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Discover Sinai A guide to the natural, cultural and historical faces of South Sinai

This publication has been produced by www.discoversinai.net to promote responsible tourism and to support local communities. For this reason it is freely available as a pdf file and can be reproduced and distributed, but only in its entirety. Using images or parts of the document, or any unauthorized alteration, including deleting, editing or adding content, is prohibited. For personal use single pages can be printed or photocopied. This publication should only be used planning your treks and enhancing the experience; it is not a substitute for a local Bedouin guide, who is both necessary and also mandatory for most treks. No responsibilities are accepted for any loss or damage occurred from using this publication. Please feel free to point out inaccuracies or suggest necessary changes at updates@discoversinai.net. All text and images remain the copyright of their respective owners. Š 2009 www.discoversinai.net and Kelvin J. Bown, Mirjam Duymaer van Twist, Emily Eros, Dr. Francis Gilbert, Andy Killey, Joshua Lohnes, Dave Lucas, Said Mahmoud Salah, Zoltan Matrahazi, Suliman Subail el Heneny, Gordon Wilkinson, Dr. Samy Zalat and photographers of the fauna and flora section as named

The publication is available as a pdf file on: www.discoversinai.net/downloads/discoversinai.pdf www.nottingham.ac.uk/~plzfg www.responseabilityalliance.com/


Table of contents PART I. – Introduction • • • •

Discover Sinai Orientation Organizing a trek or safari Ecotourism in Egypt

PART II. – Sights in South Sinai • • • • •

Around St. Katherine: the High Mountain Region South of St. Katherine: towards Sharm el Sheikh and El Tur East of St. Katherine: towards Nuweiba and Dahab North-East of St. Katherine: towards the Nuweiba-Taba coast North-West of St. Katherine: towards Abu Zenima and Ras Sudr

PART III. – Fauna and flora of South Sina • Fauna • Flora

3 3 4 5 8 11 12 34 43 60 66 74 75 89

PART IV. – Dictionary

101

Map of the High Mountain Region

128

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PART I. – Introduction Discover Sinai South Sinai is a truly diverse and unique land that cannot fail to captivate any visitor that allows its blend of history, culture and nature to wash over them. We hope this guide will help you to experience the less well known parts of what makes this land so special. The most immediately striking aspect of this area is the incredible natural beauty. The South Sinai massif is an isolated block of some of the world’s oldest rocks dating back 700million years. Yet for such a barren land there really is wondrous variety. Within short distances visitors can find themselves walking through beautiful canyons to lush green oases; or, hiking down rugged sandy wadis, across stunning dunes and up incredible granite mountains. The natural beauty, and contrast that exist here, constantly take your breath away. The Sinai peninsula has been at the crossroads of much of world history. The pharaohs, Alexander the Great and Romans all left their mark here. In 641 AD the Muslim army that conquered Egypt, and would begin the spread of Islam throughout North Africa, marched through Sinai. The crusades fought here and in the 20th century Sinai would become the battlefield for the conflict between Israel and Egypt. Yet the peninsula is best known for its association with biblical tradition. The Exodus, the New Testaments descriptions of the flight into Egypt and the return of the Holy family to Palestine all have the desert of Sinai as their backdrop. Most famous, of course, is Mt Sinai, the mountain from which Moses spoke to God and brought down the ten commandments. This is an area of immense spiritual significance. At the foot of Mt Sinai stands the Monastery of St Katherine, the world’s oldest continuously inhabited monastery. Christian monasticism has its origins in Sinai. In the 3rd century, fleeing persecution from the Roman emperor Diocletian, Sinai was a logical location of retreat for many Christians who found safety in the remote wilderness, settling around the sites of religious significance in the South. The remains of small monasteries and chapels, dating back to this period, can still be seen in this area, some of them are still in use. But it is not only early Christianity that has left its archaeological footprint in South Sinai. The pharaohs built a temple at Serabit el Khadim, the area where they mined turquoise. The first roofed stone structures, the mysterious nawamis buildings, are only found in South Sinai; they are believed to date back to the copper age (4000 – 3150 BC). Rock inscriptions using ancient scripts – Proto-Sinaitic, Nabatean, ancient Greek, Hebrew and Arabic – can be seen in many places. Linking all of these incredible archaeological sites are the ancient caravan routes and desert trails that have been used since prehistoric times. In South Sinai you really are walking in the footpaths of history. Tying all this natural beauty and history together are the Bedouin people of South Sinai. Traditionally they belong to 7 tribes, although some tribes from the North are also present at some places. The Bedouin are mostly descended from people of the Arabian peninsula who arrived in Sinai in several waves along the centuries. The one exception to this is the Jabaleya tribe who live in the High Mountain area around St Katherine’s monastery. The tribe trace their origins back to when families from around the Black Sea were sent by Emperor Justinian to aid the building and running of the monastery. The lifestyle of these Bedouin is in a constant state of flux; traditionally water, herding, and in the specific case of the Jabaleya, seasonal orchard gardening, dictated their lives. Today it is mostly tourism. For many of the Bedouin of South Sinai their lives have become almost entirely sedentary. This is not to say that their traditions have disappeared, just that they have become mixed with modernity. The best way to experience the Bedouin way of life is to head out into the desert with a local guide and a camel. And this is precisely what this guide wants to enable people to do. Sinai is a land of wondrous variety of nature, history and people. We hope this guide goes someway towards opening your eyes to the possibilities offered here, and how to go about experiencing them.

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Orientation

IMPORTANT: This is a reference book only. It is intended as an information tool, something that sparks the imagination of the traveler. This guidebook should be used in collaboration with local guides.

Each page on the sights is laid out as follows: 1) 2)

3) 4) 5) 6)

Brief overview of the specific area. Non-specific information about South Sinai. This section is designed to greater information to the reader about a particular point of interest regarding the history, culture and environment of South Sinai. Geographical description: detailing the location of this site in relation to others. Large Scale map: The red box marks the specific area. Zoom map: Map showing the detailed geographic location of the area. Points of interest within this area.

Maps to South Sinai The best way to use the guide is with a map. There is only one usable map available locally (pictured) which you can get from most bookshops in the Sinai or Cairo. Some prints are better, others are lower quality – check before buying. It is based on an Israeli map. The main places are all on it. Although the smaller details may not be there, it is still useful, and does help to orientate. The Royal Geographic Society’s map of Sinai, coming in many separate sheets, is more detailed, but is rather expensive and for the High Mountain Region the local map’s inset is the better. We used this inset for the sights around St. Katherine. For other destinations we used Google Earth images.

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Organizing a trek or safari Sinai, and Egypt in general, is not for the hard-core independent traveler; you can’t just wander alone off to the mountains or the desert, since in most areas it is prohibited. There are various reasons for this, and your safety is one of them. Maybe you think you can do it alone, like you are used to at home, but the environment is very different and confusing with extreme weather conditions. A simple mistake could cost you your life: the Egyptian authorities don't want to see you hurt, and also don't want bad publicity either. This law also supports local communities in a direct way – in most places you have to be accompanied by a local Bedouin guide. And it makes sense; since they are the traditional inhabitants, they know the area best. This also applies to companies; they have to have a local Bedouin guide in the Sinai. You can organize your program through different operators or independently – the options are explained below, followed by some points on costs, what to expect along the way and what to bring, when to come, dangers and annoyances, and recommendations. Big international companies usually do not run treks and safaris off the beaten path – they probably include the Monastery of St. Katherine and Mt. Sinai and possibly a fast 4x4 visit to an oasis or canyon. If they do Sinai, they do it through smaller local operators, so you might as well go straight to them. There are smaller operators, based internationally and locally, who run treks and safaris or specialize in other activities, such as yoga, meditation, rock climbing, desert mountain-biking as well as aspects of religious, historical or nature tourism. They usually work closely with local Bedouin communities but provide their own tour leaders, foreign or Egyptian, who are in charge of the operations on the ground. These operators are very specialized in nature and located in many countries – most of them have websites, so you can easily find someone in your area of interest, who is based either in your own country or in Egypt. If you want to use a local operator, your best bet is someone based in the Sinai. Operators based in Cairo are selling Egypt; the pyramids, pharaonic ruins along the Nile valley and felucca rides. Sinai is of marginal interest for them – if it is included, it is only the few main sites. Operators in Sharm el Sheikh, although based in Sinai, are mostly into adventure of their own style – quad bikes and 4x4s – and organize short superficial desert trips with reheated hotel food, which is exactly what their customers want. As long as they keep out of protected areas, or stick to the rules if inside one, it is fine, but this is not for those who want a genuine and quiet desert experience. Other local Sinai operators, based either in Dahab, Nuweiba, St. Katherine or in the desert, often have a better understanding of the desert and mountains and tend to be more dedicated and responsible. There are several Egyptian- or Egyptian/foreigner-run companies, as well as a growing number of Bedouin-run operations. Many of the smaller operations do not have offices of their own and are located in cheaper hotels and camps. There are independent Bedouin guides and it is possible to organize programs straight through them. They are registered as a “Bedouin guide” and have a photo ID with these words written in English. Some have other relevant qualifications as well. Hotels and camps which do not push their own services can put you in contact with the guides and you can sit down and discuss the details with them in person. The best places to find a good Bedouin guide who speaks English well, or other languages, is in Dahab, Nuweiba, the camps on the Nuweiba to Taba coast and in St. Katherine. In some places you can organize your trek or safari right on the spot in the desert, although English communication there might be basic. There are a number of cafeterias and camel stations along the St. Katherine to Dahab-Nuweiba road (Wadi Arada, Nawamis settlement, Ein Khudra pass, Ras Ghazala) which are easy to reach by taxi or microbus, possibly along a round trip to St. Katherine from the coast. You can also find guides in Wadi Feiran in one of the gardens close to the Convent (treks to Gebel Serbal, Wadi Mukattab and Serabit el Khadim) and possibly in the cafeterias in Abu Zenima (treks or transport to Serabit el Khadim). Wadi Feiran and Abu Zenima are on the main Cairo to St. Katherine road serviced by public buses and regular microbuses. If you can make your own way to the settlement of Serabit el Khadim, you can arrange a program there; you can visit the archeological ruins as well as arrange longer camel safaris.

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In some cases there are tribal laws regarding who you can take as a guide – most notable is the High Mountain Region, where guides are allocated by a rotating system managed by the sheikhs. The system, called el dor, has been set up by the tribe to provide work to every family. Treks have to be organized through the sheikhs who allocate the guides and camels and arrange permissions with the authorities. If you want to use a guide of your choice you still have to pay the one whose turn it is. In Arada Canyon, the White Canyon and the Colored Canyon you also have to take a guide from the local system, unless you are taking part in a longer trek and already have a Bedouin guide. To the pharaonic ruins of Serabit el Khadim – and only to the archeological site – you have to take a guide from the village, regardless if you have another Bedouin guide, as is the case with Gebel Serbal, where only local Qararsha people can work. At the Colored Canyon a small part of the fee goes to the tribal cooperative which runs the system. There were also plans to set up a guide association at the Ein Khudra pass cafeteria for hikes to the White Canyon and run it similarly. Costs Most operators and many independent guides prefer to offer all-inclusive packages with prices ranging between 25 to 100 euro per person per day. The price often depends on several factors and/or minimum group size is required. If you want to organize your trek or safari independently you might save some money, but it depends greatly on your bargaining skills. Other factors which affect the price include group size, who is providing the food, extra equipment, camels, car or jeep if needed and the itinerary. Bedouin guides and cameleers, apart from leading you and carrying your stuff, will provide cooking equipment and local water, make fire, tea and coffee, cook meals, bring flour and bake bread. As an example, in case food is bought by you but local water and flour for fresh bread are provided by them, expect the following prices: • In the desert: guide 100-250 LE a day, each camel extra 80-120 LE a day. Note: if the guide and camel have to return from a long way the transport or return time are also to be paid for. • In the high mountains: guide from the sheikhs 160-240 LE a day, each camel extra 80-120 LE a day. Note: Mt. Katherine is double. • To Gebel Serbal: guide 200 LE a day, each camel extra 200 LE a day. • Short ride in pick-up car: 50-100 LE. • Pick-up car: 300-400 LE a day. • Jeep (up to 4 passengers): 400-800 LE a day. • Landcruiser (up to 8 passengers): 800-1200 LE a day. • Basic accommodation in garden: 10-20 LE per person per night. • Fire wood: 40 LE a bag. Note: These are only indicative prices based on 2009 figures. On one hand, if you are not into bargaining and logistics and add up everything, you might as well find that organizing through operators providing all-inclusive packages is worth that little extra. On the other hand, you might find it more personal to deal straight with the guide who will be with you along the way. Along the way The Bedouin have their own rhythm and treks are usually moderate; 3-4 hours walk in the morning with a possible tea break, lunch and rest, 2-3 hours walk in the afternoon, camp. In summer starting time is very early and the lunch break can be as long as 3-4 hours, while in winter the start is later and the lunch break is shorter. If you want to cover bigger distances than the usual, you have to be very specific from the beginning. Some guides are excellent cooks but all know and can provide at least the basics: soups, simple rice and pasta dishes, chicken and vegetables, different types of fresh Bedouin breads, salads, dips, tuna, cheese, beans, sweets, tea and coffee. If you have special needs or want to cater for yourself, let it be known beforehand. In some areas it is possible to carry everything yourself, but camels are often needed. Camels are usually used for transport, but in the desert, according to arrangements, you can ride them as well. Often the camels take different routes so in the morning you should have ready a “camel pack” with belongings you only need in the evening and a day pack with items for the day. You should carry some warm clothes and have always plenty of water. You can safely rely on local water – if worried, bring water purification tablets and/or a water filter. Make sure you have bought firewood in town or have a gas cooker to minimize impact on scarce resources. A lightweight tent (possibly without the cover) or a mosquito net will come handy most of the year, but you can get away without one (cover yourself with a sheet or find a windy spot). In winter good sleeping bags are important while in warmer seasons a sheet might be enough. Foam mattresses and blankets are provided on request. Camps are set up either in Bedouin gardens or in the wilderness. In www.discoversinai.net – A guide to the natural, cultural and historical faces of South Sinai

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gardens there might be a toilet and simple washing facilities – in any case be conscious about pollution, waste and water usage. When meeting local people you will be offered tea or coffee, possibly food and, in the gardens, available fresh fruit. It is genuine Bedouin hospitality: they don’t expect anything for it. It is nice to offer back something though; biscuits, cigarettes, snacks or other small things. If you want to contribute, you can buy small handicrafts which most families sell. However, staying overnight and services provided should be paid for either by you or the operator. Baksheesh is part of life and tips are accepted by all providing services – it is not necessary, but appreciated, especially if you were happy with their work. Useful items which are difficult to get locally, such as pocket knifes, torches, sandals, boots and other trekking equipment are also a good idea to give. When to come If you look at South Sinai as a whole, it is easy to organize treks all year round. When it gets cold in the high mountains, it is still warmer in the desert – when it is too hot in the desert, it is still more pleasant in the mountains. Probably the best times are spring and autumn in both regions, although any time is possible; there are small stone huts and caves which can provide shelters in winter and the hot midday siestas are spent in shady places in summer. Dangers and annoyances Egypt is generally a safe country, and the mountains and desert of South Sinai are especially so. Violent crimes are unheard of and theft, even in towns, is very rare. Religious tolerance dominates rather than extremism. Some western embassies are worried about security, and as a result, groups through bigger agencies or citizens of USA and Israel might have to have a police escort in some places. It is absolutely unnecessary and we hope officials will realize it works against the local economy. Most of us, however, will only see police at checkpoints; there are many of these so have your passport handy when traveling on main roads. The staff are usually friendly, even if sometimes in simple ways – keep in mind, they are just doing their jobs. Dangerous animals do exist in the Sinai, especially a couple of snake species (see the fauna and flora section), but they keep away from humans. Along treks the more likely threats are dehydration, sun stroke and cold. There are dangerous and difficult paths, but the guide should understand what you want to and can do. The guides are generally safety-conscious and innovative, but a first-aid kit is usually not available. Have some important basic medication and supplies. You should arrange travel insurance before your trip – check carefully what they offer. When on treks, your passport or a copy of your passport and visa might have to stay with the operator. Leave also your insurance details and other relevant information, in case of emergency. One annoying thing which often happens is not sticking to plans/route. Sometimes it is necessary to change the trek for various reasons, but there are guides who are simply lazy and want to cut corners. Always make sure that the route and timing are well understood by both parties before setting off. Recommendations When organizing a trek or safari the important things are the experience you get, price and – hopefully to more and more people – responsibility. The expressions sustainable, responsible, ethical or ecotourism are catchwords of today; there are operators who do understand what it means and take it seriously, while others use it only to sell their programs and do not have a clue or do not care. In the absence of a list of responsible operators and any code of practice or monitoring system it is difficult to make recommendations. If there ever will be a reliable source listing responsible operators we will publish it in a future edition and on the discoversinai.net website. In the mean time, use common sense and always look behind the "green" façade – remember, greenwashing is a marketing strategy.

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Ecotourism in Egypt Notions of “sustainability” and “sustainable development”, a by-product of the environmental movement, also contributed to the emergence of ecotourism as a form of alternative tourism that emphasized the well-being of the natural environment, while simultaneously recognising the importance of host communities. Despite its popular appeal, the concept of ecotourism lacks a fixed definition. Moreover, there is no regulatory body or standard certification or accreditation process to distinguish genuine ecotourism enterprises from mainstream or mass tourism businesses. Clearly, priorities vary for the many actors and stakeholders involved in ecotourism: government authorities, local communities, NGOs, and private tour operators. A set of common principles does recur throughout most definitions, however. The International Ecotourism Society (TIES), the oldest and most influential ecotourism NGO, outlines six principles of ecotourism. According to TIES, ecotourism seeks to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Minimize impact Build environmental and cultural awareness and respect Provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts Provide direct financial benefits for conservation Provide financial benefits and empowerment for local people Raise sensitivity to host countries' political, environmental, and social climate

However one defines it, ecotourism has faced mixed reviews with respect to its impacts upon host environments and communities. As Honey writes, at its worst, when not practiced with the utmost care, ecotourism threatens the very ecosystems upon which it depends. At its best, ecotourism offers a set of principles and practices that have the potential to fundamentally transform the way the tourism industry operates. The benefits of ecotourism are intended to benefit local individuals; one of the basic tenets of ecotourism is to engage local communities so they benefit from conservation, economic development and education. In theory, ecotourism channels funds from foreign tourists into developing communities, directly provides jobs for local people, and integrates formerly isolated regions into the global marketplace. Economists argue that this increases market access and stimulates trickle-down benefits. Furthermore, ideal ecotourism sites are located in remote regions, so the industry may alleviate poverty by directly contributing to the income of the rural poor without necessitating urban migration. These locations are particularly vulnerable, however, and nature tourism ventures can be highly dangerous to delicate ecosystems and indigenous social structures. Resource exploitation can damage fragile environments. Mismanagement can displace local communities and disrupt native animal populations. Critics of ecotourism generally fall into two schools of thought. The first group accepts the theoretical underpinnings of ecotourism but argues that revisions must be made to how the concept is applied in practice. These scholars admit that genuine ecotourism does exist but can be mismanaged or confused with “greenwashing”, defined as projects or companies that claim to be involved in ecotourism but are merely using green language in their marketing in an attempt to ride on the crest of the ecotourism wave. Their work typically constitutes positivist, empirical analyses of case studies; they isolate a case study, analyze the application and impact of ecotourism, and construct recommendations for policy makers. These scholars generally advocate industry standards, monitoring, and evaluation. The second group of critics typically takes a poststructuralist stance to argue that the entire concept of ecotourism is flawed or meaningless; because the origins of ecotourism lie in Western ideology and values, and its practice is frequently dominated by Western interests, the advocacy of ecotourism as a universal template arises from Western hegemony. Notions of sustainability, development, and conservation are all value-charged Western constructs imposed on the Global South. Therefore, these scholars argue, ecotourism represents neo-colonialism. Its weaknesses must be addressed through more equitable ways or it should be abandoned as a development strategy.

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Tourism development has significantly altered both the environmental and cultural landscapes of South Sinai. The situation of the Egyptian tourism development can be argued to be imposing highly negative environmental impacts, unstable economic sector, serious socio-cultural problems, and highly fragile to the political situation of the region. Faced with these problems, Cairo began to seek out and champion alternative forms of tourism development designed to achieve economic and political goals while balancing environmental concerns and exhibiting sensitivity to local Bedouin communities. Prompted by international environmental agencies and local biodiversity scientists, the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) established the nation’s first natural protectorates by passing “Law 102 of 1983 for Nature Protectorates” which defined it as “any area of land, or coastal or inland water characterized by flora, fauna, and natural features having cultural, scientific, touristic or aesthetic value”. Within the protectorates, the EEAA aims to minimize human impacts upon nature. Regulations forbid any actions which “will lead to the destruction or deterioration of the natural environment or harm the biota (terrestrial, marine or fresh water), or which will detract from the aesthetic standards within protected areas”. The EEAA’s national parks system thus served as the beginnings of Egypt’s ecotourism industry. By imposing environmental protection measures in touristic areas, natural parks first negotiated the seemingly contradictory goals of conservation and development within Sinai. As ecotourism initiatives gained global attention in the 1990s, Egyptian national agencies began to incorporate “ecolanguage” and terminology into their own tourism rhetoric. The EEAA officially launched its National Ecotourism Strategy in 1998 to “establish Egypt as a world class ecotourism destination (and) ensure the conservation of Egypt’s natural heritage as the cornerstone of the ecotourism industry”. In the past decade, international organizations–namely USAID and the EU–have become involved with tourism in the protectorates, expanding and emphasizing Egypt’s ecotourism industry through targeted funding schemes. USAID funding promoted “environmentally sustainable tourism” along the Red Sea from 1999-2005. In Sinai, European funding has buttressed the natural protectorates since shortly after their inception, even giving direct grants towards the establishment of new parks. In 2005, the EU launched the South Sinai Regional Development Programme (SSRDP) to oversee infrastructure upgrades and administer grants to locally-oriented development projects. The SSDRP states its overall purpose as “the development of local economy and activities, and the preservation and support of the social, cultural, and natural resources of South Sinai”. The Tourism Development Authority (TDA), part of the Ministry of Tourism, represents another key figure in the tourism development and ecotourism spheres, primarily focusing on economic imperatives. The TDA began to promote ecotourism through its Red Sea Sustainable Tourism Initiative, launched in partnership with USAID in the early 2000s. Through this project, the TDA developed guidelines for best practices in terms of zoning, building design, ecotourism management and organized a conference, training workshops to educate hotel staff from the Marriott, Sheraton, Hilton, and Mövenpick resorts about environmental management. Based on “Ecotourism as International Development in South Sinai” by Emily Eros.

Note: While several big governmental and non-governmental organizations are involved in shaping the tourism industry in Egypt and massive amounts of funds are spent on sustainable development, a bottom-up approach might be more effective in many ways and should not be overlooked. There are a handful of local small and medium businesses and organizations which take the challenges seriously and are involved in environmental protection and/or economic and social development on a local level. They might not be able to influence policy makers and the industry at higher levels, but can influence local communities through good examples, implement small-scale development initiatives and spread economic benefits within the community.

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YOUR GUIDLENES FOR RESPONSIBLE TREKKING 1. Look after water • Do not pollute water sources with soap, food scraps or anything else • Do not camp within a 100 m of water sources – wildlife needs to drink too and will be disturbed by your presence • Do not go to the toilet within a 100 m of water sources 2. Manage your waste • Crush tin cans and plastic bottles and any other waste; you brought it in so CARRY IT OUT with you • If there is no toilet, BURN YOUR USED TOILET PAPER and then bury your bodily waste • You may burn paper items and you may feed vegetable waste to the camels with the owners’ permission 3. Respect Bedouin culture and traditions • Ask permission before using wells, as these are usually private property • Only enter private gardens if invited to do so by the owner • Ask permission before taking photographs of local people • Do not burn local firewood, use only gas stoves or fire wood bought in town for cooking 4. REMEMBER – It’s the LAW! St. Katherine Protectorate was declared by the Prime Ministerial Decree under Law 102 of 1983; illegal activities can result in prosecution

• • •

It is prohibited to remove any object from the Protected Area including rocks, plants and animals It is prohibited to disturb or harm animal or birds It is prohibited to paint or carve graffiti, cut trees or uproot plants

YOUR HELP CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE

The information above is by the St. Katherine Protectorate.

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PART II. – Sights in South Sinai The section on the sights is divided into areas based on a mountains-to-sea approach: • • • • •

Around St. Katherine: the High Mountain Region South of St. Katherine: towards Sharm el Sheikh and El Tur East of St. Katherine: towards Nuweiba and Dahab North-East of St. Katherine: towards the Nuweiba-Taba coast North-West of St. Katherine: towards Abu Zenima and Ras Sudr

Spelling of names of places and sights is based on the spelling of the only locally available map to South Sinai for easier location. Where we feel it is necessary other spellings are added in brackets. The capital of the Governorate of South Sinai is El Tur (1), although the biggest and most developed city is Sharm el Sheikh (2). Dahab (3), another popular destination, is smaller and more laid back, attracting mostly the independent traveler. In Nuweiba (4), the gateway to Jordan, and further north along the road until Taba (5), there are many quiet and laid-back camps offering simple huts right on the beach. The road beyond Taba leads to the only border crossing to Israel. In the center of the mountainous interior is the town of St. Katherine (6), famous for Mt. Sinai and the Monastery of St. Katherine. Wadi Feiran (7) and Serabit el Khadim (8) are smaller settlements with important historical and archeological sites. The coastal town of Abu Zenima (9) is a small place with a few shops and cafeterias from where transport can be organized to Serabit el Khadim. Ras Sudr (10), further to the north, is a sea-side destination popular with people from Cairo. To Suez and Cairo the road connects via a tunnel (11) under the Suez canal, and from here there is also a road going to North Sinai, and another, the ancient caravan route of pilgrims from Cairo to Mecca, cuttingacross the peninsula via the interior at Nakhla (12) and connecting to the Gulf of Aqaba.

Common words used in geographic names: Arabic Gebel (Jebel) Ras Wadi Naqb Sharafa/Sharafat el … Farsh Hadaba/Hadabat el … Ein Bier Kharaza/Kharazet Galt Sid/Sida Seil Moyat Sheikh Kitib Ramla/Ramlat …

English meaning Mountain Rock outcrop, rocky head of range Valley (dry riverbed) Gully, pass Saddle/ Saddle of … Basin Plateau/Plateau of … Spring Well Natural granite water pool Natural water pool Waterfall, water cascade, dam (m/f) Flash flood, wadi bed along which the floods run Water (source) Location named after local holy man, usually with a shrine Sand dune or hill Sand, sandy plain/sandy plain of …

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Around St. Katherine: the High Mountain Region The High Mountain Region, home to the Jabaleya Bedouin, is located around the town of St. Katherine. The town itself lies at around 1600 meters from sea level, and many of the mountains around it are above 2000 meters, with Mt. Katherine the tallest at 2642 meters. The most famous attractions are the Monastery of St. Katherine and Mt. Sinai due to their religious and historical significance, but the larger area, little known for most Westerners, is a unique trekkers’ paradise. Because of its elevation the area receives more precipitation than the rest of the Sinai peninsula and, despite the drought, is still relatively wet – it is a desert ecosystem, but there are hundreds of Bedouin orchards and a couple of permanent natural waterpools in which you can swim. The area is mostly granite with the characteristic smooth red domes and hidden basins, although about 20% is newer volcanic rock, black-colored and covered with broken, loose gravel. The two rock types often Main places: 1. Town of St. Katherine; 2. Monastery of combine, with half a mountain belonging to St. Katherine; 3. Mt. Sinai (Gebel Musa); 4. Gebel one and the other to the other rock type. Katherina; 5. Gebel Abbas Pasha; 6. Bab el Donya; There are many dykes, dark stripes of 7. Galt el Azraq; 8. Gebel Naga; 9. Kharazet el Shaq – Wadi Sagar; 10. Bustan el Birka; 11. Gebel Banat – volcanic rock intrusions, cutting through the Sida Nugra; 12. Sheikh Awad. red granite. The whole region stands above the rest of the peninsula, and from its perimeter you can see down to the plains or smaller ranges surrounding it. The climate is cooler than the rest of Egypt’s, making possible a unique flora and a wide variety of domesticated fruit species. In winter there might be snow and the temperatures can drop far below zero at higher elevations, although the days are usually still pleasantly warm. The area is full of attractions, all very different in nature, and interesting treks are possible. To see a good variety of landscapes and places of interest, a minimum of 5 days is recommended, although even 2 days can give a good glimpse. To cover most of the area would take up to two weeks. The Jabaleya have a tribal monopoly over treks in the region and everybody, individuals or operators, must organize treks through Sheikh Mousa’s office. Guides are allocated according a rotating system providing work for the whole community – they are generally good and will lead you the way, make tea and food, but communication is often limited. If you want a guide of your choice you still have to pay a guide whose turn it is, which makes treks more expensive for individuals or small groups. Either way, treks to the high mountains are highly recommended as it is indeed a very unique area.

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Wadi el Deir – The Monastery of St. Katherine Wadi el Dir, apart from the Monastery of St. Katherine, is home to other sights, including the Chapel of Aaron, the Golden Calf, the Maqafa garden and Gebel Muneiga. It is worth starting a visit to the Monastery from the very informative Visitors Centre. The St. Katherine’s Protectorate has published four Walking Trail Guides, each in three European languages. They might be available from the Visitors Centre, the Protectorate’s HQ in town and possibly in local hotels and camps. Along the walks which the trail guides describe there are small stone tiles with numbers on them, and the booklet has relevant information to each of these stops, with additional cultural, natural and historic notes and illustrations. “Mt. Sinai, A Walking Trail Guide” describes the sights along the usual tourist route – going up the camel path and descending from the Stairs of Repentance – in detail. The other three walking trail guides – “Wadi Talla and Wadi Itlah”, “Wadi Arbaein & Wadi Shrayj” and “Jebel Abbas Pasha” – are also excellent.

The Visitors Centre (1) is close to the roundabout (2) before town, next to Aaron’s Hill (3). The Golden Calf (4) is a short way from here, along the walk to the Monastery (5). The garden of Magafa (6) literally overhangs the monastery in the side of Gebel el Deir (7). On the top of Gebel Muneiga is Jethro’s Chapel (8). There are also paths to the Monastery from Wadi Isbaiya (9), where Mt. Sinai ecolodge is located, over a saddle. The common routes to Gebel Musa (Mt. Sinai) (10) start at the Monastery. The Visitors Centre has excellent displays on the Protectorate, natural history, archeology, Bedouins and the Monastery.

Next to the visitors centre is the hill housing a chapel and Muslim shrine, both dedicated to Aaron – Prophet Harun (Nabi Harun) according to Islam.

Further up in Wadi el Dir, the short valley leading to the Monastery, you can see a rock formation what locals believe is the mould which was used to make the Golden Calf.

The three round objects above the walled up old gate symbolize bread and are the mark of good relations between the Monastery and the Bedouin tribes.

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Gebel Musa (Mt. Sinai) Although Mt. Sinai is one of the main attractions in St. Katherine, most visitors do not realize how much more even this single mountain has to offer. It has a complex system of mountain-top basins with ancient churches and ruins of monastic life, from which gullies offer unique views to surrounding wadis, the Monastery and parts of the town. Mt. Sinai is revered by Jews, Christians and Muslims as a holy place, where a covenant between God and His people was established. Apart from the Old Testament it is also mentioned in the Quran, where “God prefaces a statement on the creation of Mankind by swearing to four sacred symbols: «by the Fig and the Olive, and the Mount of Sinai [at-Tur], and this City of security [Mecca]»(Sura 95:1-3).”Although its exact location has been disputed, for most people it is not the mountain but the message which is important. The “mountain of Moses” and other religious sights are an integral part of the Jabaleya Bedouin culture, and their traditions were intricately interwoven with this Biblical landscape. Until 1973 on feast days they offered sacrifices atop at the various sacred places. (Reference: Joseph Hobbs, 1995) The two common ways to the summit of Mt. Sinai (1) start after the Monastery of St. Katherine (2), either via the camel path (3) or the Stairs of Repentance (4). They meet above Elijah’s Basin (Farsh Eliya) (5). There are alternative routes via Wadi el Arbain (6) and Wadi Sharig (Wadi Shrayj) (7). The basins of Kinisa el Homar (8), Farsh Safsafa (9), Farsh Loza and Farsh Zaharur (10) have many sights but are rarely explored.

Elija’s Basin (Farsh Eliya) is on the main circuit – there is a dam to protect the Monastery below from flash floods, and tall cypress trees in a walled court.

A gully from Farsh Zaharur offers bird’s eye view of the Monastery. There is a chapel in the basin, as well as in adjoining Farsh Loza.

There is a small garden and a chapel in Farsh Safsafa. From the gully at the end of the basin you can see the Visitors Centre and Nabi Harun.

One of the alternative ways is from Kinisa el Homar, a basin with a view of Mt. Katherine in the distance and leading to Wadi el Arbain or Wadi Sharig (Wadi Shrayj).

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Wadi el Arbain Wadi el Arbain provides an alternative to head for Gebel Musa (Mt. Sinai) from the town of St. Katherine, and is also on the route to Gebel Katharina. It is also home to the Monastery of the Forty Martyrs and the Rock of Moses. The Rock of Moses (Hajar Mousa) with its 12 clefts, half way in along the wadi, is believed to be the rock from which Moses fetched water. Local people believe the clefts on it represent the twelve springs mentioned in the Quran (Sura 2:60). According to Swiss orientalist Johann Ludwig Burkhardt the Jabaleya Bedouin believe that by making female camels crouch down before the rock the camels will become fertile and yield more milk. At the upper end of the valley is the Monastery of the Forty Martyrs, constructed in the sixth century in honor of the forty Christian martyrs who died in Sebaste in central Turkey. “Monks relate that forty Christian soldiers from the Roman Army in the third century were commanded to worship pagan gods. They refused and were put to death by being exposed at night to the bitterly cold winds of a frozen lake”. (Reference: National Parks of Egypt, Wadi Arbaein & Wadi Shrayj) Wadi el Arbain, connected to the town of St. Katherine (1), provides an alternative way to head for Gebel Musa (Mt. Sinai) (2) and is also on the route towards Gebel Katharina (3). The road splits at the Monastery of the Forty Martyrs (4), where also Ramadan’s garden is located. Half way along Wadi Arbain is the Rock of Moses (5) and further down is the Wishing Rock (6).

Looking back on to the village of St. Katherine from the path shortly after the first monastery garden.

Halfway along the valley is The Rock of Moses (Hajar Mousa), with the Chapel of the Birth of the Holy Virgin built right next to it.

The impressive monastery of the 40 martyrs, at the crossroads to Gebel Musa (Mt. Sinai) and Gebel Katharina.

Ramadan’s garden, above the Monastery and overlooking Mt. Sinai, offers a pleasant tea or overnight stop. Ramadan breeds Rock Hyrax, a furry animal like a guinea pig.

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Gebel Katharina Gebel Katharina is the highest mountain in Egypt at 2642 meters, with a small Orthodox church on the summit. According to tradition this is the place where monks, after a dream, found the missing body of the martyred St. Katherina. Gebel Musa (Mt. Sinai) is below, and the views onto it and the whole high mountain area are stunning. The Sinai is a hot desert climate zone, with very little precipitation (less than 100 mm annually) and warm to hot temperatures throughout the year – in fact, this is what makes it a popular holiday destination. In the desert, however, winter nights can be chilly, dropping to as low as 5 ºC. In the high mountains, with the town of St. Katherine itself at 1600 meters, winter can be really cold, often below 0 ºC. On higher peaks, with the added effect of the wind, even on summer nights a warm jumper or jacket can come handy – in winter be prepared for extreme cold if you plan to camp at the summits. It also regularly snows in the higher regions, which receives 4-10 times more precipitation then the rest of the peninsula. However cold it might get at night in the winter, the days are usually sunny and pleasantly warm. The most common routes to the peak are from either Wadi el Arbain (1), turning to Wadi Shagg Musa after the Monastery of Forty Martyrs, or from Wadi Shagg (2) via Wadi Ahmar (3). Either way the paths lead to a ridge and a flat area, called Farsh Umm Sila (4), from where the peak (5) of Gebel Katharina becomes visible. There is a path south of the peak(6) which leads to Seil Rotok and then onto Sharm el Sheikh or El Tur city.

The church on the summit of Gebel Katharina. There is a stone room with wooden floor just below the peak for visitors wishing to stay overnight. There is a water well close by at Bier Abu Rmell.

