction work should start by the middle of the year, Batterjee said. Construction will take just over five years and the tower, to include a hotel, serviced apartments and luxury condominiums, will be more than three times taller than the 308m tall Shard when complete in 2018. Reuters, 21/02/2013

PHARMACEUTICAL EXPORTS INCREASE BY 20% IN 2012 Jordan’s pharmaceutical exports increased in 2012 by 20%, despite regional conditions and other difficulties facing the industry.

At present, Jordanian medicines are exported to around 65 markets, despite difficulties related to medicines’ registration, he added.

According to Mohammad Ali Shahin, representative of healthcare-related industries and medical supplies at the Jordan Chamber of Industry, the pharmaceuticals’ exports rose to $643 million from $503 million in 2011, an increase by $140 million.

Shahin, who is also chairman of Jordan Sweden Medical and Sterilisation Company, noted that the industry brings in more than $600 million to the country, thus boosting its foreign reserves.

“Should the sector continue to grow, the exports of the pharmaceutical industry would generate $1 billion by the end of 2015,” he indicated, stressing the competitiveness and solid grounds of the industry.

Since the opening of the first pharmaceuticals plant in 1962, the number of local pharmaceutical plants increased to 20 factories at present, at a registered capital of around JD250 million while their market value exceeds JD1 billion, Shahin indicated. Petra News Agency, 16/02/2013


QATAR HOLDING TO LAUNCH $12BN INVESTMENT FIRM Qatar Holding, a unit of the country’s sovereign wealth fund, plans to launch a new investment firm worth $12 billion to purchase assets globally, a top official said.

“This is a global investment company to invest overseas, not in Qatar,” he said, adding it planned to guarantee a five per cent dividend in its first year.

Qatar Holding vice-chairman, Hussain Al Abdullah, who is also a board member of Qatar Investment Authority (QIA), said the company would be listed on the Doha Stock Exchange in six to eight weeks.

Qatar Holding is the investment arm of the state’s sovereign wealth fund. With an investment appetite of about $30bn a year, QIA has picked up stakes in high-profile Western assets such as miner Xstrata, carmakers Volkswagen and Porsche, and luxury retailer Harrods.

“You name it - shares, bonds, real estate, private equity. We will look at every sector in every country around the world,” he said. The listing on the Qatar Exchange will have 6bn riyals in paid-up capital with half from Qatar Holding with the remainder raised from the private sector. An IPO is open only to Qataris but foreign investors can buy in later, he said.

MCLAREN EYES BUMPER GULF SALES British sports car maker, McLaren Automotive, expects to sell out of its allocation for its P1 hypercar in the Gulf, its regional managing director has told Arabian Business. McLaren, which is currently marketing the $1m car in the UAE, has collected as many deposits through Al Habtoor Motors, its local franchise partner in Abu Dhabi and Dubai, as retailers in Dallas and London since its official launch, said Mark Harrison. “Al Habtoor Motors are neck-and-neck at the top at the moment for deposits on the car with Dallas and London,” he said. McLaren, which is part-owned by Bahrain sovereign wealth fund, Mumtalakat, started McLaren Automotive in March 2010 to market sports cars. The British company launched an $80m factory in 2011 that allows mass production of its supercar as it looks to translate its sporting success into 4,000 car sales a year. The company has showrooms across the Middle East, including two in the UAE.

Listing the new firm locally is aimed at attracting Qatari investors - and more foreign ones - to the Qatar Exchange market. The Qatar Financial Centre is keen to position itself as a financial hub to rival Dubai. Gulf Daily News, 20/01/2013


TEMPORARY IMPORT SYSTEM TO BE IMPLEMENTED AT SAUDI CUSTOMS A temporary admission system that allows goods to be imported more efficiently into Saudi Arabia will be introduced at Saudi Customs within weeks, according to Mohammed Al-Ghazzawi, executive director of the Saudi Chapter of the International Chamber of Commerce. The new scheme, which is also called ATA Carnet, is an international customs document that allows the temporary importation of commercial samples, professional equipment or goods going to either a trade fair or exhibition to countries that participate in the ATA Carnet system.

Corporate and meetings business in the Middle East has bounced back from the global economic crisis and looks set to achieve strong growth in 2013, new market data has revealed.

Without an ATA Carnet it would be necessary to go through each country’s customs procedures for the temporary admission of goods, such as lodging a temporary import bond.

Business travel budgets are once again on the rise and more business people in the region are travelling, according to statistics from research firm YouGov in its latest ‘Travel Oracle’ report gauging UAE and KSA traveller attitudes and habits.

The ICC signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Saudi Customs in May 2011 to implement the system.

A statement from the Oman Ministry of Tourism says Muscat and Salalah have both witnessed a lift in business, meetings and incentives enquiries over the last year, with the thriving local economy driving growth from SMEs. Improved air connections, the opening of new properties and enhanced facilities, are set to attract more business in 2013.

The automaker sold 150 models of its $290,000 McLaren MP4-12C in the GCC last year and expects to sell as many in 2013, said Harrison. “We sold around 150 so that’s good, we sold out. It will be a similar number [for 2013].”

Looking ahead, statistics from research house Euromonitor International reveal steady growth in business arrivals across four key MENA markets (the UAE, KSA, Egypt and Morocco) between now and 2016. The UAE reported 2.55 million business arrivals in 2012, rising to 2.756 million in 2013 and 3.55 million, while KSA’s figures are 3.17m, 3.5m and 4.91m respectively.

Arabian Business, 20/02/2013

Khaleej Times, 15/02/2013

An ATA Carnet is valid for one year and allows for movement of the goods shown on the Carnet as many times as required during the 12 months to any of the destinations applied for. Al-Ghazzawi said the goods brought into the Kingdom through this scheme could be taken back without delays. Describing the new scheme as a major step in promoting international trade, he said 14 companies from seven countries have already applied under the proposed scheme. Arab News, 07/02/2013




MOROCCO ACHIEVES SOLID GROWTH Morocco has a track record of strong macroeconomic policies that, over the last decade, contributed to solid growth, low inflation, comfortable external reserves, financial deepening, and poverty reduction, the IMF has observed. These favourable developments have helped Morocco cushion the impact of the international crisis and respond to pressing social needs. In the context of political transitions in many countries in the region and high social demands, a new constitution was adopted in July 2011 in order to pave the way for broad-ranging reforms, including strengthened roles for the head of government and Parliament. Morocco’s positive record helped it qualify in August 2012 for a 24-month arrangement under the Precautionary and Liquidity Line (PLL), which aims to provide insurance against external shocks. More recently, this performance has been challenged by a deteriorating external environment and, in 2012, poor rainfall. Growth is expected to slow in 2012 to 3.2%, largely due to a lower-than-average cereal crop, but non-agricultural GDP growth is projected to remain robust at around 4.5%. Headline inflation has remained subdued at 1.6% (year-on-year) in November 2012, despite significant increases in the prices of several subsidized energy products in June, as part of the government’s effort to contain the fiscal cost of subsidies. The current account deficit is expected to increase to 8.8% of GDP in 2012 as import growth, pushed by energy-related imports, outpaced slow export growth. Tourism receipts and remittances are projected to fall slightly relative to 2011, reflecting the deterioration in the European economy. While gross international reserves (GIR) fell steadily in 2011 and most of 2012, they stabilized at around four months of imports in the last quarter. The issuance of a US$1.5 billion sovereign bond at favourable terms in late 2012 provided additional support in this regard. Monetary conditions have remained broadly supportive. Lower international reserves had a substantial restrictive impact on bank liquidity, contributing to slowing credit growth to 7% in 2012. To help fill the liquidity shortage, the central bank stepped up its

liquidity injection, including by extending eligible collateral for its repo. The policy interest rate was cut by 0.25 percentage point to 3% in March 2012 and has remained unchanged since then. In September 2012, it also cut its reserve requirements for banks by 2 percentage points to 4%. Morocco’s social indicators have improved over the past decade. Higher economic growth, lower unemployment, better health and educational outcomes, better access to basic infrastructure, and a marked reduction in poverty rates are tangible evidence of the progress made in fostering inclusive growth. However, unemployment remains high particularly among the youth. The authorities’ reform agenda includes measures to boost potential growth, tackle inequalities in the distribution of income and access to health care, particularly across regions as well as reduce unemployment. Following Article IV consultation with Morocco on 1 February, the IMF agreed that Morocco’s programme of fiscal consolidation, prudent monetary and financial policies, and structural reforms to boost competitiveness and inclusive growth and rebuild shock buffers is appropriate to deal with these challenges. It emphasized that the outlook hinges on the timely and sustained implementation of the reform agenda. The IMF welcomed the fiscal consolidation envisioned in the 2013 budget and beyond to help maintain external and fiscal sustainability, while emphasizing that consolidation should be as growth-friendly as possible. It welcomed the steps being taken toward reforming the subsidy system, and called on the authorities to move ahead resolutely in this area to aid medium-term fiscal adjustment and better assist the most vulnerable groups of the population. The IMF also stressed the importance of moving ahead with pension reform to ensure the system’s viability and encouraged a careful approach to fiscal decentralization so as not to increase fiscal risks.

The IMF called for efforts to be stepped-up to foster higher and more inclusive growth, including by boosting youth employment and reducing inequalities in income and in access to health care and education. It underscored the importance of structural reforms to enhance external competitiveness and diversify the export base. Morocco’s planned reforms to improve the business climate and promote small and medium-sized enterprises were both welcomed as crucial to accelerate private-sector-led growth. The IMF noted that the country’s financial sector remains sound overall. Morocco’s efforts to further strengthen financial regulation and supervision, particularly in light of increasing international exposure of Moroccan banks, was commended. Meanwhile, Morocco needs to build 800,000 housing units to meet current demand, according to reports. Minister of Housing, H E Nabil Abdullah, recently stated that the government had succeeded in building 100,000 housing units, channelling around $8.3 billion to build new houses and apartments since 2004. A further $400m is to be allocated to help increase housing supplies, he said. “We aim to build 170,000 housing units annually,” the minister added. Finally, the Kingdom has ambitious plans to develop renewable energy as it seeks to reduce its energy dependence and stimulate national and foreign investments in solar and wind energies. “Morocco has ambitions to reach a production of 2,000 Megawatts of solar energy by 2020,” the chairman of the Moroccan solar energy agency (MASEN), Mustapha Bakkoury told a conference in Marrakech on “renewable energies and their impact on regional development”. He said the promotion of solar energy will help meet Morocco’s electricity needs, by producing 4,500 gigawatts of electricity per hour, or 18% of the present production, MAP reported 17 February 2013. Sources: IMF, 05/02/2013; MAP, 17/02/2013


OMAN BUDGET BOOST FOR EDUCATION The government in Oman is channelling extra funding into education as part of a broader bid to provide its younger generations with the skills and qualifications needed to work in the modern economy. However, although the additional resources are a welcome step toward tackling key issues, such as improving students’ English language skills, it will take time for the benefits to trickle down into the economy. Education and training were awarded $3.38bn, or 10% of all projected state spending in Oman’s budget for 2013, which was announced in January, up 25% in real terms on last year. The government’s decision to increase its focus on education comes at a time when Oman’s private sector is struggling to fill vacancies, despite high unemployment in many regions. According to the Public Authority for Manpower Register, more than 150,000 Omanis are currently registered as out of work. A national campaign aimed at encouraging the private sector to hire more Omanis has been only partially successful, with employers citing a lack of skilled and qualified local staff as their main reason for hiring expatriates. High turnover also remains a problem, with figures from the Ministry of Manpower showing that almost half of the 410,000 locals who took up employment in the private sector between 2006 and 2011 either resigned or were dismissed. Sheikh Abdullah Bin Nasser Al Bakri, the Minister of Manpower, said studies indicated there were a number of reasons for high levels of employee movement, including limited opportunities for career advancement, a preference for working in the public sector, difficulties in adapting to the work environment and an inadequate grasp of the English language.