One of the main routes to Gebel Katharina is via Wadi Shagg Musa, the long and zigzag path starting in Wadi el Arbain behind Ramadan’s garden.

There are other, more interesting, ways to the summit from the high mountain wadi system on the other side, starting in Wadi Mathar or Wadi Ghazna (Wadi Rhazana).

The view of Gebel Musa (Mt. Sinai) and the high mountains from the summit of Gebel Katharina is stunning.

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Abu Giffa – Wadi Tubug Abu Giffa (Abu Jeefa) is one of the main gateways to the high mountains, with the steep and zigzag path starting in the town of St. Katherine at Ein Tufaha. There are beautiful views from the top. On the other side it leads to Wadi Tubug, the start of the complex high-mountain wadi system. Leopard traps were built in many parts of the high mountains, usually at high passes where there is always wind, so the smell of the bait went far. It is easy to pass a trap without noticing it, as it looks like a pile of rocks. If you look at it more carefully, there is a tunnel inside closed by a sliding stone door when the leopard entered. Today leopards are most probably extinct in the Sinai. “The Sinai leopard is very much smaller than the African leopard and has a preferred diet of birds, mice, and rock hyrax. It will eat goats and other small livestock if available, and it was this and a fear for human safety which led to its persecution and demise.” In English the Bedouin often call leopards ‘tiger’, as the Arabic word nimr means both. It is confusing for foreign visitors, as they think about the big Asian tiger. (Reference: National Parks of Egypt, Jebel Abbas Pasha) Abu Jeefa starts in town at Ein Tufaha (1). On the other side, after the leopard trap on the top, is a location known as Islibet (2). To the right you could descend to Wadi Talla via the Sid Daud gully (3). To the left starts Wadi Tubug, the path passing Ein Shkaya (4), then at a slight turn Wadi Shagg (5) branches off. There is a mulberry tree further up, before Wadi Tubug ends at a sharp turn at El Ehded (6).

The steep zigzag path of Abu Jeefa starts at a garden in Ein Tufaha, and there is another garden further up with wells and good water.

The leopard trap, one of several in the high mountains, is at the top of the Abu Jeefa pass.

Ein Shkaya is a shallow water trough constructed on a rock shelf. Ein means eye and is often used to refer to springs, as they have a likeness to an eye.

The giant mulberry tree with its multiple trunks in Wadi Tubug possibly dates back to Byzantine times (7th century AD) and is protected by Bedouin tribal law.

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Wadi Quweiz – El Freish – Wadi Tilah (Wadi Itlah) Another common way to the region is via Wadi Itlah, starting at St. Katherine town as Wadi Quweiz. It is a long and green valley, with many date palms, gardens and an Orthodox chapel, running towards distant lowlands. At the beginning there is the secluded basin of El Freish with an ancient garden. The short but spectacular canyon of Naqb Abu Sila at the lower end connects to a settlement and back to town. The Chapel of St. John Klimakos was built in 1979 to commemorate his devotional work in the 6th century AD. The saint is said to have spent forty years in solitude in a cave above the existing chapel. “During this time, Klimakos was elected Abbot of Sinai and asked to write a spiritual guide. He composed The Ladder of Divine Ascent which likens spiritual life to the ladder seen by the Patriarch Jacob extending from earth to heaven (Genesis 28:12-17).” According to the book the ladder “consists of 30 rungs, each step corresponding to a spiritual virtue. Through silence and solitude hermits and monks sought to climb the divine ladder. The crowning virtue is love”. (Reference: National Parks of Egypt, Wadi Talla and Wadi Itlah) Connected to town via Wadi Quweiz (1) or El Freish (2), Wadi Itlah begins at the junction of Wadi Talla (3) and ends at the Wadi Shagg Tinya and Naqb Abu Seila junction (4), from where a canyon and a camel pass lead to the settlement of Abu Sila (5). Wadi Ginab (6), after Wadi Itlah, continues towards the lowlands. Halfway is the chapel of St. John Klimakos (7), after which the wadi descends to a sandy part with many stone-walled gardens. One of them is El Helwa garden (8) run by a traditional herbalist Haj Ahmed Mansour. A good stone path leads from town all the way to the chapel of Saint John Klimakos.

The ancient garden of El Freish is located in a secluded granite basin above Wadi Quweiz and overlooks Gebel Musa (Mt. Sinai).

Dr. Ahmed is a respected traditional herbalist and healer, called hakim, who runs a herbal garden in the hope that his traditional knowledge is not lost to new generations.

The lower part of Naqb Abu Sila is a short canyon with sandy floor. From Wadi Itlah this part can easily be visited without any climbing. There are a couple of trickier parts further up.

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Wadi Tilah (Wadi Talla) – Sid Daud There are beautiful gardens and an ancient monastery in Wadi Talla, which connects higher and lower wadis via the adventurous Sid Daud gully. It can very easily be reached from town via other ways as well and can be part of a shorter circuit, either with the gully scrambling or without it. The Jabaleya Bedouin of the high mountains have always maintained a close and interdependent relationship with the monks. Originally brought from the Mediterranean by the Christian emperor Justinian to protect and serve the Monastery, the Jabaleya can still get work with the Monastery and only they are allowed to guide tourists on Mt. Sinai and in the high mountains. The Monastery, which once claimed virtually all land between the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gulf of Suez, still owns many gardens in the mountains. The gardens are looked after by Bedouin, often by one single family over many generations. Traditionally the Hamaida clan worked in the Wadi Talla gardens, while the Ulad Salim at Rabba (Mon. of the Holy Apostles), the Ulad Jindi at Bustan (Mon. of the Virgin Mary) and the Wahabet in Wadi el Arbain. The upper end of Sid Daud is at Islibet (1), where the Abu Jeefa pass (2) joins Wadi Tubug (3). It drops steeply a couple of hundred meters to the beginning of Wadi Talla (4), which connects to Wadi Quweiz and Wadi Itlah (5). About halfway is the Monastery of Cosmas and Damianos (6). The wadi can also be reached from town via a pass known as Naqb el Rahab (7).

Several of the wadis in the higher mountains, collecting run-off water from a large area, drain through the gully of Sid Daud, starting at a location called Islibet.

There are huge boulders all along the gully, which ends at a Bedouin garden in lower-lying Wadi Talla.

The path disappears from time to time, leading through a little hole under the boulders in one place.

The monastery of Cosmas and Damianos (Deir Rahab) is named after the martyred brothers who were doctors and treated local people free in the 3rd century AD.

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Wadi Shagg – Wadi Mathar Wadi Shagg is a short, narrow wadi branching off Wadi Tubug, but the name is often used for a larger area, including Wadi Mathar. There are beautiful Bedouin gardens, Byzantine ruins, a small canyon with seasonal water pools and a mulberry tree in the area. One of the consistent themes of Judaism, Christinaity and Islam is the holy man’s transformation in the wilderness. Moses made the covenant with God atop a desert mountain. Similarly Mohamed retreated to a desert mountain cave to hear the angel Gabriel speak the words of God. The desert is the hardest place for man to survive, yet the spiritual rewards would attract many numbers of believers. Many religious people became pilgrims in the harsh desert and mountains of the Sinai. These hermits survived on orchard agriculture, digging wells to irrigate crops of wheat, barley and a variety of fruits and vegetables, many of which were introduced from as far away as Greece. These gardens and orchards were the forerunners of the Bedouin gardens we still see today. (Reference: Joseph Hobbs, 1995) Wadi Shagg stretches between Wadi Tubug (1) and Oda’s garden (2), which is also connected to El Ehded (3). Beyond Oda’s garden starts Wadi Mathar, leading to Sbail’s garden (4). The canyon and pools of Kharaza (5) are a bit off the main path, close to a Byzantine hermit cell and a mulberry tree. Other routes include Wadi Umm Sid (6) to town, Wadi Ahmar (7) to Gebel Ahmar and Gebel Katharina, and Wadi Anshil (8) to higher wadis. Long and wide Wadi Rhazana (9) continues on to the south. Oda’s garden is in secluded Wadi Shagg, pictured here, while Sbail’s garden is in open Wadi Mathar, pictured at the top.

Kharaza is a small canyon carved by water in the granite massif, with water pools keeping water usually throughout the year.

Byzantine hermit cell close to a monastic settlement. In Byzantine times hundreds of monks and settlers lived in the high mountains.

Mulberry tree close to the hermit cell – as always, it is found outside of a garden on communal ground. There are eight of these ancient trees in the mountains.

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Wadi Zuweitin (Wadi Zawatin) The name Wadi Zuweitin is used for a number of adjoining locations, and it is a major junction with many beautiful gardens under the smooth granite massif of Gebel Abu Mahshur. Wadi Zuweitin has its name after the many ancient olive trees found here. There are nice views to Gebel Katharina all along. The area around Wadi Zuweitin, conveniently located to many sights in the larger high mountains area, is becoming a hub of renovated gardens serving as simple eco-lodges. The face of tourism has changed in the past decades; the number of large trekking groups has sharply decreased, and instead there are now smaller groups, couples and individuals. Partly for this reason many gardens are abandoned and only a few dedicated gardeners stay longer periods in the mountains, while younger people seek work in town. The area, however, is an ideal location for longer, relaxing stays, and more and more visitors come with this single purpose. Some gardens have been subtly upgraded to meet their requirements, and this trend, if continued, might save a thousand-year-old tradition. At the lower end is El Ehded (1), with ways either to Wadi Shagg (2) or Wadi Tubug (3). Most of the gardens are concentrated in the centre of the wadi, from where a zigzag pass takes you to Wadi Gibal (4). At the high end, after El Ziri (5), is the pass of Sharafat el Iskikriya (6) which leads to Gebel Abbas Pasha (7) or Wadi Tinya (8). The basins of Farsh Zagg (9) are located on the two sides of the wadi. Farsh Abu Mahshur (10) can also be reached from Wadi Zuweitin. The gardens of Saad Mahmoud and Mohamed Hashash are at the lower end, in El Ehded.

At the main junction there are many well looked after gardens, including of Umm Saad, Hmeid Abu Ghalaba and Hussein Abu Tarawa.

Above Wadi Zuweitin, on both sides, there are hidden basins with old Bedouin houses – both are called Farsh Zag.

The massive road built by Abbas Pasha to his palace runs through El Zirri, from where you can also go to the hidden basin of Farsh Mahshur.

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Gebel Abbas Pasha Located in the centre of the high mountains with stunning views all around, to the high mountains, the lowlands and to the town of St. Katherine with Gebel Musa (Mt. Sinai) towering above it. The unfinished palace of Abbas Pasha is on top. Hidden down from the summit is the basin of Farsh Abu Mahshur. “Abbas Pasha suffered from tuberculosis and planned to build a palace where he could recuperate in the healthy mountain air. He finally settled on this 2383m mountain then called Jebel Tiinya, apparently after placing meat on several summits and observing that it decayed slower on this mountain than on others. Another version of this story is that the monks told him that meat spoiled least here, in order to keep him away from Mount Sinai where he had originally intended to build his palace. Construction began in 1853, but in 1854 Abbas Pasha died. Work stopped, and the incomplete palace now stands abandoned on the summit; it is about 45 metres square and was to have been two stories high.” (Reference: National Parks of Egypt, Jebel Abbas Pasha) Gebel Abbas Pasha (1) is easily reached from the pass of Sharafat el Iskikriya (2), a saddle separating Wadi Zuweitin (3) from wadi Tinya (4). From the saddle you can continue to the high wadis of Wadi Gibal and Wadi Bulia (5) via Farsh Gdemiyet (6). From Wadi Zuweitin there is a more difficult route via the secluded basin of Farsh Abu Mahshur (7) and Gebel Abu Mahshur (8).

The massive walls of the unfinished palace of Abbas Pasha still stand firm. There is little shade and the best time to visit is either early in the morning or before sunset.

The view of the town of St Katherine with Gebel Musa (Mt. Sinai) towering over it – there are only a couple of places from where you can see the two together.

Farsh Abu Mahshur is a green, secluded basin in the smooth granite mass of Gebel Abu Mahshur. It is a small, closed ecosystem with rare and endangered species.

Sharafat el Iskikriya, the way to Gebel Abbas Pasha, divides two major wadis, and is also a way to the high mountain wadis via Farsh Gdemiyet, pictured here.

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Wadi Gibal Wadi Gibal is the name frequently used by local Bedouins to include the whole High Mountain region. The wadi itself, one of the longest, runs from Rehebit Nada all the way to Farsh Rummana. Along the way there are many beautiful gardens and the opportunity to explore Wadi Buleia and climb Gebel Umm Loz. Starting at Rehebit Nada, the flat, sandy plain above Wadi Zuweitin, the wadi stretches out in front of you towards the distant mountains. There is an old Bedouin cemetery here. A little down from the cemetry there is a big white stone, which is called Marazza. The rock is often found at different places as carrying it is a traditional way of showing off someone’s strength. People say a man had to carry it a certain distance before getting married. Rehebit Nada was also a meeting place, where people from the lower wadis and the upper wadis met and held traditional Bedouin celebrations, called dahiya. They performed group dances, in several groups according to age, with singing and clapping hands, men lined up against the women, moving back and forth. The tradition is still alive with some other tribes. Wadi Gibal starts at Rehebit Nada (1), above Wadi Zuweitin (2), and after a turn at Abu Gasaba (3) ends at Farsh Rummana (4). There is a way from Gebel Abbas Basha via Farsh Gdemiyet (5), reaching either Abu Jidda (6) or Wadi Buleia (7). Gebel Umm Loz (8) stretches from Wadi Buleia to the Aswad Eish pass (9), a short cut to Farsh Rummana. Two common ways to Bab el Donya are via Wadi Umm Siha (10) or Naqb Baharia (11). Wadi Talla Kibira (12), the way to Galt el Azraq, is further down. Wadi Gibal starts at the sandy plain of Rhebit Nada, pictured above. Close by is a small garden in a hidden basin above the wadi, developed by owner Farhan Mohamed Zidan.

Wadi Buleia is an adjoining Wadi at the foot of Gebel Umm Loz. There are good gardens in the area, belonging to Mohamed Abu Heb, Suliman Musa and Hussein Salah.

After Salem Faraj’s garden Wadi Gibal makes a sharp turn. The area is Abu Gasaba, with the ruins of a Byzantine chapel. It is also one of the starting points to Bab el Donya.

Farsh Rummana is a big open plain at the end of Wadi Gibal, with many gardens. There are also several big boulders and rock shelters.

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Bab el Dunya – Gebel Bab – Ein Nagila Bab el Dunya and Gebel Bab are two peaks of a longer range, on the perimeter of the high mountains. To the east there are spectacular views of lower ranges running towards the Gulf of Suez and in clear weather you can see across the sea. The spring of Ein Nagila is below the peaks. There are several look-out points atop the range. Names are used very differently in Arab culture then in the West; instead of a family name people wear their fathers’ and forefathers’ name. As an example, the father of Mohamed Musa Eid was Musa and his grandfather was Eid. The list can go on further and distant forefathers are remembered in lineage names, as the name of clans and tribes. Women also wear their fathers’ name. In day-to-day practice it is common to refer to people by their fathers’ name. In our case Abu Musa would be appropriate. However, people are also called by their eldest sons’ name; if someone has a son called Ahmed, he is called Abu Ahmed. According to Bedouin tradition it wasn’t allowed to say a married woman’s name in public, and a woman should be called by her eldest son’s name, for example Umm Saad, meaning Saad’s mother. Bab el Dunya (1) and Gebel Bab (2) are two peaks of a longer mountain range. There is a complex system of interconnected basins at the top, and several other peaks including Gebel Umm Gasba (3) and Ras Abu Alda (4). Close to the latter is Masba Abu Gharun (5), a dramatic look-out point, the name referring to resemblance of the rocks to that of the horns of the mountain goats. Naqb Umm Siha (6) and Naqb Bahriya (7) are the usual way, Wadi Zuweitar (8), connecting straight to Galt el Azraq, is less used. The ‘Goat’s horns’ of Masba Abu Gharun, one of several lookout points atop the range. Bab el Dunya, pictured at the top, means ‘Door to the World’, and refers to the views you get.

The spring of Ein Nagila drips from the mountain to a stone fountain, forming a little creek running through a series of shallow granite pools and disappearing in the sandy wadi floor.

Down from the spring of Ein Nagila is a ruined Byzantine church. Its elongated shape makes it different from most other Byzantine buildings found in the area.

The view descending towards Farsh Rummana via the steep and narrow gully of Naqb Baharia. There are other gullies either to Farsh Rummana or Wadi Talla Kibira.

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Wadi Talla Kibira – Galt el Azraq Wadi Talla Kibira is a long, steep and green valley, starting at Farsh Rummana and leading from the high mountains to lower wadis. Galt el Azraq, halfway down, is the biggest permanent pool in the region. After rainfall a creek runs along the wadi filling other pools as well. Sid Abu Hbeig is a lush area above boulders forming a natural dam, and the Berry Canyon, next to it, is another beautiful site. The name Galt el Azraq, despite azraq meaning blue in Arabic, actually means Black Pool in the Bedouin dialect. Aswad, black in Arabic, is not used, possibly for negative connotations associated with it. For blue some Bedouin use ahadar, which is also green. Others would describe it as suemi or bahari, meaning like the sky or the sea. Agabash means a group of deep colors. Also unique to their dialect is the way some strong colors are emphasized; the name of the color is followed by a variation of the same word. For example something very black would be azraq zaraq, very white abiad baiad or very yellow asfar safar.

Starting after Farsh Rummana (1) this steep, narrow and green wadi is one of the main drainage ways connecting the high mountains to the lowlands, with Galt el Azraq (2) around two thirds of the way up in the wadi. Wadi Zuweitar, starting around Bab el Donya (3), joins Wadi Talla Kibira at the narrow Berry Canyon (Nakika Betel) (4). Further down from the pool the wadi becomes wider and sandier and many Bedouin gardens with date palms are found. From the pool the usual way leads via Farsh Umm Sila (5). Located right after Farsh Rummana before the descent, Tbeq is a wide sandy area with many trees, abandoned gardens and boulders.

Soil and water is retained by big boulders at Sid Abu Hbeig, and in wetter times the area fills up and water cascades form. The name refers to habaq, the mountain wild mint.

A big boulder hangs over the Berry canyon, located just below Sid Abu Hbeig, stuck between vertical rock walls. It is difficult to pass the canyon, but there are alternative routes around it.

Galt el Azraq, the largest granite pool in the high mountain region, is full all year round, being fed by underground streams. It is up to 5 meters deep – only for swimmers.

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Wadi Abu Tuweita Wadi Abu Tweita consists of a flat, sandy upper part, located above Wadi Tinya, with several Bedouin gardens, and a long, steep and narrow gully. The later part of the wadi, called Naqb Abu Tuweita, is rarely visited, although there is a seasonal water fall and granite pools at the top and beautiful views towards the lowlands. Many of the older generation of Bedouin became masters of the art of grafting, a method of encouraging different plant tissues to fuse together. The native ‘wild fig’ proves to be an ideal host for the tastier but less drought-resistant ‘domestic fig’. When the ‘domestic fig’ is grafted to the ‘wild fig’ the resultant fruit is more succulent yet requires less irrigation, a very important factor in the desert. The Bedouin say that they learnt these techniques from the early Christian settlers. Another example is the use of the drough- resistant native Sinai hawthorn that has been used to graft several varieties of pears to it. One of these ‘pear’ trees can be seen in wadi Abu Tuweita. (Reference: Joseph Hobbs, 1995)

Located above Wadi Tinya (1), the garden of Saad in Abu Tuweita (2) is a convenient stopping point for treks as it connects Galt el Azraq (3), via Farsh Umm Sila (4), with Wadi Sagr (5), a beautiful little canyon, and the lower part of Wadi Tinya (6). Further down Wadi Abu Tweita becomes a steep and narrow gully, leading to Wadi Talla Kibira (7).

Wadi Abu Tuweita starts above Wadi Tinya, with nice views from the ridge over the wadi below.

Saad Salah’s garden is the only one looked after in Wadi Abu Tweita. It makes for a pleasant camp site.

Farsh Umm Sila is a basin little above Wadi Abu Tuweita. On the other side of the basin a steeper and longer path leads to Galt el Azraq.

Date palms cling to the rocky terrain in Naqb Abu Tweita, a steep and long gully running from the wadi, as it descends to the lower part of Wadi Talla Kibira.

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Wadi Tinya – Wadi Sagar – Gebel Naga Wadi Tinya is a long wadi, wide at the beginning then getting narrower, which leads down from the pass below Abbas Pasha and ends before the pools of Kharazet el Shaq. Abu Tuweita can be reached via a pass from the upper part of the wadi, while the canyon of Wadi Sagar, a dramatic sight, connects to the lower part. Gebel Naga, a half-day detour, literally stands above the lowlands. The Bedouin in the past protected nature by imposing a period, called helf, when grazing was not allowed. They might have placed a physical barrier such as a tree trunk at passes, like at Abu Jeefa, to symbolize the fact that it was forbidden to move up to higher ground. Around April or May, at the time of the setting of the apricot, the Bedouin sent scouts to the mountains to see if spring had arrived. If the scout returned, not saying a word but with green leaves around his head, people knew the restriction was over and moved up together with their animals. For the first month camels would be allowed to graze followed by sheep and goats.

Wadi Tinya begins at the pass of Sharafat el Iskikriya (1) below Gebel Abbas Basha (2). It descends from here to the pools of Karazet el Shaq (3). After the garden of Sharaha (4) there is a path leading up to Wadi Abu Tweita (5), which is also connected via Wadi Sagar (6). At the end of Wadi Tinya there are two ways (7) towards Gebel Naga, offering magnificent views of the plains to the north.

There are many gardens in the upper part, many of them damaged by a flash flood in 2006. The gardens of Sharaha and Ibrahim Salah cater for visitors.

The water in Wadi Sagar is always crystal clear as it is in motion, slowly overflowing the fountain, and also because mammals cannot reach it.

In the lower and narrower part of Wadi Tinya, at Wadi Sagar, the garden of Shob Farhan is the only looked-after place. He receives visitors in his other garden close by.

Gebel Naga, with views over the lowlands, can be approached from the end of Wadi Tinya – there are two ways, so a circuit can be made.

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Wadi Shagg Tinya – Kharazet el Shagg Wadi Shagg Tinya is a long and steep gully connecting high-mountain wadis to lower Wadi Itlah. The whole Wadi Tinya area, including part of Gebel Abbas Basha, drains through this single gully. There are overflowing granite pools at the very top, with one of them big enough for a dip. The gully itself is a good 1.5 hours steep descent or ascent. The unsightly black pipes that criss-cross the wadis throughout the high mountains are actually a vital contributor to the irrigation of the gardens. These pipes have made a significant difference as they have overcome the traditional need for gardens to be situated near to water sources. Previously irrigation channels were dug from wells to the gardens but, because of high rates of evaporation, these channels could only travel short distances. The pipes allow water to be carried much greater distances, frequently between wadis! This is particularly important when you consider that the number of usable wells has been constantly decreasing as the amount of rainfall has reduced. It isn’t all good news. These pipes have, in instances, diverted water away from areas of moist plant communities. (Reference: Joseph Hobbs, 1995) At the end of Wadi Tinya (1), Kharazet el Shagg (2) is right at the very top of Wadi Shagg Tinya, the long and steep gully which ends at a junction (3) of several wadis. Wadi Itlah (4) comes direct from the town of St. Katherine. Naqb Abu Sila (5) connects either to the settlement of Abu Sila (6), where the tarmac road starts back to town, or Naqb el Hawa (7), the descent to the settlement of Sheikh Awad. Wadi Ginab (8), continuing after Wadi Itlah, is another way to the lowland settlement. The long, steep and rocky Wadi Shagg Tinya starts up at the saddle and connects to wide and sandy Wadi Itlah far below at palm groves and gardens.

The pools are located at the very top, where Wadi Tinya connects to Wadi Shagg Tinya. There is always water in the main pool, and after rains other pools form below.

The view is dramatic all along the way, with some parts of the gully are deep and exposed. It is a long walk but worth the effort.

Since it drains water from a large area the force of flash floods sweeping through is enormous. Still, there are a couple of gardens manage to hold on, protected by massive walls.

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Wadi Ginab – Sheikh Ahmad – Wadi Madman (Wadi Madaman) The final stretches of two long wadis coming from the high mountains meet at the tomb of Sheikh Ahmad and lead onto the hilly lowlands a little further down. There are many palms along the way, and the last bit, draining a large part of the whole mountain region, is for the most part a dry river bed. In many places in Sinai you can see small white shrines, built over the tombs of holy sheikhs, and the location is usually named after the local holy man. The Bedouin still gather at some of these places at certain times, to offer sacrifice and ask the sheikh to intervene with God on their behalf. The practice, called zwara, is considered to be haram, sinful, by strict Muslims, although it is very deeply rooted in Islamic tradition. The very different, loud and colorful festival called moulid, present all the way from Morocco to the Middle East, is based on very similar origins. The main Jabaleya zwara in the past, lasting several days, was held at Nabi Harun, Nabi Salah and just outside the Monastery of St. Katherine. People attended with their families and herds and for three days moved together from one place to the other. Wadi Ginab starts at the Wadi ItlahWadi Shagg Tinya junction (1) and ends at Sheikh Ahmad (2), where Wadi Talla Kibira (3), coming from Wadi Gibal and passing Galt el Azraq, joins in. From here it is Wadi Madaman, which ends around the garden of Oda Abu Hder (4), shortly before the settlement of Sheikh Awad (5) and the lowlands. Wadi Rufeid (6) is the way towards Gebel Tarbush.

Wadi Itlah continues on as Wadi Ginab after the Wadi Shagg Tinya junction. There are many palms and seasonal water pools and cascades along the way.

Sheikh Ahmad, at the tomb of a holy man, is the junction where Wadi Talla Kibira joins in. It is located at the foot of Gebel Naga.

Wadi Madaman continues on after the junction of the two major waterways as a wide sandy wadi, littered with rocks and boulders.

At the end of Wadi Madaman, shortly before the settlement of Sheikh Awad, is Oda Abu Hder’s herbal garden.

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Wadi Raha – Naqb el Hawa – Sheikh Awad This area represents the old pilgrims’ route to St. Katherine’s Monastery. The wide and sandy plain of Wadi Raha, starting in town, leads to the settlement of Sheikh Awad via the long and steep pass of Naqb el Hawa. Sheikh Awad is located where the plains and the high mountains massif meet. Pilgrims have been coming to Mt Sinai for hundreds of years yet it has only been since the building of the tarmac roads that tourists have been able to arrive in comfort. Before then pilgrims faced an arduous journey across the sea and then up through the mountains. The traditional route taken by most pilgrims was from the north-west, up through Wadi Feiran and then continuing along Wadi ash-Shaykh. This is largely the route of the modern road. Just before reaching what is now the boundary of the St Katherine’s Protectorate, pilgrims would turn off at Sheikh Awad and then climb the beautiful gully of Naqb el Hawa (Pass of the Wind). As the gully flattens out the pilgrims would see the sandy plain of Wadi Raha stretching ahead, believed to have been the camping ground of the Israelites whilst Moses climbed the mountain. (Reference: Joseph Hobbs, 1995) Wadi Raha (1) starts in town opposite Wadi el Deir and leads to the settlement of Abu Sila (2). Naqb el Hawa starts here and finishes at the settlement of Sheikh Awad (3), passing the tomb of a local holy man (4). El Karm ecolodge (5) is actually at the end of Wadi Gharba. From Sheikh Awad the two common routes to Wadi Feiran and the northwest are either via Wadi Sahab (6) or Wadi Sulaf (7). Sheikh Awad can also be approached via Wadi Madaman (8), Wadi Freah (9) and Wadi Abu Zaituna (10), or, by car, from Tarfa village. Wadi Raha with the view of the Monastery and Gebel Safsafa. The Israelites are believed to have camped here whilst Moses climbed Mt Sinai.

After the settlement of Abu Seila the view opens up towards the lowlands and the path known as Naqb el Hawa descends to Sheikh Awad.

The tomb of Sheikh Awad is found at the end of the Naqb el Hawa pass, near the settlement of the same name. Sheikh Awad was a local holy man.

The El Karm ecolodge is found near to the settlement of Sheikh Awad, at the end of Wadi Gharba.

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Wadi Gharba – Sida Nugra – Gebel Banat Around the area of Sheikh Awad are several very interesting and beautiful points that can all easily be reached from Al Karm ecolodge. Wadi Gharba leads to Sida Nugra, where a high waterfall can flow after rainfall. There are small pools at the top. The peak of Gebel Banat, towering over the wadis, offers superb views of the whole high mountains region on one side and the lowlands on the other. Bedouin women traditionally tended to the herds of goats and sheep and collected firewood. Women would also use traditional embroidery skills to produce a variety of functional everyday items, such as sugar bags. In 1996 a project was created by elders of the Bedouin community to use these embroidery skills to create handicraft products for sale. They use authentic motifs to decorate the bags and have provided an income to over 400 Bedouin women from 4 different tribes. Although the Fansina project is the most famous of the handicraft centres, in most places you can buy small items directly from the women of the families you might visit.

The lower end of Wadi Gharba is at El Karm ecolodge (1) and it runs from the seasonal waterfall of Sida Nugra (2). Above the upper part of the waterfall is Wadi Nugra, which splits at point (3) leading to Bustan el Birka (4) and Wadi Abu Zaituna (5) or Wadi Tarkiba (6), from where the easiest climb starts to Gebel Banat (7). From the area, passing a ruined Byzantine church at Wadi Rumanet (8), there is a way to Wadi Freah (9).

The waterfall of Sida Nugra is almost 40 meters high, although water rarely flows today. The path to the upper part is located further down.

The water fall from top is an impressive view. There is often water in some of the granite pools at the top, as underground streams might feed it.

There are ways from Wadi Nugra, from the top end of the waterfall, to either Gebel Banat or Bustan el Birka.

Gebel Banat is on the outer perimeter of the High Mountains offering stunning views across the whole region.

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Farsh Faria (Wadi Freah) – Bustan el Birka – Wadi Abu Zaituna Bustan el Birka, forming one area with Farsh Faria (Wadi Freah) and Wadi Abu Zaituna, is a large open basin surrounded by distant ranges. There are many Byzantine ruins in the area. Gebel Sana is a long climb, but there are nice views of the Monastery, Gebel Musa (Mt. Sinai) and town. The persecution of Christians during Roman rule of Egypt led to many Egyptian Christians fleeing to the wild frontier of Sinai which was largely devoid of Roman garrisons. Many of these Christians lived in the mountains cultivating orchards in soil-filled basins. Later monks built small chapels in these areas to honour their devout predecessors and other holy figures. The ruins of many of these chapels can be seen throughout the high mountain area. Many of these chapels are found close to other Byzantine ruins of small settlements. The area around Bustan el Birka is where you can find the highest concentration of ruins, many of them in excellent condition. (Reference: Joseph Hobbs, 1995)

A pass from the settlement of Abu Sila (1) connects to Wadi Freah (2), where Mohamed Musa’s camel school is. To the left a path leads to a ruined church at Wadi Rumanet (3). Straight ahead it carries on to Bustan el Birka (4), where there are more Byzantine ruins. Another steep pass to the area leads from the settlement of Abu Zaituna (5), first to a sandy plain, then dropping into a narrow wadi (6) which runs until some abandoned gardens (7). Gebel Sana (8) looks over town, with more monastic ruins in Wadi Anshil el Ala (9). Wadi Freah can be approached from the settlement of Abu Sila via a short climb. Mohamed Musa’s camel school is the only garden at this point.

Bustan el Birka is a garden further up. Bustan ,means walled garden, Birka, means water tank. There is a mulberry tree next to the garden and a Bedouin cemetery.

Wadi Abu Zaituna is another way to the area, starting at a short pass above the settlement of Abu Zaituna, next to the main road leading to town.

There are a number of wadis connecting Wadi Abu Zeituna to the top of Gebel Sana, which has unique views of Gebel Musa (Mt. Sinai), the Monastery and town.

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Wadi Isbaiya – Wadi Sdud On the opposite side of Mt Sinai to the town of St Katherine lies Wadi Isbayiya, a long wadi running from the main road, with unique views of Gebel Musa (Mt. Sinai). It is an ancient route to El Tur, and also offers a gateway to the area of the Ulad Said Bedouin that includes the Blue Desert and Umm Shaumar areas. During Islamic rule, Egyptian rulers were charged with providing safe passage through Sinai for pilgrims traveling to Mecca. This route became known as the Darb el Hajj (The Pilgrims Road), cutting across the harsh interior via Nakhla in the centre and joining modern-day Suez with Eilat in Israel. Not only was this route used by pilgrims, but it was also an important trade route and several fortresses were built along it to provide protection. Apart from this major route there were many others crisscrossing the peninsula; Wadi Isbaiya, much further south, is part of another traditional route connecting the Monastery of St. Katherine to the port city of El Tur. (Reference: Sinai: The site and the history by Mursi Saad El Din, Ayman Taher, Luciano Romano)

Wadi Isbaiya branches off just before town (1) and an asphalt road leads to a Bedouin settlement (2). From here a dirt road, passing Darb el Arab ecolodge (3), carries on over a pass towards Wadi Rahaba. Gebel Deir (4) and Gebel Muneiga (5) separate Mt. Sinai (6) and the Monastery (7) from Wadi Isbaiya, both approachable over easy passes. From Wadi Sdud (8) there are different ways to the Blue Desert or Wadi Nasb.

Gebel el Dir, on the left, and Gebel Muneiga, right with the chapel on top, separate Wadi Isbaiya, running in the background, from Wadi el Deir and the Monastery.

Mount Sinai Ecolodge is at the upper end of Wadi Isbaiya, with views to Gebel Musa (Mt. Sinai), Gebel Muneiga, Gebel el Deir and the ancient pilgrims’ route.

Wadi Sdud, branching off from Wadi Isbaiya, is a narrow canyon at the mouth, but becomes wider and open further up, with ways either to the Blue Desert or Wadi Rahaba.

The Blue Desert can be approached from a number of dramatic ways starting from Wadi Isbaiya.

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South of St. Katherine: towards Sharm el Sheikh and El Tur

Main places: 1. Town of St. Katherine; 2. Blue Desert; 3. Ein Kid; 4. Gebel Thabt – Gebel Sabbah; 5. Nabq; 6. Sharm el Sheikh; 7. Gebel Umm Shaumar; 8. Wadi Isla; 9. El Tur city

West and south-west from St. Katherine is the homeland of the Ulad Said tribe, while to the south it is Muzeina territory. Not many operators offer treks in this region, and your best choice is to find one in the town of St. Katherine. Alternatively you can try to find an independent guide in town as the area is not controlled by any single tribe, clan or sheikh. This is one of the least visited, most remote and untouched wilderness in South Sinai, with rugged peaks and long winding rocky wadis. There are some smaller sandy-gravely plains, a few water sources and one oasis, but the majority of the area is made of granite and volcanic ranges, a complex system of long wadis and high passes. The major attractions are far apart and whichever way you go, it will take you a day or two between major sights. Still, there are some unique places; first, it offers a rare view on contemporary Bedouin life, as people here are by and large not in contact with tourists; then there are many archeological sites from Nabatean and Byzantine times including the monasteries of Rumhan and Antush; the oasis of Ein Kid is still very much like what an oasis used to be; from the peaks of Umm Shaumar, Thabt or Sabbah you will have a view on to the Gulf of Aqaba comparable only by Gebel Serbal at Wadi Feiran in the north-west; and the traditional pilgrim and merchant route through Wadi Isla, with a running creek at a narrow part, offers a dramatic ending as it opens up to the sandy plains at el Tur city. Going south, it is difficult to finish the trek exactly at Sharm el Sheikh city; the best option is to end the trek in Nabq protectorate, located just north of Sharm el Sheikh. From here you can actually walk in to the northern suburbs of the city. However, to get to Nabq from the interior means going through very long wadis towards the end – which ever way you choose – so a prearranged or spontaneous 4x4 or pick-up transfer is advised unless you are very serious about doing it all on foot.

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Blue Valley (Blue Desert) An open desert plain, encircled by rugged mountain ranges, made famous by having several outcrops and rock formations painted blue by Belgian artist Jean Verame to commemorate the peace agreement between Egypt and Israel. The Blue Desert is usually approached from the main road, on a day trip or as part of a Bedouin sunset dinner, but it can also easily be visited on foot or camel in a long day via a more scenic route. It is a large, open sandy plain at the start of several long wadis leading to lower ground. It is already far below the High Mountain range, and the views from the passes of Farsh Umm Qasyum or Wadi Abu Khseib are stunning. Boulders painted blue are scattered around a large area and you could spend hours walking around the basin. It is also a nice starting point for longer treks: towards the south-west to Wadi Rahaba, Gebel Umm Shaumar, Ein Kid and eventually to El Tur City or Sharm el Sheikh; or towards the east to Dahab or Nuweiba via Wadi Saal and then a sandstone desert area passing oases and canyons.

The Blue Desert (1) is located close to the town of St. Katherine (2) and the Monastery of St. Katherine (3). It is usually approached by a dirt road starting from the main asphalt road (4), just before the junction of the NuweibaDahab and El Tur-Suez roads (5). It can also be reached on foot or camel from Wadi Isbaiya (6) via Wadi Sdud (7) and Farsh Umm Qaysum (8).

The basin of the Blue Desert is close to the main road, and usually it is visited by cars. Sturdy mountain bikes might also work.

In the area is a hill painted blue, and the Bedouin actually call the area Jebel Mlaun – Blue Mountain.

It can be approached on foot from St Katherine via Wadi Sdud – pictured with Mt. Sinai and Mt. Katherine in the distance.

From the pass of Farsh Umm Qaysum or Wadi Abu Ksheib there are magnificent views to the sandy plain of the Blue Desert, located far below.

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Seil Rotok – Wadi Rahaba – Wadi Nasb Wadi Rahaba is a wide sandy plain with hills and Byzantine ruins, enclosed by long mountain ranges. Seil Rotok connects Mt. Katharina to the area, from where there are paths to different directions. There are several ruined nawamis buildings around Wadi Nasb. “The traditional Bedouin tents have to be easy to erect and dismantle, easy to maintain and repair, resistant to wind and rain and at the same time provide insulation from the sun and protection against the cold. Hair from black Arabian goats is used to make the wool for the tents which are known as Bait Al-Sha'ar, or 'House of Hair'. Women of the tribe weave wool into long strips that are then assembled to form the roof of the tent which is supported by poles and secured to the ground by ropes. To ensure good ventilation, the cloth is secured with loose stitches. Swelling with the rain, the fibers expand in order to keep the tent waterproof. Curtains are hung as surrounding walls and panels of material separate the interior space into different rooms: the majlis or maqad, which is the public space for receiving visitors, and the mahram, the private space for the family.”( Reference: R. A. Nicholson 1930) From St. Katherine (1) there is a way via Mt. Katharina (2) to Seil Rotok (3) and on to the Wadi Rahaba environmental centre (4). By car it is connected by an off-road track from Wadi Isbaiya (5), taking a turn at the Wadi Nasb junction (6). South of the centre there are Byzantine ruins (7). From Wadi Zawatina (8) there are different paths towards Gebel Umm Shaumar. From Hajar Kharas (9) you can descend towards Ein Kid. Wadi Nasb, after a Bedouin settlement (10), connects the area to wadis running towards Dahab. Seil Rotok is the narrow mouth of the wadi running from Mt. Katharina. It joins lower wadis running towards the south.

Camping, guides and camels might be arranged through Sheikh Ramadan, who lives with his family in a Bedouin tent close to the rarely used environmental center in Wadi Rahaba.

There are several Byzantine buildings in Wadi Rahaba next to the dirt road on the way towards Wadi Zawatina and Gebel Umm Shaumar.

Wadi Nasb, after a Bedouin settlement, suddenly becomes very narrow running between steep ranges. It connects to wadis running towards Dahab.

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Ein Kid The open and wide upper part of Wadi Kid closes up at one point, the wadi continuing through a narrow gap and over boulders blocking the way. The beautiful little oasis of Ein Kid with its many date palms is located there. It is rarely visited, quiet and pleasantly undeveloped. The long lower part of the wadi, leading to the main road, is accessible by vehicles. Although life has changed in many respects and most Bedouin now live in stone houses, the arrangement of living and communal spaces still reflects life in the traditional Bedouin tent. There is always a “sitting place” – the maqad – for the men and the guests, either in one room in the house or in the garden under a shady roof made of canes or palm leaves, or simply under a shady tree. Family and communal matters, involving the smaller or larger family or even the whole tribe, are discussed in the maqad. Communities have their own maqad, which is always open for guests. Even in modern stone houses there is often a fire place in the middle to make tea and coffee, which is offered to guests.

The oasis of Ein Kid (1) can be reached either from south of Gebel Abu Masaud (2), via Wadi Ahmar or Wadi Nakhara (3), or from north of it, via the Wadi Nasb settlement (4). Below the oasis Wadi Kid (5) continues on to the main road (6) leading from Dahab (7) to Sharm el Sheikh. Another way from the oasis, via Wadi Mageirat (8), carries on towards Ein Umm Saida, then Gebel Thabt and Gebel Sabbah or Gebel Umm Shaumar and Wadi Isla.

From Hajar Kharas, under the peaks of Gebel Abu Masaud and close to ruined nawamis buildings, the steep gullies of Wadi Ahmar or Wadi Nakhara lead down to the oasis of Ein Kid.

There is another way from Wadi Nasb, via Khalisat and Wadi Imlah. There are nawamis ruins in this area as well, as pictured here, at a pass.

The oasis of Ein Kid with Gebel Abu Arna, hiding Gebel Abu Masaud, dominating the view in the distance.

The wadi is accessible from the main Dahab-Sharm el Sheikh road by 4WDs, the track ending just before the oasis in a narrow gorge.

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Ein Umm Saida – Gebel Thabt – Gebel Sabbah The area, wedged between the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba at the tip of the peninsula, is a really remote, untouched and harsh region, with rugged mountains offering magnificent views. The long wadis to the south lead to the main road shortly before Sharm el Sheikh, and continue across it into the Nabq Protectorate. “Bedouin practices come from a detailed knowledge of the desert ecosystem. For example they can offer biologists a nearly complete basic inventory of their region’s plants, animals and other resources, distinguish between habitats, identify floral ranges, life cycles, and identify species with medicinal uses for man and animals, and the usefulness of a species as a source of fuel. Bedouin also have a good sense the extent to which an area can exploited without degrading it and diminishing its capacity to recover. The Bedouins' conservation practices preserve not only economic and aesthetic values, but also an entire way of life. Conservation of plants and animals is an expression of the nomads' deep-seated beliefs.” (Reference: UNDP Global Environment Facility) Ein Umm Saida (1) is at the crossroads connecting Ein Kid (2) to the top of Wadi Isla (3), and then on to the plain (4) at El Tur. Gebel Umm Shaumar (5) is in the area and can be reached via Wadi Rumhan. Gebel Thabt (6) and Gebel Sabbah (7) are a bit further south from the junction. There are many wadis running towards the main Dahab to Sharm el Sheikh road, draining water into the Nabq Protectorate (8), a little to the north of the suburbs of Sharm el Sheikh city (9) known also as Nabq. Ein Umm Saida is a natural spring at the upper part of long Wadi Mageirat, close to the pass connecting to either Gebel Umm Shaumar, Wadi Isla or Gebel Thabt.

Gebel Thabt, seen here from Wadi Yahamad to the east, is the highest point in the tip of the peninsula.

Gebel Sabbah, seen from Wadi Sabbah, is a bit south of Gebel Thabt and offers similar views to both sides of the peninsula.

To the west the wide sandy plains at El Tur city and the Gulf of Suez can bee seen, to the east long wadis running towards the Gulf of Aqaba.

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Nabq Protectorate One of the biggest protected area in South Sinai, starting from the waters in front of Dahab and stretching to Sharm el Sheikh. The southern end is a wide sandy flood plain at the foot of the mountains, with a unique ecosystem. This is the northernmost point where mangrove groves exist, along shallow lagoons and a coral reef. “The Naqb Protected Area contains many unique linked ecosystems, including coral reefs, seagrass beds, mangroves, salt marshes, brackish water oases and dunes covered by unique vegetation. There are also a variety of desert ecosystems including mountains, wadis, plains and stone/gravel desert. Nabq is home to 134 different flowering plants, six of which are endemic. There is also a good representation of fauna, e. g. gazelle, ibex, hyrax, reptiles and invertebrates. The importance of Nabq lies mostly with its extensive mangrove stands and unique dunes. The close proximity of desert and maritime environments create a very special flair and unique beauty.” Unfortunately the closeness of Sharm el Sheikh means a lot of pressure on the environment. (Reference: National Parks of Egypt, Nabq) The southern end of Nabq Protectorate is a large plain draining water through Wadi Khereizi (1), where there is a small settlement and an entrance. The Visitor Centre (2) is opposite the Maria Schröder wreck (3). There is another settlement (4), also at a lagoon and mangroves. At the northern suburb of Sharm el Sheikh (5) there is the other entrance. The Island of Tiran (6) is easily visible from everywhere. There are accessible paths from Wadi Kid (7) and Jebel Sabbah (8), via Wadi Yahamad (9) or Wadi Adawi (10). The flood plain at the coast with patches of arak trees stabilizing the sandy terrain.

The Visitor Centre, located along a small bay, has a good exhibition and a platform with a telescope to explore the area.

Mangroves in a shallow bay, with the ship wreck of Maria Schröder at the edge of the reef table a bit further out.

There are a number of cafeterias and simple accommodation along the coastal drive at different points.

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Wadi Rumhan – Deir Rumhan – Deir Antush The ruined Byzantine monasteries of Rumhan and Antush are important archeological sites, at the foot of mighty Gebel Umm Shaumar. Wadi Rumhan, with its gardens and water sources, is a convenient overnight stop in the area. There are two known Byzantine monasteries located in this area. Deir Rumhan is a large Byzantine complex that has a large central building that is believed to be a church. Greek inscriptions can be seen on some of the rocks. There are many orchards that surround the buildings that all would have been in operation when this complex was an important waystation for pilgrims on their way from El-Tor to Mt Sinai. On the other side of the saddle, Deir Antush is a church made from large rocks. Surrounding it are the remains of six hermit cells. This retreat was still operational as late as the 17th century. Also in this area are the remains of an early Islamic mosque. (Reference: SEAM ‘South Sinai Environment and Development profile’)

Wadi Rumhan starts at the saddle (1) between Gebel Umm Shaumar (2) and Gebel Abu Shajara (3), and continues on, below Gebel Rumhan (4), to the Wadi Isla junction (5). It is usually approached from Wadi Zawatina (6) above, descending via Naqb Breka and reaching the wadi close to the Monastery of Rumhan (7). The Monastery of Antush (8) is on the other side of the Umm Shaumar-Abu Shajara saddle.

The garden of Wadi Zawatina, after Wadi Rahaba, is how far cars can come – from here you can either descend to Wadi Rumhan or climb the pass to Gebel Umm Shaumar.

Naqb Breka is a steep gully, with some gardens along the way and the first vews of Gebel Umm Shaumar and Gebel Rumhan.

There are abandoned gardens in Wadi Rumhan, right under Gebel Umm Shaumar and Gebel Rumhan, and the ancient Deir Rumhan next to some more recent buildings.

The ancient Deir Antush is located on the other side of the Gebel Umm Shaumar-Gebel Abu Shajara pass.

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Gebel Umm Shaumar The second highest mountain in Egypt, standing on the perimeter of the rugged mountainous interior, with long wadis and smaller ranges running towards the sandy plain and the coast at El Tur city. In clear weather you can see across the Gulf of Suez to mountain ranges in another continent – Africa. One of the most important species of the mountains is the Nubian Ibex, a wild mountain goat species. “They are characteristic of rocky high mountain areas; the males can have magnificent horns. They are very alert and shy, with an astonishing ability to climb the steep wadi sides very quickly. They occur throughout the region, but are becoming very much rarer and are now officially endangered in the Sinai. One of the main priorities of the St. Katherine National Park is the conservation of this species.” The Bedouin used to hunt this animal and value its meat greatly, but most people understand today there are not enough of the Ibex to carry on with this tradition. Unfortunately poaching still occurs, especially in the more remote areas. (Reference: Semi Zalat – Francis Gilbert 1998) The peak of Gebel Umm Shaumar (1) can be reached via a saddle (2), either from Wadi Rumhan (3) or via Gebel Abu Shagara (4). Wadis starting north of the saddle connect to Wadi Kharita (5) which will lead eventually to the plain at El Tur city. Wadi Shidq (6) and Wadi Imlaha (7) are steep gullies descending from the Umm Shaumar range straight to the sandy plain.

View of Gebel Umm Shaumar from the coast at El Tur city, with the wide sandy plain at the foot of the mountain range.

The mountain is located right above the Bedouin gardens of Wadi Rumhan but also accessible from Wadi Zawatina via Gebel Abu Shajara.

At the upper end of Wadi Rumhan, from the saddle stretching between Gebel Abu Shajara and Gebel Umm Shaumar, starts the climb.

From the summit there are superb views to the coast at el Tur and the Gulf of Aqaba, the mountainous interior on the other side and as far as the Saudi ranges.

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Seil Muajed – Wadi Isla Seil Muajed is a long, steep and in places a tricky gully leading from the Umm Shaumar range to the lower-lying Wadi Isla. The long and winding Wadi Isla becomes narrow and lush towards the end, with many date palms, canes, trees and a creek disappearing through a famous precipitous gorge. The sight of the plain from the very end is also very dramatic. El Tur city, the capital of South Sinai, has a history that dates back to pharonic times when it was known as Raithu and was an important port for Sinai’s large mineral deposits. In the foothills, near the old port, is the monastery of Raithu, built by emperor Justinian, the emperor who also commissioned the building of St Katherine’s monastery. The ruins of el-Kilani lie next to the monastery and date from Byzantine times. On the outskirts of town is Moses bath. This is where Moses asked a local woman for water and, when she denied him, he asked God to make the water undrinkable. The water here comes from a hot spring, and thus is indeed undrinkable, but fortunately is perfect for bathing in! The name el Tur also refers to Mt. Sinai or the Sinai mountains in general. Wadi Isla starts at a junction (1), with paths to Gebel Thabt (2), Ein Umm Saida (3), Wadi Rahaba (4) and Wadi Rumhan (5). It ends at the sandy plain of El Qaa(6) stretching across from the city of El Tur (7). The steep gully of Wadi Muajed starts from Gebel Rumhan (8) and connects to Wadi Isla at the lower part (9), shortly above the gorge with the creek and canes.

Wadi Muajed, a very long and steep gully leading to the coast, starts at the saddle between Gebel Rumhan and Gebel Umm Shaumar.

Wadi Muajed connects to Wadi Isla at the lower part, which is more lush then the upper part of the wadi.

Further down the presence of water becomes more visible – there are ponds, creeks, bamboos and thick vegetation.

Towards the end of Wadi Isla there is a narrow gorge with a small creek flowing through it. The entrance to the coastal plains is about an hour from here.

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East of St. Katherine: towards Nuweiba and Dahab

Main places: 1. Town of St. Katherine; 2. Gebel Guna; 3. Zigzag Canyon; 4. Arada Canyon; 5. Gebel Matamir – Nawamis; 6. Gebel Birqa – Haduda sand dune; 7. Ein Khudra – White Canyon – Closed Canyon; 8. Gebel Mileihis; 9. Nuweiba; 10. Ras Abu Gallum; 11. Dahab.

The area east of St. Katherine is a very diverse region, with rocky mountain wadis, sandy desert plains, sand dunes, sandstone rock formations and secluded oases. The area is home to the Muzeina Bedouin, the biggest South Sinai tribe. Here there is no tribal system and you can choose your operator, guide and camels freely. The exceptions are Arada Canyon and the White Canyon where taking a guide is required, unless your trek is part of a longer one and you already have a Bedouin guide. Several places are quite popular and many companies and individuals offer treks, but to have a good experience make sure you are going with a Bedouin-run operator or one that works closely with them. Along the main St. Katherine to Nuweiba/Dahab road there are cafeterias and camel stations from where you can get a guide and camels straight from the community. Coming from St. Katherine, the first is at Wadi Arada, then there is a new camel station at the Nawamis settlement, a bit further down is Cafeteria Joma, and, after the UN outpost at Ras Ghazala, is Sheikh Hemeid and a few independent cafeterias. It is possible to walk from St. Katherine all the way to the sea, although the first and last stretches of the trek might not be as spectacular as some other places. The main routes are going either north or south of the asphalt road and if you want to see all the best places you will have to criss-cross it a number of times. Wadi Zagra and Wadi Nasb would take you straight to Dahab but the more interesting locations are a bit further away. An interesting route would be to start at Faranja or Shegera some 20-30 kms after St. Katherine, visiting the Guna plateau and the canyons at its base, then the ancient Nawamis site and the magical fine sand desert dotted with sandstone formations and dunes further east. You could finish at the hidden oasis of Ein Khudra, or go on from here to the Ras Abu Gallum protectorate located just north of Dahab on the coast; or, you could carry on to the territories of the Tarabin tribe to the north and reach the coast around Nuweiba and Taba via another spectacular way.

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Gebel Guna A long, flat mountain range separating two main wadis, from which gullies descend to all directions. From the rim of the plateau there are stunning views of the sand desert around dotted with sandstone outcrops and distant rugged ranges, including Mt. Katherina. Several canyons are located at its base. Walking around the rim of the Guna plateau and looking down to different directions gives a good idea of the geographical and geological features of Sinai. To the north lies the extensive limestone plateau of Tih, which is separated from the southern portion of the peninsula by a broad belt of sand. The south is mostly composed of granitic and sandstone rocks. The high mountains region in the distance towards the south-west is mostly made of granite (app. 80%) as well as some volcanic rocks formed of magma which erupted to the earth's surface and cooled quickly. To the south lies a dominantly sandstone area of which the Guna range is also part, with its characteristic sandstone hills and rock formations located in sandy plains and wadis formed as a result of erosion. The Gunna range starts at the settlement of Shgera (1) and runs parallel to the main St. Katherine to Nuweiba-Dahab road, all the way to the Naqb Ghilim and Wadi Rum junction (2). It can also be climbed from Naqb Abu Tureifiya (3), next to Zigzag Canyon, as well as from Arada Canyon (4), located close to the Wadi Arada settlement (5). North of the range runs Wadi Arda (6) and Wadi Zalaqa (7), both joining Wadi Zaranik (8) and leading on to Tarabin territories around Nuweiba. Treks often start at Shgera settlement, either running north to Wadi Zalaqa or climbing the Gunna range and continuing atop.

At certain places the layered sandstone reveals many stripes of different colours caused by various mineral deposits.

There are many fossils on the top suggesting the area has been a sea bed at one stage.

There are stunning views to the eastern sandy plain dotted with rock outcrops and the distant rugged mountain range of the high mountain region.

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Zigzag Canyon A narrow sandstone canyon zigzags between vertical sandstone walls, at the foot of the Gunna range. Not as spectacular as many other canyon, but very easy and accessible – no climbing is involved and it is located close to the main road. An important part of Bedouin culture is the drinking of tea, to such an extent that the Bedouin are adept at making tea almost anywhere. In the desert, where resources are extremely limited, an old tin can, called della, is often used as a kettle. The thin metal makes this perfect as it means that less heat is required to boil the water, therefore less wood is needed to burn. Making tea in this way means that only a small, dead shrub is burnt to create enough heat to boil the water. Frequently these tin cans are left around the desert for the next passer-by to use, along with other seemingly useless items, such as a burnt metal sheet, called saaj or shaz, to bake bread.

The Zigzag Canyon (1), overlooking Wadi Marra (2), is 2 kms from the main road in the sandy mouth of a gully running down from the Gunna range. A common way to climb to the top of the Gunna range is via Naqb Abu Tureifiya (3). The path leaves the sandy wadi floor at one point (4) and the climb starts. You can also walk to Arada Canyon via Wadi Abu Hamaita (5). There is a cafeteria at the junction (6) to Wadi Saal settlement a little further down along the main road. The canyon is located in the sandy mouth of one of the many gullies running from the Gunna range to all directions.

The canyon was carved by run-off rain water into the foot of the sandstone range.

The sandy floor runs between vertical rock walls and impressive rock formations.

The mouth of the canyon opens to a wide sandy plain and Wadi Marra, with many acacia trees, beyond in the distance.

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Naqb Arada (Wadi Arada) A wadi running from the Gunna range and leading to a settlement and camel station along the main road. There is a maze of sandy wadis and surrealistic sandstone rock formations, ancient inscriptions as well as Arada Canyon in the area. Confusingly there is Wadi Arda on the other side of the Gunna range. “The social and political units among the Arabian nomads were groups of varying sizes. Western writers usually refer to these as 'tribes' or, in the case of the smaller groups and subdivisions, 'sub-tribes' and 'clans', but those terms do not correspond exactly to Arabic terms. There are a number of words in Arabic for such social and political units, but the commonest usage is to refer to a tribe or clan simply as 'the sons of so and-so'.� The groups are often named after a distant ancestor or his nickname. Awlad (Ulad) means sons of -, Abu means father and refers to the forefather. A Sinai Bedouin tribe is typically divided into four or five larger groups, and within these there are other smaller groups. In case of disputes solution is sought at the lowest neutral level. (Reference: R. A. Nicholson 1930) Wadi Arada starts from Naqb Arada at the foot of the Gunna range, where the Arada Canyon (1) is located, and leads to a roadside settlement (2). The settlement is shortly after the Wadi Saal junction (3). The settlement is about 5.5 kms from Arada Canyon, passing the rock formations at El Hedd (4) and rocks with ancient inscriptions near Wadi Abu Hamaita (5). From the settlement to the south starts Wadi Jinaa (6), leading to Bier Safra via the Duna (7), or to Gebel Matamir to the north-east (8). There are many impressive rock formations in the area.

Ancient inscriptions and images of camels are carved on some of the rocks.

Sand dunes and sandstone outcrops in Wadi Abu Hamaita, which is also one way to the Zigzag Canyon.

There is a small camp and station at the road side settlement, run by Freej, from where guides and camels can be organized.

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Arada Canyon There are actually two canyons, branching off from the same entrance and connected via a small plateau, forming a circuit. It involves some climbing and little help might be needed at tricky parts. Its entrance is located in a secluded sandy stretch of a gully. When you look around the numerous popular sites that are usually accessed by 4x4 tourists you will notice a huge number of graffiti as visitors leave a permanent reminder of their time at the spot. In the past these areas were far harder to visit for tourists, and those who did take the effort were usually those conscientious tourists who appreciated the beauty of the area. With the ever-increasing popularity of 4x4 day excursions from Sharm and Dahab there is a growing need to educate visitors as to their responsibilities. Rock inscriptions from as far back as Byzantine times can be found all over the region and the enjoyment of these should not be tempered by graffiti stating “Johny woz here”. Please remember, and warn other if necessary, to take nothing but photographs, and to leave nothing but footprints. The entrance is in the sandy mouth of a small wadi (1) from which the two canyons (2) branch off. North from the entrance (3), going different directions, there are paths to the top of the Gunna range. The sandstone formations and dunes of Wadi Abu Hamaita (4) to the south are noticeable landmarks, and you can walk to Zigzag Canyon from here. There are rocks with ancient inscriptions (5) nearby.

The entrance to the northern canyon, running between steep walls.

Some climbing is involved at various points.

The northern and southern branches of Arada Canyon are connected via a small plateau.

In the southern canyon there are some trickier parts – most people can make it but a short rope can come helpful.

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Bier Safra A well, with clean water, in the desert at the crossing of main routes connecting many sights. The rock formation and sand dune at the Duna are a short distance away and clearly visible. A new garden is being developed to provide a pleasant stop. In several strategic areas in the lower desert region, towards the coast, you can see large black dams that have recently been completed to reduce the problem of flash flooding. Although it seems hard to believe, on average once every 5 or 6 years larger-than-average seasonal rainfall will create flash floods which head towards the sea. When these flood waters combine the effect can be devastating. In 2000 the beach resort of Dahab suffered serious damage from one of these floods. The purpose of these new dams is to stop significant amounts of surface runoff water, thus preventing the floods from combining from several wadis.

Bier Safra (1) is on the main route from Wadi Saal (2). It is also connected to the Wadi Arada road-side settlement (3) via Wadi Jinaa, to Gebel Matamir (4), the round outcrop of El Kiri (5) and the Gebel Barqa range (6). The Duna (7), a high sand dune forming a saddle between an outcrop and a range, is 2 kms away and clearly visible from Bier Safra.

A garden with olive trees and date palms is being developed by Sheikh Hmeid at a new well.

A dam has recently been constructed close by, blocking a wadi – it is a necessary preventative action to protect areas further below.

The Duna (Dunat Safra) is 2 kms away, and clearly visible, from Bier Safra.

The Duna is a high sand dune next to an interesting rock formation.

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Nawamis Site Mysterious prehistoric stone buildings, dating back to the Copper Stone Age (4000-3150 BC), which are only found in South Sinai, in several areas. They are believed to be ritual burial chambers, always located at elevated points and facing west. This is the biggest and best-preserved site. The purpose of the ancient nawamis buildings remains a mystery, although it is often claimed they are burial chambers. Inside archaeologists have unearthed shell bracelets, colored beads, flint tools, tiny jugs as well as bone and copper tools. These items might be funeral offerings. However no human bones have been found. The buildings, always located at elevated points and facing west, are between 2 to 2.5 m high and 3 to 6 m in diameter, circular, with thick inward-leaning walls built of flat rock slabs and roofs made of rock slates and covered with sand. At the Nawamis site, close to the main road, there are more than 30 buildings and they are all in excellent condition. The name comes from the Arabic word for mosquitoes, as the Bedouin believe the buildings were built at windy places to provide protection against insects. The Nawamis site (1) is not visible from the main road, although there is a dirt road (2) leading to it. The wadi leading to Gebel Matamir (3) starts shortly after the Nawamis site. There is a Bedouin settlement (4) close by and the cafeteria at Hajar Maktub (5), where you can hire a guide or camels if needed. Opposite the nawamis, across the road, there is the start to Naqb Ghilim (6), leading to Gebel Gunna, and Wadi Rum (7), leading to Ein Khudra the long way. The short way is from the Ein Khudra pass (8), across the plain. The doors of nawamis, built with massive rock slabs, are always facing West.

Nawamis are always located at elevated points – at passes, on wadi banks, or as here, on rocky outcrops.

There is a new community school and camel station at Nawamis – pictured with the sandstone ranges of Gebel Matamir in the distance.

Approaching the nawamis site from the roadside settlement – camels are an option, especially if you venture beyond.

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Gebel Matamir A group of elongated sandstone hills, rising from a sandy plain and separated by wadis. There are steep sand dunes running from some parts of the mountains. From the peaks of Gebel Matamir there are farreaching views of the sand desert and distant high mountain ranges. Modernity has had a huge impact upon Bedouin society with people craving the latest mobile phone technology just like elsewhere in the world. However, despite this desire for the latest technology the camel is still a sign of prestige. The camel is the perfect animal for use in the desert. Its ability to endure greater temperatures without sweating allow it to go for long periods without water (camels do not store water in their humps!). Camel milk was an important part of the diet for many Bedouins due to its greater protein content than cow’s milk. Bedouins also believe that the milk contains medicinal value if the camel’s diet consists of certain plants – and camels let out to graze in the wild eat from all available medicinal herbs. Camels roaming the desert alone are not wild or feral animals and they all belong to someone. A mark on the neck, called wasm, is the sign of the tribe and the owner. Although Gebel Matamir (1) runs parallel to the main road, it is best approached from the Nawamis site (2). There are a number of paths leading to the top from the main sandy wadi (3), but do not climb without a guide. Continuing in the wadi you would get to Wadi Jinaa (4) and then on to either Wadi Arada or Bier Safra. Another way leads to El Kiri (5), marked by a big, round outcrop, and then on to the Gebel Barqa range.

The path to one of the peaks of Gebel Matamir starts under a hanging rock.

Half way up there are secluded sandy basins, with steep gullies running from them.

Towards the east you can sea the entire sand plateau with other sandstone ranges rising from it.

To the south, in the far distance, rugged peaks line the horizon.

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Gebel Barqa – Gebel Maharum The popular sandstone formation of Gebel Maharum, with a hole cutting through it, is only one of the many curious rock formations and hills that the sandstone range of Gebel Barqa offers. There are also many small caves, sand dunes and rock formations offering stunning views from the top. Bedouin time is centered around the five prayers of the day – dawn, mid day, afternoon, sunset and evening – and observant guides will always stop at these times. It is part of the Five Pillars of Islam, which refers to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. These duties are; 1) shahadah, the profession of faith declaring that there is no God but God and that Mohamed was his prophet; 2) Salat, the requirement to pray five times a day facing towards the Kaaba in Mecca. The times for prayers are dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset and night; 3) Zakat, the giving of 2.5% of your yearly income by those who can afford to do so; 4) Sawm, fasting during the month of Ramadan; 5) Hajj, every ablebodied Muslim is required to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime. The Gebel Barqa range consists of three groups of large sandstone outcrops, from the southern tip (1) to the northern (2) stretching more than 5 kms. Gebel Maharum (3) is a smaller hill close to the Haduda Sand Dune (4). The area can be conveniently reached from Wadi Saal via Bier Safra (5), Wadi Arada (6), the Nawamis site (7), the Hajar Maktub cafeteria (8) and Ras Ghazala (9).

Steep sand dunes and rock formations are found in the gullies and wadis separating the hills.

There are many caves, holes and cracks around the range, caused by wind, fine sand and rain.

Several of the caves were walled up and used as store rooms by the Bedouin.

Gebel Maharum is popular with groups arriving on 4WDs. There are other more secluded places in the area if you want guaranteed peace and quiet.

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Haduda Sand Dune The high sand plateau around Gebel Barqa suddenly comes to an end at Haduda Sand Dune, where it drops steeply about 150 meters to a rocky wadi running towards the coast. Magnificent views, but also a place to have fun and get sand all over you! “Between clansmen, verbal tongue-lashing was usually sufficient to ensure compliance, with agreements, but in the event there is conflict over land or usufruct rights the "Sheikh" or tribal leader resolves disputes both within the tribe and represents the tribe in disputes with other tribes. A "Haseeb" is selected to represent each party in the dispute.” Decisions in important matters are made at tribal gatherings called Majlis (note the word is also used for the sitting room) with the participation of all and are based on consensus. At these gatherings “all might speak, but most weight is attached to the words of men of recognised authority.” “It is interesting to note that Bedouins are relatively powerless to discipline non-Bedouin offenders, and this has important implications on resource use in St Katherine's Protectorate with immigration into the area.” (Reference: UNDP Global Environment Facility) Haduda Sand Dune (1) can be reached from Gebel Maharum (2) across a sandy plateau. From the bottom of the dune (3) you can carry on straight to the Dahab road (4) or turn north (5) and continue on towards Ras Ghazala. To carry on to Dahab via Ras Abu Galum, you have to climb a steep pass, starting right opposite a big dam (6). This will lead you to lower wadis (7) towards Wadi Risasa and the coast.

You can go all the way down to the bottom of the dune, it’s fun – but remember it is a long climb back up!

The Gebel Barqa range, as seen looking back from Haduda Sand Dune.

The steep slope of the sand dune drops to narrow wadis running towards the coast.

The lower part of the sand dune, seen from the beginning of the rocky wadi below.

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Wadi Rum The bigger stretch of the wadi, located between the Nawamis site and Wadi Khudra, is wide, long and sandy, with many interesting outcrops. The other part is narrow and winding, descending between vertical walls over dry rock pools filled with sand. There is a short pass leading to a look-out point over the oasis of Ein Khudra and a gully descending to it. Especially in the lower part of the wadi there are very distinctive stripes crisscrossing the rock walls. They are dykes, “volcanic rock intrusions which sometimes stretch for kilometers and can be many metres in width. Dykes are usually a darker red or grey colour than the surrounding rock and are more permeable to water than the harder granite. Underground springs are more likely tapped here than anywhere else. Plants grow more easily along dykes and animals congregate to feed and take shelter here. Bedouin refer to the dykes as "jidda", meaning grandmother – the nurturer, the nourisher.” Although more notable in granite ranges, you can see dykes of different size, rock type and color in virtually every single wadi throughout the Sinai. (Reference: National Parks of Egypt) Wadi Rum can be approached from the main road opposite the Nawamis site (1), passing first a desert plain with a rock outcrop looking like the Sphinx (2). Along the way in the wide and sandy wadi is Umm Serabit (3), a curious rock tower. At one point the wadi splits (4); one stretch is going to the pass (5) which leads to look-out points over the oasis of Ein Khudra (6) and a gully descending to it; the other stretch, narrow and winding, continues on to Wadi Khudra (7), and the way to the Closed Canyon (8). There is a rock outcrop at the sandy mouth of Wadi Rum, which looks similar to the Sphinx in Cairo!

Umm Serabit is a massive rock tower at the intersection of two wadis.

There is a gully connecting the oasis of Ein Khudra to Wadi Rum, with beautiful views from the top to the oasis and the surroundings.

The stretch of Wadi Rum leading to Wadi Khudra is narrow and winding, with dried out seasonal pools and water cascades.

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Ein Khudra Ein Khudra, meaning Green Spring, is a picturesque oasis with gardens and date palms, encircled by steep mountain ranges and vertical cliffs. It is very easy to reach from the main road. There are springs here – one of them is in a small cave, another overflowing from a fountain – which sustain a number of gardens. There are also ruins of archeological interest in the area. The easiest way to get to the oasis, inhabited by a few families, is via the Ein Khudra pass. There is a cafeteria along the main road from where it is a half-hour walk across a sandy plateau to the pass. One of the curious sandstone outcrops along the walk is Hajar Maktub, on which inscriptions have been carved by different ancient civilizations. About 15 minutes north of the pass there are two ruined buildings, which is the site of the Byzantine monastery of Deir Ein Khudra. It is another half-hour walk down to the oasis from the pass. An alternative route leads via the White Canyon. The roadside cafeteria is known as Cafeteria Joma, and the area is also referred to as Hajar Maktub, Sharafat Ein Khudra (Ein Khudra Pass) or Balakona. The local name of the pass is El Gayby Shee. One way to the oasis of Ein Khudra (1) is from a roadside cafeteria (2) at a sandy plateau, either via the pass of Ein Khudra (3) or the White Canyon (4). The later can be reached via Majaza (5) as well. Another way to the oasis is from a high pass above (6), a shortcut from Wadi Rum. These routes are only accessible on foot. 4WDs arrive via Wadi Khudra (7).

There is a cafeteria right next to the road, and guides and camels can be organized here.

From the main road a 15-minutes walk will take you to Hajar Maktub, the Rock of the Inscriptions. The pass down to Ein Khudra, is a bit further along.

Natural springs feed the oasis, like this one in a small cave. Local people, animals and plants solely depend on them.

There are small gardens in the oasis with vegetables and flowers, but the most important plant is the date.

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White Canyon Starting as a crack at the edge of a sand plateau, it is a narrow sandstone canyon, opening to a wider wadi and leading to the oasis of Ein Khudra. A little climbing is involved. “Pastoral nomads are widely regarded as being uninterested in protecting their natural resources. While they may inadvertently be in balance with their environment as long as pastures are plentiful, they make no effort to safeguard resources during times of stress, or to ensure that future generation will enjoy what nature provides. However investigation of their life style, culture, customs and traditions especially regarding their use of plants and animals suggest the opposite conclusion; traditionally pastoral nomads are protective of their environment and work to maintain a balance between themselves, their herds, and the availability of wild resources. Attitudes towards resource management do consider future impacts of present actions.� (Reference: UNDP Global Environment Facility)

The White Canyon starts at a cafeteria at the edge of a sandy plateau (1), close to the Ein Khudra pass (2), and ends at the upper end of the oasis of Ein Khudra (3). It can be visited in reverse, starting in the oasis and finishing at the plateau. There is another way, connecting the canyon to Ras Ghazala via Majaza (4).

Some climbing is involved, but with some help if necessary, anybody can do it.

At some points the canyon becomes really narrow, winding between vertical sandstone walls.

The top of the canyon is connected to a sand plateau by a ladder.

There is a cafeteria at the plateau, from which the canyon starts.