Otherine Neisler, a research consultant with the College of Education at SQU who co-authored the study, said the findings of the survey would be shared with other educational institutions, offering a means of better assessing the needs of their students and helping them to determine where reinforcement might be required.

Weak English has also been identified as one of the reasons why almost half of students at the Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) do not complete their courses in the allotted time span, with some having to undertake additional language studies to meet the university’s requirements.

Good English skills have long been recognised as crucial for workers operating in an increasingly global economy, particularly in the oil and gas industry, which is Oman’s leading source of revenue. Observers anticipate that the number of international education providers in Oman will grow over the next few years, as the Sultanate targets improving standards in academia in preparation for meeting economic demands. The government is also expected to channel additional teaching resources into pre-university level education.

A two-year study conducted by the university found that just 14% of new students in 2011 achieved a pass mark in the English language test, and a considerable number perform less than satisfactorily in foundation programme placement tests.

Another area pinpointed by experts as requiring attention is Oman’s use of technology in higher education. Professor Thomas Andersson, a senior advisor of the Research Council of Oman, the Sultanate’s main policy making and funding agency

for research, highlighted the issue in an interview carried by the Oman Tribune on December 25. “Oman is doing a lot to invest in education, but unless it takes steps to draw on technology and get a handle on research and innovation, it cannot add value to education,” he said. Andersson urged universities to invest in new ideas, develop their own identity and interact more fully with the private sector, which he said would help promote a more vibrant learning culture and increase efficiency. “Universities must move from mere education and teaching, to more innovation and creativity. There has to be an ecosystem of people and resources,” he concluded. Ensuring that investment reaches specific areas of learning is one of many challenges the government faces in its bid to bridge gaps across the education system. However, many will view the increase in funding as a sign that efforts to provide Omanis with an education better tailored to the requirements of the global economy are gathering momentum. OBG, 21/02/2013




MENA ECONOMIC PROSPECTS The Middle East and North Africa region experienced a recovery of growth in 2012 to 2010 levels, with aggregate GDP estimated to have grown by 3.8% compared with a 2.4% contraction in 2011, according to the World Bank. The rebound was largely driven by a recovery in oil exporter Libya, where GDP grew an estimated 108%, and continued robust expansion in Iraq, which saw 11% growth, says the Bank in its report, Global Economic Prospects: Assuring growth over the medium term. However, GDP in Syria is expected to have contracted by a fifth, although there is uncertainty about the estimates. Algeria’s economy grew by an estimated 3%. Growth among oil importer countries remained sluggish at an estimated 2.5% in 2012 due to the impact of the Euro area debt crisis on regional exports, together with domestic problems, including a poor harvest in Morocco (3.0% in 2012), fiscal difficulties in Jordan (3.0% growth), and continuing uncertainty and weak reserves position in Egypt (2.6% growth projected for the 2012-13 fiscal year). Tunisia’s GDP rose an estimated 2.4% in 2012, but in Lebanon spillover effects from Syria caused growth to decelerate to an estimated 1.7% in 2012. Private capital flows to the region continued to decline in 2012, falling by an estimated 16%, to $12.5 billion. FDI flows to the region also fell, by a more modest 7%.

Good news came in the form of tourist arrivals, with Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia posting stronger gains in attracting tourists. However tourism to the region was still below 2010 levels. Regional GDP growth is projected to slow to 3.4% in 2013 as growth in Libya returns to a more sustainable pace; and then to rise to 3.9% in 2014 and 4.3% in 2015. In Egypt, GDP growth is projected to rise to 3.8% in the 2013-14 fiscal year and to 4.7% in 2014-15. GDP in Jordan and Morocco is projected to expand 3.3 and 4.4% in 2013, firming to 4.5 and 5.1% by 2015. Iraq’s economy will remain buoyant with growth projected at 13.5% in 2013 before moderating to 8.5% in 2015; Libya’s growth is forecast to moderate to 7.6% in 2013, easing to 5.1% in 2015; while Algeria’s growth is projected to firm to 4.3% by 2015. Growth in Lebanon is forecast at 2.8% in 2013, firming to 4.0% in 2015. Within the overall context of relatively sluggish growth across the region in 2012 (barring a few notable exceptions), economic performance across developing crude oil exporters and oil importers exhibited substantial variation.

A sharp recovery of Libya’s output resulted in developing MENA oil exporters’ GDP growing by an estimated 4.6% in 2012. Iraq’s GDP expanded an estimated 11% in 2012, similar to the pace in 2011, led by rapidly rising crude oil production and investment in capacity expansion. Algeria’s GDP growth accelerated modestly to an estimated 3% in 2012, from 2.5% in 2011, with demand supported in part by oil revenues and government expenditure, although crude oil production remained broadly stable during the year. In several other developing oil exporters, however, GDP declined or remained flat during 2012. GDP growth in developing MENA oil importers remained sluggish in 2012, broadly unchanged at an estimated 2.5% in 2012 compared with 2.4% in 2011. In Egypt, which has the largest economy among Arab oil importers, GDP growth picked up modestly to 2.2% in the fiscal year ending in June 2012 from 1.8% in the previous fiscal year. Tunisia returned to growth in 2012 after experiencing an output contraction in 2011. But Morocco’s growth moderated to an estimated 3% in 2012, from 5% the previous year, partly because of a weaker than expected agricultural harvest. GDP growth in Jordan accelerated modestly to an estimated 3% in 2012, up from 2.6% in 2011. Lebanese GDP growth weakened to an estimated 1.7% in 2012. Oil importers’ industrial output was 4.5% higher in the first three quarters of 2012 compared with the same period of 2011, and close to the level in the like period of 2010. Industrial production in Jordan and Morocco started to pick up in the third quarter, by an annualised 3% in both countries. In Tunisia, with a reduction of domestic tensions, industrial output growth accelerated to an annualized 14.1% pace in the third quarter compared with the second quarter. The extended downturn in Europe adversely affected the export performance of the developing MENA region, but exports


appear to be picking up. Merchandise export volumes of oil importing MENA countries fell at a 14% annualized pace in the three months to July 2012 during resurgence of Euro area debt crisis, but rose 9.9% in the third quarter. Egypt experienced an export volume decline of 10% (annualised) in the three months to July; but in Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia, export volume growth picked up strongly between September and November. Notwithstanding an increase in international food prices during the summer of 2012 (caused by drought in the US and heat wave in Russia), and the MENA region’s relatively higher dependence on food imports, yearon-year inflation rates in other developing MENA countries did not rise in a significant manner, in part owing to subsidy regimes and administered prices. Remittance flows to the developing MENA region rose 8.4% in 2012, accelerating from a 6.3% increase in 2011, according to World Bank estimates. This rise was led by strong increase in flows to Egypt, where inflows rose 26% in 2012, to $18 billion. The experience for other countries was uneven. Remittance inflows to Jordan, for example, rose by 2.2%, while inflows to Tunisia rose 9.8%, and those to Morocco fell 3.3%. The year 2012 also saw a return of tourists to the MENA region, although tourism has yet to recover to the 2010 level. According World Tourism Organisation statistics, tourism arrivals in the region fell 7.5% in 2011. But arrivals in 2012 rose 3.5% in the first half of the year compared to the like period in the previous year. Tourist arrivals in the Middle East rose by less than 1% in the first half of 2012, as several countries continue to face domestic tensions. In North Africa, however, tourist arrivals rebounded at a faster 10.5% pace in the first half of 2012, led by strong gains in arrivals in Egypt, Tunisia and Jordan. Regional GDP growth is forecast to rise gradually to about 4.3% by 2015 — assuming that the negative influences on growth fade during the forecast period, and ongoing transitions lead to more accountable and transparent institutions over time. As regional uncertainty ebbs and global growth accelerates in 2014 and 2015, rebuilding of infrastructure, private investment, industrial activity, and economic diversification can be expected to support growth in both developing oil exporters and oil importers in the MENA region. GDP growth for the group of developing oil importers is forecast to pick up modestly to 3.5% in 2013. Economic conditions in this group are expected to improve marginally in 2013. But continuing uncertainty will hold back private investment and growth, while weak

conditions in high-income Europe in 2013 imply subdued demand for the region’s exports. In Egypt, GDP growth is projected to rise to a modest 2.6% pace in the 2012-13 fiscal year ending in June 2013, as policy uncertainties, a deteriorating reserve position, and domestic unrest negatively impact economic activity.

Private capital flows to developing countries in the MENA region are projected to increase to about $17 billion in 2013, from the low base of 2012.

Egypt’s growth is expected to firm to 3.8% in the 2013-14 fiscal year, and rise to 4.7% by 2014-15.

Over the medium term, private capital flows are forecast to rise to $30 billion by 2015, close to their 2010 level, as international investors are attracted by opportunities Monastir, Tunisia in non-oil activities, especially in tourism and manufacturing, as well by continuing expansion of the oil and gas sectors.

Jordan’s GDP growth is forecast to rise modestly to 3.3% in 2013, as weak domestic and external demand acts as a drag on growth. Growth in Morocco is forecast to bounce back to 4.4% in 2013, buoyed by an expected return to normal agricultural harvests and strengthening domestic demand.

Foreign investment in developing MENA oil exporters is expected to rise over the forecast horizon, as producers continue to expand capacity, while foreign investment inflows into non-oil sectors of these countries will increase as they attempt to reduce dependence on oil revenues and diversify their industrial base.

Lebanon’s GDP growth forecast for 2013, at 2.8%, is weaker than that of all other developing MENA oil importing countries, partly due to the negative spillovers from events in neighbouring Syria on tourism and other services exports. Nevertheless, Lebanon’s growth is forecast to rise gradually over time, to around 4% by 2015.