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Wadi Khudra – Closed Canyon – Mushroom Rock A long and sandy wadi leading to Ein Khudra, the way for 4WDs coming from Ras Ghazala or Nuweiba, with the Closed Canyon branching off from it at one point and a large mushroom shaped rock at another end. The Closed Canyon is very impressive, running extremely narrowly between very high walls. With great distances of long sandy wadis It is very easy to forget that the sand ecosystems found in South Sinai are in a very delicate balance. If you make just one step off the car trails you will notice that much of the sand has a firm crust which prevents sand shifting. Plants living in the sand might appear dry and dead but with new rains would burst back to life. Their extensive root system, as well as a diverse range of animals living in the sand, is disrupted by reckless off-road driving and it is also the responsibility of passengers to avoid this happening and warn the driver if necessary. With the popularity of jeep safaris there is a need to make sure they are conducted as responsibly as possible, keeping to recognized trails, so as to minimize the impact on the delicate sand ecosystems. Wadi Khudra starts at the lower end of the oasis of Ein Khudra (1) and joins Wadi Ghazala (2), coming from the direction of Ras Ghazala (3). Carrying on in this direction leads to Ein El Furtaga, the Tarabin canyons and Nuweiba. The Mushroom Rock (4) is close to the pass from where 4WDs arrive to Ein Khudra. The Closed Canyon (5) is at the end of a wadi, branching off from Wadi Khudra opposite the mouth of Wadi Rum (6). The flat top of Gebel Mileihis (7) is visible from many places. At the entrance of the wadi leading to the Closed Canyon there is a sandstone outcrop with a sand dune.

The beginning of the canyon – it is still relatively wide, but later it gets very narrow.

The canyon widens up but is closed at the very end by unscalable vertical walls.

Another attraction in Wadi Khudra is a rock known as Mushroom Rock..

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Gebel Mileihis – Wadi Disco Gebel Mileihis is a flat sandstone mountain towering over the desert, with views as far as the sea at Nuweiba. There is a spring with date palms, Moyat Mileihis, at its foot in a tranquil setting. Wadi Disco, named after the Bedouin parties held here, is a small settlement close to the mountain. Across the Sinai runs a major tribal division line, stretching roughly from Nuweiba to Ras Sudr and dividing the Sinai Bedouin to two major groups. The Tiyaha or “People of the Plateau of Wandering” and the Tuwara or “People of el Tur”, referring to the Sinai mountains. “Borders are well known to tribesmen, though they generally do not prevent movement of individuals or groups in the area. Grazing and water resources are available to all tribes through inter-tribal agreement. Under traditional law individuals who discover new water sources are able to settle next to it, so long as it is in his tribal area, however he would not be allowed to prohibit use of the water by others. Individuals can however have the rights to exclusively cultivate an area of land, but the viability of this is dependent on the availability of the water.” (References: Hobbs, 1995, UNDP Global Environment Facility) Gebel Milehis (1) is easily visible across the main road from Ras Ghazala (2), about 5.5 kms to the south. Wadi Disco (3) is shortly before the mountain. The oasis of Ein Khudra (4) is a close by destination. The city of Nuweiba (5) can be easily reached from here via Wadi Samghi (6), or via a longer route including other sites, through Wadi Ghazala (7).

There are many shady acacias in Wadi Disco, a small Bedouin settlement before Gebel Mileihis.

The view from the top towards the sand desert with the sandstone mountain ranges is stunning.

To the north-east you can see the Gulf of Aqaba at Nuweiba.

The sandy plain opposite Ras Ghazala, with the flat Gebel Mileihis dominating the view.

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Ras Ghazala A sandstone hill with camel stations and cafeterias along the main road, shortly before the Nuweiba and Dahab fork – it is easily recognizable by an upturned rusty truck with a smiley face painted on it, on the top of a rock formation. The signing of the Camp David peace accord between Egypt and Israel in 1979 placed an emphasis on the importance of peacekeepers for the Sinai peninsula, the site for five wars between the two countries since 1948. However, the two sides also recognized that Russia and other Arab states would oppose the deployment of the familiar blue helmets of the United Nations peacekeepers. With American help the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO), an independent peacekeeping force, came into being. A total of 1,700 troops, from 11 different countries, sporting the distinctive orange beret of the MFO were deployed at 35 outposts around Sinai. One of these outposts can be seen at Ras Ghazala. As anywhere else in the world, do not take photos of military objects. (Reference: www.america.gov/st/peacesec-english)

Ras Ghazala (1) is the last camel station along the St. Katherine to NuweibaDahab road, shortly before the threeway junction (2). Safaris can be organized from here to Gebel Mileihis (3), Ein Khudra (4), the Nawamis site (5), Gebel Barqa (6) and Haduda sand dune (7). The pass to Wadi Risasa (8), leading to the coastal national park of Ras Abu Galum at Dahab, can also be reached. To the north Wadi Samghi (9) is the shortest way to Nuweiba.

The sandstone rock formation, with the truck on top, is located right along the main road.

There are cool rooms carved in the soft rock, serving as store rooms.

There are other camel stations and cafeterias, shortly before and after the main stop.

The National Park’s environmental station, funded by the EU and equipped with hi- tech eco facilities, stands empty and unused.

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Wadi Risasa – Bier Uqda – Ras Abu Gallum A long wadi with a spectacular ending at the sea at the national park of Ras Abu Galum. It is one of the main ways from the interior to Dahab. Bier Uqda is an abandoned settlement with fresh water, shortly before the wadi becomes narrow and winding. Ras Abu Gallum is a protected area of approximately 500 km2 that is famous for its combination of mountains, wadis, reefs and freshwater springs. It is home to 167 plant species, 45 of which are unique to Ras Abu Gallum. The area was declared a protectorate in 1992 and since then work has taken place to preserve the environment and in particular the reefs. Bedouins used to use the area extensively for fishing, but the traditional fishing techniques involved them standing on the reefs, something which has been controlled by the protectorate. The area is also home to Sinai’s largest concentration of Nubian Ibex, Hyrax, Red Fox and Striped Hyena. Off shore Ras Abu Gallum is also home to the Manatee, or Sea Cow, a large mammal the size of a sea lion. (Reference: http://www.allsinai.info)

A steep pass across the main road, on the way from Haduda Sand Dune (1), will join Wadi Risasa (2) within Ras Abu Galum national park, leading all the way to the sea around the Laguna (3). There are different ways, one of them passing Bier Uqda (4). There is an asphalt road and transport from the diving spot of the Blue Hole (5), south of Ras Abu Galum, going to the city of Dahab (6).

A steep gully, Naqb Umm Misma, leads from the main road to Wadi Risasa.

Wadi Risasa is a long sandy wadi with acacia trees and shrubs.

Abandoned gardens at Bier Uqda, a reminder of better days.

The wadis eventually lead to the sea at Ras Abu Galum national park – it is a dramatic view and a refreshing experience after a long journey.

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North-East of St. Katherine: towards the Nuweiba-Taba Coast

Main places: 1. Ein Umm Ahmad; 2. Gebel Berqa; 3. Rainbow Canyon; 4. Colored Canyon; 5. Washwashi Canyon; 6. Nuweiba; 7. Coastal road to Taba; 8. St. Katherine-Dahab junction.

The area, home mostly to the Tarabin tribe, is famous for its canyons which are all located relatively close to main asphalt roads. The Colored Canyon is visited by bigger numbers on day trips on 4x4s, but there are other canyons in the very same area, connected by walking trails, where not many venture. If you only visit the Colored Canyon you have to take a guide from Ein Furtaga. It is easy to organize a longer trek of a few days to explore the area; the best choice would be in Nuweiba or from the camps north of it. The more remote Tarabin areas such as the oasis of Ein Umm Ahmad, the sand dunes at El Breqa and the towering dome of Gebel Berqa are connected to other beautiful regions. The main wadi, Wadi Zalaqa, is part of the sandy belt below the Tih Plateau jutting in from the north, and is on the main 4x4 route between the east and west coast. Camel and walking safaris might include places along this stretch, but the most beautiful country is in the middle, connecting the Ein Khudra area or the Guna plateau in the south and the Tarabin canyons in the north. This area is mostly accessible only on foot or camel. If you are coming either from St. Katherine and the mountainous interior or from the camel stations in the south, you can reach the relaxed beaches on the Nuweiba to Taba road along an interesting and diverse route. Alternatively, you can start from the Nuweiba beaches and head down south and finish at Ras Abu Galum, Dahab or further.

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Ein Umm Ahmad One of the main Tarabin oases in South Sinai, in the sand belt running from coast to coast under the Tih plateau along a main dirt road. There are many date palms and several plantations and the place has a remote, wild frontier feel. There are many nawamis in the area and on foot or camel the oasis is connected to a number of beautiful locations. An interesting Bedouin law is the Bisha, or “ordeal by fire”. It is employed to settle disputes in the absence of evidence in serious cases. The accuser and accused have to go to the sheikh of the Bisha, called Bishari, who will decide if the accused is guilty or not by making him lick a red-hot metal three times. The spoon-shaped object is placed in the fire until becomes red, and a drop of water is poured on it after the event, boiling right away, to prove it is hot. The sheikh will then check the tongue, and if it is burnt, the accused is guilty; if it is not, he is innocent. The loosing party has to pay a prearranged sum as a penalty and the expenses. It is held in front of the public to make sure there is no secrecy or staging of any kind. It is still practiced by most Sinai Bedouin tribes who believe in its accuracy. Ein Umm Ahmad (1) is often visited from Nuweiba (2) or Ein el Furtaga (3), with a detour to the Tarabin canyons (4). It can also be reached from the south, from Ras Ghazala (5) or the Nawamis-Ein Khudra area (6). Longer treks coming from the interior in the west reach it via Wadi Zalaqa (7) or Wadi Zaranik (8). The rounded top of Gebel Barqa (9) and the flat top of Gebel Mileihis (10) are visible from far distances.

Long and wide sandy wadis come to an end at the oasis, from where flood waters drain through a narrow gorge.

There are many nawamis structures in Wadi Zalaqa before Ein Umm Ahmad, the best preserved ones on a high hill at the Wadi Hleil junction.

The atmosphere seems outside the law, but the people, most of them from the remote interior, are genuinely friendly. Do not take photos of sensitive things.

There is a new olive plantation at one of the gardens. Its owner only grows these as well as date palms in Nuweiba. Jebel Qalb is in the distance, the way to the asphalt road by 4x4s.

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Gebel Barqa (Gebel Berqa) An impressive round sandstone mountain rising from the sandy plains and lower hills. Its peak is visible from as far as Ras Ghazala. The way to the top starts in one of the narrow canyons at its base, but the climb is difficult and dangerous towards the end. The views from the saddle at the top of the canyon, which can be reached easily, also offer nice views to two directions. One of the most common larger animals which visitors might see is the fox. “There are two species of fox: although mainly nocturnal, the Common Fox (Vulpes vulpes) is commonly seen during daylight hours; Rueppel’s Sand Fox (Vulpes ruepelli) is generally nocturnal, and usually heard shrieking at night rather than seen. The Bedouin call this animal ‘Abu ‘Hosein’ meaning ‘impenetrable against invaders’, and the name probably refers to the fact that, despite the Bedouin’s best efforts at defense, the fox is able to get into almost any sort of housing to get its prey.” The foxes are not afraid of humans and often visit to steal food, but stay away from the people and are not dangerous in any way. (Reference: Samy Zalat – Francis Gilbert 1998) Gebel Berqa (1) is close to the oasis of Ein Umm Ahmad (2) and connected to the north and the Tarabin canyons via Wadi el Ein (3). It is connected to the west via Wadi Zaranik (4) and to the south and the Ein Khudra area via a number of wadis (5). Wadi Khudra joins Wadi Ghazala (6), which carries on to Ein el Furtaga (7), close to the area.

Approaching the area from the south, the trek leads through high passes. The round top of Gebel Berqa is visible in the far distance most of the way.

The climb starts in a sandy canyon, which is one of several at the base of the mountain. It gets narrower and steeper, until reaches a saddle.

From the saddle at the top of the canyon you can look down the way you came and the sandy plains behind, as well as to the south on the other side.

The climb gets more difficult from here, and just before the top there is a 5-meter face which is too dangerous without the use of rope. Only for experienced climbers and with guides.

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Rainbow Canyon A colorful canyon, with its entrance starting in a secluded sandy basin encircled by jagged rock faces. Bier Biyariya, a well with date palms, is close by across high passes and a sandy wadi. The making of bread in the mountains and desert is a cleverly developed process and one that uses many resources that often appear to visitors as rubbish. Around water sources and in many gardens there is often a large, burnt, circular metal plate lying around, called saaj, often it is made from the lid of an old oil drum. These large plates are placed across a fire, and heated. Whilst this happens the Bedouin will roll the simple dough mixture, made from flour, salt and water, into small balls and then large flat breads, similar to a chapatti. They are then placed on the now-hot metal plate and cooked for a few minutes on each side. This bread is known as fateer. Another alternative form of bread, cooked in the ash of a fire, is called libba. This is a thicker bread, hard on the outside, but soft inside.

The entrance to the Rainbow Canyon (1) is in an open sandy area, about 3 kms from the main road (2). Wadi Agula (3), on the other side of the road, leads to Wadi el Ein, Gebel Barqa and Ein Umm Ahmad. Further north is Wadi es Suwana (4), another way to Ein Umm Ahmad. Close to the canyon is Bier Biriya (5), from where the track, over high passes and narrow wadis (6), continues towards the Colored Canyon.

The entrance to the canyon is located in a wide and open sandy plain, with some acacia trees providing shade.

The Rainbow Canyon is a short straight crack, sandy and wider at the entrance then becoming narrow, running between colorful rock walls.

Bier Biriya, across a pass and a closed sandy wadi, is a freshwater source close by.

The Colored Canyon, carrying on in a long wadi and climbing a high pass, is about half-a-day’s walk away.

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Colored Canyon – Closed Canyon The Colored Canyon is the best known of all the canyons in the Sinai. It runs between steep walls displaying a palette of incredible colors and rock formations, starting off from a plateau and ending at a sandy wadi. Running parallel to it is another sandy wadi, from which the Closed Canyon starts. “The principle resource supporting the nomads' livelihood is one they have no control over, rainfall. Remarkably, their careful use of perennial trees, like acacia and sayal, is one of the nomads' principle means of maintaining their traditional life-style during prolonged drought. These trees produce green leaves that can sustain livestock when no other pasture is available. In times of environmental stress the nomads must achieve a very delicate balance between using and abusing their resources. Their rules are defined clearly. The most important rule is that only dead wood can be cut. Only when no other food is available should a man take acacia or other tree leaves for his herd, and only then by shaking them off. Similar guidelines also apply to certain shrubs such as argel and wormwood.” (Reference: UNDP Global Environment Facility) The Colored Canyon(1), located right next to the Closed Canyon, is usually visited from Ein el Furtaga (2) by 4WD. However, it is closer to the coast at Ras Shaitan (3) via Wadi Washwashi, passing Canyon Washwashi (4). The Rainbow Canyon (5), on route from the interior, is also close by.

There is a comfortable lodge at the top of the canyon, at the edge of the plateau, offering nice views and a quiet desert retreat.

The path in the canyon runs between vertical walls, taking sharp turns and leading under a boulder at one point.

The Closed Canyon starts in the next wadi to the Colored Canyon. It involves some climbing and scrambling.

Ein Furtaga is a small oasis along the main asphalt road, and 4WDs to the Colored Canyon go through here.

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Moyat el Milha – Washwashi Canyon – Ras Shaitan Date palms grow at the foot of a vertical rock face at Moyat el Milha. There are sandy basins and narrow wadis in the area, and, from the pass of Naqb El Kohla, the sea can be seen. Washwashi Canyon, short but adventurous, is at the upper end of a wadi leading straight to the laid-back beaches of the Ras Shaitan area. The beaches north of Nuweiba offer the perfect opportunity to relax in a stunningly beautiful, peaceful environment. Along this stretch of coastline there are numerous beach camps to suit all budgets. Most offer very simple wooden huts and local food, whilst some of the camps provide a more upmarket experience. There is also the popular ecolodge camp of Basata with a desalination plant for fresh water. They also have organized and run a recycling program along the coast. All the camps offer you the sea on your doorstep and the opportunity to explore the coral that lies just off the shore.

The Washwashi Canyon (1) is very close to the laid-back beaches of Ras Shaitan (2). Further in to the mountains is Moyat el Milha (3), from where through a number of sandy basins the path will lead to Naqb el Kohla (4), a high pass with views to the sea. On the other side are the Colored Canyon and Closed Canyon (5).

Naqb El Kohla is along the way from the Colored Canyon, and the high pass offers the first glimpse of the sea.

There are sandy basins and wadis with date palms, like el Freya pictured here, enclosed by vertical rock walls.

At the junction of Moyat el Milha date palms grow at the foot of a hill, but no one picks the dates – it is believed to be cursed.

Washwashi Canyon is a short detour from the main wadi leading to the beach. Some climbing is involved with ropes helping through at difficult points.

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North-West of St. Katherine: towards Abu Zenima and Ras Sudr

Main places: 1. Town of St. Katherine; 2. Gebel Serbal; 3. Wadi Feiran; 4. Wadi Mukattab – Wadi Magara; 5. Gebel Fuga; 6. Serabit el Khadim; 7. Abu Zenima; 8. Ras Sudr.

There are many tribes in the area; in Wadi Feiran itself actually all the South Sinai tribes are represented. Gebel Serbal is Qararsha territory and you are required to take a guide from them – it is rather expensive and non-negotiable since tourism here is a marginal activity, but still definitely worth doing. Wadi Mukattab, the turquoise mines at Wadi Magara and Sheikh Suliman are also on Qararsha territories, while the area further north around Serabit el Khadim is mostly Aligat. There are other smaller tribes and smaller communities of bigger tribes living in the area as well. To visit the pharaonic site at Serabit el Khadim you are required to take a Bedouin guide from the settlement – longer treks and safaris however can be organized through any operator or guide. Serabit el Khadim can be reached by pick-up cars from Abu Zenima (mix of asphalt and sandy desert road) and there are two camps, one in the settlement run by the sons of Sheikh Selim Barakat, the other is at a secluded place in Umm Ajraaf, run by Rabiya Barakat. Descending from St. Katherine there are two major ways towards the coast. One of them is used mostly by 4x4s in the wide sandy belt below the Tih plateau, visiting Gebel Fuga and Serabid el Khadim, and possibly including Wadi Feiran and Wadi Mukattab. The other route, better suited for camels or walking, would start at the high mountains at Sheikh Awad, reaching first Gebel Serbal and Wadi Feiran. To continue on to Wadi Mukattab first you might have to take a car, then you can walk to Serabit el Khadim. You can get to Serabit el Khadim other ways, but either case it will be a long walk. From Serabit el Khadim you could get to Abu Zenima or Ras Sudr.

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Wadi Feiran The biggest oasis of South Sinai, running along the main road for 6 kilometers. There are some important cultural and historical sites within the oasis, all located close to each other and to the commercial center. Three gardens and the Convent of Feiran offer accommodation. The impressive Gebel Serbal massif towers above the oasis. Wadi Feiran is important not only for the lush oasis that is found there, but also as another area steeped in religious significance. Religious scholars believe this to be the area referred to in the old testament as Rephidim. It is here, so religious scholars say, that the Israelites defeated the Amelekites (enemies of the Israelites, and now a name often applied to enemies of Judaism). Moses is believed to have watched this battle from Mt Tahoun which today has an ancient cross and ruined chapel dating back to the 4th century AD. For many scholars Gebel Serbal was also thought to be Mt Sinai. This area was one the first Christian centres in Sinai, and was the seat of the archbishop of Sinai in the 4th-6th centuries. The ruins of the archbishopric can be seen behind the convent. (Reference: www.touregypt.net/featurestories) Wadi Feiran is a long oasis in a winding wadi, with a commercial center (1) close to all places of interest. The oasis is located between the junction, called Mufarag (2), on the main Suez to Sharm el Sheikh road and the town of St. Katherine (3). From St. Katherine, via the settlement of Sheikh Awad (4), the old pilgrims’ route is through Wadi Islaf, with Wadi Rim (5) branching off to Gebel Serbal (6). Little down from Wadi Feiran starts Wadi Mukattab (7), leading to Serabit el Khadim. Wadi el Ahdar (8) leads to Gebel Fuga. Wadi Sulaf (Islaf) and Wadi Sahab are the main ways connecting the high mountains to Wadi Feiran and Gebel Serbal. There is a shrine at Abu Thaleb.

The new Convent, locally known as Deir el Banat, is next to old ruins at the mouth of Wadi Aliyat, leading to Gebel Serbal. There is a guest house in the compound.

Further along the main asphalt road the ruins of the old convent are on the top of the hill. At its foot a cafeteria is being developed by local people.

There are three gardens right next to each other between the old and new convent – they offer a pleasant tea stop or overnight stay.

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Gebel Serbal The rugged peaks of Gebel Serbal, because they are surrounded by low wadis and ranges, seem higher then any other mountain. The long and very steep gully of Naqb Shaharani might take a full day to cover. There are other routes as well leading to the interconnected basins and wadis at the top, which harbour gardens and permanent water sources. The views to the coast and inland are stunning. Gebel Serbal, Egypt’s fifth-highest mountain, is one of several mountains that some religious scholars have contested to be the true Mt Sinai. Its imposing, multiple peaks that dominate the skyline certainly present a compelling case. Pilgrims traveling in the 19th century also noted how the local Bedouin revered this mountain and took their shoes off to pray on the summit. On the mountain there can be seen the remains of many anchorite dwellings (a type of religious hermit) testimony to the religious significance given by early Christians, not only to the mountain but to the nearby Wadi Feiran also. There are ancient, probably Nabatean, inscriptions in many places. (Reference: Joseph Hobbs, 1995) Farsh Loz (1), one of many mountain top basins, has a garden and permanent water source. It is located close to the main peak. The long and steep gully of Naqb Sharani connects it to Wadi Aliyat (2) and then to Wadi Feiran (3) at the Monastery. Another way is from Wadi Islaf via Wadi Rim (4), which leads to a saddle (5) at the south end of the range, then to the rock shelter of Tabaga Imbardiya (6), set amongst abandoned gardens.

Coming from Wadi Rim the first sighting of the coast is from a pass, which leads to the mountain top wadis and basins of Gebel Serbal.

Tabaga Imbardiya is a natural shelter formed by huge boulders. There are a number of abandoned gardens in the area.

Farsh Loz with a garden and well, close to the main peak, is where long and steep Naqb Shaharani starts. It connects to Wadi Feiran through Wadi Aliyat.

Far-reaching views, to the lowlands, the high mountains and the Gulf of Suez. The winding oasis of Feiran is right below. There are Nabatean scriptures on one rock face at the top.

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Wadi Mukattab – Wadi Magara Historic sights in beautiful natural settings – Wadi Mukattab, the valley of the inscriptions, is in an open sandy area, while the turquoise mines of the Pharaohs are located in narrow Wadi Magara, close to the shrine of Sheikh Suliman, dotted with shady acacia trees. The very first inhabitants of the Sinai peninsula, believed to be about 8,000 years ago, were drawn by the abundant mineral deposits of copper and turquoise found in the region. It was in 3500BC that the great turquoise mines around Wadi Magara were discovered. Around the mines many inscriptions can be found in the rock that were written by the miners, some depict the ships that were used to carry the turquoise to Egypt. Above the entrance to each mine was a statue of the reigning pharaoh. A huge quantity of turquoise was mined from this location, before being carried down to a port located just south of modern day Abu Zenima. Turquoise was used in jewelry and to make colour pigments for painting. The English restarted the mines at the beginning of the 20th century. (Reference: www.touregypt.net/featurestories) The turnoff point to Wadi Mukattab (1) is after the rugged ranges of Wadi Feiran. The inscriptions (2) are located a bit further up in the wide and sandy wadi. After Wadi Magara (3), where the turquoise mines and the tomb of Sheikh Suliman are located, at a junction (4) you can either go to the town of Abu Rudes (5) or head north towards Serabit el Khadim. There are other ways to Serabit el Khadim via Wadi Sieh (6), which also connects the area to Ramlat Hmeyer. Wadi Mukattab is a wide sandy wadi close to the main road, with the biggest number of ancient inscriptions carved in the rock walls.

Further up the wadi is the shrine of Sheikh Suliman, at the mouth of Wadi Magara.

There are many small caves in Wadi Magara, which were carved to mine turquoise from Pharaonic times.

There is a well preserved pharaonic carving above the mines with figures bigger and more detailed than at Serabit el Khadim.

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Gebel Fuga – The Forest of Pillars Under the flat Tih plateau, running across the peninsula from coast to coast, is a sandy belt in which the Forest of Pillars is located at Gebel Fuga. The curious rock formations have been badly damaged by tourism, but it is still well worth a visit. The Forest of Pillars remains a geological curiosity with large columns of black lava having been driven up through the surrounding red sandstone. Beyond this very little is understood as to what created this rare phenomenon. What is certainly true is that this amazing site is now just as much a beacon of the destructive aspect of irresponsible tourism as it is a site of beauty and geological wonder. The trend towards 4x4 desert excursions has dramatically increased the number of visits to this remote spot. The fallen pillars are a testament to tourists who sadly left more than just their footprints. Please be respectful of the beauty of this site. (Reference: http://www.awayaway-sinai.net)

Gebel Fuga and the Forest of Pillars (1) are in a long and wide sandy plain running below the Tih plateau (2). The area can be approached from St. Katherine or Wadi Feiran via the rocky pass of Naqb Shegar (3), and from Wadi Mukattab (4) via Wadi Sieh (5). The vast red sandy desert of Ramlat Hmeyer (6) is on route to Serabit el Khadim (7).

The Tih plateau to the north, with Gebel Fuga jetting out to the sandy plain.

The High Mountain Region in the distance to the south, at the pass of Naqb Shegar.

Large water catchment area around Gebel Hmeyer.

Unfortunately, as the result of tourism, there is not much left of the forest, although it is still an impressive sight.

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Serabit el Khadim The most important pharaonic site in the Sinai, it is located where the sandy desert belt below the Tih plateau meets the rocky ranges to the south. The temple of Hathor is on the top of a flat range, offering a magnificent backdrop of the desert to the archeological sights. The temple of Hathor (the ancient Egyptians Goddess of protection in desert regions) is the only temple that we know was built outside of mainland Egypt. It is believed that the temple was built by Amenemhet III during the 12th Dynasty, which was well known for its mineral wealth. During the New Kingdom the temple was further developed by Queen Hatshepsut, Tutmosis III and Amenhotep III. Research at the temple in the early 20th century led to the discovery of the Proto-Sinaitic script engraved in the temple remains. This script is thought to be an early precursor of the alphabet and is still used in the Old Hebrew language. On the north side of the temple is a shrine dedicated to the pharaohs who were deified in the area. (Reference: www.touregypt.net/featurestories)

The archeological site of Serabit el Khadim (1) is shortly after the end of the road leading from Abu Zenima (2). The road is sometimes asphalt, sometimes soft sand. It passes a small settlement (3) with a very big mosque. Serabit el Khadim is connected to Wadi Magara (4) either via Wadi Sieh (5), Wadi Baba (6), or the little used way via Sheikh Hashash (7). To the east is the sand desert of Ramlat Hmeyer (8).

The climb to the archaeological site, located atop a rocky plateau, starts at the small settlement, from where everybody is required to take a Bedouin guide.

There are a number of turquoise mines scattered around, and above the entrance of each there is a carved rock sign of the reigning pharaoh.

The entrance of the Temple of Hathor is located in a small enclosed area, amongst many columns with inscriptions.

You can descend on the other side of the site to Umm Ajraaf. Over the sandy belt of Ramlat Hmeyer in the distance Gebel Fuga is visible.

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Personal thanks

Farhan Mohamed Zidan (Jabaleya)

Salah Abu Rizk (Jabaleya)

Saadallah Hussein (Jabaleya)

Farhan Hussein Abu Hder (Jabaleya)

Salem Mousa (Ulad Said)

Mansour Mousa (Qararsha)

Msallem Faraj (Tarabin)

Msaad Abu Mesad (Jabaleya)

Salem Abu Hatwa (Muzeina)

Selim Rabaya (Muzeina)

Abdullah Suliman Abu Mohamed (Muzeina)

Jebeli Joma Jebeli (Jabaleya)

Above are the guides who showed me the Sinai on actual treks and provided information on which the sights section is largely based. It is impossible to name all the people who I walked with at other times or who took me as their guest, but the time spent together and their hospitality is well remembered. Many thanks and my very best wishes to the whole Jabaleya family who accepted me as one of theirs as well as to all the kind people – Bedouin, Egyptian and foreigner – who helped me along my Sinai journey… a journey which is still not over – inshaallah. Zoltan Matrahazi 2009, St. Katherine, South Sinai Egypt www.discoversinai.net – A guide to the natural, cultural and historical faces of South Sinai

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References • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

National Parks of Egypt Protectorates Development Programmes, Mt. Sinai, A Walking Trail Guide National Parks of Egypt Protectorates Development Programmes, Wadi Talla and Wadi Itlah, A Walking Trail Guide National Parks of Egypt Protectorates Development Programmes, Wadi Arbaein & Wadi Shrayj, A Walking Trail Guide National Parks of Egypt Protectorates Development Programmes, Jebel Abbas Pasha, A Walking Trail Guide Joseph J. Hobbs, Mount Sinai, 1995 AUC Press, Cairo & University of Texas Press Samy Zalat – Francis Gilbert, A walk in Sinai: St Katherine to Al Galt Al Azraq, 1998, El Harameen Press, Cairo. Available from www.nottingham.ac.uk/~plzfg UNDP Global Environment Facility R. A. Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs, Cambridge 1930 R. H. Kennett, Ancient Hebrew social life and custom as indicated in law narrative and metaphore, The Schweich lectures of the British Academy, 1931 London, Oxford University Press 1933 SEAM ‘South Sinai Environment and Development profile’ http://st-katherine.net/en/ http://en.wikipedia.org http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/FEIRAN.htm http://www.awayaway-sinai.net/main/sinai-sub/forest_of_pillars.htm http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/serabit.htm http://www.sharm-club.com/sinai.htm http://www.america.gov/st/peacesec-english/2007/September/20070919140636idybeekcm0.1891291.html http://www.allsinai.info/sites/sites/abu%20galum.htm

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PART III. – Fauna and flora of South Sinai Francis Gilbert & Samy Zalat

South Sinai is one of three richest places in Egypt for biodiversity, the others being the Mediterranean coast and Gebel Elba in the extreme south west. The reason is simple: water. Although visitors may be forgiven for their disbelief, these places have by far the highest and the most reliable precipitation, in the form of rain, snow (in South Sinai) or fog (in Gebel Elba). This section provides a miscellany of the common kinds of animals and plants that live in South Sinai, together with some of the more interesting rarer types. Some have a very restricted distribution and are priority species for conservation. The species are grouped taxonomically, and according to the size, colour, defence or status as a resident or migrant. There are brief notes to introduce each group. The brief account of each species starts with the common and the scientific names, the South Sinai Bedouin (rather than general Arabic) name, and our best understanding of its conservation status (following IUCN categories). Where possible there is a photograph with the notes of interest about the species. A few of the photographs are not of a specimen in South Sinai, but the vast majority are. Information specific to South Sinai about these animals is hard to find since it is scattered in many obscure journals and books. It is easier to look at Egypt as a whole. The following websites and books will help expand on the information presented here, and contain bibliographies to enable you to go further: Egypt’s biodiversity: General information: Research we have done:

http://www.biomapegypt.org/biodiversity/index.html http://www.biomapegypt.org/ http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/~plzfg/

Baha El Din SM (2005) A guide to the reptiles and amphibians of Egypt. AUC Press, Cairo. Basuony M, Gilbert F & Zalat S (2010) Mammals of Egypt: Red Data Listing & Conservation. EEAA, Cairo Boulos L (1999-2005) Flora of Egypt. 4 vols. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo. Brunn B & Baha El Din SM (1990) Common birds of Egypt. AUC Press, Cairo. Gilbert F & Zalat S (2008) Butterflies of Egypt. EEAA, Cairo. available from http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/~plzfg/pdf files/2008 Butterflies.pdf Goodman SM, Meininger PL, Baha El Din SM, Hobbs JJ & Mullié WC (1989) The birds of Egypt. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Hoath R (2005) Field guide to the mammals of Egypt. AUC Press, Cairo Hoath R & Baha El Din M (2000) Wild Sinai: the wildlife of the Saint Katherine Protectorate. Published by the St Katherine Protectorate. Hobbs J (1995) Mount Sinai. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX USA & AUC Press, Cairo Rusmore-Villaume ML (2008) Seashells of the Egyptian Red Sea: an illustrated handbook. AUC Press, Cairo. Zalat S & Gilbert F (1998) A walk in Sinai: St Katherine to Al Galt Al Azraq. available at http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/~plzfg/EBBSoc/ejnh.html Zalat S & Gilbert F (2008) Gardens of a sacred landscape: Bedouin heritage and natural history in the high mountains of Sinai. AUC Press, Cairo.

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1.

Large mammals

Unlike sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt is not full of large mammals, but it does have some. In the distant past, several million years ago, there was an extensive and complex fauna of large mammals whose fossils have been much studied from the Faiyum. The gradual drying of North Africa over the last 10,000 years has seen off most species, and some of the survivors were driven to extinction by human hunters of prehistory and history, leaving just a remnant still extant. Not much is known of the prehistoric fauna of Sinai. Certainly this did not contain camels, since they are absent completely from the Pharaonic period in Egypt. Camels seem to have been introduced by humans only about 2000 years ago. Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr) Bedouin name: nimr Status: Critically Endangered Probably extinct in mainland Egypt for a long time, the subspecies called the Arabian Leopard, may still hang on in Sinai. There are a few in the Negev desert, but they have disappeared from the Hejaz mountains of Saudi Arabia (although they still occur further south). The difficult mountain terrain and their exceptionally secretive and wary nature makes it very difficult to establish the existence of a breeding population. The last positive record in Sinai was in 1996, and the last definite specimen in 1955. However, they live on in Bedouin stories. In the high passes you can still see leopard traps, long tunnels made from stones with a trapdoor triggered by an attachment to a meat bait. It is still possible that one of the St Katherine Protectorate’s camera traps may one day record one of these magnificent creatures. (photo: wikimedia) Nubian Ibex (Capra nubiana) Bedouin name: teytal, badana (male)

Status: Endangered

The magnificent ibex is completely at home in the steep rocky mountains, being able to traverse seemingly impossible paths. They used to live in groups of up to 40 animals, but now fewer than ten. In early February, males use their huge horns to fight for mating access to females. They are vulnerable because they have to drink every day, unlike many other desert animals. The last time they were counted, there were only about 400 in the whole of South Sinai. Luckily in recent years populations seem to be recovering in the Eastern Desert and perhaps also in Sinai. The Nubian Ibex used to be considered merely a subspecies of a much more widespread species, but now it is recognised as a separate species restricted to the Middle East. (photo: Jen Johnson 2005 Safsafa) Striped Hyaena (Hyaena hyaena) Bedouin name: Dabc, Dabca Status: Not at risk Hyaena are rare but widespread in Egypt and Sinai, part of a large distribution stretching from Pakistan to southern Africa. They are general scavengers and predators, eating a wide variety of different foods including garbage - one of the best places to see them is at night at rubbish dumps. The Bedouin believe they eat one another from stupidity, and keep themselves hidden away for shame; but they also believe that eating hyaena confers great strength and health. Camera traps have photographed hyaena several times, and clearly there is a reasonable population of these interesting creatures in South Sinai. (photo: St Katherine Protectorate camera trap 2002) Gazelle (Gazella dorcas) Bedouin name: ghazal Status: Vulnerable There are now only two species of gazelle resident in Egypt, both vulnerable to extinction; only the Dorcas Gazelle occurs in Sinai. It lives on sandy plains and wadis in the lowlands, with its stronghold on the El Qaa plain. It enters into the wadis to feed, and crosses over between east and west Sinai via the lower southern wadi systems. In mainland Egypt its main predator used to be the Cheetah, but since its disappearance the main threat is from illegal sport hunting, often on a highly organised scale. Luckily this hardly happens in Sinai, but populations are low and vulnerable. The Dorcas Gazelle lives in pairs or small groups, and feeds on many different kinds of plants. It requires access to water. (photo: St Katherine Protectorate camera trap 2002)

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2.

Medium-sized mammals

There are a number of rather rare medium-sized mammals in Sinai, but few common ones. By far the most likely to be seen are foxes in the early morning or late evening. Foxes (Vulpes spp) Bedouin name: abu al HuSain, abu risha

Status: Not at risk

All three Egyptian species of fox occur in South Sinai, and their shrieks punctuate the stillness of the evenings - often sounding like children crying out in pain. The native common species is the Sand Fox (abu risha), smaller than the Red Fox (abu al hussain), with proportionately larger ears, and softer paler fur. The Red Fox has come in with human settlement, and is now the commonest species around St Katherine and the coastal towns, where it feeds on chickens and stray cats. The beautiful Blanford’s Fox is small with very large ears and a huge long bushy tail rather like a cat’s: it is very rare, and occurs only in eastern Sinai, right at the western edge of its world distribution (which runs all the way to Afghanistan). (photo: Jen Johnson June 2005 Wadi Itlah) Hare (Lepus capensis) Bedouin name: arnab Status: Not at risk Usually called a ‘rabbit’ in Egypt, hares are very common all over Egypt, including Sinai. They rely on remaining hidden in a hole or under a plant until the last minute, and so normally the only view of them is an animal rushing away at top speed from under one’s feet. They feed on plants such as Zygophyllum at night, and if necessary can survive just on the water taken in with their food. They breed more in the lowlands because litter sizes reduce with altitude, and hence they are not so common in the mountains. Although hares from South Africa to Egypt are all called the same species, the Cape Hare Lepus capensis, probably the situation is in reality more complex and several species are involved: Egypt’s hares probably belong to a North African version as yet unnamed. (photo: wikimedia) Hyrax (Procavia capensis) Bedouin name: wabr Status: Not at risk Hyrax are peculiar animals both zoologically and anthropologically. They used to be regarded as the closest living relatives of elephants; now we think probably that elephants and dugongs are close relatives, and the hyrax is their next sister-group. Anthropologically Joe Hobbs described the peculiar position of hyrax in the pantheon of the Macaza Bedouin of the Eastern Desert as different from other animals, and close to humans because of their rather hand-like feet and lack of a tail. The Macaza do not hunt or eat hyrax because of this view. However, Sinai Bedouin seem to take a different view and some have eaten them, while Saudi Bedouin are said to regard hyrax meat and blood as an aphrodisiac. There is a captive colony that can be viewed at the end of Wadi Arbaein, close to the town of St Katherine. Otherwise hyrax can be hard to see, because their colonies are patchy and they stay motionless much of the time. They are ancient inhabitants of Egypt: the characteristic white stains of their faeces can be seen on rocks in Gebel Uweinat in the far southwestern corner of Egypt, where the animals have not lived for several thousand years. (photo: Sean Dunkin July 2003 Wadi Arbaein)

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3.

Small mammals

Like mammals in general, the majority of Egypt’s 94 species of terrestrial mammal are bats and rodents, i.e. small. As with many animal and plant groups, the highest diversity occurs in South Sinai, along the north coast from Libya to the Delta, and in Gebel Elba in the far southeast. All of Egypt’s five endemic mammal species are small (two gerbils, two shrews and the Egyptian Weasel), but none is confined to Sinai. Spiny Mice (Acomys spp) Bedouin name: far Status: Not at risk Spiny mice are large golden-coloured mice with a set of extra thick stiff hairs (‘spines’) on the front part of their backs. There are two species in Sinai, the Golden Spiny Mouse (A.russatus) and the Sinai Spiny Mouse (A.dimidiatus): a third, the Cairo Spiny Mouse (A.cahirinus), occurs throughout mainland Egypt. They are associated with the Bedouin walled gardens, typically making their nests amongst the stones of the walls. The Golden Spiny Mouse has a restricted distribution in the southern Middle East, whereas the Sinai Spiny Mouse, despite its name, ranges from Sinai to Pakistan. Normally both are nocturnal, but where they occur together, as in the South Sinai mountains, the Golden Spiny Mouse becomes diurnal. Their spines are part of a clever defence mechanism against their predators: the spines repel many would-be predators, but if they are grasped, a large patch of skin comes away completely (as does the tail skin) and the mouse escapes - it is the mouse equivalent of a lizard breaking off its own tail. Because of this mechanism, Acomys blood clots incredibly quickly so they do not lose too much after their escape. (photo: Mike James 2001 Wadi Arbaein) Sinai Dormouse (Eliomys melanurus) Bedouin name: abu kohla Status: Endangered This beautiful animal is called ‘abu kohla’ by the Bedouin because of the diagnostic dark rings around its eyes, extending back to the ears like a pair of spectacles: ‘kohl’ is the dark eye-shadow makeup used by Middle Eastern women since the Pharoahs. It has a long tail with a dark bushy tip, large ears and long complex whiskers. Its distribution is small, from Libya to the Middle East, and hence Sinai populations are significant on the world scale. It occurs mainly away from the Bedouin gardens on the rocky sides of the wadis, where it feeds at night on plant material and insects. The Sinai Dormouse is always much rarer in the wadis than the Spiny Mice, and there is not a great deal known about its biology. (photo: NCS (Abdallah Nagy)) Sinai Barbastelle (Barbastellus leucomelas) Bedouin name: khofash Status: Vulnerable A small black-brown bat with relatively short wide ears joined at the forehead, with the tragus in the ear hairy, triangular and more than half as long as the ear. This is one of rarest of all Palaearctic bats, with the smallest known distribution of any Palaearctic bat. It was originally discovered in 1822 or 1826 by Rüppell in Sinai. His two specimens were matched only by a handful from Israel until 2005, when Dr Christian Dietz caught the species again after 183 years. Unlike most other bats, barbastelles specialize almost exclusively on moths, especially moths that listen in to bat echolocation calls. Moth populations are therefore critical to the survival of the Sinai Barbastelle, making the installing of streetlights along the highway to St Katherine of particular concern. (photo: Christian Dietz 2005 St Katherine) Long-eared bats (Plecotus christii, Otonycteris hemprichii) Bedouin name: khofash Status: Not at risk These two lovely desert bats with their characteristic over-sized ears are quite common in Sinai, foraging in Bedouin gardens and around open water sources such as the irrigation tanks. They are highly manoeuverable in flight, flying slowly and carefully around trees and vegetation as they glean mainly moths from the leaves. The huge ears receive even the smallest echoes, enabling them to forage in this way. Otonycteris produces a honeybee-like buzz in flight. (photo: Petr Benda Sept 2005 Wadi Feiran)

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4.a

Resident birds

About 50 species of bird are resident in South Sinai, a reasonable number given the paucity of its resources and its arid barren nature. For true birders there are rather few specialities apart from Tristram’s Grackle and the Sinai Rosefinch. White-crowned Black Wheatear (Oenanthe leucopyga) Bedouin name: bagaca Status: Not at risk A small black bird with a white rump, under-tail coverts and outer tail feathers, together with a white crown in adults. This bird is one of the commonest and friendliest of the breeding birds of Sinai. The Bedouin call them ‘birds of happiness’, and welcome them around their houses. Pairs stay together for life, and inhabit one territory continuously until one dies or disappears. In spring and summer, males produce their lovely liquid song (rather like a blackbird or a robin song from northern Europe) from singing posts around the pair’s territory. They spend much of the day looking for insects on plants, the ground or in camel dung. At night each bird sleeps in a permanent individual rock crevice, often far away from that of its mate. Like other wheatears, adults collect stones and place them around their nests, a peculiar behaviour thought in other species to play a role in females selecting a mate on the basis of their performance. However, unlike other wheatear species, in Sinai it is the female who collects about 150 large flat stones, with which she creates a tessellated pavement approach to the nest. The Bedouin say it is to warn the birds of the approach of a snake by the rattle of the stones as the snake moves. Juveniles less than a year old lack the white crown and remain in their parents’ territory, but are driven off before the next breeding season. (photo: Mike James 2001 St Katherine) Tristram’s Grackle (Onychognathus tristramii) Bedouin name: shaHrur Status: Not at risk A medium-sized black bird with orange patches in the outer part of the wings. Technically this species is actually a starling, the most northerly representative of the genus Onychognathus, which has a number of species in sub-Saharan Africa. It is restricted in its distribution to the area between Israel, Jordan, south through Sinai and western Saudi Arabia to Yemen. In Sinai individuals move around in small groups of 2-5 birds, producing a loud and characteristic whistle, especially in the early morning. They are omnivores on fruit and insects, and are said to groom ibex and domestic livestock for parasites. They can fly several kilometres from roosting and breeding sites in search of food, thereby effecting long-distance dispersal of plant seeds. Adults nest in deep holes and crevices in cliffs, and like the pigeon have adapted well to living with humans; as a result, their range is gradually expanding. (photo: Fred Manata June 2005 St Katherine) Laughing Dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) Bedouin name: jamaam Status: Not at risk Unmistakeable member of the turtle doves, a group of birds mainly found in tropical Africa. The Laughing Dove itself has a large distribution from most of Africa across to India. These doves are some of the commonest residents of South Sinai, especially in Bedouin gardens. Their soft cooing call is very characteristic of the wadis. They feed mainly on seeds and fruits, such as olives and pomegranates. (photo: unknown) Scrub Warbler (Scotocerca inquieta) Bedouin name: abu lefSay Status: Not at risk A tiny but noisy warbler with a habit of cocking its long tail as it moves over the rocks. It is insectivorous, but little seems to be known about its biology apart from their predilection for arid lands. The Bedouin name means ‘tell-tale tit’ because they are always chattering about what is happening in the wadis, which sometimes is supposed to be secret. The Bedouin also say these birds warn other animals about people and snakes by giving out a special kind of alarm call. (photo: Tim Hurst June 2005 St Katherine)

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4.b

Resident birds

In the past there were several species of raptors, including the Lammergeier, but virtually all of these have disappeared either because of hunting, or because of climate change. Indeed, in the 1930s one experienced hunter stated that “practically every other bird in Sinai is a falcon, hawk or eagle”, a very different situation from that of today. Occasional records suggest that breeding of raptors still occurs, such as the adult and juvenile Verreaux’s Eagles seen in June 2005. Sinai Rosefinch (Carpodacus synoicus) Bedouin name: jazama Status: Not at risk A finch with a very thick bill, with the males suffused with a rosy red colour over head and front half of the body. They are more usually nowadays called the Pale Rosefinch because they are far from being restricted to Sinai - indeed, their Sinai distribution is a marginal outpost of a much wider distribution right across to China. They are common the South Sinai, feeding especially on seeds in fresh camel dung: one of the most reliable places to see them is on the paths to Mt Sinai in the early morning, after the camels have finished transporting visitors. They also feed on fruit and are fond of grapes and figs. They disappear from the high mountains in winter because they form winter flocks and move down in altitude. (photo: Mike James 2001 Safsafa) Partridges (Alectoris chukar, Ammoperdix heyi) Bedouin name: shiner, hajal Status: Not at risk The Chukar and the Sand Partridge are both commonly seen running along the ground in small family groups in the early morning or late afternoon. One of the group acts as a sentinel, standing on a high point and keeping watch while the others feed. Chukars in Sinai are an isolated population at the extreme west and south of their natural distribution. The Bedouin say that the Sand Partridges of each wadi are a different colour which, if true, would be extremely interesting scientifically. (photo: Tim Hurst June 2005 Wadi Arbaein) Desert Lark (Ammomanes deserti) Bedouin name: riHidin Status: Not at risk The Desert Lark is the kind of bird that gets ornithology a bad name: a ‘little brown bird’ that is very difficult to identify. It is a medium-sized bird with a noticeably thick yellow-based bill, and a nondescript sand colour that blends in with the rocks, providing a very effective camouflage. They tend to occur as singles or in pairs, and are in fact very common. (photo: Jen Johnson June 2005 Wadi Arbaein)

Blackstart (Cercomela melanura) Bedouin name: qelicei aswad al zanab

Status: Not at risk

A beautiful ash-grey all over except the dark tail and shoulder patch. It is a friendly species, showing little fear of humans. It often fans its wings and tail, and then closes them again, especially when landing or changing perch. Insects are the main food, searching for them in the gardens and orchards. It is less common in the high mountains of the Ring Dyke than elsewhere. (photo: Kathy Meakin Aug 2005 Wadi Gharaba)

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5.

Summer birds

Birds that are summer visitors to the high mountains take advantage of the abundance of plants and insects here, allegedly the wettest place in Egypt. It is also the coldest, one reason to abandon the area in winter. Rock Martin (Ptyonoprogne fuligula) Bedouin name: al baHit Status: Not at risk The northern pale subspecies of this bird, including Sinai, are sometimes called a separate species, the Pale Crag Martin P.obsoleta. It is a typical martin in shape, with a mainly earthbrown colour, paler on the throat and breast, and only the carpal areas under the wing are dark; notice also the pale ‘window’ spots in the ends of the tail feathers when it splays out its tail. The very similar Crag Martin is generally darker, especially on the throat and underwing coverts. The Rock Martin is very common indeed in the wadis of South Sinai in spring and summer, catching insects on the wing during effortless swooping dives and glides. Like its relatives, it builds a nest from mud globules fused together into a shallow bowl, and stuck onto the rock. Unlike them, it does not nest gregariously. (photo: Fred Manata June 2005 St Katherine) Palestine Sunbird (Nectarinia osea) Bedouin name: tameir carabi Status: Not at risk This species is a summer visitor to the high mountains, moving away to lower elevations in the winter. The long curved bill is diagnostic: the beautiful males with their dark purple glossy plumage (which often just looks black) are unmistakeable, but females are drab.They feed on nectar from flowers, and also catch insects. They only occur in Sinai within Egypt. (photo: Tim Hurst June 2005 St Katherine)

Yellow-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus barbatus) Bedouin name: bulbul Status: Not at risk Bulbuls are thrush-sized dark-grey and dirty greyish-white birds with long tails, and darker grey-black on the face and throat. The Yellow-vented Bulbul has a yellow vent and white eye-ring: it has always been a breeding resident in Sinai. Bulbuls occur in small groups, and are noisy and hence noticeable. They disappear from the mountains during winter, and hence probably move down to lower elevations. (photo: unknown)

Bonelli’s Eagle (Hieraäetus fasciatus) Bedouin name: ciqab Status: Not at risk This is a medium- to large-sized eagle. From below, adults have a white body, dark wings with the leading edge white, and a dark tail with a darker broad terminal band; from above, adults also have whitish markings on their back, behind the head. Juveniles are reddish underneath, and harder to identify. There have been 2-3 individuals flying around the town of St Katherine and Wadi Arbaein during the late summer and early autumn, giving hope that breeding might have occurred.

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6.

Migrant birds

Sinai is part of the major eastern flyway for migrating birds on their way from the Palaearctic to Africa for the winter, and back again in spring, and therefore millions of birds pass over it. The spring migration has markedly fewer birds than in autumn. White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) Bedouin name: najac Status: Not at risk White Storks are easily recognisable in flight with their strong black-and-white pattern and their habit of flying in large flocks. Many thousands pass through Sinai on their way to and from their winter feeding grounds in Africa. They fly along the coasts rather than high over the mountains, and so the best place for seeing them is at the coast, especially at Sharm el Sheikh. Town rubbish dumps attract huge numbers trying to feed before crossing the sea to reach Africa. (photo: wikimedia)

Warblers Bedouin name: jazjuz Thousands of warblers pass through Sinai on migration. They come in waves of single species at particular times of year. For example, in late August the gardens are filled with Olive-tree (Hippolais olivetorum) and Olivaceous Warblers (Hippolais pallida). They feed on insects and fruit from the gardens while on the move. Probably the Bedouin gardens represent a very important resource to migrants since immediately afterwards they face the rigours of the desert before reaching the rich feeding grounds of sub-Saharan Africa. (photo: Mike James 2001 St Katherine)

Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) Bedouin name: Saqr Status: Not at risk Buzzards are medium-sized broad-winged soaring raptors with medium-length tails. Long-legged Buzzards are variable in colour but have obvious black carpal patches when seen in flight. Most buzzards are seen as migrants in Sinai, especially in autumn. Long-legged Buzzards are known to breed in Sinai, including in the St Katherine area, but such events are probably very rare. Buzzards are therefore unusual unless you observe their migration at particular places, such as Sharm el Sheikh or Suez. (photo: Tim Hurst June 2005 Wadi Itlah) Sooty Falcon (Falco concolor) Bedouin name: Saqr Status: Near Threatened Adults of this medium-sized falcon are unique in being a uniform bluish-grey, including the ‘trousers’, and a uniform grey under the wings. A scattered distribution around the Red Sea, eastern Libya and the Persian Gulf makes this a rare species. Like the related Eleonora’s Falcon, Sooty Falcons time their breeding in late summer to take advantage of migrating birds, their main prey. They breed on cliffs and mountains in the desert, and especially on coral islands in the Red Sea. They are not uncommon in the wadis of South Sinai.

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Lizards on rocks

Being ‘cold-blooded’, lizards use the sun to warm up so that they are able to move quickly and escape their predators, mainly birds. Therefore they spend lots of time basking on the top of rocks and walls, making them easy to see with decent binoculars. Sinai Agama (Pseudotrapelus sinaitus) Bedouin name: el bleeS qadi Sina’ Status: Not at risk Like the Starred Agama, this is a fairly large lizard with a heartshaped head and strongly built body; the legs are long and slender, and the ears very large and obvious. In the breeding season the male has a startlingly turquoise-blue colour of variable extent over the head and front parts of the body, or sometimes even more; the extent of the blue is a signal of dominance and territory ownership, and fades rapidly in individuals that lose confrontations with other males. When breeding the female has a blue head and some brick-red bands on the back. The male is often encountered perched on the top of a rock, keeping watch for intruders into his territory; there is about one territory every half-a-kilometer of wadi. It ranges from Libya to Saudi Arabia. (photo: Mike James 2001 St Katherine) Starred Agama (Laudakia stellio) Bedouin name: hardun Status: Not at risk This fairly large lizard has the typical broad heart-shaped head and strongly built body of the agamids. It is identified by its spiny tail, the band of lumpy enlarged keeled scales along the sides of the back, the ca. five transverse yellow bands on the back, and the conspicuously banded yellow and black tail. With only a small distribution in Sinai and adjacent mountains areas of Israel, Jordan and NW Saudi Arabia, it is frequently seen in the mountains sunning on rocks, or waiting to attack passing large insects such as dragonflies. (photo: unknown) Fan-footed Gecko (Ptyodactylus spp) Bedouin name: nataaga Status: Not at risk The ‘fan’-shaped feet are diagnostic of these geckos, which are often found during the day on rocks in the wadis. There are two species in South Sinai, one with a tail longer (Egyptian Fan-footed Gecko, P.hassequistii, nocturnal, found at low elevations <900 m) and one shorter than the snout-vent distance (Spotted Fan-footed Gecko, P.guttatus, more diurnal, found at high elevations >800 m). Both species are very common, especially near water. (photo: Tim Hurst June 2005 Wadi Itlah)

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Lizards on sand

Sand is a major habitat for lizards; they are even found in the remotest depths of the Western Desert, far from any vegetation or water. The ecosystem there is based on food input in the form of dying migrant birds, which are then fed upon by a little foodweb of insects, lizards and some mammals. Boscâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lizard (Acanthodactylus boskianus) Bedouin name: cerbaana Status: Not at risk A sand-coloured fast-moving elongated lizard with fringes on its toes, mostly encountered on sand or gravel. It is the commonest lizard in South Sinai, and the only member of its genus except on the plain of El Qaa by the Suez Gulf, where the Nidua Lizard A.scutellatus also occurs. It feeds on insects, and in the morning and evening spends a lot of its time basking to maintain its body temperature. (photo: Mike James 2001 St Katherine)

Dabb lizards (Uromastyx spp) Bedouin name: Dhab Status: Near Threatened Large, strongly built lizards with short thick tails. There are two species in South Sinai: the Egyptian (U.aegyptia), up to 70 cms long, with spiny tubercles on the flanks of the rear part of the body; and the beautifully coloured Ornate (U.ornata), up to 40 cms long, with smooth flanks but with large spiny tubercles on the upper thigh. They are diurnal, living on large gravel plains and wide wadis, where they feed on plants and seldom stray far away from their burrows. In the past these lizards were eaten by the Bedouin. (photo: Francis Gilbert 1995 Wadi Isla)

Ocellated skink (Chalcides ocellatus) Bedouin name: dufan Status: Not at risk Skinks differ from lacertid lizards in having a series of pores on the underside of their back legs. The Ocellated skink has a rounded snout in profile rather than wedge-shaped with a sharp edge, smooth dorsal scales, and is usually olive-grey or brown with scattered white and black scales. There is only one species of the genus in South Sinai. They occur near vegetation, and are usually crepuscular, with variable diurnal and/or nocturnal activity. (photo: Mike James 2001 St Katherine)

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Snakes

Snakes are still fairly common in Egypt, and there are a number of poisonous species to be aware of. Mostly they avoid humans and thus luckily they are seldom seen. Burton’s Carpet Viper (Echis coloratus) Bedouin name: haya, abu gabali Status: Not at risk Vipers have triangular heads with hollow hinged poison fangs, a vertical pupil to the eye, keeled scales, and a stocky build with a short tail. Echis is a fairly large snake (up to 50 cms) with a dorsal pattern of alternating dark-edged pale-grey saddles and large rufous-brown blotches, a lateral series of dark spots, a dark-grey band from the eye to the corner of the mouth, and no ‘horns’. It is a characteristic but uncommon species of the steep slopes of the high mountains, often near water. It is crepuscular and nocturnal, and is dangerously venomous. (photo: Fred Manata June 2005 St Katherine) Horned Viper (Cerastes cerastes) Bedouin name: haya Status: Not at risk Despite the name, only about half of Horned Vipers in Egypt have horns; it is a large snake up to 74 cms long, sandy-coloured with large brown spots or squares on the dorsal midline alternating with smaller lateral dark spots. A species typical of wadis with vegetation and sandy areas, it also occurs in a wide variety of other habitats; it is more common at lower elevations. It buries itself in sand under vegetation, waiting for suitable prey to come to rest in the shade. (photo: wikimedia)

Hoogstraal’s Cat Snake (Telescopus hoogstraali) Bedouin name: haya Status: Endangered A medium-sized thin snake with a black head and neck, and a grey body with about 30-40 thin black bands. This is a rare species, endemic to a very small area of Sinai, the Negev and western Jordan. Not a great deal is known about its biology, but it is nocturnal, foraging among plants in mountain wadis. (photo: Linzy Elton Aug 2009 Wadi Gebal)

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Blue butterflies

A large proportion of Egypt’s 61 species of butterfly belong to the Lycaenidae, the Blues family. This is because many blues are adapted to arid habitats, perhaps not unconnected with their ability to form specialised relationships with ants, either obligate or not. South Sinai has two of the half-a-dozen candidates for the smallest butterfly in the world. All butterflies are called “farasha” by the Bedouin. Sinai Baton Blue (Pseudophilotes sinaicus) Status: Critically Endangered The Sinai Baton Blue butterfly is flagship species for the St Katherine Protectorate, because it is endemic to a tiny area of no more than 5 x 5 km around St Katherine, ocurring nowhere else in the world. It is an absolutely tiny species, with some males with wings no more than 6.5 mm long! The hair-fringes of the wings are basally black, a diagnostic feature. The adults feed only on the nectar and the larvae only on the flower buds of the Sinai Thyme Thymus decussatus, itself a rare near-endemic plant. The larvae are protected by one ant species (Lepisiota obtusa) against another predatory ant (Camponotus aegyptiacus) in return for the sugary secretions of the larva’s special glands. (photo: Mike James 2002 Safsafa) Sinai Hairstreak (Satyrium jebelia) Status: Critically Endangered Like the Sinai Baton Blue, the Sinai Hairstreak is also endemic to the high mountains of the St Katherine Protectorate. It has a green underside with a prominent thin white line across the middle. It has not been studied, and hence less is known about it. Adults can be seen at the right time of the year flying around trees of the scattered and very rare Sinai Buckthorn Rhamnus disperma, but also Sinai Hawthorn Crataegus sinaica and cotoneaster Cotoneaster orbicularis. The larvae feed on Buckthorn, and perhaps the other species as well. (photo: Mike James 2001 Safsafa) Burning Bush Blue (Iolana alfierii) Status: Vulnerable The fabulous blue colour of the male of this species is very obvious in the early spring, if you are lucky enough to encounter it. It is a near-endemic, occurring only in Sinai, the Negev and Jordan. The larval foodplant is Moses’ Stick Colutea istria, a small tree whose flowers produce the inflated seedpods in which the larvae feed. It is able to survive bad years because some larvae do not emerge in the year after they were born, but delay from one to several years. (painting: Ahmed Gheith) Grass Jewel (Chilades trochylus) Status: Not at risk A tiny butterfly that is mainly brown, but with orange on the rear edge of the underside of the hind wing, peppered with a line of black spots each topped with a metallic green spot. These are very common butterflies, usually to be found near their larval foodplant, the small prostrate plant Andrachne telephioides that can be much harder to find than the butterfly itself! (photo: Kathy Meakin 2005 Wadi Arbaein)

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Other butterfies

Other butterflies include a Swallowtail, a Brown and a fair few White butterflies with varied life histories. South Sinai contains about two-thirds of all Egyptâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s recorded species of butterfly. Saharan Swallowtail (Papilio saharae) Status: Vulnerable A fairly rare species in mainland Egypt, the Swallowtail is rather more common in Sinai, but is still an unusual sight. Feeding on species of Haplophyllum and umbellifers, the huge and colourful larva is unique. (photo: Jen Johnson June 2005 St Katherine)

Desert Grayling (Pseudotergumia pisidice) Status: Vulnerable The only all-brown butterfly in Egypt. This is the only member of the Browns (the Satyridae) to be resident in Egypt, and it occurs only in Sinai, where it is a very common butterfly. Indeed, quite probably this is not really the Desert Grayling, but a new and unnamed unique Sinai endemic, with an isolated distribution in the South Sinai mountains: only molecular analysis will tell. Its larva feeds on grasses. (photo: Fred Manata June 2005 St Katherine)

Salmon Arab (Colotis fausta) Status: Vulnerable Unmistakeable: salmon pink all over. A beautiful butterfly to see flying past in the wadis in summer, the Salmon Arab has two generations per year, its larva feeding on the very common caper plant, Capparis spp. In some years it can be very common, and then in others one hardly sees it at all. (painting: Ahmed Gheith)

Desert White (Pontia glauconome) Status: Not at risk A white butterfly with black blotches on the wingtips, and the underside of the hindwing covered with green blotches, with the veins picked out in yellow. A fairly common butterfly, especially in cultivated areas and in the mountains of South Sinai, the larva feeds on crucifers such as Silla Zilla spinosa, with two or more generations per year. (photo: Jen Johnson June 2005 St Katherine)

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Insects

There is a huge variety of hundreds of species of insects other than butterflies that live in South Sinai. We have picked out a handful of interesting ones here to represent this variety. Many wadis have yet to be visited and explored by biologists, and hence there are many species yet to be described. Painted Grasshopper (Poekilocerus bufonius) Bedouin name: zagaT, ghakhdab Status: Not at risk This is a large dark-coloured grasshopper that feeds on poisonous plants and ‘borrows’ their poisons to defend itself; when approached or touched, it exudes a froth from its wingbases that contains these poisons. Its Bedouin name means “the one that sprays poison onto girls’ faces”. The female is about twice as big as the male. They occur on asclepiads such as Sinai milkweed Gomphocarpus sinaicus and Sodom Apple Calotropis procera, which contain heart poisons - the cardenolides. (photo: Fred Manata June 2005 Wadi Itlah)

Darkling beetle (Adesmia spp) Bedouin name: coeir el banaat

Status: Not at risk

The Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) are the dominant kind of beetle in the desert, and there are many species, some of which belong to the genus Adesmia. Their domed shape remind the Bedouin of donkeys, and the name here means ‘new-born donkey for girls’. They are important scavengers on decaying plant and animal material, and also act as vectors of the parasites of Spiny mice. (photo: wikimedia) Lunate hoverfly (Scaeva pyrastri) Status: Not at risk This is the largest of a number of species of the true flies (Diptera) that resemble one another, and can only be told apart by an expert with a microscope. They are beneficial insects to farmers and gardeners because their larvae feed on aphids. (photo: Fred Manata June 2005 St Katherine)

Red Darter (Crocothemis erythreae) Bedouin name: ghezlan Status: Not at risk A dragonfly that is blood-red all over in the male; females are brown. These are very common in Sinai, but very little is known of their biology there. Contrary to popular belief, dragonflies are absolutely characteristic of desert environments, using their strong ability to fly to discover every possible water source in which to lay their eggs. Both larvae and adults are fierce predators, the larvae in water and the adults in the air. (photo: Mohamed Eid 2007 Wadi Shaq)

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Anthropods

Some ‘creepy crawlies’ are just simply unpleasant, and Sinai has its fair share, including the fearsome Camel Spider. Camel spider (Galeodes spp) Bedouin name: Tarid el jamal

Status: Not at risk

These primitive spiders are the stuff of nightmares. Essentially a huge pair of jaws on legs - in fact relative to its size the largest and most powerful jaws on the planet! - it moves with lightning speed over the rocks, and frightens even the bravest of men. Some individuals seem the size of dinner plates, with legs that span up to 15 cms. Luckily they are largely nocturnal, feeding on anything they can catch, including small birds and mice. The Bedouin name means’ repeller of camels’, and they maintain that these spiders are deadly poisonous: however, whilst they are capable of a painful bite, in fact they are not poisonous at all. (photo: wikimedia) Deathstalker scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) Bedouin name: caqrab Status: Not at risk The yellow Deathstalker scorpion is extremely common in South Sinai, and is much feared by the Bedouin for its highly poisonous and painful sting, which can be dangerous for very small children or old people. Like all scorpions, the Deathstalker fluoresces at night and can be easily seen with a UV light while it is hunting for prey. (photo: wikimedia)

Camel tick (Hyalomma spp) Bedouin name: qorad Status: Not at risk Huge camel ticks used to be a common sight on Bedouin camels, like large date-fruit shapes hanging down between the front legs, full of blood, or empty of blood scuttling in amongst the saddle clothes. The advent of the veterinarians of the Protectorates means that now most camels are treated, and the ticks are much rarer. The ticks are common in the sand where camels rest; they come out and follow large animals that are nearby, including humans. Try to move around, and see it follow you! (photo: wikimedia)

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Trees

Trees are vital elements of most ecosystems, including even the desert. Here are three very characteristic species that you will see in Sinai. Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Bedouin name: nakhl The Date Palm is characteristic of the desert, and has been cultivated for thousands of years. Trees are either male or female, and most pollination occurs not by the wind, as naturally, but artificially by humans physically taking male catkins to female flowers. They grow at low altitudes and are rather rare higher up in the mountains. A Feiran date stuffed with an almond is a sweet for which Sinai used to be famous. (photo: Francis Gilbert 2004 Abu Seila)

Sodom Apple (Calotropis procera) Bedouin name: cosher Status: Not at risk A small tree with large fleshy leaves, large white clustered flowers with purple tips to the fleshy petals, and large round green fruits; damaging the plant causes a thick milky juice to be exuded, which is full of heart poisons (cardenolides). It is a plant of disturbed ground, and is said to be an indicator of overgrazing; rather rare in Sinai, it is not a plant of the high mountains, but is most common close to the sea. It is pollinated by a large carpenter bee that flies very long distances (many km) between individual trees. (photo: Francis Gilbert 2004 Nuweiba)

Acacia (Acacia tortilis) Bedouin name: seyaal

Status: Not at risk

Like date palms, acacia trees are characteristic of the desert. There are a number of species in Egypt, and four in Sinai (but only this one is common), all thorny trees or shrubs with bipinnate leaves, i.e. the leaf is divided into leaflets which themselves are also divided into leaflets. Acacias are key species in desert communities, supporting a huge range of insect and vertebrate herbivores, including Bedouin livestock. They can survive long periods of drought, making them a very reliable resource in a harsh environment. The Bedouin therefore take great care with the trees, protecting them from damage or exploitation. (photo: Zoltan Matrahazi 2008 Wadi Kid)

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Trees

Here are a few more trees that are notable in South Sinai, including one - tamarisk - that might even be said to form ‘forests’! Retem, White Broom (Retama raetam) Bedouin name: ratam Status: Not at risk Called ‘juniper’ in the Bible, this unmistakeable tree has green (photosynthetic) thin grooved branches, apparently no leaves (they rapidly drop off after being produced), and produces white flowers in February coming straight off the stems. Retem is a very common plant of the lower elevation wadis of South Sinai. In former times it was much in demand for producing the best quality charcoal from the thick roots. It is highly toxic. (photo: Francis Gilbert 2004 Wadi Isla) Tamarisk (Tamarix spp) Bedouin name: tarfa Status: Not at risk A graceful tree with long feathery branches clad in minute leaves, and in spring with spikes of beautiful pink blossoms like catkins. It is very common in Sinai wadis, and can almost form dense thickets in some places (e.g. Tarfa, named after it, on the road from Feiran to St Katherine). In former times it was much used for firewood. (photo: wikimedia)

Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) Bedouin name: saru The cypress familiar to us around the Monastery, on Mt Sinai (basin of Elijah) and in other gardens is a cultivated erect form of the normally spreading wild tree; therefore every tree you can see has probably been planted. They have been cultivated for thousands of years in the Mediterranean, and were probably brought to Sinai by the monks to beautify their gardens. (photo: Zoltan Matrahazi 2009 Farsh Elijah)

Sinai Hawthorn (Crataegus x sinaica) Bedouin name: zacrur Status: Endangered A rare shrub or small tree, with spine-tipped twigs and 3-5-lobed leaves. Many ‘species’ of hawthorn are now known to be hybrids, and the Sinai Hawthorn is no exception, thought to be a cross between C.azarolus and C.monogyna. The root is very resistant to drought, and Bedouin gardeners take advantage of this by grafting onto it fruit trees such as pear, especially the variety known as shitwi. The photo is of C.azarolus. (photo: wikimedia)

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Orchard trees

The Gebaliya Bedouin of the St Katherine area are unique among Bedouin in tending walled gardens containing fruit trees and vegetables. Probably this habit derived from the practices of the Byzantine monks who colonised the area in the 2nd-3rd centuries AD. Almond (Prunus dulcis) Bedouin name: loz A small tree with large spear-shaped leaves with serrate margins, pink flowers appearing in early spring well before the leaves unfold, and large green felty fruit. Almonds are the major produce from the orchards, but are not commercially sold and so much of the produce is not used. In former times the Gebaliya used to exchange their almonds for dates from Wadi Feiran; inserting an almond into the soft jamcei date and pressing them produces al shana, a favourite winter food. (photo: Mike James)

Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) Bedouin name: mishmish A small tree with ovate leaves with a rounded base and finely serrated margin, the white to pink flowers appearing in very early spring well before the leaves unfold. In the old days, the ripening of apricots in St Katherine in May was the signal for families to decamp with their flocks to their gardens in the high mountains. Dried apricots are a major produce of the gardens, but as with almonds, much is not used because there are no commercial outlets. (photo: Tim Hurst June 2005 Wadi Gebal) Wild Fig (Ficus carica) Bedouin name: tiin beri A low tree often with knarled and tortuous branches, with large papery leaves with slightly toothed margins. The large ‘fruits’ are delicious, unlike the small sour ones of the other local fig, hamaaT (Ficus palmata). The Bedouin graft tiin trunks onto hamaaT rootstocks because of the latter’s high drought tolerance. Figs are pollinated by special symbiotic wasps whose grubs feed in the figs. The ‘fruit’ is actually an inside-out inflorescence, a group of flowers that project inwards into the interior rather than outwards, like normal plants. (photo: Tim Hurst June 2005 Wadi Gebal)

Pear (Pyrus communis) Bedouin name: shitwi A small tree with white flowers opening before the rounded simple leaves. Pears have been grown in Sinai orchards for many centuries, with a number of very old varieties. The trees are very resistant, even more so when grafted onto hawthorn rootstocks. (photo: Hilary Gilbert 2007 Wadi Gebal)

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Succulents

Succulent plants are desert-adapted for water conservation, storing water in their stems and leaves. Often the leaves are either absent or very inconspicuous, an adaptation to reducing the rate of photosynthesis with its inevitable loss of water through transpiration. They are usually poisonous to defend their water stores. Soapwort (Anabasis articulata) Bedouin name: cajram Status: Not at risk A peculiar plant with segmented stems and apparently no leaves; very like Hammada elegans but internodes shorter and thicker, and the plant does not dry yellow. Very common outside the Ring Dyke, if the plant is picked and rubbed with water, a usable soap is produced. (photo: Zoltan Matrahazi 2009 Wadi Nogra)

Bean caper (Zygophyllum spp) Bedouin name: qarmal, jarmal

Status: Not at risk

Another strange plant that seems to be made of small sausage-shaped green balloons! Some species have edible flower buds used as a substitute for capers, but many are poisonous. Very common on the plain of El Qaa. (photo: Francis Gilbert 2004 Wadi Isla)

Gymnocarpos decandrum

Bedouin name: jard

Status: Not at risk

A woody shrub with small fleshy bulbous leaves. It is a favourite grazing plants of livestock, and is used as camel fodder, and so presumably is not chemically defended. (photo: Francis Gilbert 2004 Wadi Isla)

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Poisonous plants

Many Sinai plants are poisonous to their own herbivores, but some plants are particularly poisonous to humans, and should be avoided if possible. Sinai Milkweed (Gomphocarpus sinaicus) Bedouin name: Harjal Status: Not at risk Milkweeds have their centre of diversity in the New World, but one lineage colonised Africa: this is its most northerly representative. The milky latex contains high concentrations of heart poisons. Some insects have overcome this defence and use the chemical in their own defence: a bright yellow aphid, a bright red bug, and a weevil whose larva feeds on the seeds in the seed pods. (photo: Mike James)

Syrian Rue (Peganum harmala) Bedouin name: Harmal Status: Not at risk This plant has a strategy unusual among Sinai plants. In early summer the very dark green foliage grows rapidly from the rootstock, and it produces large white flowers, and then threevalved fruits. Having dispersed its seeds, the above-ground parts dry to dead straw stalks and the plant spends most of the year underground as a rootstock. Highly poisonous, with an alkaloid that has been used as a ‘truth drug’, the seeds are hallucinogenic; the plant is the source of the dye ‘Turkey Red’ used for carpets and tarbooshes, and also many medicinal drugs. (photo: Mike James) Henbane (Hyoscyamus spp) Bedouin name: sakaraan Status: Not at risk There are six species in Sinai, the common ones being succulent perennials with white and purple flowers, with either smooth (H.muticus) or hairy (H.boveanus) stems and leaves. The plants often form large mats of fresh and dead dry plant material. They are highly toxic, and their poisons have been used to kill people and pests for centuries; the seeds can remain dormant for at least 100 years. (photo: Hilary Gilbert 2006 Abu Seila)

Wild melons (Citrullus colocynthis, Cucumis prophetarum) Bedouin name: HanDal, HanDlaan Status: Not at risk These are both prostrate plants that trail along the ground, with large and obvious round fruits, Cucumis (up to 4.5 cm diameter) smaller than Citrullus (6-12 cms). Despite appearances the fruit is very bitter to toxic. (photo: Francis Gilbert 1996 Wadi Isla)

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Spiny plants

Most desert plants are heavily defended in some way or another against herbivores. Spines are aimed at repelling vertebrate herbivores, whilst chemical poisons are usually aimed at invertebrates, particularly insects. Silla (Zilla spinosa) Bedouin name: silla

Status: Not at risk

A cushion plant normally without leaves, consisting of a ball of intricately branched stems; similar to Launaea spinosa, but has blue cruciferous rather than yellow composite flowers, and blue-green rather than green stems. One of the commonest of Sinai plants, growing very large where there is adequate and consistent water. A favoured plant for camel fodder. (photo: Zoltan Matrahazi 2009 Gebel Abbas Basha)

Fagonia (Fagonia spp) Bedouin name: woraqa, shkaca

Status: Not at risk

These are a set of small prostrate spiny herbs or shrubs, some compact and some more etiolate, with tri- and/or unifoliate leaves and beautiful purple flowers. They are extremely common in the wadis of South Sinai. They are used in traditional medicine to help to heal wounds. (photo: Mike James 2001 St Katherine)

Caper (Capparis spp) Bedouin name: laSaf

Status: Not at risk

Shrubs with spines and simple alternate leaves, in Sinai either green elongate leaves and large reddish fruits (C.sinaica) or with grey round leaves covered with fine whitish down, and small green fruits (C.spinosa). These shrubs grow on the rocky sides of wadis in the most inaccessible places. The large white flowers last only half a day, but attract many insect visitors including rare bees. (photo: Francis Gilbert 2005 Wadi Arbaein)

Thistle (Onopordum alexandrinum) Bedouin name: kacuub Status: Vulnerable A typical large thistle up to 1.2 m high, with large solitary purple flowerheads and very spiny stems and leaves. Frequent in Bedouin gardens, the large flowerhead is a resource for a set of specialist insect herbivores. (photo: Fred Manata June 2005 Wadi Arbaein)

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Spiny plants

Many spiny plants belong to the family Asteraceae (=Compositae), particularly well represented in the South Sinai mountains and wadis. Knapweed (Centaurea spp) Bedouin name: merur, leHya, ghibaari are rare

Status: Many species

Typical knapweeds but with the flowerheads but not the rest of the plant armoured with spines of various lengths in the different species. The flowerheads are a beautiful pinky red with yellow pollen. After the flowers are finished and the seeds dispersed, the bleached opened-out bracts remain with their spines. (photo: Francis Gilbert 2005 Wadi Ahmar)

Spiny Globe Thistle (Echinops spinosus) Bedouin name: khosheer, asharah Status: Not at risk A thistle where the flowerhead is spherical and spiny, with bluish-white flowers; when the flowers have finished, the spiny head remains. The plant grows in rock crevices and precipitous slopes, and is one of the most characteristic plants of the rocky high mountains. (photo: Francis Gilbert 2005 Wadi Gebal)

Spiny Milkvetch (Astragalus spinosus) Bedouin name: jadas Status: Not at risk This is a small spiny dwarf shrub with ‘wool’ in between the spines; the flowers are almost hidden within the ‘wool’, and inflate to form the fruit. It is used in traditional medicine to treat kidney pain and asthma. (photo: Gordon Wilkinson St Katherine)

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19.