Iraq is expected to allow significant foreign investments to meet its ambitious crude oil production targets.

Even after a return to growth in 2012, Tunisia continues to face domestic tensions and structural challenges to generating sustained and inclusive growth over the medium term. Tunisia’s GDP growth is forecast to rise modestly to 3.2% in 2013.

Algeria is expected to encourage greater foreign investment in exploration and refining in the oil and gas sectors, as well as continue efforts to attract investment in non-oil sectors as it attempts to further diversify its economy. For the full report, Global Economic Prospects: Assuring growth over the medium term, see: http://web.worldbank. org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/ EXTDECPROSPECTS/EXTGBLPROSPECTS/0, ,menuPK:615470~pagePK:64218926~piPK:6 4218953~theSitePK:612501,00.html




FEDERAL COMPETITION LAW IN THE UAE A new UAE Federal Competition Law (Federal Law No. (4) of 2012) has been published in the UAE Federal Official Gazette (the “Competition Law”). The Competition Law aims to protect and enhance competition by prohibiting activity constituting an abuse of dominant market position, prohibiting restrictive agreements above a certain de minimis and regulating economic activity (including mergers and acquisitions) which will result in an enterprise attaining a dominant market position. Prior to the Competition Law there were no specific laws or provisions in existing laws that dealt comprehensively with the issue of anti-competitive behaviour in the UAE, although certain provisions are contained in Federal Law No. 18 of 1993 ("Commercial Code") and Federal Law No. 4 of 1979 ("Suppression of Fraud in Commercial Transactions Law"). In addition, Federal Law No. 24 of 2006 (as amended) and its executive regulations ("Consumer Protection Law and Regulations") grant the Consumer Protection Department the power to take appropriate action against monopolistic practices where such practices have a distorting effect on the fair prices of goods. The Consumer Law and Regulations do not attempt to regulate enterprises attaining a dominant market position, through acquisition or otherwise, leaving this issue to be addressed in the Competition Law. The Competition Law came into force on 23 February 2013. Enterprises subject to the Competition Law benefit from a six month transition period.

Does the Competition Law apply to my enterprise? The Competition Law applies to enterprises, being any natural or legal person or consortium of such persons, engaging in economic activity or holding intellectual property rights in the UAE. Federal and local government entities are not subject to the provisions of the Competition Law. This exception is broad

and encompasses any entities acting upon the authority of Federal or local government as well as entities owned or controlled by Federal or local government. Enterprises operating in certain sectors, including telecommunications, financial services, petroleum and gas, production and distribution of pharmaceuticals, land, sea and air transport, sanitation and waste disposal services are exempt from the provisions of the Competition Law. Activities relating to the production, distribution and transportation of electricity and water and cultural activities are also exempt from the provisions of the Competition Law.

Does my enterprise have a dominant market position? An enterprise will be considered to have a dominant position in a market where its total number of transactions in that market exceed a certain percentage of all transactions undertaken in that market. The Competition Law does not indicate what that percentage threshold is and this is expected to be communicated by the Cabinet in due course. The Cabinet is also empowered to reduce or increase this percentage threshold depending on prevailing economic circumstances. The key point is that the Competition Law does not prohibit an enterprise from occupying a dominant market position – this may be achieved legitimately by having a superior product or providing a superior service. What is prohibited is using market dominance to act independently of competitors, customers, suppliers and, ultimately, the final consumer in a way that prejudices, limits or prevents competition.

Merger and acquisition control Once in force, the Competition Law will require any activity which will result in an

enterprise attaining a dominant market position (such as a merger or acquisition) to obtain the prior approval of the Ministry of Economy. Again, what will be considered a dominant market position will be determined by the Cabinet and subject to change. If approval is not sought, an enterprise may be subject to a fine representing between 2% and 5% of annual revenues of the business undertaken in the resultant dominant position. If annual revenues cannot be determined, a financial penalty of between AED5,000 and AED5 million may be imposed. For the full Clifford Chance briefing on this law see: http://www.cliffordchance.com/ publicationviews/publications/2012/12/a_ federal_competitionlawintheuae.html

New Trademark Official Fees in the West Bank The Palestinian Authority has adopted on 3 September 2012 a new list of official fees for trademark services in the West Bank. In accordance with the new list of fees, which became applicable from 20 January 2013, the official fees will be increased including fees for filing, publication, registration, renewal, recordal, oppositions and cancellation services. Fees related to the filing of oppositions and counter-statements have increased substantially in comparison with the previous levels, legal experts note. The decision has yet to be published in the Official Gazette. Saba & Co, February 2013


AN OVERVIEW OF THE CURRENT FOREIGN INVESTMENT LAWS AND REGULATIONS IN LIBYA BY ADRIAN CREED, CLYDE & CO Jordan AntiCounterfeiting Unit Established An Anti-Counterfeiting Verification and Notification Unit has been established by the Jordanian Standards and Metrology Organization. The main function of this new division is to monitor and inspect imported goods at the borders and in the market place. After inspection, photos of the products will be directly sent to the trademark owners or their legal representatives for confirmation of authenticity. In case any counterfeits were found, the following measures will be taken: l Products will either have to be

destroyed right on the spot or returned to the country they came from by the importer.

l Monetary fines will be imposed on the

As Libya celebrates the two year mark of the February 2011 revolution, the momentum for economic reform has largely stalled. This is the result of the introduction of new rules that have significant implications for foreign investors. The old Libyan regime had been taking steps to improve the investment climate in the country since the early 1990s. In 1997, the Law for Encouragement of Foreign Investment, (commonly known as Law No.5) was introduced. Under the circumstances, this was a reasonable law and certainly encouraging of foreign direct investment (FDI). The legislation detailed the investment procedures, new duties and incentives including income, import, and capital gains tax concessions. It also allowed foreign investors to own 100% of the company. In 2006, Decree No. 171 was issued. This law was a significant step forward in making it easier for foreign investors to do business in Libya. It allowed foreign investors to form joint stock companies (JSC) with Libyan shareholders and with a minimum capital

of LYD 1 million. It also permitted foreign shareholding of up to 65%, thereby allowing the foreign partners to hold majority control in the entity. Decree No.171 also states that a minimum of 35% of the capital of the company must be owned by Libyans for the lifetime of the company. In 2010, Law No.9 on investment promotion (Investment Law No.9) came into effect and the Privatisation and Investment Board (PIB) was created. The new law allowed 100% foreign ownership across a wide range of sectors. Companies established under Investment Law No.9 are also able to benefit from a number of advantages, particularly tax reliefs for investments in specific projects in Libya. Under this law, foreign companies may also have a minimum of 2 (rather than 10) shareholders. However, the practical


The initiative indicates the Jordanian government’s ongoing efforts to protect both the trademark owners and consumers. Saba & Co, January 2013

effect and application of Investment Law 9 remain to be seen as this law was not fully implemented prior to the 2011 revolution. Since the overthrowing of the old regime in 2011, the new Libyan government has issued four ministerial decrees which contain measures affecting FDI in the country. Under the latest ministerial decrees, foreigners are precluded from establishing a Limited Liability Company (LLC) in Libya. In addition, the Libyan authorities have given a broad interpretation to the current regulations concerning JSCs stating that no one, whether Libyan or foreign entity, or whether a natural person or a company, can have more than a 10% shareholding in a JSC. Contact adrian.creed@clydeco.ae



‫‪Morocco Tourism Seeks Investors‬‬

‫ﺁﻓﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻨﺪﻥ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻀﺎﻓﺖ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ‪ 17‬ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫)ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ( ‪ ،2013‬ﻣﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﻟﺤﺴﻦ ﺣﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻓﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻓﻖ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺑﺤﻀﻮﺭ ﺳﻔﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺳﻤﻮ ﺍﻷﻣﻴﺮﺓ ﻟﻼ ﺟﻤﺎﻟﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﻳﺮ ﻟﻠﺴﻔﺮﺍء ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺯﺭﺍء‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﺛﻨﺎء ﺯﻳﺎﺭﺍﺗﻬﻢ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﺪﻥ‪ .‬ﺣﻀﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﻭﺳﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﻣﻤﺜﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﻛﺜﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻭﺁﻓﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺒﻮﺃ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎﺑﺎ ً ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮء ﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺳﻴﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮﺓ ﺗﻌﺰﺯﺕ ﺳﻤﻌﺘﻪ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﻭﻣﺮﺍﻓﻘﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺪﻭﺓ ﺗﺤﺪﺛﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻓﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺮﺣﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻀﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻮﻫﺖ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻛﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺤﺘﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻻﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺤﻘﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺘﺘﺢ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻟﻐﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﻳﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻴﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺗﻤﺘﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻋﺮﻳﻖ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﺃﺛﺒﺖ ﺃﺩﺍءﺍً ﻗﻮﻳﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺷﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﻟﺤﺴﻦ ﺣﺪﺍﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺷﺮﺍﻛﺘﻪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﺆﻛﺪﺍً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻌﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻜﺮﻳﺲ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻪ ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻪ ﺑﻠﺪﺍً ﻣﻨﻔﺘﺤﺎ ً ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺬﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻭﻗﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻄﺮﻕ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﻣﻊ ﺧﻤﺲ ﻭﺧﻤﺴﻴﻦ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻧﻔﺘﺎﺣﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎء‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﻴﺮﺍً ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﺃﻅﻬﺮ ﻣﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﻔﻀﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻛﺪ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻖ ﻧﺠﺎﺣﺎ ً ﺑﺎﻫﺮﺍً ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ ﻧﺎﺗﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﺠﺎﺡ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻁﺮﻕ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺻﻼﺕ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻧﺊ ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﺪﺩﺍً ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺠﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻜﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻁﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻅﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺄﻯ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺪﺍﻋﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺣﻲ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺴﺎﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺘﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻛﻮﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻛﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﻟﻤﺪﻯ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪،2020‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺴﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻁﻤﻮﺣﺎ ً ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎﺏ ‪ 20‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺳﺎﺋﺤﺎً ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎً‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﻧﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺷﺪﺩ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﺣﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﻳﺠﺘﻬﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺢ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺤﻠﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺯﻳﺎﺭﺗﻪ ﻟﻠﺒﻠﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺲ ﻭﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺠﺎﻭﺯﺕ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ‪ %5.1‬ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ‪ 2001‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ ،2010‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﺳﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺟﺮﺍء ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ً ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﻲ‬ ‫‪ 2004‬ﻭ ‪ 2010‬ﻟﺘﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 20‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪ ،‬ﺗﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺗﻬﺪﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪-:‬‬ ‫• ﻣﻳﻧﺎء ﻁﻧﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻭﺳﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺩﺧﻝ ﺣﻳﺯ ﺍﻟﺧﺩﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2007‬ﺑﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺇﺟﻣﺎﻟﻳﺔ ﺃﻛﺛﺭ ﻣﻥ‬ ‫‪ 3‬ﻣﻼﻳﻳﻥ ﺣﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻧﺩﻣﺎ ﻳﺣﻘﻕ ﻁﺎﻗﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺻﻭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2016‬ﺳﻭﻑ ﻳﻌﻣﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﻳﻧﺎء ﺑـ ‪8‬‬ ‫ﻣﻼﻳﻳﻥ ﺣﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺩﺩ ﺭﻛﺎﺑﺏ ـ ‪ 7‬ﻣﻼﻳﻳﻥ ﻭﺑـ ‪ 700‬ﺃﻟﻑ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺷﺎﺣﻧﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻧﺣﻭ ‪ 2‬ﻣﻠﻳﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﻛﺑﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻧﺣﻭ ‪ 10‬ﻣﻠﻳﻭﻥ ﻁﻥ ﻣﺗﺭﻱ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻧﻔﻁﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻳﻣﻳﻥ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺑﺎﺭﻭﻧﺔ ﺳﻳﻣﻭﻧﺯ؛ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻛﺗﻭﺭ ﻟﺣﺳﻥ ﺣﺩﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﻐﺭﺏ؛ ﻭﺳﻣﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻳﺭﺓ ﻟﻼ ﺟﻣﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳﻔﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﻣﻠﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻐﺭﺑﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻧﺩﻥ‬