Very hairy herbs with yellow flowers

Defensive sticky or irritant hairs form another way in which plants defend themselves against herbivores. Sticky hairs are aimed at insects, whereas irritant hairs are probably anti-mammal defences. Yellow Alkanet (Alkanna orientalis) Bedouin name: loubayd Status: Vulnerable An easily recognasible plant with its yellow trumpet-like flowers and excessively sticky glandular hairs covering the entire plant. It is a highmountain plant, fading away almost immediately one leaves the Ring Dyke in South Sinai, with a fairly restricted distribution elsewhere in the eastern Mediterranean and other mountain-top outposts. It is an important nectar source for native bees. (photo: Mike James)

Sinai Jerusalem Sage (Phlomis aurea) Bedouin name: cawarwar Status: Vulnerable A large plant with large distinct whorls of yellow flowers, it is a Sinai endemic, occurring nowhere else in the world (except that now one can buy it as a garden plant!). It is restricted to the high mountains only, but there it is a very common plant in rocky gullies. The stems and leaves are covered in thick golden woolly hair, but they are irritant hairs especially painful if they get in the eyes. (photo: Mike James 2001 Safsafa)

Sinai Mullein (Verbascum sinaiticum) Bedouin name: kherma, widaan el Homar

Status: Vulnerable

Charasteristic tall spike of yellow flowers rising up to 2 m from a basal rosette. There are six species of mullein in Sinai, four of them rare nearendemics with small world distributions. The Sinai Mullein is the tallest, but despite its name it is widely distributed from East Africa to Pakistan. It is a biennial, remaining a rosette for more than one year before throwing up the flowering spike in its second year. (photo: Mike James 2001 Wadi Gebal)

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20.

Strongly scented herbs with white flowers

The scent of aromatic herbs fills the air of the wadis in South Sinai, contributing to the feeling of the sanctity of the area. The scents are actually chemical defences of the plants, usually against insect herbivores, but often have medicinal value for humans as well. We have organised these plants by the colour of their flowers. Sinai Thyme (Thymus decussatus) Bedouin name: zacataraan Status: Endangered A cushion plant that can exceptionally reach a metre across, covered in white tubular zygomorphic flowers. This is a rare nearendemic, occurring only in the St Katherine area above 1800 m altitude, and neighbouring high-mountain areas of the Hejaz in NW Saudi Arabia. It is the foodplant of the endemic Sinai Baton Blue butterfly. (photo: Francis Gilbert 2004 Safsafa)

Oregano (Origanum syriacum) Bedouin name: zacatar Status: Not at risk With its mass of small white flowers and distinctive scent, oregano can be found in many of the high-mountain wadis of South Sinai. Called ‘hyssop’ in the Bible, it is used fresh in foods of many kinds. (photo: Mike James 2001 Wadi Gebal)

Felty Germander (Teucrium polium) Bedouin name: jacada Status: Not at risk A dwarf woody-based perennial with leaves and stems covered with woolly hair, the inflorescence forms a tight flowerhead of white flowers with prominent yellow anthers. It is very variable in its morphology, perhaps varying with altitude or with water availability. A specialised bug Copium teucrii makes galls in the flowerheads. (photo: Francis Gilbert)

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21.

Strongly scented herbs with blue flowers

Many medicinal plants belong to the family Lamiaceae (=Labiatae): here are three of them with blue flowers. Horsemint (Mentha longifolia) Bedouin name: habak, habag

Status: Not at risk

This mint has characteristic long spikes of tiny blue flowers, and is an indicator of water. It grows wherever water is abundantly available either near or at the surface of the ground. It can substitute for spearmint or ordinary mint in tea. (photo: Gordon Wilkinson St Katherine)

Desert Lavender (Lavandula coronopifolia) Bedouin name: zeita Status: Not at risk A perennial woody at the base, with leaves divided into thin multiple ‘branches’ (2-3 pinnatisect) and many almost-smooth stems with spikes of beautiful paleblue zygomorphic flowers. (photo: Francis Gilbert 2004 Wadi Isla)

Sinai Catmint (Nepeta septemcrenata) Bedouin name: ghameeSa Status: Vulnerable A perennial woody at the base, with cordate leaves with crenate edges; many stems with flowering spikes of deep-blue narrow tubular zygomorphic flowers. With a distribution only in the high mountains of Sinai and NW Saudi Arabia, this is a rare near-endemic plant. It is pollinated by solitary bees. (photo: Francis Gilbert 2004 Safsafa)

Sinai Sage (Salvia multicaulis) Bedouin name: mardaghosh, bardagosh

Status: Endangered

Sages have whorls of flowers up a flowering spike, and are of course well known for their use in flavouring food. This species has purple flowers set in a large green calyx, and is a rare component of the flora of the mountains of Sinai north to Turkey. The Bedouin make a delicious herb tea with sage as the main component. (photo: Gordon Wilkinson St Katherine)

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22.

Strongly scented herbs with yellow flowers

Here are a set of very characteristic aromatic herbs of Sinai, all of which belong to the family Asteraceae (=Compositae). Fragrant Milfoil (Achillea fragrantissima) Bedouin name: gaySuum, qaySuum Status: Not at risk This is a low shrub with woody older stems; the stems are whitewoolly with hairs, the leaves oblong with an undulate margin; there are clusters of small yellow flowerheads, and the flowers lack rayflorets. The name gives away its intensely fragrant nature. It is a southern Middle East speciality, but is extremely common in Sinai and hence not at risk. (photo: Mike James 2001 Wadi Gebal)

Undulate Fleabane (Pulicaria undulata) Bedouin name: dithdath Status: Not at risk Superficially like Tanacetum and Achillea, the oblong leaves with undulate margins have no petioles, and clasp the stem closely; young leaves are white-woolly, while older ones are smooth and green; the yellow flowers are solitary, with small ray florets. (photo: Francis Gilbert 2004 Wadi Arbaein)

Sinai Tansy (Tanacetum sinaicum) Bedouin name: mir Status: Vulnerable Resembling Pulicaria and Achillea, the highly dissected featherlike leaves are very different; there are 3-6 solitary yellow flowerheads on long stems coming from each main stem. This highly aromatic plant is restricted to Sinai, Palestine and Saudi Arabia. (photo: Francis Gilbert 2004 Wadi Arbaein)

Wormwood (Artemisia judaica, Seraphidium herba-alba) Bedouin name: shiH Status: Not at risk There are two abundant species with dissected leaves that used to be classified as Artemisia, one of which has white-woolly stems and leaves, much thinner leaves and is now separated into the genus Seraphidium. Both are wind- rather than insect-pollinated, and hence they have reduced flowerheads (<3mm) with very prominent anthers so that the pollen can catch the wind. Both are strongly aromatic medicinal plants. The Bedouin make a tea from the stems and leaves, and inhale the vapour to relieve headcolds. White cotton-like balls on the plants are insect galls that the Bedouin use as tinder to start fires. (photo: Gordon Wilkinson St Katherine)

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23.

Miscellany

This is a miscellaneous set of plants, all common in the high mountains, with woundwort having a rather wider distribution than the other two. Egyptian Woundwort (Stachys aegyptiaca) Bedouin name: gorTom, qorTom Status: Vulnerable Like all its relatives, Stachys has a square stem covered in thin woolly hair; it has a flowering spike of pale pink and white zygomorphic flowers. It is very common in many of the mountain wadis. (photo: Francis Gilbert 2004 Wadi Arbaein)

Sinai Plantain (Plantago sinaica) Bedouin name: Heweit elbadan Status: Endangered This is the only woody species of its genus in Egypt, and it is a Sinai endemic, found nowhere else in the world. It is very common in Wadi Gebal, but hardly seen anywhere below 1800 m. (photo: Francis Gilbert 2004 Wadi Gebal)

Sinai Spurge (Euphorbia sanctae-catharinae) Bedouin name: wideina Status: Endangered This is a member of a large genus of 41 species in Egypt, with very varied forms¸but all exuding a milky latex when damaged and with a characteristic inflorescence called a cyathium, consisting of a single female flower surrounded by several male flowers. This endemic high-mountain species is more or less prostrate, woody, with hairless fleshy leaves with a grey-green waxy bloom on them. It is common in Wadi Gebal, but not elsewhere.

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PART IV. – Dictionary Note that it is very difficult to transliterate Arabic sounds to English, or the other way around. There are several complex systems used by academic works, dictionaries and language books – our dictionary only aims to be an aid to help you communicate with your guide and is much simpler. You, as well as the guide using this dictionary, will not be perfectly accurate, but this is part of the fun; learning some basics from each other. This is the first edition of the dictionary and will be updated sometime in 2010. If you have any comments or want to make suggestions, you are welcome to do so at updates@discoversinai.net .

The pronunciation of words is based on the local Bedouin dialect, which slightly differs from the Egyptian. There are also words only used in the Bedouin language; if relevant they are included and marked with an asterix (*). There are sounds in Arabic which for most Westerners are difficult to pronunciate; they are marked and explained below, but do not worry too much about mastering them unless you are taking learning Arabic very seriously – a close enough attempt will most often do. Following are some notes on how to read the phonetic transliteration of Arabic words in this dictionary and pronunciate the sounds. a aa ay ai ’

b d d e ee f g gh h h

As the vowel in hut or hat. As the vowel in bar or bad. As the vowel in name. As the vowel in mine. The famous ayn – a sound formed deep in the throat. It usually follows an a or aa sound, although is possible with other vowels. As the first sound in bar. As the first sound in door. An emphatic d sound. As the vowel in pet. A long version of the sound e. As the first sound in fit. As the first sound in gate. A glottal g, formed deep in the throat. Sometimes it even sounds as r, although usually g, as in gas, will do. As the first sound in house. A h sound, formed deep in the throat – difficult to master, but usually a h will do.

kh i ii j k l m n o oo r s s sh t t th u uu w y z

A strong h, as in the Scottish loch. As the vowel in tin. As the vowel in feel. As the first sound in job. As the first sound in king. As the first sound in look. As the first sound in more. As the first sound in name. As the vowel in top. As the vowel in hole. A rolled r. As the first sound in sit. An emphatic s sound. As the first sound in shop. As the first sound in top. An emphatic t sound. As the first sound in thin. As the vowel in put. As the vowel in loop. As the first sound in what. As the first sound in yellow. As the first sound in zebra.

.‫ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺎت ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻰ اﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮس ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﺮب ﻟﺘﺴﺎﻋﺪهﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻨﻄﻖ اﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬ .‫ ﺗﻨﻄﻖ ﻓﻰ آﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﻄﻖ ﻟﻨﻮع ﺳﻴﺎرة ﻓﻮﻟﻔﻮ‬: ‫ڤ‬ .‫ ﺗﻨﻄﻖ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﺮف اﻟﺒﺎء وﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ‬: ‫پ‬

.‫ ﻣﺜﻞ آﻠﻤﺔ ﺟﻤﻞ ﻓﻰ اﻟﻨﻄﻖ اﻟﻤﺼﺮى‬: ‫ج‬ .‫ ﻣﺜﻞ آﻠﻤﺔ ﺟﻤﻞ ﻓﻰ اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ اﻟﻔﺼﺤﺔ‬: ‫چ‬

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Numbers English zero (0)

Arabic in English safr, ziro

one (1)

waahid

two (2)

itnayn

three (3)

talaata

four (4)

arbaa’

five (5)

khamsa

six (6)

sitta

seven (7)

sabaa’

eight (8)

tamanya

nine (9)

tisaa’

ten

aa’shara

eleven

hadaashar

twelve

itnaashar

thirteen

talataashar

fourteen

arba’taashar

fifteen

khamastaashar

sixteen

sittaashar

seventeen

saba’taashar

eighteen

tamantaashar

nineteen

tisa’taashar

twenty

a’shriin

twenty one

waahid u a’shriin

twenty two

itnayn u a’shriin

twenty three

talaata u a’shriin

thirty

talatiin

forty

arba’iin

fifty

khamsiin

sixty

sittiin

seventy

saba’iin

eighty

tamanyiin

ninety

tisa’iin

hundred

miyya

two hundred

mitayn

three hundred

totomiyya

four hundred

ruba’miyya

five hundred

khamsomiyya

six hundred

sittomiyya

seven hundred

sabomiyya

eight hundred

tomnomiyya

nine hundred

tisomiyya

nine hundred and twenty seven

tisomiyya u saba’ u a’shriin

thousand

alf

two thousand

alfayn

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫زﻳﺮو‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ﺗﻮ‬ ‫ﺛﺮي‬ ‫ﻓﻮر‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻳﭫ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺲ‬ ‫ﺳﭭﻦ‬ ‫اﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻦ‬ ‫اﻳﻠﻴﭭﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﭫ‬ ‫ﺛﺮﺗﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻮرﺗﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺴﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﭭﻨﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻳﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻳﻨﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻳﻨﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻳﻨﺘﻲ ون‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻳﻨﺘﻲ ﺗﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻳﻨﺘﻲ ﺛﺮي‬ ‫ﺛﺮﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻮرﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﭭﻨﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻳﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻳﻨﺘﻲ‬ ‫هﻨﺪرﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮ هﻨﺪرﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺮي هﻨﺪرﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻮر هﻨﺪرﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻳﭫ هﻨﺪرﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺲ هﻨﺪرﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﭭﻦ هﻨﺪرﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﻳﺖ هﻨﺪرﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻳﻦ هﻨﺪرﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻧ ﺎﻳﻦ هﻨﺪرﻳ ﺪ اﻧ ﺪ ﺗ ﻮﻳﻨﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﭭﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﻮزاﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮ ﺛﻮزاﻧﺪ‬

(٠) ‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬ (١) ‫واﺣﺪ‬ (٢) ‫اﺛﻨﻴﻦ‬ (٣) ‫ﺛﻼﺛﻪ‬ (٤) ‫ارﺑﻌﻪ‬ (٥) ‫ﺧﻤﺴﻪ‬ (٦) ‫ﺳﺘﻪ‬ (٧) ‫ﺳﺒﻌﻪ‬ (٨) ‫ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻴﻪ‬ (٩) ‫ﺗﺴﻌﻪ‬ (١٠) ‫ﻋﺸﺮﻩ‬ ‫ ﺣﺪاﺷﺮ‬,‫اﺣﺪﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ اﺗﻨﺎﺷﺮ‬,‫اﺛﻨﻰ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ ﺛﻼﺗﺎﺷﺮ‬,‫ﺛﻼﺛﻪ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ ارﺑﻌﺘﺎﺷﺮ‬,‫ارﺑﻌﻪ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ ﺧﻤﺴﺘﺎﺷﺮ‬,‫ﺧﻤﺴﻪ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ ﺳﺘﺎﺷﺮ‬,‫ﺳﺘﻪ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ ﺳﺒﻌﺘﺎﺷﺮ‬,‫ﺳﺒﻌﻪ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ ﺛﻤﻨﺘﺎﺷﺮ‬,‫ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ ﺗﺴﻌﺘﺎﺷﺮ‬,‫ﺗﺴﻌﻪ ﻋﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫واﺣﺪوﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫اﺛﻨﻴﻦ وﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﻪ وﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﻴﻦ‬ ‫ارﺑﻌﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻤﺴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻌﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﻤﻨﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﻠﺜﻤﻴﻪ‬ ‫رﺑﻌﻤﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻤﺴﻤﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻤﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻌﻤﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺛﻤﻨﻤﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻌﻤﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻌﻤﻴﻪ وﺳﺒﻊ وﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ‬

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three thousand

talatal alf

four thousand

arbaa’tal alf

five thousand

khamastal alf

nine thousand five hundred and thirty six ten thousand

tisaa’tal alf u khamsomiyya u sitta u talatiin a’shartal alf

twenty thousand

ashriin alf

thirty thousand

talatiin alf

hundred thousand

mit alf

two hundred thousand

mitayn alf

three hundred thousand million

totomit alf milyoon

‫ﺛﺮي ﺛﻮزاﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻮر ﺛﻮزاﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻳﭫ ﺛﻮزاﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻳﻦ ﺛﻮزاﺑ ﺪ ﻓ ﺎﻳﭫ هﻨﺪرﻳ ﺪ‬ ‫اﻧﺪ ﺛﺮﺗﻲ ﺳﻜﺲ‬

‫ﺛﻼث اﻻف‬ ‫ارﺑﻊ اﻻف‬ ‫ﺧﻤﺴﺔ اﻻف‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻌﻪ اﻻف وﺧﻤﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﺳﺖ وﺛﻼﺛﻴﻦ‬

‫ﺗﻦ ﺛﻮزاﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻳﻨﺘﻲ ﺛﻮزاﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺮﺗﻲ ﺛﻮزاﻧﺪ‬ ‫هﻨﺪرﻳﺪ ﺛﻮزاﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮ هﻨﺪرﻳﺪ ﺛﻮزاﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺮي هﻨﺪرﻳﺪ ﺛﻮزاﻧﺪ‬

‫ﻋﺸﺮة اﻻف‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ اﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﻴﻦ اﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺔ اﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺘﻴﻦ اﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﺛﻠﺜﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻒ‬

‫ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻮن‬

‫ﻣﻠﻴﻮن‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫أﺑﺎڤ‬ ‫أﺑﺮود‬ ‫اآﺎﺳﻴﺎ‬ ‫اآﺴﻴﭙﺖ‬ ‫اآﺴﺪﻧﺖ‬ ‫ادﭬﺎﻳﺲ‬ ‫أﻓﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫أﻓﺘﺮ‬ ‫أﻓﺘﺮ ﺗﻮﻣﻮرو‬ ‫أﻓﺘﺮﻧﻮن‬ ‫أﺟﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻳﭻ‬ ‫أﺟﺮى‬ ‫اﺟﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﺟﺮﻳﻤﻨﺖ‬ ‫اﻳﺮ‬ ‫اﻳﺮ ﭘﻠﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻳﺮ ﭘﻮرت‬ ‫اول‬ ‫اﻟﻴﺮﭼﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻼود‬ ‫اﻻو‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺳﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﻳﺰ‬ ‫اﻧﺪ‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺮى‬ ‫اﻧﻴﻤﺎل‬ ‫اﻧﺖ‬ ‫ا ﭘﻞ‬ ‫ا ﭘﺮوآﺴﻴﻤﺎﺗﻠﻰ‬

‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎ ل‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺎدﺛﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻴﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ‬,‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﻜﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ اﻟﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ ﺗﺎﻧﻰ‬,‫ﻣﺮﻩ ﺗﺎﻧﻴﻪ‬ ‫ ﺳﻦ‬,‫ﻋﻤﺮ‬ ‫ ﻳﻮاﻓﻖ‬,‫ﻣﻮاﻓﻖ‬ ‫ ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬,‫اﺗﻔﻘﺖ‬ ‫ اﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﻪ‬,‫اﺗﻔﺎق‬ ‫هﻮا‬ ‫ﻃﻴﺎرﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎر‬ ‫آﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻤﻮح‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻮز‬ ‫ ﺣﻮاﻟﻰ‬,‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬ ‫داﻳﻤﺎ‬ ‫و‬ *‫ ﻏﻀﺒﺎن‬,‫زﻋﻼن‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻮان‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎح‬ ‫ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬,‫ﺣﻮاﻟﻰ‬

Words English above

Arabic in English fog

abroad

barra

acacia

siyaal

to accept

yagbal

accident

hadza

advice

nasiiha

afraid

khaiif

after

ba’d

after tomorrow

ba'd bukra

afternoon

ba'd dohor

again

taani

age

a’mr, sin

to agree

yuaafag

agreed

itafagt

agreement

itafag

air

hawa

airplane

tiyaara

airport

mataar

all

kol

allergy

hasasiiya

allowed

masmuuah

to allow

yesmah

almond

looz

almost

tagriiban, hawaali

always

daymon

and

u, wa

angry

za’laan

animal

hayuaan

ant

namla

apple

tufaah

approximately

tagriiban, hawaali

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apricot

mishmish

army

jaysh

to arrive

yasal

artist

fanaan

ascent

tuluua’

ashtray

tafaaia

to ask (a question)

yasaal

asthma

azma

atm (bank machine)

mekanat sarf

aunt (on father side)

a’mmah

aunt (on mother side)

khaalah

autumn

khariif

English back (bodypart)

Arabic in English dahr

back (location)

warra

backgammon

taaula

backpack

shantat dahr

bad

wahash, shiin*

bag

shanta, kis

baggage

shanat

bakery

forn

banana

mooz

bank

bank

basalt

bazalt

basin

farsh

bath, bathroom

hamaam

battery

batariiya, hajar

beans

fuul, fasulya

beautiful

jamiil

because

a’shaan

bed

siriir

bedouin

bedu, beduii

bees

nahl

beer

biira

before

gabl

before yesterday

aul imbarrah

behind

warra

below

taht

beside, next to

jamb

better (than)

ahsan (min)

between

biin

bicycle

‘ajala

big

kibiir

bill (account)

hasaab, fatuura

binoculars

darbiil*

bird

tair

‫ا ﭘﺮﻳﻜﻮت‬ ‫ارﻣﻰ‬ ‫ارﻳﭫ‬ ‫ارﺗﺴﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﻨﺖ‬ ‫اﺷﺘﺮى‬ ‫اﺳﻚ‬ ‫اﺳﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻳﻪ ﺗﻰ ام‬ ‫اﻧﺖ‬ ‫اﻧﺖ‬ ‫اوﺗﻢ‬

‫ﻣﺸﻤﺶ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﻃﻠﻮع‬ ‫ﻃﻔﺎﻳﻪ ﺳﺠﺎﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺄل‬ ‫ ازﻣﻪ‬,‫رﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎآﻨﻪ ﺻﺮف‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻳﻒ‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﺑﺎك‬ ‫ﺑﺎك‬ ‫ﺑﺎآﺠﻴﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﺑﺎك ﭘﺎك‬ ‫ﺑﺎد‬ ‫ﺑﺎج‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺟﻴﭻ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻜﺮى‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺎزﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎزن‬ ‫ﺑﺎث روم‬.‫ﺑﺎث‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺗﺮى‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻮﺗﻴﻔﻮل‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻜﻮز‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺪوﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻔﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻔﻮر ﻳﺴﺘﺮداى‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻬﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﻧﻜﺴﺖ ﺗﻮ‬..‫ﺑﻴﺴﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺘﺮ ذان‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺘﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺴﻴﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻮآﻮﻻرز‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮد‬

‫دهﺮ‬ ‫ورا‬ ‫ﻃﺎوﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﻄﻪ دهﺮ‬ *‫ ﺷﻴﻦ‬,‫وﺣﺶ‬ ‫ آﻴﺲ‬,‫ﺷﻨﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﺮن‬ ‫ﻣﻮز‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺎزﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺮش‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎم‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎرﻳﻪ‬ ‫ ﻓﺎﺻﻮﻟﻴﺎ‬- ‫ﻓﻮل‬ ‫ ﺣﻠﻮ‬,‫ﺟﻤﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺎن‬,‫ ﻷن‬,‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺪوى‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫اول اﻣﺒﺎرح‬ ‫ورا‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﺐ‬ ‫اﺣﺴﻦ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺠﻠﻪ‬ ‫آﺒﻴﺮ‬ ‫ ﻓﺎﺗﻮرﻩ‬,‫ﺣﺴﺎب‬ *‫ درﺑﻴﻞ‬,‫ﻣﻨﻈﺎر‬ ‫ﻃﻴﺮ‬

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birth

wulaada

birth day

ay’d milaad

black

aswad, azrak*

blanket

bataniiya

to bleed

yanzif

blood

dam

blue

azrak, suwemi*

body

jism

boiled (egg, potato)

masluug

boiling (water)

tighli

bone

a’zma

book

kitaab

bored

zahagaan

boring

mumal

boss

mudiir

bottle

gazaaza

boulder

hajaar kibiir

bowl (plate)

tabag, sahan

box

sanduuk

boy

walad

boyfriend

sadiik

brain

mokh

bedouin bread – flat, made on metal sheet bedouin bread – thick, made in fire bread breakfast

futuur*

breath

nafas

to breathe

yetanafas

brick

tuub

bridge

kobri

to bring

ijiib

broken

maksuur

brother

akh

brown

bonni

bruise

kadma, khabta

bucket

dalu, jardal

bug

hasharaat, bag

burn (injury)

harak

to burn

yaharak

bus

otobiis

busy

mashghuul

but

laikan, bas

butter

zibda

butterfly

faraasha

to buy

ishtirii

fatiir, farashiih

‫ﺑﻴﺮث‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮث داى‬ ‫ﺑﻼك‬ ‫ﺑﻼﻧﻜﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻼد‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎدى‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻳﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻳﻠﻴﻨﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﻮون‬ ‫ﺑﻮك‬ ‫ﺑﻮرد‬ ‫ﺑﻮرﻳﻨﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﻮس‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺗﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻟﺪر‬ ‫ ﭘﻠﻴﺖ‬.‫ﺑﻮل‬ ‫ﺑﻮآﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﻮى‬ ‫ﺑﻮى ﻓﺮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻳﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺪوﻳﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﺪ‬

‫ ﻣﻴﻼد‬,‫وﻻدﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﺪ ﻣﻴﻼد‬ ‫اﺳﻮد‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻧﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺰف‬ ‫دم‬ ‫ازرق‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻮق‬ ‫ ﻣﻴﻪ ﻣﻐﻠﻴﻪ‬,‫ﺗﻐﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻈﻢ‬ ‫آﺘﺎب‬ ‫زهﻘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺰازﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﺮ آﺒﻴﺮ‬ ‫ ﺻﺤﻦ‬,‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺪوق‬ ‫وﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺦ‬ ‫ ﻓﺮاﺷﻴﺢ‬,‫ﻓﻄﻴﺮ‬

libba, libbat naar

‫ﺑﻴﺪوﻳﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﺪ‬

‫ﻟﺒﺔ ﻧﺎر‬

khobz, ay’sh

‫ﺑﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻳﻚ ﻓﺎﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻳﺚ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻳﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺑﺮك‬ ‫ﺑﺮدچ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﺮوآﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاذر‬ ‫ﺑﺮاون‬ ‫ﺑﺮوﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮن‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮن‬ ‫ﺑﺎص‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺰى‬ ‫ﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺮ ﻓﻼى‬ ‫ﺑﺎى‬

‫ ﻋﻴﺶ‬,‫ﺧﺒﺰ‬ ‫ﻓﻄﻮر‬ ‫ ﺗﻨﻔﺲ‬,‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻃﻮب‬ ‫ آﻮﺑﺮى‬,‫ﺟﺴﺮ‬ *‫ﻳﺠﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺴﻮر‬ ‫أخ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻰ‬ ‫ ﺧﺒﻄﻪ‬,‫آﺪﻣﻪ‬ ‫ ﺟﺮدل‬,‫دﻟﻮ‬ ‫ ﺑﻖ‬,‫ﺣﺸﺮات‬ ‫ﺣﺮق‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺮق‬ ‫اﺗﻮﺑﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻐﻮل‬ ‫ ﺑﺲ‬,‫ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ ﺳﻤﻦ‬,‫زﺑﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﺮاﺷﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺘﺮى‬

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English cabbage

Arabic in English kromb

café

gahua

cairns (rock trail markers) to call

rojom* yatasal

camel

jamal

camel race

sabak jamaal

cameleer

jammaal

camera

kamira

camp

mukhaiim

can (may)

mumkin

can (tin)

a’lba

can opener

muftaah a’lb

to cancel

yelghi

candle

shama’

cane (bamboo)

gasab

canyon

kanion, sig

car

a’rabiiya

to care (for)

yahtam (bi)

carob

kharuub

carrot

jazr

to carry

ishiil

castle

galaa’

cat

kotta

cave

tabaga*

center

markaz

chair

korsi

change

taghriir

change (small money)

fakka

to change

yughair

cheap

rakhiis

to cheat

yaghesh

checkpoint

kamiin, nogda

cheese

jibna

chemist, pharmacy

sadaliiya

chest

sadr

chicken

farkha

child, children

ay’l, a’yaal

chili

shotta

christian

misiihi

church

kiniisa

cigarette

sighaair

cigarette paper

warag bafra

city

mediina

clean

nadiif

clever

zaki

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫آﺎﺑﻴﺪچ‬ ‫آﺎﻓﻴﻲ‬ ‫آﻴﺮﻧﺰ‬

‫آﺮﻣﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﻬﻮﻩ‬ ‫رﺟﻢ‬

‫آ ﻮل‬ ‫آﺎﻣﻴﻞ‬ ‫آﺎﻣﻴﻞ رﻳﺲ‬ ‫آﺎﻣﻴﻠﻴﺮ‬ ‫آﺎﻣﻴﺮا‬ ‫آﺎﻣﭗ‬ ‫آﺎن‬ ‫آﺎن‬ ‫آﺎن او ﭘﻴﻨﺮ‬ ‫آﺎﻧﺴﻞ‬ ‫آﺎﻧﺪل‬ ‫آﻴﻦ‬ ‫آﺎﻧﻴﻮن‬ ‫آﺎر‬ ‫آﻴﺮ‬ ‫آﺎروب‬ ‫آﺎروت‬ ‫آﺎرى‬ ‫آﺎﺳﻴﻞ‬ ‫آﺎت‬ ‫آﻴﭫ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻴﻨﭻ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻴﻨﭻ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻴﻨﭻ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻴﭗ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻴﻚ ﭘﻮﻳﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻴﻴﺰ‬ ‫ آﻴﻤﺴﺖ‬, ‫ﻓﺎرﻣﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻴﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻴﻠﺪرن‬.‫ﺗﺸﺎﻳﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻴﻠﻰ‬ ‫آﺮﻳﺴﺘﺸﺎن‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺮﺗﺶ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺠﺎرﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺠﺎرﻳﺖ ﭘﻴﭙﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺘﻰ‬ ‫آﻠﻴﻦ‬ ‫آﻠﻴﭭﺮ‬

‫ﻳﺘﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻞ‬ *‫ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺑﻌﺮان‬,‫ﺳﺒﻖ ﺟﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺟﻤﺎل‬ ‫آﺎﻣﻴﺮا‬ ‫ﻣﺨﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ ﻋﻠﺒﻪ‬,‫ﻣﻌﻠﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎح ﻋﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻐﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﻤﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺼﺐ‬ ‫ ﺳﻖ‬,‫آﺎﻧﻴﻮن‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺑﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻬﺘﻢ ب‬ ‫ﺧﺮوب‬ ‫ﺟﺰر‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻪ‬ *‫ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ‬,‫آﻬﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺮآﺰ‬ ‫آﺮﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻪ‬ ‫ ﻳﻐﻴﺮ‬,‫ﻳﻔﻚ‬ ‫رﺧﻴﺺ‬ ‫ ﻳﺨﺪع‬,‫ﻳﻐﺶ‬ ‫ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷﺮﻃﻪ‬,‫آﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺒﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺪﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﺪر‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺧﻪ‬ ‫ ﻋﻴﺎل‬,‫ﻋﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻴﺤﻲ‬ ‫آﻨﻴﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺠﺎﻳﺮ‬ *‫ ورق ﻟﻒ‬,‫ورق ﺑﻔﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﻴﻒ‬ ‫ ﻧﺎﺻﺢ‬,‫ذآﻰ‬

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to climb

itlah

close (near)

graiib

to close

igfil

closed

magfuul

clothing

huduum

cloud

sahaab

coast

shatt (beach), sahal

cockroach

sarsur

coffee

gahua

cold

bard

cold (sicknes)

bard, dishba*

cold (feeling)

bardaan, garsaan*

to come

yiji

come!