‫• ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻁﺮﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻁﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪ 1500‬ﻛﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2010‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ 1800‬ﻛﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،2015‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺳﺘﺮﺑﻂ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪ 400‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﻧﺴﻤﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻭﺑﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺍء ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﻓﻲ ‪ 14‬ﻣﻄﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ )ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ( ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻌﺎﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫• ﺑﻨﺎء ﺑﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ ﺗﻠﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻀﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﺎﺗﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺎﺗﻒ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺗﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻮﻝ ‪ ،%97‬ﻭﻧﺤﻮ ‪ 13‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.2010‬‬ ‫• ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺳﻜﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺧﻂ ﻁﻨﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎء ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻔﺘﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.2015‬‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻼﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﺑﻐﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺳﻮﺍء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﺤﺎء‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ‪ 32‬ﺃﻟﻒ ﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺘﺪ ‪1416‬‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺋﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﻧﺊ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻎ ﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ ‪11‬‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻨﺎء‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻦ ﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺡ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﺗﺨﺬ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﻳﺌﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﻭﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﺇﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﺑﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺟﺘﻬﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍءﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ؛ ﻭﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻤﻴﺔ؛‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻁﻨﻴﺔ؛ ﻭﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ؛ ﻭﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ؛ ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺜﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ؛ ﻭﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ )ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻮﻁﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺮﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺛﻮﻗﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺣﻀﻮﺭﺍً ﻗﻮﻳﺎ ً ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﺤﺎء ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻮﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻓﺎ ﺟﺮﻭﺏ )‪ ،(Attijariwafa Bank‬ﻭﺑﻨﻚ ) ‪Groupe Banque‬‬ ‫‪ ،(Populaire‬ﻭﺑﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ )‪.(BMCE Bank‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻣﺣﺽ ﻛﻠﻣﺗﻪ ﺣﻭﻝ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﻐﺭﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺑﻣﺛﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﻟﻼﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻣﻐﺭﺑﻲ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻳﺭ‪" :‬ﻳﻌﺗﺑﺭ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻐﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻳﻭﻡ ﻗﻭﺓ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻧﻣﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺑﻼﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺑﻠﺩ ﻳﻌﺗﺑﺭ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺳﻳﺎﺣﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺿﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻳﺩ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺯﺍﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻳﺩﺓ ﻣﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻭﻋﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻣﻐﺭﺏ ﺟﺫﺍﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺳﻳﺎﺡ ﻣﻥ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺳﻭﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻳﺔ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺳﺑﺏ‬ ‫ﺳﻬﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺻﻭﻝ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻏﻳﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻥ ﻋﻭﺍﻣﻝ ﺍﻟﺟﺫﺏ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻧﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺡ"‪.‬‬



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‫‪ .4‬ﺍﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺗﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺗﺣﺎﻟﻳﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺧﺗﺑﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺃﺟﺭﻳﺕ ﺿﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺧﺿﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻧﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻧﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻏﻭﺍﺭ ﻭﺳﻭﻕ ﻋﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﻛﺯﻱ ﻧﻭﻋﻳﺔ ﺟﺭﺛﻭﻣﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻳﻣﻳﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺟﻳﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻣﻣﺎ ﻳﺷﻳﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺗﺧﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﻳﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﺻﻠﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻱ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌﻧﺑﺭ ﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺁﻣﻧﺔ ﻳﺟﺏ ﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺗﻣﺭﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻧﻔﻳﺫ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻴﺎﻩ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺭﺻﺩ ﻣﻊ ﺇﻣﻛﺎﻧﻳﺔ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺟﻐﺭﺍﻓﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺷﻣﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺗﺭﺗﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻣﻥ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺟﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻳﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺷﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺟﻬﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻳﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻁﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻧﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺎﻟﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺭﺗﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻭﺻﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﺬﺍﺑﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﻟﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﺎ ) ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪( %99.9‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻧﻳﺔ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﻭﺳﻠﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﺩﻱ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺳﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻳﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺗﻣﺭﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺎء ﻭﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %0.1‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻀﻼﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻋﻣﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺗﻭﻋﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺻﺣﻲ ﻟﻠﻣﺯﺍﺭﻋﻳﻥ ﺣﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺟﻳﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺭﺍﻗﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺣﺛﻳﺛﺔ ﻟﻧﻭﻋﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻳﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﺧﺩﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬

‫ﺣﻘـﺎﺋﻖ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ اﻟﻤﻌﺎد اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻣﺧﺗﺑﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺭﺻﺩ ﺍﻟﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻣﻳﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺳﺗﺻﻠﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻏﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻟﻠﻣﻭﺳﻡ ‪2010-2009‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺎً ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻟﻔﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻮﻧﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ )ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ( ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺎً ﻓﻲ ﺃﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻋﺸﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺇﻧﺠﻠﺘﺮﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺃﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺳﺠﻞ ﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻗﺒﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺩﺭﻛﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﺍﻥ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺛﺑﺗﺕ ﺍﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻣﺧﺗﺑﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻣﻳﺎﻩ ﻣﺳﺗﺻﻠﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻏﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﺟﻳﺩﺓ ﻭﻣﻁﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻛﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺧﺑﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺭﺻﺩ ﺍﻟﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻣﻳﺎﻩ ﻣﺳﺗﺻﻠﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻟﻠﻣﻭﺳﻡ ‪ 2010-2009‬ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺃﻋﻠﻧﺕ ﻧﺗﺎﺋﺟﻪ ﻭﺭﺷﺔ ﻋﻣﻝ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﻭﺿﺮﻭﺭﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺗﺧﺻﺻﺔ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﺳﺗﺧﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﻳﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﺻﻠﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻋﺗﺑﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﺃﻣﺮﺍً ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺎً ﻭﺣﻴﻮﻳﺎً ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺒﺒﺎﺕ‬‫ﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺁﻣﻧﺔ ﻳﺟﺏ ﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ ) ‪ ،( Pathogens‬ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺫﻛﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳﺳﺔ ﻗﺩ ﺃﺟﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻧﻁﻘﺔ ﻏﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺳﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﻛﺯﻱ ﻟﻠﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻭﺍﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺗﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻣﺎﻧﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻧﻲ ﻭﻭﺯﺍﺭﺗﻲ ﺍﻟﺻﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﻭﺳﻠﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﺭﺩﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺭﻛﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﺑﺣﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﻣﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺩﺃﺕ ﻣﺩﻳﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍء ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳﺳﺔ ﺗﻧﻔﻳﺫ ﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺭﺻﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪2006‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺗﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺳﻠﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻠﺑﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻠﺣﺔ ﻟﻭﺟﻭﺩ ﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﻳﺭﺻﺩ ﻧﻭﻋﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﻭﻳﺗﺄﻛﺩ ﻣﻥ ﻣﺄﻣﻭﻧﻳﺗﻬﺎ ﻭﺳﻼﻣﺗﻬﺎ ﺑﻳﻭﻟﻭﺟﻳﺎ َ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻳﻣﻳﺎﺋﻳﺎَ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﺻﺩ ﺍﻟﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻋﺩﺩﺍً ﻛﺑﻳﺭﺍً ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻳﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺷﻭﺍﺋﻳﺔ ﻣﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻑ ﺃﻧﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻣﻳﺎﻩ ﻣﺳﺗﺻﻠﺣﺔ ﻣﻥ ﻣﺯﺍﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻏﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻛﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ ﺧﻠﻭ ﺟﻣﻳﻊ ﻋﻳﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺧﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺳﺑﺎﻧﻎ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻧﺗﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺕ ﺿﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﻣﻭﺡ ﺑﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻳﻣﺎ ﺃﻛﺩﺕ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺻﺣﺔ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻳﻬﺩﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺣﺳﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺻﺣﻲ ﻟﻠﻣﻭﺍﻁﻧﻳﻥ ﻣﻥ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺿﻣﺎﻥ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍء ﻭﻧﻭﻋﻳﺗﻪ ﻭﺻﻼﺣﻳﺗﻪ ﻟﻼﺳﺗﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺑﺷﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻣﻳﻊ ﻣﺭﺍﺣﻝ ﺗﺩﺍﻭﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻛﺩﺕ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻳﺳﻌﻰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﻣﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻬﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻣﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺗﺳﻣﻣﺎﺕ ﻏﺫﺍﺋﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺭﺍﺽ ﻗﺩ ﺗﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﻭﺻﻭﻻ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺄﻛﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻁﺎﺑﻘﺗﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻣﻭﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﺎﺳﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻧﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻳﺔ ﺑﻣﺎ ﻳﺩﻋﻡ ﺗﺻﺩﻳﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺳﻭﻳﻘﻬﺎ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻣﻣﻠﻛﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻥ ﺟﻬﺗﻬﺎ ﺃﻛﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻣﺎﻧﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻧﻲ ﺃﻫﻣﻳﺔ ﺗﻁﺑﻳﻕ ﺍﻟﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺣﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻏﺫﻳﺔ ﻋﺑﺭ ﺍﻟﺗﺄﻛﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻥ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﻧﻭﻋﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﻭﺳﻼﻣﺗﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﺄﻣﻭﻧﻳﺗﻬﺎ ﻟﻼﺳﺗﻬﻼﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺑﺷﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺳﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻣﺯﺍﺭﻋﻳﻥ ﻻﺳﺗﺧﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﻳﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﺻﻠﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﻧﻁﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﺩﻱ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻥ ﻳﻛﻭﻥ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻣﻳﺎﻩ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺳﻠﺑﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻬﻠﻛﻳﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻭﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻁﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺳﻴﺐ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻖ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺷﺒﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻁﻠﺐ ﻣﺘﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺬﺑﺔ ﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺮﻱ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﻣﺘﺠﺪﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺨﺼﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻣﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺒﺎﺕ ) ‪ ( Plant Nutrients‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ‪،‬‬‫ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﻬﻢ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺟﺪﺍً ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮﻭﺟﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻮﺳﻔﻮﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ ) ‪ ،( Trace Elements‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻳﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻮﺍﺹ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺑﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻤﻨﻊ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﺤﺔ ‪Sea Water‬‬‫‪ Intrusion‬ﻋﻦ ﻁﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟـ )‪ ،( Recharge‬ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻤﻨﻊ ﻧﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻟﺐ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻏﻮﺑﺔ‬‫)‪ ( Eutrophication‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺪﺩﺓ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻴﺮﺍﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ‬

‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺗﺤﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻛﻴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺫﺍﺋﺒﺔ ﻭﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻗﻴﻮﺩﺍً ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﺳﺘﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍ ﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮﻧﺔ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﻱ ﻓﻬﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ ﻳﻠﺰﻡ ﺗﺪﺑﻴﺮ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﺎء ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﺗﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻀﺨﺎﺕ ﻭﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻋﻲ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺍﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﺒﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﺨﺰﺍﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻁﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻁﺮ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻁﺒﻘﺎً ﻟﻤﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺮﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﺑﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﻔﻴﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﺮﺍﺽ )‪ ،( Pathogenic Microorganisms‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻣﺔ‪.‬‬


‫‪ .2.1‬ﺍﻟﻌﻳﻧﺎﺕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺟﻣﻊ )‪ (378‬ﻋﻳﻧﺔ ﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﻋﺷﻭﺍﺋﻳﺔ ﺑﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫)‪ (185‬ﻋﻳﻧﺔ ﻣﻥ ﻭﺣﺩﺍﺕ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻧﻁﻘﺔ ﻏﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ ﻭ‬ ‫)‪ (193‬ﻋﻳﻧﺔ ﻣﻥ ﺳﻭﻕ ﻋﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﻛﺯﻱ ﻟﻠﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻭﺍﻛﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻡ ﺟﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻳﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻥ ﻗﺑﻝ ﻓﻧﻳﻲ ﻣﺩﻳﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍء ‪/‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺫﺍء ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍء‪ ،‬ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺳﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﻛﺯﻱ ﺑﺎﻧﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺃﻣﺎﻧﺔ ﻋﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻛﺑﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺣﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻏﻭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺗﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﻛﺯ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﺑﺣﺙ ﻭﺍﻹﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺗﻣﺩ ﺍﺳﻠﻭﺏ ﺟﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻳﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺗﻣﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻭﺿﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺻﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻣﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻘﻳﻳﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻳﺔ )ﺍﻷﻳﺯﻭ ‪ (874‬ﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،1980‬ﺣﻳﺙ ﻛﺎﻧﺕ ﺗﺣﻔﻅ ﺍﻟﻌﻳﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻛﻳﺎﺱ ﺑﻼﺳﺗﻛﻳﺔ ﻳﺗﻡ ﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻣﺧﺗﺑﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻓﻅﺎﺕ ﻧﻘﻝ ﻣﺑﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺗﻼﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻔﻬﺎ ﻭﺟﻔﺎﻓﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﻣﺎ ﺗﻡ ﺗﺩﻭﻳﻥ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻛﻝ ﻋﻳﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺟﻝ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻳﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (1‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺗﻔﺳﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﺗﻘﻳﻳﻣﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻً‪ :‬ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺳﻮﻕ ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ ﺃﺧﺬ ‪ 193‬ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﻋﺶ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻄﺮﻭﺣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻕ ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﻟﻠﺨﻀﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻢ ﺍﺧﺬ ‪ 185‬ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ً ﻧﻤﺜﻞ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻏﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﺎﺳﻳﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻً‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺣﻭﺻﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺟﺭﺛﻭﻣﻳﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺎﻳﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﺩﻳﻡ ﺍﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ‪ ،‬ﺗﻡ ﺍﻋﺗﻣﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻳﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺣﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺟﺭﺛﻭﻣﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺳﺑﻣﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻔﻭﺿﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻳﺔ )‪ (EC No. 2073‬ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪.2005‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﺩﻱ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻳﻪ ﻛﺎﻧﺕ ﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﺣﺹ ﺃﻗﻝ ﻣﻥ )‪ (3‬ﻭﺗﻌﺗﺑﺭ ﻣﺭﺿﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻱ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪ ،(Satisfactory‬ﻭﺗﺷﻳﺭ ﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﺣﺹ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﻭﻋﻳﺔ ﻣﻳﻛﺭﻭﺑﻳﺔ ﺟﻳﺩﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺠﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺧﻮﺫﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﻋﻳﻧﺗﺎﻥ ﻣﻥ ﺇﺟﻣﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻳﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻔﺣﻭﺻﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺕ ﻧﺗﺎﺋﺟﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻳﻥ‬ ‫‪ (%80) 148‬ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﺎﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ )‪ 3‬ﻭ ‪ (10‬ﻭﺗﻌﺗﺑﺭ ﻣﻘﺑﻭﻟﺔ )‪(Acceptable‬ﻧﺗﺎﻳﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﺣﺹ ﺗﺷﻳﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻘﻴﻂ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ‪ (%20) 37‬ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﺎﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ ﻧﻭﻋﻳﺔ ﻣﻳﻛﺭﻭﺑﻳﺔ ﻣﻘﺑﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺤﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺭﻋﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻛﺗﻳﺭﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺳﺎﻟﻣﻭﻧﻳﻼ )‪(Salmonella‬‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﺣﺹ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﺣﺗﻭﺍء ﺃﻳﺔ ﻋﻳﻧﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻛﺗﻳﺭﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎً‪ :‬ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺇﺣﺼﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺳﺎﻟﻣﻭﻧﻳﻼ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﺩﻱ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻥ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻳﺎ‪ :‬ﻓﺣﻭﺻﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻠﻭﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻛﻳﻣﻳﺎﻭﻳﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺘﻤﺪ ﺍﺳﻠﻮﺏ ﻓﺤﺺ ﺑﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﻤﻮﻧﻴﻼ )‪(Salmonella‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﺩﻥ ﺍﻟﺛﻘﻳﻠﺔ )ﺍﻟﻛﺎﺩﻣﻳﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺭﺻﺎﺹ( ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﺣﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﺣﺗﻭﺍء ﺃﻳﺔ ﻋﻳﻧﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻛﺎﺩﻣﻳﻭﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺭﺻﺎﺹ ﺑﻧﺳﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ )ﺍﻷﻳﺰﻭ ‪ (6579‬ﻟﻌﺎﻡ ‪.2003‬‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺣﺩ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﻣﻭﺡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻧﻳﺗﺭﺍﺕ ‪((NO3‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎً‪ :‬ﻓﺤﻮﺻﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻮﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﻭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺎﺭﺕ ﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ ﻓﺣﺹ ﺍﻟﻧﻳﺗﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻣﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻳﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻔﺣﻭﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ ﺇﺟﺮﺍء ﻓﺤﻮﺻﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻮﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻀﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺕ ﻧﺳﺑﺔ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻧﻳﺗﺭﺍﺕ ﺿﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺣﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﻣﻭﺡ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻋﺎﻟﻣﻳﺎ ً‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ )‪ (216‬ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﺤﺼﺖ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻮﺛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﻴﻠﺔ )ﺍﻟﺮﺻﺎﺹ‪ pb‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﺩﻣﻴﻮﻡ ‪(Cd‬‬

‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺻﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﺩﻣﻴﻮﻡ ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ )‪ (216‬ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪Coupled Plasma mass‬‬ ‫‪ spectrometry (ICP-MS) Inductively‬ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺯ ‪Atomic‬‬ ‫‪ Absorption Spectrophotometer‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ً ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺻﻰ‬

‫ﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻧﻌﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻧﻳﺗﺭﺍﺕ )‪(NO3‬‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺩﺩ ﺗﺭﻛﻳﺯ ﺍﻟﻧﻳﺗﺭﺍﺕ )‪ (NO3‬ﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻳﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﻗﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺳﺑﺎﻧﻎ ﻭﺍﻟﺧﺱ ﺗﺣﺩﻳﺩﺍً( ﻭﺍﻟﺑﺎﻟﻎ ﻋﺩﺩﻫﺎ )‪ (86‬ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧﺩﺍﻡ ﻁﺭﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫‪ Molecular Absorption Spectrophotometer‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ً‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻁﺭﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺗﻣﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺿﺣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺻﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻘﻳﻳﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻳﺔ )ﺍﻷﻳﺯﻭ ‪.(6635‬‬




‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺬاء واﻟﺪواء ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫اﻷردﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﻬﺎﺷﻤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ رﺻﺪ اﻟﺨﻀﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎزﺟﺔ اﻟﻤﺮوﻳﺔ ﺑﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻣﻌﺎد اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻬﺎ‬ ‫أﻳﻠﻮل ‪2012‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﻣﻘﺩﻣﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺗﺳﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺫﺍء ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍء ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺩﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺿﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﻣﺳﺗﻬﻠﻛﻳﻥ ﻣﻥ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺿﻣﺎﻥ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍء ﻭﻧﻭﻋﻳﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻼﺣﻳﺗﻪ ﻟﻼﺳﺗﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺑﺷﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻣﻳﻊ ﻣﺭﺍﺣﻝ ﺗﺩﺍﻭﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻁﻼﻗﺎ ً ﻣﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻣﺑﺩﺃ ﺑﺩء ﺍﻟﺗﻔﻛﻳﺭ ﻭﺑﺩﻋﻡ ﻓﻧﻲ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻣﺎﻧﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻧﻲ )‪ (GIZ‬ﺑﺗﻧﻔﻳﺫ ﺑﺭﺍﻣﺞ ﺭﺻﺩ ﺗﺟﺭﻳﺑﻳﺔ ﺟﺭﺛﻭﻣﻳﺔ ﻭﻛﻳﻣﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ ﻗﺭﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺩﻯ ﻣﺄﻣﻭﻧﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺗﻡ ﺗﻧﺎﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﻳﺋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺭﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻣﻳﺎﻩ ﻣﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﺳﺗﺧﺩﺍﻣﻬﺎ )ﻣﺳﺗﺻﻠﺣﺔ( ﻭﻓﺣﺻﻬﺎ ﻟﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺔ ﻣﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﺎﻳﻛﺭﻭﺑﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻳﻣﻳﺎﺋﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌﺗﻣﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻘﺩﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻧﻭﻉ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺗﻘﺻﺎءﺍﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻡ ﺍﻟﺑﺩء ﺑﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺑﺭﺍﻣﺞ ﻣﻧﺫ ‪ ، 2006/2005‬ﺣﻳﺙ ﻗﺎﻣﺕ ﻣﺩﻳﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍء ﺑﺗﺑﻧﻲ ﺑﺭﺍﻣﺞ ﺭﺻﺩ ﺗﺟﺭﻳﺑﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﻬﺩﻑ ﺗﺣﻭﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺑﺭﺍﻣﺞ ﺭﺻﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺋﻡ ﻣﻥ ﻗﺑﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳﺳﺔ ﻭﺑﻛﻭﺍﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻧﻳﺔ ﺿﻣﻥ ﻧﺷﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺳﻣﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍء ﺑﻌﺩ ﺍﻛﺗﺳﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺧﺑﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻠﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻭﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻧﺟﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺣﻘﻘﻪ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺭﻭﻉ ﺣﻳﺙ ﺑﻳﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻬﺩﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺭﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻣﻳﺎﻩ ﻣﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﺳﺗﺧﺩﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻣﺄﻣﻭﻧﻳﺔ ﻭﺟﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻳﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺷﻛﻝ ﺍﻱ ﺿﺭﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺻﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ ﻛﺎﻧﺕ ﺃﻫﻡ ﻣﺑﺭﺭ ﻟﻼﺳﺗﻣﺭﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺛﺑﺎﺕ ﻭﺩﻳﻣﻭﻣﺔ ﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺭﺻﺩ ﻻﻣﻛﺎﻧﻳﺔ ﺗﻐﻳﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻭﻧﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻭﻋﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻳﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻭﻋﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻳﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﺔ ﻭﺃﻋﻣﺎﻝ ﺗﺟﻬﻳﺯﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺣﻘﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﻣﺧﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻧﺎﻙ ﻣﺟﺎﻻﺕ ﻟﻼﺳﺗﻣﺭﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺢ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻭﺑﺎﺗﺟﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺿﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻁﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺟﺎﻫﺯﺓ ﻟﻼﻛﻝ‪ ،‬ﻟﻠﻣﻭﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﺎﺳﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻧﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻟﻳﻝ ﺍﻻﺭﺷﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻭﺿﻌﻪ ﻣﺷﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﺳﺗﺧﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻳﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﺣﺻﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻳﻬﺩﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ‪-:‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ﺗﺣﺭﻱ ﻧﻭﻋﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻬﺩﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻁﺎﺑﻘﺗﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻣﻭﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﺎﺳﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺄﻣﻭﻧﻳﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﻊ ﻛﻔﺎءﺓ ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﺗﻧﺎﻓﺳﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻧﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺳﻭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺧﺎﺭﺟﻳﺔ ﻟﻣﻳﺯﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺻﺣﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺗﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺗﺟﺭﺑﺔ ﻭﻁﻧﻳﺎ ً ﻣﻥ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﻭﻓﻳﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺑﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻁﻣﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﺩﺭﻳﺏ ﻋﻠﻳﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻗﻠﻳﻣﻳﺎ ً‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻭﺩ ﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺭﺻﺩ ﻟﻠﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺟﺔ ﺗﺳﺗﻔﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺣﻛﻭﻣﻳﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻭﻓﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺑﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻳﻣﻛﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺗﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﺟﺭﺍءﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺋﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﻣﺎ ﻳﺿﻣﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍء ﻭﺣﻣﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺍﻁﻥ ﻣﻥ ﺃﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺳﻣﻣﺎﺕ ﻏﺫﺍﺋﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻣﺭﺍﺽ ﻣﻧﻘﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻳﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍء‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﻣﻧﻬﺟﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺗﻣﺭﺍﺭ ﻟﻠﻌﻣﻝ ﺑﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺭﺻﺩ ﺍﻟﺧﺿﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺟﺔ )ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺅﻛﻝ ﻧﻳﺋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻷﺣﻭﺍﻝ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﺍﺳﺗﻣﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺫﺍء ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍء ﺑﺗﻧﻔﻳﺫ ﺍﻟﺑﺭﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣﻭﺳﻡ ‪) 2012/2011‬ﻣﻥ ‪ 2012/02/20‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ ( 2012/4/30‬ﻟﻠﺗﺣﺭﻱ ﻋﻥ ﻭﺟﻭﺩ ﻣﻠﻭﺛﺎﺕ ﺟﺭﺛﻭﻣﻳﺔ ﻭﻛﻳﻣﻳﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﻣﺧﺗﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺧﺿﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺟﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺿﻣﻥ ﻧﺷﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺳﻣﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍء ﻭﺑﻭﺍﺳﻁﺔ ﻛﻭﺍﺩﺭ ﻣﺗﺧﺻﺻﺔ ﻣﻥ ﻣﺩﻳﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍء ﻭﻣﺧﺗﺑﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍء ﻛﺎﺣﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺭﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺭﺻﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻭﺑﻧﻔﺱ ﻣﻧﻬﺟﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻝ ﺍﻟﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻁﻔﻳﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻳﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

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Consultancy Services For Economic And Social Feasibility Study, Initial Planning And Cost Estimating For Causeway Between Shanna And Masirah Island Tender No: 7/2013 Tender Document Cost: OR400

EGYPT New & Renewable Energy Development Agency Is Announcing The Availability Of Six Pieces Of Land Lots On The Gulf Of Suez, Offered Under An Auction System, Sufficient For Establishing, On Each Piece, A 100 Mw Wind Recovery Farm. Nrea Shall Avail The Land To Technically Qualified Investor (S). Investor Shall Use The Land Exclusively For Establishing The Wind Farm & Selling The Produced Energy To Himself Or To Contracted Customers. This Is A Repeated Auction With Extended Deadline Tender Document Cost: €500 Bid Bond: €200,000 Contact New & Renewable Energy Development Agency (NREA) Extension of Abbas El Aqqad St., El Zohour District, Behind Enppi Co., Nasr City, Cairo Tel: ऀ02 - 22725894/ 3/ 2/ 1 Fax: ऀ02 - 22725895 Email: ऀnre@idsc.net.eg Deadline: 27/05/2013

OMAN Supply Of Fire Tender Vehicles, Water Tankers And Forward Command Vehicles For Oman Airports Tender No: 9/2013 Tender Document Cost: RO175 Contact Oman Tender Board Muscat Oman PO Box 787/133 Al Khuwair Tel: (968) 24602652 Tenderom@Omantel.net.om Deadline: 25/03/2013

Contact Oman Tender Board Muscat Oman PO Box 787/133 Al Khuwair Tel: (968) 24602652 Tenderom@Omantel.net.om Deadline: 01/04/2013

Design & Construction Of Link Roads From Sabt To Al Mazraa In The Wilayat Of Al Kamil Wal Wafi (Al Sharqiyah South Governorate) Tender No: 5/2013 Tender Document Cost: OR950 Contact Oman Tender Board Muscat Oman PO Box 787/133 Al Khuwair Tel: (968) 24602652 Tenderom@Omantel.net.om Deadline: 25/03/2013

Consultancy Services For Preliminary Design Of The National Railway Project In The Sultanate Of Oman Tender No: 4/2013 Tender Document Cost: OR1500 Contact Oman Tender Board Muscat Oman PO Box 787/133 Al Khuwair Tel: (968) 24602652 Tenderom@Omantel.net.om Deadline: 25/03/2013

QATAR Feed For Coastal Erosion & Shore Protection At Halul Island Tender No: GT13102300 Scope of Work This is to carry out Front-End Engineering Design (FEED) for the HALUL Coastal Protection Works and related services, Investigations to be carried out in order to provide a satisfactory standard of shore protection to existing and proposed infrastructure all around the coastal

approximately 2.2km length segregated into ten individual schemes on Halul Island. The works shall be designed in accordance with the specified design criteria and design life and shall take into consideration physical and environmental constraints on the Halul island; includes Topographical, Geotechnical and near shore surveys and to produce a comprehensive EPIC SOW with sufficient detail drawings and documents to clearly define the requirements of the EPIC contract to tender on lump sum basis. Tender Document Cost: QR500 Bid Bond: QR 140,000 Contact Qatar Petroleum PO Box 3212, Doha, Qatar Tel: (974) 4440 2000; Fax: (974) 4483 1125 www.qp.com.qa Deadline: 31/03/2013

Pre-Q -Telecoms Manpower Services At Various Qp Locations Tender No: GP13102500 Scope of Work The purpose of this pre-qualification is to select qualified vendors to provide manpower support services to QP various onshore & offshore locations with suitably qualified, skilled, SAP proficient and technically experienced/competent personnel in the capacity of: (i) ‘General level technician’ - 22 nos. (ii) ‘Technical Storekeeper’ - 2 nos. and (iii) ‘Rigging Supervisor’, - 2nos. including dedicated twin cabin pick-up vehicles (11 nos.) Contact Qatar Petroleum PO Box 3212, Doha, Qatar Tel: (974) 4440 2000; Fax: (974) 4483 1125 www.qp.com.qa Deadline: 31/03/2013

Upgrade Tse Dbn.Network,Cctv Survey.& Refurbish Sewers-Mesaieed Tender No: GT13102600 Scope of Work QP intends to award this contract for the upgrade of Treated Sewage Effluent (TSE) distribution network, CCTV Survey and GRP Lining work, and refurbishment of the existing sewerage network in Mesaieed. The CCTV survey and rehabilitation of certain sections of the sewerage network have been carried out in the recent past. The work shall cover the remaining defective areas of the sewerage network in the catchment area of other pumping stations. Tender Document Cost: QR500 Bid Bond: QR300,000 Contact Qatar Petroleum PO Box 3212, Doha, Qatar Tel: (974) 4440 2000; Fax: (974) 4483 1125 www.qp.com.qa Deadline: 31/03/2013