taa'l

company

shirka

compass

bosla

to complain

yashteki

complaint

shakwa

composting (eco) toilet

hamaam bii-i

concrete (cement)

sement

congratulation!

mabruuk

constipation

imsaak

consulate

konsuliiya

contact lenses

a’dasat a’yuun

cook (person)

tabbaakh

to cook

tutbukh

coral

shaa’b morjaniiya

cordial (drink)

a’siir

correct

masbuut

cotton

goton

cotton wool

suuf

cough

koha

country

balad

court, tribal court

mahkama, talba

courtyard

hoosh

cow

bagara

crazy

majnuun

credit card

fiiza

cucumber

khiyaar

culture

thagaafa

cumin

kamuun

cup

kabaaya

cut (injury)

jarah

to cut

yigta’

‫آﻼﻳﻢ‬ ‫ ﻳﻄﻠﻊ‬,‫ﻳﺘﺴﻠﻖ‬ ‫آﻠﻮز‬ ‫ﻗﺮﻳﺐ‬ ‫آﻠﻮز‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻔﻞ‬ ‫آﻠﻮزد‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻔﻮل‬ ‫آﻠﻮﺛﻴﻨﺞ‬ ‫ هﺪوم‬, ‫ﻟﺒﺲ‬ ‫آﻼود‬ ‫ﺳﺤﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫آﻮوﺳﺖ‬ ‫ ﺳﺎﺣﻞ‬,‫ﺷﻂ‬ ‫آﻮآﺮوﺗﺶ‬ ‫ﺻﺮﺻﻮر‬ ‫آﻮﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﻬﻮﻩ‬ ‫آﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫ ﺑﺎرد‬,‫ﺑﺮد‬ ‫آﻮﻟﺪ‬ *‫ دﺷﺒﻪ‬,‫ﻋﻨﺪى ﺑﺮد‬ ‫آﻮﻟﺪ‬ *‫ ﻗﺮﺳﺎن‬,‫ﺑﺮدان‬ ‫آﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻴﺠﻰ‬ ‫آﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎل‬ ‫آﻤﭙﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﺮآﻪ‬ ‫آﻮم ﭘﺎس‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺻﻠﻪ‬ ‫آﻮﻣﭙﻼﻳﻦ‬ ‫ ﻳﺸﺘﻜﻰ‬,‫ﻳﻘﺪم ﺷﻜﻮى‬ ‫آﻮﻣﭙﻠﻴﻴﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻮﻩ‬ ‫آﻮﻣﭙﻮﺳﺘﻴﻨﺞ ﺗﻮاﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎم ﺑﻴﺌﻰ‬ ‫آﻮﻧﻜﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﻤﻨﺖ‬ ‫آﻮﻧﺠﺮاﺗﻴﻮﻻﺷﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺮوك‬ ‫آﻮﻧﺴﺘﻴﭙﺎﺷﻦ‬ ‫اﻣﺴﺎك‬ ‫آﻮﻧﺴﻮﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ ﺳﻔﺎرﻩ‬,‫ﻗﻨﺼﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ ﻋﺪﺳ ﺎت آﻮﻧﺘﺎآﺖ ﻟﻴﻨﺴﻴﺰ‬,‫ﻋﺪﺳ ﺎت ﻻﺻ ﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻮن‬ ‫آﻮك‬ ‫ﻃﺒﺎخ‬ ‫آﻮك‬ ‫ﻳﻄﺒﺦ‬ ‫آﻮرال‬ ‫ ﺷﻌﺐ ﻣﺮﺟﺎﻧﻴﻪ‬,‫ﻣﺮﺟﺎن‬ ‫آﻮردﻳﺎل‬ ‫ ﺷﺮﺑﺎت‬,‫ﻋﺼﻴﺮ ﺑﻮدرﻩ‬ ‫آﻮرﻳﻜﺖ‬ *‫ ﻣﻈﺒﻮط‬,‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫آﻮﺗﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻦ‬ ‫آﻮﺗﻮن وول‬ ‫ﺻﻮف‬ ‫آﻮف‬ ‫آﺤﻪ‬ ‫آﻨﺘﺮى‬ ‫ﺑﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻳﺒﺎل آﻮرت‬.‫آﻮرت‬ ‫ ﻃﻠﺒﻪ‬,‫ﻣﺤﻜﻤﻪ‬ ‫آﻮرت ﻳﺎرد‬ ‫ﺣﻮش‬ ‫آﺎو‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺮﻩ‬ ‫آﺮﻳﺰى‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻨﻮن‬ ‫آﺮﻳﺪت آﺎرد‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﻪ اﺋﺘﻤﺎن‬ ‫آﻴﻮآﻮﻣﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻴﺎر‬ ‫آﺎﻟﺘﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻪ‬ ‫آﻴﻮﻣﻮن‬ ‫آﻤﻮن‬ ‫آﭗ‬ ‫آﺒﺎﻳﻪ‬ ‫آﺖ‬ ‫ ﺟﺮح‬,‫ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺮﻩ‬ ‫آﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻄﻊ‬

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English dance

Arabic in English rags

to dance

yargos

danger

khatar

dangerous

khatiir

darkness

dalma, a’tma*

date (fruit)

tamr, balaah

date (palm)

nakhla

date of birth

tariikh milaad

daughter

bint

dawn

fajr

day

yom

day time

nahaar

dead

maiit

deadly

mumiit

deaf

atrash

to decide

yugarir

deep (water)

ghawiit*

descendent

min asl

descent

nazuul

desert

sahra

destination

itijaah

to destroy

yudammar

development

tatwiir

diabetes

marad el sukkar

diarrhea

is-haal

dictionary

gamuus

to die

imuut

different

mukhtaalif

difficult

saa’b, waa’r*

dinner

a’sha

dirty

mish nadiifa

disabled

ma’uag

discount

khasm

disease

marad

diving

ghats

to do

yiaa’mal, isuwi*

doctor

doktor

dog

kalb

donkey

homaar

door

baab

down

taht

dream

halm

drink

mashruub

to drink

yashrab

to drive

isuug

driver

suwaag

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫داﻧﺲ‬ ‫داﻧﺲ‬ ‫داﻧﭽﺮ‬ ‫داﻧﭽﺮوس‬ ‫دارآﻨﻴﺲ‬ ‫دﻳﺖ‬ ‫دﻳﺖ‬ ‫دﻳﺖ اوڤ ﺑﻴﺮث‬ ‫دوﺗﺮ‬ ‫دوون‬ ‫داى‬ ‫داى ﺗﺎﻳﻢ‬ ‫دﻳﺪ‬ ‫دﻳﺪﻟﻰ‬ ‫دﻳﻒ‬ ‫دﻳﺴﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫دﻳﻴﭗ‬ ‫دﻳﺴﻴﻨﺪاﻧﺖ‬ ‫دﻳﺴﻨﺖ‬ ‫دﻳﺰارت‬ ‫دﻳﺴﺘﻴﻨﻴﺸﻦ‬ ‫دﻳﺴﺘﺮوى‬ ‫دﻳﭭﻴﻠﻮﭘﻤﻴﻨﺖ‬ ‫داﻳﺎﺑﻴﺘﻴﺲ‬ ‫داﻳﺎرﻳﺎ‬ ‫دﻳﻜﺸﻨﺮى‬ ‫داى‬ ‫دﻳﻔﺮاﻧﺖ‬ ‫دﻳﻔﻴﻜﻠﺖ‬ ‫دﻳﻨﺎر‬ ‫دﻳﺮﺗﻰ‬ ‫دﻳﺰاﺑﻠﺪ‬ ‫دﻳﺴﻜﺎوﻧﺖ‬ ‫دﻳﺰﻳﻴﺰ‬ ‫داﻳﭭﻴﻨﺞ‬ ‫دو‬ ‫دوآﺘﻮر‬ ‫دوج‬ ‫دوﻧﻜﻰ‬ ‫دوور‬ ‫داون‬ ‫درﻳﻢ‬ ‫درﻧﻚ‬ ‫درﻧﻚ‬ ‫دراﻳﭫ‬ ‫دراﻳﭭﺮ‬

‫رﻗﺺ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻗﺺ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻴﺮ‬ *‫ ﻋﺘﻤﻪ‬,‫ﻇﻼم‬ ‫ ﺑﻠﺢ‬,‫ﺗﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺨﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻟﻤﻴﻼد‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻮم‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﻴﺖ‬ ‫اﻃﺮش‬ ‫ ﻳﺤﺴﻢ‬,‫ﻳﻘﺮر‬ *‫ﻏﻮﻳﻂ‬ ‫ اﺻﻮل‬,‫ﻣﻦ اﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺰول‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺮا‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮض اﻟﺴﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﺳﻬﺎل‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻣﻮس‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻮت‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺻﻌﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺎ‬ ‫ ﻣﺶ ﻧﻈﻴﻔﻪ‬,‫ ﻗﺬرﻩ‬,‫وﺳﺨﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻮق‬ ‫ﺧﺼﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺮض‬ ‫ ﻏﻄﺲ‬,‫ﻋﻮص‬ ‫ ﻳﺴﻮى‬,‫ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫دآﺘﻮر‬ ‫آﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﺎب‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮوب‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺮب‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻮق‬ ‫ﺳﻮاق‬

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drums (instrument)

tabla

drunk

sakraan

dry

naashif, yaabis

duck

batta

dyke (geological)

jidda*

English each

Arabic in English kol waahid

eagle

nisr

early

badri

to earn

yaksab

ears

ozonayn

earth

ard

east

sharg

easy

saahal

to eat

iaakul

eco

bii-i

eco tourism

siyaaha bii-iya

education

ta’liim

egg

bayd

eggplant

bitinjaan

Egypt

masr

Egyptian

masri

electricity

kahraba

embassy

safaara

emergency

tawaari’

empty

faadi

endangered species

muhaddad bialangraad

engaged

makhtub

enough

kafaaya

to enter

yadkhol

environment

bii-ah

epilepsy

saraa’

equality

biltasaawi

equipment

mua’det

evening

bil layl, fil layl*

every

kol

example

misaal

for example

masalan

exchange

taghiir

excuse me

loo samaht

expensive

ghaali

eye, eyes

ay’n, a’yuun

English face

Arabic in English wish, wajah*

factory

masna

‫دراﻣﺰ‬ ‫دراﻧﻚ‬ ‫دراى‬ ‫دك‬ ‫داﻳﻚ‬

‫ﻃﺒﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺮان‬ ‫ﻳﺎﺑﺲ‬, ‫ﻧﺎﺷﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻩ‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫إﻳﺘﺶ‬ ‫إﻳﺠﻞ‬ ‫إﻳﺮﻟﻰ‬ ‫إﻳﺮن‬ ‫إﻳﻴﺮز‬ ‫اﻳﺮث‬ ‫إﻳﺴﺖ‬ ‫إﻳﺰى‬ ‫إﻳﺖ‬ ‫إﻳﻜﻮ‬ ‫اﻳﻜﻮ ﺗﻮرﻳﺰم‬ ‫إدﻳﻮآﺎﺷﻦ‬ ‫اﻳﺞ‬ ‫اﻳﺞ ﭘﻼﻧﺖ‬ ‫اﻳﭽﭙﺖ‬ ‫اﻳﭽﭙﺸﻦ‬ ‫اﻳﻠﻴﻜﺘﺮﻳﺴﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻳﻤﻴﺒﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫اﻳﻤﻴﺮﭼﻨﺴﻰ‬ ‫اﻳﻤﭙﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻳﻨﺪاﻧﭽﻴﺮد ﺳﭙﻴﺸﺰ‬ ‫اﻳﻨﺠﺎﻳﭽﺪ‬ ‫اﻳﻨﺎف‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺮ‬ ‫اﻳﻨﭭﻴﺮوﻣﻨﺖ‬ ‫ا ﭘﻴﻠﻴﭙﺴﻰ‬ ‫اﻳﻜﻮاﻟﻴﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻳﻜﻮﻳﭙﻤﻨﺖ‬ ‫اﻳﭭﻴﻨﻴﻨﺞ‬ ‫اﻳﭭﺮى‬ ‫اﻳﺠﺰاﻣﭙﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻮر اﻳﺠﺰاﻣﭙﻞ‬ ‫اﻳﻜﺴﺘﺸﺎﻧﭻ‬ ‫اﻳﻜﺴﻴﻜﻴﻮزﻣﻰ‬ ‫اﻳﻜﺴﭙﻴﻨﺴﻴﭫ‬ ‫اﻳﺰ‬.‫اى‬

‫آﻞ واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺪرى‬ ‫ ﻳﺠﻴﺐ‬,‫ﻳﻜﺴﺐ‬ ‫اذﻧﻴﻦ‬ ‫ارض‬ ‫ﺷﺮق‬ ‫ﺳﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺎآﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺣﻪ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻨﺠﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮي‬ ‫آﻬﺮﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻔﺎرﻩ‬ ‫ﻃﻮارئ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺿﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺪد ﺑﺎﻻﻧﻘﺮاض‬ ‫ﻣﺨﻄﻮب‬ ‫آﻔﺎﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﺮع‬ ‫ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪل‬,‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺎوى‬ ‫ ﻣﻌﺪات‬,‫ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات‬ ‫ﻓﻰ اﻟﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫آﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ اﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬,‫ﺗﺒﺎدل‬ ‫ﻟﻮ ﺳﻤﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ ﻋﻴﻮن‬,‫ﻋﻴﻦ‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻓﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﺎآﺘﻮرى‬

‫ وش‬,*‫وﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻨﻊ‬

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falcon

sagr

fall (autumn)

khariif

fall (accident)

waga’

to fall

yaga’

false

ghalat

family

ay’la

famous

mash-huur

fan (cooling)

maruah

far

ba’iid

fast

sariiya

fat (stocky)

takhiin

father

ab

fault

ghalta

fauna

hayuanat

fear

khof

feast

ay’d

to feel

yihas

fence

suur

ferry

a’baara

fever

homma, sokhoniiya

few

galiil

fiancé/ fiancée

khatiib / khatiiba

film

film

fig

tiin

fig tree

hamaata*

to find

yajid, yilagi

finger

subaa’

to finish

akhlas

finished

khalaas

fire

naar

fire wood

hatab

first aid

isaa’fat auliiya

fish

samak

flag

aa’lam

flashlight

kashaaf, batariiya

flat (surface)

aa’del

flood (flash flood)

sayl

flora

nabataat

flour

digiig

flower

ward

fly (insect)

dibbaana

forbidden

mamnuua’

foreigner

ajnabi

forever

a’latuul

to forget

insi

fork

shooka

food

aakal

‫ﻓﺎﻟﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻓﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻟﺺ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻣﻴﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎص‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﺎذر‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻨﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺮى‬ ‫ﻓﻴﭭﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻮ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺎﻧﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺞ ﺗﺮى‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻨﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻨﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻨﻴﺸﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻳﺮ وود‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺮﺳﺖ اﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﻓﻼج‬ ‫ﻓﻼش ﻻﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻼت‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻮد‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻮرا‬ ‫ﻓﻼور‬ ‫ﻓﻼور‬ ‫ﻓﻼى‬ ‫ﻓﻮرﺑﻴﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻮرﻳﻨﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻮر اﻳﭭﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻮرﺟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻮرك‬ ‫ﻓﻮود‬

www.discoversinai.net – A guide to the natural, cultural and historical faces of South Sinai

‫ﺻﻘﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫وﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻊ‬ ‫ ﺧﻄﺄ‬,‫ﻏﻠﻂ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻬﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﺮوﺣﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻴﻦ‬ ‫ واﻟﺪ‬, ‫اب‬ ‫ ذﻧﺐ‬,‫ﻏﻠﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻮاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﻮف‬ ‫ﻋﻴﺪ‬ ‫ ﻳﺤﺲ‬,‫ﻳﺸﻌﺮ‬ ‫ ﺳﻮر‬,‫ﺳﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرﻩ‬ ‫ ﺳﺨﻮﻧﻴﻪ‬,‫ﺣﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ ﺧﻄﻴﺒﻪ‬,‫ﺧﻄﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻦ‬ *‫ ﺣﻤﺎﻃﻪ‬,‫ﺷﺠﺮﻩ ﺗﻴﻦ‬ ‫ ﻳﻠﻖ‬,‫ﻳﺠﺪ‬ ‫اﺻﺒﻊ‬ ‫ ﺧﻠﺺ‬,‫اﻧﻬﻰ‬ ‫ ﺧﻠﺺ‬,‫اﻧﺘﻬﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺎر‬ ‫ﺣﻄﺐ‬ ‫اﺳﻌﺎﻓﺎت اوﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫آﺸﺎف‬ ‫ ﻋﺪل‬,‫ﻣﻨﺒﺴﻂ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺎﺗﺎت‬ ‫دﻗﻴﻖ‬ *‫ ورد‬,‫زهﺮﻩ‬ *‫ ذﺑﺎﻧﻪ‬,‫ذﺑﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ ﻣﺤﺮم‬,‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮع‬ ‫ اﺟﻨﺒﻰ‬,‫اﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻮل‬,‫ﻟﻼﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﻮآﻪ‬ *‫ وآﻞ‬,‫اآﻞ‬ 110


foot

rijl

forest

ghaaba

fossil

hafrii

fox

tha’leb, abu husayn*

free (of charge)

balaash

free

hor

freedom

huriiya

friday

joma’

friend

sadiik, saheb

front (in front of)

gaddaam

fruit

faakha

full

milyaan

English game

Arabic in English la’ba

garbage

zabayla

garden

jiniina, karm*

garlic

thuum

gas

gaaz

gas bottle

anbuuba

gazelle

ghazaala

generator

mualid kahraba, motor kahraba*

geology

jilojiiya

gift

hudiiya

girl

bint

girlfriend

sadiika, sahba

to give

yiddi

glass

gazaz

glass (to drink from)

kabaaya

glasses (to see)

naddara

gloves

juanti

to go

imshi

let’s go!

yella, yella biina

goat

may’za, a’nz*

god

rab, allah

gold

daahab

good

kwais, helua

government

hakuuma

to graft

tarkiib shajara*

grandchild

hafiid*

grandfather

jidd

grandmother

jidda

granite

jraniit, graniit

grapes

a’nab

grave

gabr

green

akhdar

‫ﻓﻮت‬ ‫ﻓﻮرﻳﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺳﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻮآﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﺮي‬ ‫ﻓﺮى‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻳﺪام‬ ‫ﻓﺮاﻳﺪاى‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺮوﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺮوت‬ ‫ﻓﻮل‬

‫ رﺟﻞ‬,‫ﻗﺪم‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ ﺣﻔﺮى‬,‫ﻣﺘﺤﺠﺮ‬ *‫ اﺑﻮ ﺣﺼﻴﻦ‬,‫ﺛﻌﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻼش‬ ‫ﺣﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻌﻪ‬ ‫ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ‬,‫ﺻﺪﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻗﺪام‬ ‫ﻓﺎآﻬﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﺎن‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﺟﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﺎرﺑﻴﺪچ‬ ‫ﺟﺎردﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺎرﻟﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﺟﺎز‬ ‫ﺟﺎزﺑﻮﺗﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﺎزﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﻨﻴﺮاﺗﻮر‬

‫ﻟﻌﺒﻪ‬ ‫زﺑﺎﻟﻪ‬ *‫ آﺮم‬,‫ﺟﻨﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺛﻮم‬ ‫ﻏﺎز‬ ‫اﻧﺒﻮﺑﻪ ﻏﺎز‬ ‫ﻏﺰاﻟﻪ‬ ‫ ﻣﻮﺗﻮر‬,‫ﻣﻮﻟﺪ آﻬﺮﺑﺎ‬ *‫آﻬﺮﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ‫هﺪﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺖ‬ ‫ ﺻﺎﺣﺒﻪ‬,‫ﺻﺪﻳﻘﻪ‬ ‫ ﻳﺪى‬,‫ﻳﻌﻄﻰ‬ *‫ﻗﺰاز‬ ‫آﺒﺎﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎرﻩ‬ ‫ﺟﻮاﻧﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﺸﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻼ ﺑﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ ﻋﻨﺰ‬, ‫ﻣﻌﺰﻩ‬ ‫ اﷲ‬, ‫رب‬ ‫ذهﺐ‬ ‫ ﺣﻠﻮ‬,‫آﻮﻳﺲ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮآﻴﺐ ﺷﺠﺮﻩ‬ *‫ﺣﻔﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺟﺮاﻧﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﺧﻀﺮ‬

‫ﭼﻴﻮﻟﻮﭼﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﻔﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﻴﺮل‬ ‫ﺟﻴﻴﺮل ﻓﺮﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﭫ‬ ‫ﺟﻼس‬ ‫ﺟﻼس‬ ‫ﺟﻼﺳﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﻮﭬﺰ‬ ‫ﺟﻮ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺘﺲ ﺟﻮ‬ ‫ﺟﻮت‬ ‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻮود‬ ‫ﺟﻮﭬﺮﻣﻴﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﺮاﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﺮاﻧﺪ ﺗﺸﺎﻳﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺮاﻧﺪ ﻓﺎذر‬ ‫ﺟﺮاﻧﺪ ﻣﺎذر‬ ‫ﺟﺮاﻧﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﭙﺲ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﭫ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﻦ‬

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guava

juaafa

guest

dayf

guide

diliil

gun

baruuda*

English hair

Arabic in English shaa’r

half

nus

hand

iid

handicrafts hand made

mashoghulat yadawiiya sanaa’ yadawiiya

happy

mabsuut

harbour

miina

hard (difficult)

saa’b, waa’r*

hard (not soft)

khashn

harassment

izaa’j

hat

tagiiya

to have

iakhod

he

hua, huu*

head

raas

head ache

sudaa’

health

saha

to hear

yisma’

heart

galb

hearth

magaa’d

heat

har

heat stroke

darbit shams

heater (air)

dafaaya

heavy

thigiil

helicopter

tiyaara, helikopter

help

masaa’da

to help

yusaa’d

Help me! (in case of danger) herb

elhagni

herbalist, healer

hakiim

here

hina, hini*

heritage

turaath

high

aa’li

high blood pressure

daght dam aa’li

highschool

sanawiya

hill

tal

to hire

iajar

history

tariikh

hole

fatha, khorm

holy

mugaddas

honey

aa’sal

a’shab

‫ﺟﻮاﭬﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻦ‬

‫ﺟﻮاﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﺿﻴﻒ‬ ‫دﻟﻴﻞ‬ *‫ ﺑﺎرودﻩ‬,‫ﺳﻼح‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫هﻴﺮ‬ ‫هﺎﻟﻒ‬ ‫هﺎﻧﺪ‬ ‫هﺎﻧﺪﻳﻜﺮاﻓﺘﺲ‬

‫ﺷﻌﺮ‬ ‫ ﻧﺺ‬,‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ *‫ اﻳﻴﺪ‬,‫ﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻐﻮﻻت ﻳﺪوﻳﻪ‬

‫هﺎﻧﺪ ﻣﻴﺪ‬ ‫هﺎ ﭘﻰ‬ ‫هﺎرﺑﻮر‬ ‫هﺎرد‬ ‫هﺎرد‬ ‫هﺎراﺳﻤﻴﻨﺖ‬ ‫هﺎت‬ ‫هﺎڤ‬ ‫هﻰ‬ ‫هﻴﺪ‬ ‫هﻴﺪﻳﻚ‬ ‫هﻴﻠﺚ‬ ‫هﻴﻴﺮ‬ ‫هﺎرت‬ ‫هﺎرث‬ ‫هﻴﻴﺖ‬ ‫هﻴﻴﺖ ﺳﺘﺮوك‬ ‫هﻴﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫هﻴﭭﻰ‬ ‫هﻴﻠﻴﻜﻮﭘﺘﺮ‬ ‫هﻴﻠﭗ‬ ‫هﻴﻠﭗ‬ ‫هﻴﻠﭗ‬

‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻪ ﻳﺪوﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺴﻮط‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﻌﺐ‬ ‫ﺧﺸﻦ‬ ‫ ازﻋﺎج‬,‫ﻣﻀﺎﻳﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻗﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﺧﺬ‬ ‫هﻮ‬ ‫راس‬ ‫ﺻﺪاع‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻌﺪ‬ ‫ ﺣﺮ‬,‫ﺣﺮارﻩ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺑﻪ ﺷﻤﺲ‬ ‫دﻓﺎﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﻴﻞ‬ ‫ ﻃﻴﺎرﻩ‬,‫هﻠﻴﻮآﻮﺑﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ اﻟﺤﻘﻨﻰ‬,‫ﺳﺎﻋﺪﻧﻰ‬

‫هﻴﺮب‬ ‫هﻴﻠﻴﺮ‬.‫هﻴﺮﺑﺎﻟﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫هﻴﺮ‬ ‫هﻴﺮﻳﺘﻴﭻ‬ ‫هﺎى‬ ‫هﺎى ﺑﻠﺪ ﭘﺮﻳﺸﺮ‬ ‫هﺎى ﺳﻜﻮل‬ ‫هﻴﻞ‬ ‫هﺎﻳﺮ‬ ‫هﻴﺴﺘﻮرى‬ ‫هﻮول‬ ‫هﻮﻟﻰ‬ ‫هﻨﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺸﺐ‬ ‫ ﺣﻜﻴﻢ‬,‫دآﺘﻮر اﻋﺸﺎب‬ ‫هﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺮاث‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺿﻐﻂ دم ﻋﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﺟﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬ ‫ ﺧﺮم‬,‫ﻓﺘﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪس‬ ‫ﻋﺴﻞ‬

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honeymoon

shahr aa’sal

horse

hasaan

hose (pipe)

khartuum

hospital

mustashfa

host

mudiif

hot

sokhn

hot (feeling)

haraan

hot weather

har

hotel

funduk

hour

saa’

house

bayt, daar*

how

kayf*, izay

how much/how many?

kam

how much? (money)

bikam

human

bini aadam

hungry

ja’aan

hunting

sayd

hurry

aa’jala

in hurry

mustaa’jal

husband

zuuj, jooz*

hut (from palm leaves)

hoosha

hyena

dabbaa’

English i

Arabic in English ana

ice

talj

ibex (mountain goat)

taytel, sayd

id card

botaaga

if

lao

important

muhaym

impossible

ma’infaash, mustahiil

indigestion

o’sr hadm

injection

hogna

injury

jarah

insect

khanbuush*

insect repellent

bairosol

inside

juua

insurance

tamiin

interesting

mumtah

international

dauli

invoice

fatuura

is

fii, ikuun

is not

mafiish, maikunsh

island

jaziira

itch

hakka

itinerary

bornaamij rahla

‫هﻨﻰ ﻣﻮن‬ ‫هﻮرس‬ ‫هﻮوز‬ ‫هﻮﺳﭙﻴﺘﺎل‬ ‫هﻮوﺳﺖ‬ ‫هﻮت‬ ‫هﻮت‬ ‫هﻮت وﻳﺰر‬ ‫هﻮﺗﻴﻞ‬ ‫اور‬ ‫هﺎوس‬ ‫هﺎو‬ ‫ هﺎو ﻣﺎﺗﺶ‬, ‫هﺎو ﻣﻴﻨﻰ‬ ‫هﺎو ﻣﺘﺶ‬ ‫هﻴﻮﻣﺎن‬ ‫هﻨﺠﺮى‬ ‫هﻨﺘﻴﻨﺞ‬ ‫هﺎرى‬ ‫إن هﺎرى‬ ‫هﺎﺳﺒﻨﺪ‬ ‫هﺖ‬ ‫هﺎﻳﻴﻨﺎ‬

‫ﺷﻬﺮ ﻋﺴﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﺎن‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻃﻮم‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺮان‬ ‫ﺣﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﺪق‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺖ‬ ‫ ازاي‬, ‫آﻴﻒ‬ ‫آﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻢ‬ ‫ ﺑﻨﻰ ادم‬, ‫اﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﺟﻌﺎن‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺪ‬ *‫ ﻋﺠﻠﻪ‬,‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺠﻞ‬ *‫ ﺟﻮز‬, ‫زوج‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺷﻪ‬ ‫ﺿﺒﻌﻪ‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫اى‬ ‫اﻳﺲ‬ ‫اﻳﺒﻜﺲ‬ ‫اي دى آﺎرد‬ ‫اف‬ ‫اﻣﭙﻮرﺗﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫اﻣﭙﻮﺳﻴﺒﻞ‬ ‫اﻧﺪﻳﺴﺸﻦ‬ ‫اﻧﭽﻴﻜﺸﻦ‬ ‫اﻧﭽﺮى‬ ‫إﻧﺴﻴﻜﺖ‬ ‫اﻧﺴﻴﻜﺖ رﻳﭙﺎﻟﻨﺖ‬ ‫اﻧﺴﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﻧﺸﻮراﻧﺲ‬ ‫إﻧﺘﻴﺮﺳﺘﻴﻨﺞ‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺮﻧﺎﺷﻴﻮﻧﺎل‬ ‫اﻧﭭﻮﻳﺲ‬ ‫إز‬ ‫إز ﻧﻮت‬ ‫اﻳﻼﻧﺪ‬ ‫اﺗﺶ‬ ‫إﻳﺘﻴﻨﺎرى‬

‫اﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺞ‬ *‫ ﺻﻴﺪ‬,‫ﺗﻴﺘﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﻪ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺴﺮ هﻀﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺮح‬ *‫ ﺧﺎﻧﺒﻮش‬,‫ﺣﺸﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻃﺎردﻟﻠﺤﺸﺮات‬ *‫ ﺟﻮا‬,‫ﻓﻰ اﻟﺪاﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ راﺋﻊ‬, ‫ﻣﻤﺘﻊ‬ ‫دوﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺗﻮرﻩ‬ (‫ ﻓﻰ )ﻣﻮﺟﻮد‬,‫ﻳﻜﻮن‬ ‫ ﻣﺎ ﻓﻴﺶ‬,*‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﻳﺮﻩ‬ ‫ ﺣﺮﻗﺎن‬,‫ﺣﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺮﺣﻠﻪ‬

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English jacket

Arabic in English banta*

jail

sijm

jam

marabba

jar

bortomaan

jewellery

dahab

joke

nokta

to joke

ihazzar, idhak*

journalist

sahafi

judge

gaadi

juice

a’siir

to jump

yinut

jumper (pullover)

bulover

justice

a’dl

English kettle

Arabic in English baraad

key

muftaah

kidney

kilya

to kill

yagtul

king

malik

kiss

buusa

kitchen

matbakh

knee

rukba

knife

sikiina, khoosa*

to know

aa’ref, khaaber*

English lake

Arabic in English buhiira

land

ard

landmine

alghaam

language

logha

large

kibiir

last

aakhr

late

mitaakhr

laugh

dahk

law

ganuun

lawyer

muhaami

laxatives

mula-in

lazy

kaslaan

to lead

yaguud

leader

gaaid

leaf

warag (shajar)

to learn

yita’llem

leather

jild

to leave

imshi

left

shimaal

leg

rijl

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﭼﺎآﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﭼﻴﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﭼﺎم‬ ‫ﭼﺎر‬ ‫ﭼﻴﻮﻻرى‬ ‫ﭼﻮك‬ ‫ﭼﻮك‬ ‫ﭼﻮرﻧﺎﻟﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﭼﺪ چ‬ ‫ﭼﻮوس‬ ‫ﭼﻤ ﭗ‬ ‫ﭼ ﻤﭙ ﺮ‬ ‫ﭼﺴﺘﺲ‬

*‫ ﺑﻨﻄﻪ‬,‫ﺑﻠﻄﻮ‬ ‫ ﺣﺒﺲ‬,‫ﺳﺠﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻃﻤﺎن‬ ‫ذهﺐ‬ ‫ﻧﻜﺘﻪ‬ ‫ ﻳﻀﺤﻚ‬, ‫ﻳﻬﺰر‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺿﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺼﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻂ‬ ‫ ﺑﻠﻮﻓﺮ‬,*‫ﺑﻨﻄﻪ‬ ‫ ﺣﻖ‬,‫ﻋﺪل‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮ���ﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫آﻴﺘﻴﻞ‬ ‫آﻰ‬ ‫آﻴﺪﻧﻰ‬ ‫آﻴﻞ‬ ‫آﻴﻨﺞ‬ ‫آﻴﺲ‬ ‫آﻴﺘﺸﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻧﻮو‬

‫ﺑﺮاد‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎح‬ ‫آﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺘﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻚ‬ *‫ ﺣﺒﻪ‬,‫ﺑﻮﺳﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﺦ‬ ‫رآﺒﻪ‬ ‫ ﺧﻮﺳﻪ‬,‫ﺳﻜﻴﻨﻪ‬ *‫ ﺧﺎﺑﺮ‬,‫ﻋﺎرف‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻟﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺪ ﻣﺎﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺠﻮﻳﭻ‬ ‫ﻻرچ‬ ‫ﻻﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻻف‬ ‫ﻟﻮو‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻳﺎر‬ ‫ﻻآﺴﻴﺘﻴﭫ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺰى‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺪار‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺮن‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺬار‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻴﭫ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺞ‬

‫ﺑﺤﻴﺮﻩ‬ ‫ارض‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺎم‬ ‫ﻟﻐﻪ‬ ‫آﺒﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺄﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺤﻚ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻣﻰ‬ ‫ ﻣﻠﻴﻦ‬,‫ﻣﺴﻬﻞ‬ ‫آﺴﻼن‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮد‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫ورق اﻟﺸﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﺪ‬ *‫ ﻳﻤﺸﻰ‬,‫ﻳﻐﺎدر‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎل‬ ‫رﺟﻞ‬

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lemon

limuun

lentil

a’ds

leopard (same as tiger)

nimr

less (than)

agal (min)

letter

joaab

liar

kadab, kudduub*

library

maktaba

licence

rughsa, tasriih

to lie

yakdub

life

hayaa

light (not heavy)

khafiif

light (brightnes)

nuur

lighter

wullaa’

lighthouse

fanaar

to like

yihab

lion

asad

to listen

isma’

little, small

galiil, sughaiyir

little, few

galiil, shuwaya

to live

ya’iish

liver

kibde

lizard (in general)

zawaahaf

lizard (sinai agama)

harduun*

local

mahalli

location

mekaan

lock

gafl

to lock

igfil

long

tawiil

to look

ishuuf

to look for

yidawar a’la

to lose

yidaya’

loud

aa’li

love

hob

to love

yihab

my love

habiibi

low

waati

low blood pressure

hubuut

lucky

mahsuus

luggage

shanat

lump

waram

lunch

ghada’

lungs

riatayn

English machine

Arabic in English mekana

to make

ia’mal, isui*

man, men

raajl, rajaal

‫ﻟﻴﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻨﺘﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻮ ﭘﺎرد‬ ‫ﻟﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺘﺎر‬ ‫ﻻﻳﺎر‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺒﺮارى‬ ‫ﻻﻳﺴﻨﻨﺰ‬ ‫ﻻى‬ ‫ﻻﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻻﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻻﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻻﻳﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻻﻳﺖ هﺎوس‬ ‫ﻻﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻻﻳﻮن‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺘﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻮ‬,‫ﻟﻴﺘﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﭫ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﭭﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺰارد‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺰارد‬ ‫ﻟﻮآﺎل‬ ‫ﻟﻮآﻴﺸﺎن‬ ‫ﻟﻮك‬ ‫ﻟﻮك‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻧﺞ‬ ‫ﻟﻮوك‬ ‫ﻟﻮوك ﻓﻮر‬ ‫ﻟﻮوز‬ ‫ﻻود‬ ‫ﻻڤ‬ ‫ﻻڤ‬ ‫ﻣﺎى ﻻ ڤ‬ ‫ﻟﻮو‬ ‫ﻟﻮو ﺑﻠﺪ ﭘﺮﻳﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻻآﻰ‬ ‫ﻻﺟﺪ چ‬ ‫ﻻﻣﭗ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺠﺰ‬