Construction Of Roads And Utilities

Epc Of 115/13.8kv Substation For Jubail Commercial Port

Land Block C4, C5 and C6 Tender No: PIC I-7007 Scope of Work

Tender No: 071-C20R Scope of Work Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) of electrical substation, 115kV/13.8kV– 50MVA (with provision for expansion to 100MVA) to cater power to Jubail city area, necessary modifications at source substations, power network to accommodate interconnections and tie lines and associated 115kV underground lines, transition stations, replacement of the 115kV underground cables and other related works Contact Royal Commission in Jubail Supply Management Department Tel: (03) 341-4127/4163; Fax: (03) 341-2201 www.rcjy.gov.sa Deadline: 24/03/2013

Rehabilitation Of Walkways In Community Area Tender No: 531-C65 Scope of Work Repairing and rehabilitation of walkways in Jubail Industrial City particularly in the Permanent Community Area: work consists of rehabilitation of reinforced concrete sidewalks damaged by corrosion, rehabilitation of deteriorated decorative tiles in children’s play/ park areas, capping of empty tree pits, repair of tiles upheaval due to overgrown tree roots and construction of new decorative walkways and pavements surrounding Mosques, Commercial Centres and in areas previously planted with ground covers. Contact Royal Commission in Jubail Supply Management Department Tel: (03) 341-4127/4163; Fax: (03) 341-2201 www.rcjy.gov.sa Deadline: 17/03/2013

Mitigation Action On Transformers And Reactors Found With Oil Containing Dbds And Corrosive Sulphur

Site improvement of Land Blocks C4 to C6, located in the light industrial port at MYAS: contract consists of complete development having an approximate area of 12,341,325 m2, and includes site preparation and earthwork, road work, storm drainage system, sanitary wastewater system, industrial wastewater system, process water system, potable and fire water system, reclaimed water system, electrical power, street lighting and telecommunication system. Period of Performance is 730 days

Tender No: 2121300001 Document Cost: AED500

Contact Royal Commission in Jubail Supply Management Department Tel: (03) 341-4127/4163; Fax: (03) 341-2201 www.rcjy.gov.sa Deadline: 10/03/2013

Supply Of Cable Protection Tapes

UAE Construction Of Oil Water Tank For Al Fahidi 132 / 11 Kv Substation And Associated Works Tender No: 2131200092 Document Cost: AED 2000 Contact Dubai Electricity & Water Authority Office of the Contracts Manager Zabeel East, PO Box 564, Dubai Tel: (9714) 3244444 Fax: (9714) 3248111 Email: contracts@dewa.gov.ae www.dewa.gov.ae Deadline: 03/03/2013

Supply Of Resin Filled Joints For Low Voltage Cables Tender No: 2051300006 Document Cost: AED500 Contact Dubai Electricity & Water Authority Office of the Contracts Manager Zabeel East, PO Box 564, Dubai Tel: (9714) 3244444 Fax: (9714) 3248111 Email: contracts@dewa.gov.ae www.dewa.gov.ae Deadline: 04/03/2013

Supply Of 11 Kv Xlpe Power Cables Tender No: 2051300002 Document Cost: AED 3000 Contact Dubai Electricity & Water Authority Office of the Contracts Manager Zabeel East, PO Box 564, Dubai Tel: (9714) 3244444 Fax: (9714) 3248111 Email: contracts@dewa.gov.ae www.dewa.gov.ae Deadline: 06/03/2013

Contact Dubai Electricity & Water Authority Office of the Contracts Manager Zabeel East, PO Box 564, Dubai Tel: (9714) 3244444 Fax: (9714) 3248111 Email: contracts@dewa.gov.ae www.dewa.gov.ae Deadline: 07/03/2013

Tender No: 2051300007 Document Cost: AED500 Contact Dubai Electricity & Water Authority Office of the Contracts Manager Zabeel East, PO Box 564, Dubai Tel: (9714) 3244444 Fax: (9714) 3248111 Email: contracts@dewa.gov.ae www.dewa.gov.ae Deadline: 10/03/2013

Supply of PVC Cable Marking Tapes Tender No: 2051300008 Document Cost: AED500 Contact Dubai Electricity & Water Authority Office of the Contracts Manager Zabeel East, PO Box 564, Dubai Tel: (9714) 3244444 Fax: (9714) 3248111 Email: contracts@dewa.gov.ae www.dewa.gov.ae Deadline: 12/03/2013

Construction of DEWA Sports Club at Juemirah Golf Estate Tender No: 2131200088 Document Cost: AED1000 Contact Dubai Electricity & Water Authority Office of the Contracts Manager Zabeel East, PO Box 564, Dubai Tel: (9714) 3244444 Fax: (9714) 3248111 Email: contracts@dewa.gov.ae www.dewa.gov.ae Deadline: 22/03/2013




JORDAN BOOSTING FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTION A study conducted in Jordan concerning fresh fruit and vegetables irrigated with treated reclaimed water has confirmed that the produce is of high quality, free from contaminants and safe for human consumption.

“We are proud that results of the report showed that fruits and vegetables irrigated by treated wastewater in the Jordan Valley are safe and highly in accordance with international standards,” the Minister of Water and Irrigation, H E Mohammad Najjar, said in response to the report’s findings. The positive results of the survey are important for helping to boost agricultural production in Jordan which is producing for the domestic market and for export despite shortages of fresh water. The major fruit and vegetables that Jordan exports are tomatoes, cucumbers, peaches, eggplants, bell peppers, zucchini, cauliflower, lettuce and oranges. The Kingdom is seen to be one of the world’s poorest countries in terms of water availability. This makes the use of recycled water in agriculture an urgent priority which in turn creates the need to have a study that

Farm in the Jordan Valley

indicates the microbiological and chemical safety of fresh vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water. Four types of vegetables were analysed by the Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA) which has been given to the ABCC. These are fruit such as tomatoes, cucumber and peppers; root vegetables such as carrots; leafy vegetables such as parsley, spinach, spearmint, coriander and lettuce; and brassica such as cauliflower. The samples were collected from the Jordan Valley and the wholesale market throughout the 2012 growing season. One hundred and sixty samples from each type of fresh vegetable from the Jordan Valley and an equal sample from the Amman wholesale market were analysed at JFDA Food Lab for microbiological parameters and nitrate and at the JUST lab for heavy metals.

“Lab tests on samples examined during the 2011-2012 agricultural season showed 100% conformity with local and international standards,” the report said. The satisfactory results have encouraged the use of diluted treated wastewater for irrigation in the Jordan Valley as a means of increasing production of fresh vegetables. The water strategy adopted for 2008-2022 sees use of reclaimed water in agriculture as an urgent necessity. There is an increasing demand by the Jordanian public for a continuous supply of healthy and safe fresh vegetables in order to meet dietary needs and nutritional goals. Jordan currently treats 114 million cubic metres (mcm) of wastewater annually, the majority of which is used for irrigation and industrial purposes, the Minister said. “Scant resources and rising demand over water led us to use all alternative resources, including treated wastewater. Now, 65% of


exported fruits and vegetables come from the Jordan Valley, which uses a third of the country’s irrigation water allocations,” he stressed. Jordan Valley Authority Secretary General, Saad Abu Hammour, said that the “reassuring results” of the report would encourage the authorities to expand the use of treated water for crop irrigation in the Jordan Valley. The study aimed to assess the quality of fresh vegetables grown with reclaimed water in order to ensure the health of farmers and consumers. The samples were collected according to international standards. The vegetable produce was strictly tested under laboratory conditions for traces of Salmonella and E.Coli. The results for each sample unit established that the vegetables were free of contamination. The survey found that there is no contamination of salmonella bacteria in all fresh vegetable samples obtained from the Jordan Valley and from wholesale markets. According to the monitoring programmes carried out on selected farms irrigated with reclaimed water in the Jordan Valley for three seasons (2007/2008; 2008/2009 and 2009/2010), only two samples out of 379 samples were contaminated with salmonella; these contaminated samples were the leafy crops. One sample out of 59 was from the 2007/2008 season, and the other sample out of 141 from the 2008/2009 season, while there was no case of contamination with salmonella during the 2009/2010 season. These results indicate that the irrigation of farms with reclaimed water do not constitute a source of contamination of fresh vegetables with salmonella. It is known that the contamination of fresh vegetables with salmonella may occur in the farms during harvesting or during the handling.

The absence of salmonella in all fresh vegetables samples tested and also the absence of significant contamination as mentioned in the monitoring programmes may be attributed to the implementation of a Crop Quality Assurance System prepared by the Jordanian Ministry of Water and Irrigation. Traces of E.Coli in all fresh vegetables samples were within accepted limits. According to the monitoring programmes carried out on selected farms for the seasons as stated above found that one sample out of 379 was contaminated with E.Coli; namely leafy crops. This was from the 2007/2008 season. The results show that the irrigation of vegetable crops with reclaimed water is not to be considered as a source for contamination with E.Coli. It is however known that contamination may occur from different sources such as the environment, labour, during harvesting and handling.

Boosting Exports Nasser Hosani, head of the agricultural marketing division at the Agriculture Ministry, noted that Jordan exported 841,000 tonnes of vegetables and 545,000 tonnes of fruits to regional and international markets in 2011. “Revenues from fruit and vegetable exports last year totalled JD795 million, while agricultural produce constituted 16.6% of the country’s exports in 2011,” Hosani said.

Highlands receive the highest rainfall in Jordan and is the most vegetated region in the country; Suitable for olive trees and fruit trees. Dry climate is particularly well suited to production of crops, such as tomatoes that are susceptible to fungal diseases in more humid climates. Jordan Valley provides ready access for neighbouring markets.

Some Opportunities The Jordan Investment Board has identified some of the business and investment opportunities in the Jordan Valley as follows: l Produce crops that are water efficient; l Production of food products for the Middle

East and Gulf; l Optimize potential for recycling water; l Create marketing firms for agricultural

products; l R&D for innovative produce; l Cooperative range land for commercial

sheep farming; l Creation of flavours and fragrances from

local plants; l Develop Best Practice Environmental

Option for Agriculture- Use of wastewater to farm less sensitive fodder crops for livestock; l Fruit concentrate production; l Cottage farming, livestock production and

processing of agricultural produce;

Attractions of the Jordan Valley

l Post-harvest companies;

The Jordan Valley offers rich and fertile soil with a unique climate to the Levant Area, being several degrees warmer than the rest of the region that is best exploited by producing high quality cash crops (vegetables, cut flowers, herbs) for the off season.

l Grading, packing and cooling and

l Production, processing and exports for

fresh fruits and vegetables: processing of tomatoes, potatoes, dates, asparagus, canning of different vegetables; fumigation; l High value crops such as medical and

aromatic plans, fruits and trees; l Organic farming for the production of

vegetables, medical and aromatic plants; l Expansion of flower and ornamental plant

production for local and overseas markets; l Expansion of protected horticulture

(greenhouses); l Increased use of localized irrigation

systems in Irrigated Areas; l Production of animal feed from the farm’s

by- product; l Utilization of the by-product of date palms

in the manufacture of packaging containers and other products. For the Jordan Investment Board see www.jordaninvestment.com For further information about the Jordan Food and Drug Administration see: http://www.jfda.jo/Default.aspx




GCC ECONOMY HITS $1.56TN The GCC region has emerged as the 12th largest economy in the world with its nominal gross domestic product (GDP) reaching a new record high of $1.56 trillion in 2012, up from $1.44 trillion in 2011, the National Bank of Abu Dhabi (NBAD), said. In 2013, the GCC’s nominal GDP is forecast to rise to $1.61 trillion while the UAE’s nominal GDP is projected at $368 billion, NBAD said in its report, GCC Economic Developments & Outlook 2013.

Services account remained in deficit, while workers’ remittances were a record $77 billion culminating in an aggregate current account surplus of $346 billion, equivalent to 22.3% of GDP.

“Non-oil sectors are forecast to grow by a healthy 5.4% year on year in 2013, spearheading overall economic activity given the slowdown in hydrocarbon,” the report said.

In 2013, GCC trade surplus is forecast to ease to $492 billion, while the current account surplus is estimated at $270 billion (16.8% of GDP). The fiscal surplus is forecast to ease to $171 billion (10.6% of GDP). The UAE is forecast to register surpluses in its current account and budget equivalent to about 8.5% and 6.8% of the GDP, respectively.

The GCC is estimated to have registered a trade surplus of $558 billion in 2012, and in 2013, it is forecast to ease to $492 billion, the report said. The value of oil and related exports rose to a new record high of $692 billion, up from $644 billion in 2011. NBAD said the GCC is estimated to have registered a trade surplus of $558 billion in 2012, up from $529 billion in 2011, again a new record. Saudi Arabia accounted for 47% of the GCC economy, while the UAE accounted for 23%. Qatar and Kuwait accounted for 12% and 11% of the GCC economy, respectively. Oman and Bahrain accounted for about five per cent and two per cent, respectively. The bank said the real GDP growth of the region slowed from an estimated 7.4% in 2011 to 5.3% in 2012. Saudi Arabia accounted for about 48% of the GCC real GDP growth rate, while the UAE accounted for 25%. Dr Gýyas Gokkent, NBAD’s group chief economist, said for the first time ever, value of GCC exports reached $1 trillion, up from $932 billion in 2011. This is almost double the 2009 level of $526 billion. The value of UAE exports accounted for about a third of the GCC total, he said. In 2012, oil production by the GCC region was also at a record level, with crude oil output averaging about 17 million barrels per day. Last year was a record year in many respects. “It was the second consecutive year with the average price of oil above $100 per barrel. The average price of crude oil (Dubai, spot) was the highest ever at $109.1 per barrel and up from $105.5 per barrel in 2011,” said the report.

“Oil prices at these levels will continue to allow GCC to accumulate international assets and retain their usual role of being capital exporters,” said the report. Saudi Arabia accounted for 52% of the GCC current account surplus with $178.5 billion. The UAE current account surplus is estimated at $32 billion (8.8% of GDP) in the same period. The bank said GCC budgetary expenditures rose to a record $491 billion, up from $467 billion in 2011. “Nevertheless, the aggregate budget surplus was substantial at $222 billion, equivalent to 14.3% of the GDP, reflecting the buoyancy of hydrocarbon revenues. The UAE economy is estimated to have registered a consolidated fiscal surplus equivalent to 7.8% of GDP, the best performance since 2008.” In 2013, real GDP growth rate in the GCC region is expected to slow to the slowest pace since 2009 at about 3.8%. The UAE economy is forecast to grow by 3.2% year-on-year. “The main reason for the slowdown is an expected flattening in hydrocarbon sector growth. The crude oil output of the four GCC OPEC members rose to 16.3 million bpd in August 2012, but has since declined every month and stood at 15.2 million bpd in January 2013. Saudi Arabia accounted for about 73% of the decline in output amongst the GCC OPEC members in that period,” said the report. The bank said its estimates are currently based on an average oil price of about $103 per barrel in 2013 and slightly higher in 2014 on the assumption that OPEC will curtail output to maintain breach of its comfort level. Khaleej Times, 20/02/2013

GCC has its headquarters in Riyadh

GULF ALUMINIUM SEES RECORD PRODUCTION IN 2012 The five operating smelters of the Gulf (Alba, Dubal, Emal, Qatalum & Sohar) have collectively produced 3,739,290 tonnes of Aluminium in 2012 which constitutes of 9% of the world total production compared to 3,488,357 in 2011. The current GCC operating smelters (Alba - Bahrain, Dubal - Dubai, Emal - Abu Dhabi, Qatalum - Qatar & Sohar - Oman) have collectively produced 3,739,290 tonnes of primary aluminium in 2012, which constitute 9% of total world production compared to 3,488,357 in 2011. The GCC which also has thriving aluminium downstream industries has become one of the main centres for aluminium production and world leader for aluminium. Accordingly, a number of related industries have established their base in the Gulf. The aluminium industry is now one of the main economic drivers for the Gulf contributing to jobs, creation of small and medium size industries and community development, according to GAC Secretary General, Mr Mahmood Daylami. Aluminium in the Gulf Newsletter, February 2013 See www.gac.ae


BUSINESS EVENTS, TRADE FAIRS AND CONFERENCES Business Events, Trade Fairs and Conferences MENA ICT Forum 2013 Under the patronage of HM King Abdullah II 6-7 March, 2013 Dead Sea, Jordan Contact MENA ICT EXPO info@menaictforum.com www.menaictforum.com Africa Telecom Forum 14 - 15 March 2013 Marrakesh, Morocco Contact I-conférences Tel: +212 522 36 95 15 Email: courrier@i-conferences.org http://www.i-conferences.org/contact.htm Balanced Scorecard & Strategy Summit For strategy, strategy execution, business performance and risk management 16-21 March 2013 Dubai Marina, Dubai, UAE Contact Janet D’Souza IIR Middle East Tel: +971 4 335 2437 Fax: +971 4 335 2438 Email: register@iirme.com http://www.iirme.com/bsc/contact-us World Ports and Trade Summit 19-20 March 2013 St Regis Saadiyat Island Resort, Abu Dhabi, UAE Contact Chris Adams Seatrade Middle East Email: cadams@seatrade-middleeast.ae www.worldportsandtrade.com/index.php/ contacts World Investment Conference North Africa Organised in partnership with the Moroccan Investment Development Agency (MIDA) 20 – 22 March 2013 Marrakech, Morocco Contact World Investment Conferences Antonella Guerra Tel: + 33 1 43 87 27 22 Email: ag@worldinvestmentconferences.com http://www.worldinvestmentconferences.com Oil and Gas Telecommunications 20-21 March 2013 Copthorne Tara Hotel, London Contact Jules Omura SMi Group Ltd Tel: +44 (0)20 7827 6018 Email: jomura@smi-online.co.uk

World Luxury Expo 31 March-2 April 2013 St Regis Hotel Doha, Qatar Contact World Luxury Group Tel: +966 1 2795129 Arab World Conference on Public Health 4-6 April 2013 The Ritz-Carlton, Dubai International Financial Centre, Dubai, UAE Contact MCI Middle East PO Box 124752, Dubai, UAE Tel: + (971)-(4)-3415663 Libya Trade Day: New Economic Landscape An exclusive one-day conference hosted by the ABCC, in partnership with the Embassy of Libya, UK Trade & Investment, and the Federation of Libyan Chambers of Commerce 10 April 2013 UKTI headquarters, 1 Victoria Street, Westminster, London Contact Arab-British Chamber of Commerce http://www.abcc.org.uk/Registration-LTD http://www.abcc.org.uk/Events 10th Leading CEO Conference: new strategies, challenges and opportunities 10 April 2013 Burj Al Arab Hotel, Dubai, UAE Contact Datamatix Group Tel: +971 4 332 6688 Email: info@datamatixgroup.com http://www.datamatixgroup.com/contactus.asp International Conference & Exhibition on Higher Education & Employability (ICE-HEE) Under the Patronage of the Association of Arab Universities Secretary-General Dr Sultan AbuOrabi Landmark Hotel, Amman, Jordan 13 & 14 April 2013 Contact Nedal Al Share General Manager Middle East Gate Expo Amman, Jordan Email: nedal@meg-expo.com Info@ice-hee.com www.ice-hee.com The London Book Fair 15-17 April 2013 Earls Court, London Contact The London Book Fair Team Tel: +44(0)20 8271 2124 Email: lbf.helpline@reedexpo.co.uk www.londonbookfair.co.uk/

The Internet Show 2013 16-17 April 2013 Madinat Arena, Madinat Jumeirah, Dubai, UAE Contact Tel: +971 4 440 2500 Cityscape Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi’s only international real estate event 16-18 April 2013 Abu Dhabi International Exhibition Centre, Abu Dhabi, UAE Contact Iman Eissa, Conference Manager Tel: +971 4 407 2756 Fax: +971 4 335 1891 Email: iman.eissa@informa.com Cold and Hot Beverage International Exhibition (CHBIX) 2013 17-19 April 2013 Amman Hall, Al-Hussein Youth City, Jordan Contact IP Co PO Box 143657 Amman 11814 Jordan Email:info@promoters-jordan.com Fax: 00 962 6 5824569 http://www.promoters-jordan.com Middle East Engineering Procurement Construction Conference 2013 22 - 23 April 2013 Le Royal Meridien, Abu Dhabi, UAE Contact Meghana Vyas Email: m.vyas@cerebralbusiness.com Tel: +91 95409 91022 http://www.cerebralbusiness.com/epcmiddleeast/ Abu Dhabi International Book Fair 24-29 April 2013 ADNEC, Abu Dhabi, UAE Contact KITAB National Library Building, Abu Dhabi, UAE Tel: +971 2 6576180 Fax: +971 (0) 2 643 30 17 Email: info@adbookfair.com www.adbookfair.com Arabian Travel Market 6-9 May 2013 Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Centre, Dubai, UAE Contact Sula Riedlinger Tel: +44 208 271 2158 Fax: +44 208 334 0740 Email: arabian.helpline@reedexpo.co.uk Project Qatar 2013 10th International construction, building, environmental technology and materials exhibition 6-9 May 2013 Doha Exhibition Centre, Qatar Contact Al Sraiya Group building Ibn Seena Street, Al Muntazah Area, PO Box 22376, Doha, Qatar Tel: +974 44325693 Email: info@ifpqatar.com www.projectqatar.com


Profile for Distinctive Publishing

Arab British Chamber of Commerce Newsletter 6  

Arab British Chamber of Commerce Newsletter 6

Arab British Chamber of Commerce Newsletter 6  

Arab British Chamber of Commerce Newsletter 6