‫ﻟﻴﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻋﺪس‬ ‫ ﻧﻤﺮ‬,‫ﻓﻬﺪ‬ ‫اﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﻮاب‬ ‫آﺬاب‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺒﻪ‬ *‫ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ‬,‫رﺧﺼﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺬب‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺧﻔﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻧﻮر‬ ‫وﻻﻋﻪ‬ ‫ ﻓﻨﺎر‬,‫ﻣﻨﺎرﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺐ‬ ‫اﺳﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ ﺷﻮﻳﻪ‬,‫ﻗﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻴﺶ‬ ‫آﺒﺪ‬ ‫ ﺳﺤﻠﻴﻪ‬,‫زواﺣﻒ‬ *‫ﺣﺮذون‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ ﻣﻜﺎن‬,‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻗﻔﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻔﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ ﻳﺮع‬, ‫ﻳﺸﻮف‬ ‫ ﻳﺪور‬,‫ﻳﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺒﻴﺒﻰ‬ ‫ واﻃﻰ‬,‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬ ‫هﺒﻮط‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻈﻮظ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﻂ‬ ‫ورم‬ ‫ﻏﺪاء‬ ‫رﺋﺘﻴﻦ‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﺎن‬

‫ ﻣﻜﻨﻪ‬,‫اﻟﻪ‬ *‫ ﻳﺴﻮى‬,‫ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫رﺟﻞ‬

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manager

mudiir

mandarin (tangerine)

safandii

mangrove

mangroof

many

kitiir

mango

manja

map

khariita

market

suuk

married

matjooaz

matches

kabriit

mattress

martaba

maybe

mumkin

meat

lahma

mechanic

mikaaniki

medicine

dawa’

to meet

yugaabal

melon

shamaam

melon (water melon)

batiih

menstruation

daura

metal

hadiid

microbus

mikrobas

midnight

nus el layl

milk

laban

mind (thinking)

a’gl

mint

na’naa’

mint (wild mountain variety) minute

habak

mirror

miraaya

to miss (someone)

yuhash nii

mistake

ghalta

mobile phone

mahmuul, moobail

mobile reception

shabaka

monastery

diir

money

filuus, daraaham*

monk

raahab

month

shahr

moon

gamar

more

aktar

more (again)

kamaan

morning

sobh

mosque

jaama’

mosquito

namuusa, ba’uuda*

mosquito net

namusiiya

mother

umm

motorcycle

motosiikl

to mount (a camel)

yirkab

mountain

jebel

digiiga

‫ﻣﺎﻧﻴﭽﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﺪارﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﺠﺮو ڤ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﺠﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎپ‬ ‫ﻣﺎرآﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺎرﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺗﺸﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎى ﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺪﻳﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻠﻮن‬ (‫ﻣﻴﻠﻮن ) واﺗﺮ ﻣﻴﻠﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻨﺴﻴﺘﺮوﺷﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺘﺎل‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮوﺑﺎص‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺪ ﻧﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮ‬ *‫ﺳﻔﻨﺪى‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﺠﺮوف‬ ‫آﺜﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻳﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻮق‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺠﻮز‬ ‫آﺒﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻰ‬ ‫دواء‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎم‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻴﺦ‬ ‫دورﻩ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ‬,‫ﻣﻌﺪن‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮوﺑﺎص‬ ‫ﻧﺺ اﻟﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻌﻨﺎع‬ ‫ﺣﺒﻖ‬

‫ﻣﻴﻨﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺮور‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺴﺘﻴﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺑﺎﻳﻞ ﻓﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺑﺎﻳﻞ رﻳﺴﻴﭙﺸﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻧﺴﺘﺮى‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻮون‬ ‫ﻣﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﻮرﻧﻴﻨﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻜﻴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻜﻴﺘﻮ ﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺬر‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺳﻴﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺎوﻧﺘﻴﻦ‬

‫دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺣﺸﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﻮل‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻜﻪ‬ ‫دﻳﺮ‬ ‫ دراهﻢ‬, ‫ﻓﻠﻮس‬ ‫راهﺐ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﻤﺮ‬ ‫اآﺜﺮ‬ ‫ ﺗﺎﻧﻲ‬, ‫آﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﺻﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻊ‬ *‫ ﺑﻌﻮﺿﻪ‬,‫ﻧﺎﻣﻮﺳﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻣﻮﺳﻴﻪ‬ ‫ام‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺳﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺮآﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﺒﻞ‬

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mouse

faar

mouth

hanak*, khashm*

much

kitiir

mud

tiin, tiina

mulberry

tuut

museum

mathaf

music

musiika

musician

a’zif muusika

muslim

muslim

must

laazim

mute

saamet

English name

Arabic in English ism

nappy

hafaad, bambarz

narrow

da-yeg

nationality

jansiiya

nature

tabiia’

natural, eco

bii-i

national park

mahmiiya

nausea

ghasayan

near

graiib

necessary

diruuri

to need

yahtaaj

needle

ibra

nervous

a’sabi

net

shabaka

never

abadan

new

jidiid

New Year

sana jidiida

news

akhbaar

newspaper

jurnaal, jurnaan*

next

ba’d

next to

jamb

niece

bint akh/okht

night

layla

no

la

noise, noisy

doosha

noon

dohr

north

shimaal

nose

anf, nokhra*

not

la, mish

notebook

kuraasa

nothing

mafiish

now

delwogti, el hiin*

nun

raahaba

‫ﻣﺎوس‬ ‫ﻣﺎوث‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺒﻴﺮى‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻮزﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻮزك‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻮزﻳﺸﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻮت‬

‫ﻓﺎر‬ *‫ ﺣﻨﻚ‬,*‫ﺧﺸﻢ‬ ‫آﺜﻴﺮ‬ *‫ ﻃﻴﻨﻪ‬,‫ﻃﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻮت‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺤﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻴﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺎزف ﻣﻮﺳﻴﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻻزم‬ ‫ ﺳﺎآﺖ‬,‫ﺻﺎﻣﺖ‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻧﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﭘﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺎرو‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺷﻮﻧﺎﻟﻴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺘﺸﺮ‬ ‫ اﻳﻜﻮ‬,‫ﻧﺎﺗﺸﺮال‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺷﻮﻧﺎل ﭘﺎرك‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺳﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﻴﺴﺎرى‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺪل‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮﭬﺲ‬ ‫ﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﭭﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻮ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻮز‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻮز ﭘﻴﭙﺎر‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻜﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻜﺴﺖ ﺗﻮ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻳﺰى‬,‫ﻧﻮﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﻧﻮون‬ ‫ﻧﻮرث‬ ‫ﻧﻮز‬ ‫ﻧﻮت‬ ‫ﻧﻮوت ﺑﻮك‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺛﻴﻨﺞ‬ ‫ﻧﺎو‬ ‫ﻧﻦ‬

‫اﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻔﺎض‬ ‫ﺿﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﺴﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻪ‬ ‫ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻰ‬,‫ﺑﻴﺌﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻏﺜﻴﺎن‬ ‫ﻗﺮﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﺿﺮورى‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺘﺎج‬ ‫اﺑﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﺼﺒﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻜﻪ‬ ‫اﺑﺪا‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻪ اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫اﺧﺒﺎر‬ *‫ ﺟﺮﻧﺎن‬,‫ﺟﺮﻧﺎل‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﺐ‬ *‫ ﺑﻨﺘﺎخ‬,‫ﺑﻨﺖ اخ او اﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫دوﺷﻪ‬ ‫ﻇﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎل‬ *‫ ﻧﺨﺮﻩ‬,‫اﻧﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺶ‬,‫ﻻ‬ ‫ آﺮاﺳﻪ‬,‫ﻧﻮﺗﻪ‬ *‫ ﻣﻔﻴﺶ‬, ‫وﻻ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ دﻟﻮﻗﺘﻰ‬,‫اﻟﺤﻴﻦ‬ ‫راهﺒﻪ‬

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English office

Arabic in English maktab

oil

zayt

ok

tamaam

old (person)

kibiir (fiil sin)

old (thing)

gidiim

olive

zaituun

omelet

omlet

onion

basl

only

bas

open

maftuuah

to open

iftaah

operation (surgery)

a’maliiya

opposite

a’ks

or

au

orange

bortogaal

oregano

zaa’tar

to organize

yunazzim

original

asli

other

taani

outside

barra

owner

saahab

English pain

Arabic in English waja’

palace

gasr

palm (date)

nakhl

palm leaf

jiriid

pants

bantaloon

paper

warag

party

hafla

pasha

baasha

passenger

raakib

passport

basbor, joaz safr

past, in the past

zamaan

pasta

makaroona

path

tariik

to pay

idfa

peace

salaam

peach

khokh

pear

komitra, shitwi*

peas

bizilla

peasant

fellah

pen

galam

people

nas

pepper (vegetable, spice) … percent

filfil … fiil miiya

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫اوﻓﻴﺲ‬ ‫اوﻳﻞ‬ ‫اوآﻰ‬ ‫اوﻟﺪ‬ ‫اوﻟﺪ‬ ‫اوﻟﻴﭫ‬ ‫اوﻣﻠﻴﺖ‬ ‫اوﻧﻴﻮن‬ ‫اوﻧﻠﻰ‬ ‫اوﭘﻴﻦ‬ ‫اوﭘﻴﻦ‬ ‫اوﭘﻴﺮﻳﺸﻦ‬ ‫اوﭘﻮزﻳﺖ‬ ‫اور‬ ‫اوراﻧﭻ‬ ‫اورﻳﺠﺎﻧﻮ‬ ‫اورﺟﺎﻧﺎﻳﺰ‬ ‫اورﻳﭽﻴﻨﺎل‬ ‫اذار‬ ‫اوت ﺻﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫اوﻧﺎر‬

‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫زﻳﺖ‬ ‫ ﺗﻤﺎم‬,‫اﻳﻮﻩ‬ ‫ آﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﻦ‬,*‫ﺷﻴﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﻳﻢ‬ ‫زﻳﺘﻮن‬ ‫اوﻣﻠﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﻮح‬. ‫ﻳﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻜﺲ‬ ‫او‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺗﻘﺎل‬ ‫زﻋﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫اﺻﻠﻰ‬ *‫ﺛﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ ﺑﺮا‬,‫ﻓﻰ اﻟﺨﺎرج‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﭘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻻس‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻟﻢ ﻟﻴﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻧﺘﺲ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﭙ ﺮ‬ ‫ﭘﺎرﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺷﺎ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺳﻨﭽﺮ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺳﭙﻮرت‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺳﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﭘﺎث‬ ‫ﭘﺎى‬ ‫ﭘﻴﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺘﺶ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺰاﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﻦ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﭙﻮل‬ ‫ﭘﻴﻴﭙﺮ‬

‫وﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﻗﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺨﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺪ‬ *‫ ﺳﺮوال‬,‫ﺑﻨﻄﻠﻮن‬ ‫ورق‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺎ‬ ‫ راآﺐ‬,‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﻮاز ﺳﻔﺮ‬ ‫زﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺮوﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻓﻊ‬ ‫ هﺪوء‬,‫ﺳﻼم‬ ‫ﺧﻮخ‬ ‫ ﺷﺘﻮى‬,‫آﻮﻣﺜﺮى‬ ‫ﺑﺰﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻼح‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺎس‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻔﻞ‬

‫ﭘﻴﺮﺳﻨﺖ‬

‫ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﻴﻪ‬

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permit

tasriih

person

nafr, fard

petrol

benziin, betrool

pharmacy

sidiliiya

photo

suura

to photo

yisaur

picture

suura

pig

khanziir

pigeon

hamaama

pillow

mughadda

pink

bambii

pipe (hose)

khartuum

place

mekaan

plant

zaraa’

plaster

lazga

plastic

blastiik

plastic bag

kis blastiik

plate

tabag

plum

barghuug

poaching

sayd aljaar

pocket

jiib

poet

sha-a’r

poetry

sha’r

poison

simm

poisonous

saam

police

shorta

pollution

talauth

pomegranate

rumaan

pool (natural water pool) pool ( swimming pool)

galt, kharaza hamaam sibaaha

poor

fagiir

port

miina

possible

infaa, mumkin

post office

bosta

pot (cooking)

halla

potatoes

botaatos

power

taga, guua

to pray

yisalli

prayer

salaa

present, gift

hudiiya

president

rais

price

saa’r

priest

gasiis

prince

amiir

princess

amiira

prison

sijn

‫ﭘﻴﺮﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺮﺳﻮن‬ ‫ﭘﺘﺮول‬ ‫ﻓﺎرﻣﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺗﻮ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﻜﺘﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﭽﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﻨﻚ‬ (‫ﭘﺎﻳﭗ ) هﻮوز‬ ‫ﭘﻠﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﭘﻼﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﻼﺳﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﭘﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﭘﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ ﺑﺎج‬ ‫ﭘﻠﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﺗﺸﻴﻨﺞ‬ ‫ﭘﻮآﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻳﺘﺮى‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻳﺰن‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻳﺰﻧﻮس‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻟﻮﺷﻦ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻣﻴﺠﺮاﻧﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﻮول‬

‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﺢ‬ ‫ ﻧﻔﺮ‬, ‫ﻓﺮد‬ ‫ ﺑﺘﺮول‬,‫ﺑﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺪﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻮر‬ ‫ﺻﻮرﻩ‬ ‫ﺧﻨﺰﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ ﺑﻤﺒﻰ‬, ‫ﻗﺮﻧﻔﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻃﻮم‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎن‬ ‫ زرع‬, ‫ﻧﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺰﻗﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ‬ ‫ ﺷﻨﻄﺔ‬, ‫آﻴﺲ ﻧﺎﻳﻠﻮن‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻗﻮق‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺪ اﻟﺠﺎﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻋﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﺎم‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻃﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮث‬ ‫رﻣﺎن‬ ‫ ﺧﺮزﻩ‬,‫ﻗﻠﺖ‬

‫ﭘﻮول‬ ‫ﭘﻮور‬ ‫ﭘﻮرت‬ ‫ﭘﻮﺳﻴﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﺳﺖ اوﻓﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﭘﻮت‬ ‫ﭘﻮﺗﻴﺘﻮس‬ ‫ﭘﺎور‬ ‫ﭘﺮاى‬ ‫ﭘﺮاﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻳﺰﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﺮزﻳﺪﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﺮاﻳﺲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻳﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻧﺴﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻳﺰون‬

‫ﺣﻤﺎم ﺳﺒﺎﺣﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺑﺮﻳﺪ‬,‫ﺑﻮﺳﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻃﺲ‬ ‫ ﻗﻮﻩ‬,‫ﻃﺎﻗﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻼﻩ‬ ‫هﺪﻳﻪ‬ ‫رﺋﻴ���‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻴﺲ‬ ‫اﻣﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻣﻴﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺳﺠﻦ‬

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problem

mushkela

program

bornaamij

to promise

yua’d

to protect

yahmi

protected

mahmii

pump

tromba

pushy

intahaazi

to put

ihot

English qualification

Arabic in English tahiil, tadriib

quality

jooda

quarry

mahjar

quarter

ruba

queen

malika

question

sual

quick

siriiya

quiet

haadi

quince

safarjal, tafarjal

English rabbit

Arabic in English arnab

race (competition)

sabak

radio

raadio

rain

matar

rainbow

aluaan el tayf

rash

boga’ jildiiya

rat

faar kibiir

raw (uncooked)

nayya

to read

igraa

ready

jaahez

really (originally)

hagiigi

receipt

fatuura

red

ahmar

religion

diin

to remember

iftikar

to rent

iajr

respect

ahtraam

rest (remaining)

baagi

rest

raaha

to rest

istaraiah

restaurant

mataa’m

to return

irja’

rice

ruz

rich

ghani

to ride (a camel)

irkab

right (correct)

sah, masbuut

right (direction)

imiin

‫ﭘﺮوﺑﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﭘﺮوﺟﺮام‬ ‫ﭘﺮوﻣﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮوﺗﻴﻜﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﺮوﺗﻜﺘﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﭘﻤﭗ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﺷﻰ‬ ‫ﭘﻮت‬

‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻣﺒﻪ‬ ‫ اﺳﺘﻐﻼﻟﻰ‬,‫اﻧﺘﻬﺎزى‬ ‫ ﻳﺤﻂ‬, ‫ﻳﻀﻊ‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫آﻮاﻟﻴﻴﻔﻴﻜﺎﺷﻦ‬ ‫آﻮاﻟﻴﺘﻰ‬ ‫آﻮارى‬ ‫آﻮارﺗﺮ‬ ‫آﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫آﻮﻳﺴﺘﺸﻦ‬ ‫آﻮﻳﻚ‬ ‫آﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫آﻮﻳﻨﺲ‬

‫ ﺗﺪرﻳﺐ‬,‫ﺗﺎهﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻮدﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺠﺮ‬ ‫رﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺆال‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬ ‫هﺎدى‬ *‫ ﺗﻔﺮﺟﻞ‬,‫ﺳﻔﺮﺟﻞ‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫راﺑﻴﺖ‬ ‫ارﻧﺐ‬ ‫رﻳﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻖ‬ ‫رادﻳﻮ‬ ‫رادﻳﻮ‬ ‫رﻳﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺮ‬ ‫ اﻟﻮان اﻟﻄﻴﻒ* راﻳﻦ ﺑﻮ‬,‫ﻗﻮس ﻗﺰح‬ ‫راش‬ ‫ﻃﻔﺢ ﺟﻠﺪى‬ ‫رات‬ ‫ﻓﺎر‬ ‫رو‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻪ‬ ‫رﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺮا‬ ‫رﻳﺪى‬ ‫ ﺟﺎهﺰ‬,‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪ‬ ‫رﻳﻠﻠﻰ‬ ‫ ﺑﺠﺪ‬,‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻰ‬ ‫رﻳﺴﻴﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺗﻮرة‬ ‫رﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﺣﻤﺮ‬ ‫رﻳﻠﻴﭽﻮن‬ ‫دﻳﻦ‬ ‫رﻳﻤﻴﻤﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺘﻜﺮ‬ ‫رﻳﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﺟﺮ‬ ‫رﻳﺴﭙﻴﻜﺖ‬ ‫اﺣﺘﺮام‬ ‫رﻳﺴﺖ‬ ‫ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻦ‬,‫ﺑﺎﻗﻰ‬ ‫رﻳﺴﺖ‬ ‫راﺣﻪ‬ ‫رﻳﺴﺖ‬ ‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺮﻳﺢ‬, ‫ﻳﺮﺗﺎح‬ ‫رﻳﺴﺘﻮراﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻌﻢ‬ ‫رﻳﺘﻴﺮن‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺟﻊ‬ ‫راﻳﺲ‬ ‫رز‬ ‫رﻳﺘﺶ‬ ‫ﻏﻨﻰ‬ ‫راﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺮآﺐ‬ ‫راﻳﺖ‬ ‫ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬,‫ﺻﺢ‬ ‫راﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻴﻦ‬

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road (general)

tariik

road (asphalt)

shayra, asfalt

rock

hajar

rock hyrax

wober

rocket (salad)

jarjiir, rooka*

rope

habl

room

ooda, looda*

round

maduuar

rubbish

zabayla

to run

yajrii

English sad (from)

Arabic in English za’laan (min)

safari

safaari

safe

aamin

salad

salata

salary

marattab

salt

milh

same (thing)

nafs el shii

sand

ramla

sandals

sandal

to save (resources)

yuaffar

to save (from danger)

yunkiz

to say

iguul

scared

khaaiif

scarf

shaal

school

madrasa

scissors

magas

scorpion

a’grab

sea

bahr

to see

ishuuf

to sell

ibiiya’

to sew

ikhaat

shade

dal

shampoo

shambuu

shave

halaga dign

she

hiiya, hii*

sheep

ghanm, kharfaan

sheet (for bed)

milaaya

shell

sadf

ship

markab

shirt

gamiis

shoes

jazma

to shoot

itukh

shop

mahal, dukaan

short

gasiir

shoulder

kitf

‫روود‬ ‫روود‬ ‫روك‬ ‫روك هﺎﻳﺮآﺲ‬ ‫روآﻴﺖ‬ ‫رووپ‬ ‫رووم‬ ‫راوﻧﺪ‬ ‫راﺑﻴﺶ‬ ‫رن‬

‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ اﺳﻔﻠﺖ‬,‫ﺷﺎرع‬ ‫ﺣﺠﺮ‬ ‫وﺑﺮ‬ *‫ روآﻪ‬,‫ﺟﺮﺟﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺒﻞ‬ ‫ اوﺿﻪ‬,‫ﺣﺠﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺪور‬ ‫زﺑﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺮي‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﺳﺎد‬ ‫ﺳﻔﺎرى‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻻد‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻻرى‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺪﻟﺰ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﭫ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﭫ‬ ‫ﺳﺎى‬ ‫ﺳﻜﻴﺮد‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺎرف‬ ‫ﺳﻜﻮل‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺰورس‬ ‫ﺳﻜﻮرﭘﻴﻮن‬ ‫ﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻮ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﭙﻮ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﭫ‬ ‫ﺷﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻴﭗ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﭗ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﺮت‬ ‫ﺷﻮز‬ ‫ﺷﻮوت‬ ‫ﺷﻮپ‬ ‫ﺷﻮرت‬ ‫ﺷﻮﻟﺪر‬

‫زﻋﻼن‬ ‫ﺳﻔﺎرى‬ ‫اﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﺸﺊ‬ ‫رﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺪل‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻘﺬ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮل‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﺷﺎل‬ ‫ﻣﺪرﺳﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺺ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺮب‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻮف‬ ‫ﻳﺒﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﺨﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﻇﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﺒﻮ‬ ‫ﺣﻼﻗﻪ‬ ‫هﻰ‬ ‫ ﺧﺮﻓﺎن‬,‫ﻏﻨﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﺪف‬ ‫ ﻣﺮآﺐ‬,‫ﺳﻔﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﻤﻴﺺ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﻣﻪ‬ *‫ ﻳﻄﺦ‬,‫ﻳﻀﺮب ﻧﺎر‬ ‫ دآﺎن‬,‫ﻣﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺼﻴﺮ‬ ‫آﺘﻒ‬

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to show

yubayn

shower

hamaam, dush

shrine

magaam

shrub

shajara sughaira

to shut

igfil

shy

maksuuf

sick sickness

mariid, wajaa’an*, taa’baan marad

sign

yafta

silver

fadda

similar

zei, mushaabih

simple

basiit

since

monzo, min

to sing

yughanni

sister

okht

to sit

yago’d

sitting place, hearth

magaa’d

skin

jild

sky

samaa

sleep

nom

to sleep

inaym

sleeping bag

kis nom

sleepy

na’saan

slow

batii

small

sughaiyir

smell

riiha

smoke

dokhaan, dokhana*

to smoke

yudakhaan

snake

tha’baan

snow (ice)

talj

soap

sabuun

socks

sharaab

solar energy

taga shamsiiya

soldier

a’skarii

something

haja

sometimes

ahyaanan

son

ibn

song

oghoniiya

soon

gariiban, graiib

sorry

aasif

sound

sot

soup

shorba

south

januub

to speak

itkallam

spoon

maa’laga

spring (water)

ay’n

‫ﺷﻮ‬ ‫ﺷﺎور‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﺮب‬ ‫ﺷﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺎى‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻚ‬

‫ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ‬,‫ﻳﺒﻴﻦ‬ ‫ دش‬,‫ﺣﻤﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎم‬ ‫ ﻋﺸﺒﻪ‬,‫ﺷﺠﻴﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻔﻞ‬ *‫ﻣﻜﺴﻮف‬ *‫ وﺟﻌﺎن‬,‫ﻣﺮﻳﺾ‬

‫ﺳﻴﻜﻨﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻠﭭﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻤﻴﻼر‬ ‫ﺳﻤﭙﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻨﺲ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻨﺞ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺘﻴﻨﺞ ﭘﻠﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺎى‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻴﻴﭗ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻴﻴﭗ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻴﻴﭙﻨﺞ ﺑﺎج‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻴﭙﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻮك‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻮك‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻴﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻮ‬ ‫ﺳﻮپ‬ ‫ﺳﻮآﺲ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻻر اﻳﻨﻴﺮﭼﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻟﭽﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺜﻨﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺘﺎﻳﻤﺰ‬ ‫ﺻﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻧﺞ‬ ‫ﺳﻮون‬ ‫ﺳﻮرى‬ ‫ﺳﺎوﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻮپ‬ ‫ﺳﺎوث‬ ‫ﺳﭙﻴﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﺳﭙﻮون‬ ‫ﺳﭙﺮﻧﺞ‬

‫ وﺟﻊ‬,‫ﻣﺮض‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻪ‬ ‫ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬,‫زى‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‬ ‫ ﻣﻦ اﻳﺎم‬,‫ﻣﻨﺬ‬ ‫ﻳﻐﻨﻰ‬ ‫اﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻮم‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺎم‬ ‫آﻴﺲ ﻧﻮم‬ ‫ﻧﻌﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺊ‬ ‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫رﻳﺤﻪ‬ *‫ دﺧﻨﻪ‬,‫دﺧﺎن‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺧﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﻌﺒﺎن‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺑﻮن‬ (‫ﺷﺮاب ) ﻟﺒﺲ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻗﻪ ﺷﻤﺴﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺴﻜﺮى‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﻪ‬ ‫اﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ‬ ‫اﺑﻦ‬ ‫اﻏﻨﻴﻪ‬ ‫ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ‬,‫ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﻒ‬ ‫ﺻﻮت‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﻮب‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻦ‬

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spring (season)

rabiiya

square (shape)

marabba’

stairs, steps

sillum

to stand

yugof

star, stars

nijma, najuum

to start

yibda

station

mahatta

to stay (remain)

yibga

to steal

yisrag

stomach

maa’da

stomachache

maghas

stone

hajar

to stop

yugof

to store

yukhazzan

store room

makhzan, gasor*

storm

aa’sifa

story

gassa

stove (gas)

botogaz, mansab*

straight (direction)

a’latuul, doghri

straight (line, person)

aa’del, doghri

strawberry

faraaula

stroke (health)

jalta

strong

shidiid, batraan*

student

taaleb

sugar

sukkar

summer

sayf

sun

shams, shamsh*

sun cream

kriim shams

sun rise

shruug

sun set

ghruub

sure

akiid

to swim

a’um

sweat

a’rak

to sweat

ia’rak

sweater (pullover)

buloover

sword

sayf

English table

Arabic in English tarabayza

tablet (medicine)

gors dawa, asbirin*

to talk

itkallam

tall

tawiil

tasty

helua

tea

shai

tea pot

baraad

teacher

muderras

telephone

tilifoon

‫ﺳﭙﺮﻧﺞ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﻮاﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻴﺮز‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺎرز‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺎرت‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺎﻳﺸﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺎى‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻴﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻮﻣﺎك‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻮﻣﺎك اﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻮن‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻮپ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻮر‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻮر رووم‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻮرم‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻮرى‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻮڤ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺮوﺑﻴﺮى‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻮرك‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺮوﻧﺞ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻴﻮدﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺟﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺻﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﻦ آﺮﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺻﻦ راﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﺻﻦ ﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﻮر‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻳﺘﺎر‬ ‫ﺳﻮورد‬

‫رﺑﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺳﻼﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻒ‬ ‫ ﻧﺠﻮم‬,‫ﻧﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﺪأ‬ ‫ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ‬,‫ﻣﺤﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺮق‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻐﺺ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻒ‬ ‫ﻳﺨﺰن‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰن‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺻﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺼﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺗﺠﺎز‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻮل‬ ‫ دﻏﺮى‬, ‫ﻋﺪل‬ ‫ﻓﺮاوﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﻄﻪ‬ ‫ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ‬,‫ﻗﻮى‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺲ‬ ‫آﺮﻳﻢ ﺷﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﺷﺮوق‬ ‫ﻏﺮوب‬ ‫اآﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮم‬ ‫ﻋﺮق‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮق‬ ‫ ﺑﻠﻮﻓﺮ‬,‫ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻮ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻒ‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﺗﻴﺒﻮل‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻮوك‬ ‫ﺗﻮول‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻴﺴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻰ ﭘﻮت‬ ‫ﺗﻴﺘﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻠﻴﻔﻮن‬

‫ﻃﺮﺑﻴﺰﻩ‬ ‫ ﺣﺒﻪ‬,‫ﻗﺮص دوا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺷﺎى‬ ‫ﺑﺮاد‬ ‫ﻣﺪرس‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻴﻔﻮن‬

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to telephone (to)

tasl (bii)

to tell

iguul

tent

khayma

tent (bedouin tent)

bayt shaa’r

thank you

shukron

there

hanaak

they

hum

thief

haraami

thin

rafiiya’

thing

haja, shii

to think

ifakkar

third, two third

tilt, tiltayn

thirsty

a’tshaan

this

haada, da

thought, idea

fikra

thread

khayt

throat

zuur

thyme

zaa’tar

ticket

tazkara

tiger (same as leopard)

nimr

time

wogt

tin, can

a’lba

tip (money)

bakshiish

tired

taa’baan

tissues

manadiil

tobacco

dokhaan, khodri*

today

innaharda, el yom*

together

maa’baa’t, sawa

toilet toilet paper

hamaam, dorat el maya warag toalet

tomato

tomaatom

tomato paste/sauce

salsa

tomorrow

bukra

torch, flashlight

batariiya

too, as well

kamaan, bardo

tooth, teeth

sin, sinaan

tooth brush

forshit sinaan

tooth paste

ma’juun sinaan

to touch

ilmis

tour leader

morshid

tourist

saaiah

tourist police

shorta siyaaha

towel

fuuta

tradition

tagaliid

trail

tariik

train

gatar

‫ﺗﻴﻠﻴﻔﻮن‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻚ ﻳﻮ‬ ‫ذﻳﺮ‬ ‫ذاى‬ ‫ﺛﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺛﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﻴﻨﺞ‬ ‫ﺛﻴﻨﻚ‬ ‫ ﺗﻮ ﺛﻴﺮد‬,‫ﺛﻴﺮد‬ ‫ﺛﻴﺮﺳﺘﻰ‬ ‫ذﻳﺲ‬ ‫ اى دﻳﺎ‬,‫ﺛﻮت‬ ‫ﺛﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﺮوت‬ ‫ﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻜﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻳﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻳﻢ‬ ‫ آﺎن‬,‫ﺗﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﭗ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻳﺮد‬ ‫ﺗﻴﺸﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺑﺎآﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﻮداى‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻴﺬر‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﻟﻴﺖ‬

‫ﻳﺘﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮل‬ ‫ﺧﻴﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺖ ﺷﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﺮا‬ ‫هﻨﺎك‬ ‫هﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺮاﻣﻰ‬ ‫رﻓﻴﻊ‬ ‫ ﺷﺊ‬,‫ﺣﺎﺟﻪ‬, ‫ﻳﻔﻜﺮ‬ ‫ ﺛﻠﺜﻴﻦ‬,‫ﺛﻠﺚ‬ ‫ﻋﻄﺸﺎن‬ ‫ دﻩ‬, ‫هﺬا‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺧﻴﻂ‬ ‫زور‬ ‫زﻋﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺬآﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺮ‬ ‫وﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺸﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺒﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎدﻳﻞ‬ ‫دﺧﺎن‬ *‫ اﻟﻴﻮم‬,‫اﻟﻨﻬﺎردﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎم‬

‫ﺗﻮاﻟﻴﺘﭙﻴﭙﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻣﺎﻳﺘﻮ‬ ‫ ﺻﻮص‬,‫ﺗﻮﻣﺎﻳﺘﻮﭘﺎﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻣﻮرو‬ ‫ ﻓﻼﺷﻼﻳﺖ‬,‫ﺗﻮرش‬ ‫ازوﻳﻞ‬,.‫ﺗﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﺚ‬, ‫ﺗﻮث‬ ‫ﺗﻮث ﺑﺮش‬ ‫ﺗﻮث ﭘﺎﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺶ‬ ‫ﺗﻮر ﻟﻴﺪر‬ ‫ﺗﻮرﻳﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻮرﻳﺴﺘﭙﻮﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺗﺎوﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺮادﻳﺸﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻳﻦ‬

‫ورق ﺗﻮاﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻃﻤﺎﻃﻢ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﺼﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺮﻩ‬ ‫ ﺑﻄﺎرﻳﻪ‬,‫آﺸﺎف‬ *‫ ﺑﺮﺿﻮ‬,‫آﻤﺎن‬ ‫ ﺳﻨﺎن‬,‫ﺳﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺷﻪ ﺳﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺠﻮن ﺳﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻳﺢ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻃﻪ ﺳﻴﺎﺣﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻃﻪ‬ ‫ ﻋﺎدات‬,‫ﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬,‫ﻣﺪق‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬

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to translate

yutarjim

translator

mutarjim

trap

fakh

travel

safar

tray (to serve food)

saniiya

tree

shajara

trek

rahla

tribe

gabiila

tribal law

o’rfi

trousers

bantaloon

truck

loori, arabiiya nagl

to trust

yasig

true

sahiiah, hagiigi

truth

hagiiga

to try

ihaul

tuna

tuuna

turkey (bird)

dik ruumi, dindi*

turtle

sulhafa

English uncle (on father side)

Arabic in English a’mm

uncle (on mother side)

khaal

under

taht

to understand

faahem

university

jamaa’

up

fog

Upper Egyptian

sa’iidi

urgent

diruuri

useful

mufiid

English vacation

Arabic in English ajaaza

valley

waadi

vegetables

khudaar

vegetarian

nabaati

very

jiddan

view

manzar

village

gariia, balad

visa

fiiza

English to wait

Arabic in English istanna

to walk

imshi

wall

hayta

walnut

ay’n el jamal

to want

aa’iiz

war

harb

warm

dafa

‫ﺗﺮاﻧﺴﻠﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺮاﻧﺴﻠﻴﺘﻮر‬ ‫ﺗﺮاپ‬ ‫ﺗﺮاﭬﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺮا��‬ ‫ﺗﺮى‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﺮاﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻳﺒﺎل ﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﺮوزرس‬ ‫ﺗﺮك‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺮو‬ ‫ﺗﺮوث‬ ‫ﺗﺮاى‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮرآﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻞ‬

‫ﻳﺘﺮﺟﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ‬ ‫ ﻣﺼﻴﺪﻩ‬,‫ﻓﺦ‬ ‫ﺳﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺠﺮﻩ‬ ‫رﺣﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻴﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮن ﻋﺮﻓﻰ‬ ‫ ﺑﻨﺎﻃﻴﻞ‬,‫ﺳﺮاوﻳﻞ‬ ‫ ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻧﻘﻞ‬, ‫ﻟﻮرى‬ ‫ﻳﺜﻖ‬ ‫ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬,‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺎول‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ دﻧﺪى‬, ‫دﻳﻚ روﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺤﻔﻪ‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫اﻧﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻧﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻧﺪر‬ ‫اﻧﺪرﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻧﻴﭭﺮﺳﺘﻰ‬ ‫اپ‬ ‫اﭘﺎر اﻳﭽﻴﭙﺖ‬ ‫اﻳﺮﭼﻨﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺳﻔﻞ‬

‫ﻋﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫ﺻﻌﻴﺪى‬ ‫ ﺿﺮورى‬, ‫ﻋﺎﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻴﺪ‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﭬﺎآﻴﺸﺎن‬ ‫ﭬﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﭬﻴﭽﺘﺎﺑﻠﺰ‬ ‫ﭬﺎﭼﻴﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺮى‬ ‫ﭬﻴﻮ‬ ‫ﭬﻴﻠﻴﭻ‬ ‫ﭬﻴﺰا‬

‫اﺟﺎزﻩ‬ ‫وادى‬ ‫ﺧﻀﺎر‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺎﺗﻰ‬ ‫ ﻗﻮى‬,‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﺪ‬,‫ﻗﺮﻳﻪ‬ ‫ ﺗﺄﺷﻴﺮﻩ‬,‫ﻓﻴﺰا‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫واﻳﺖ‬ ‫واك‬ ‫وول‬ ‫ووﻟﻨﺖ‬ ‫واﻧﺖ‬ ‫وور‬ ‫وورم‬

‫ ﻳﺴﺘﻨﻰ‬,‫ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﺸﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻄﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻦ اﻟﺠﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻳﺰ‬,‫ﻳﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺮب‬ ‫داﻓﻰ‬

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to wash

ighsil

watch (time)

saa’

to watch

ishuuf

water

maya

water fall/cascade

sid

water pool

galt, kharaza

water tank

khazaan, hod

watermelon

batiikh

way

tariik

we

ahna

weak

da’iif

weather

jooa

wedding

farah

week

isbuua’

welcome (for thank you) welcome (at arrival)

aa’fan

well (water)

marhabaa, ahlan u sahlan biir

west

gharb

wet

mabluul

what

ay, aysh*

wheat

gamh

wheel

a’jala

when

imta, mitay*

where

fayn, wayn*

white

abiad

who

miin

whole

kol

why

lay, laysh*

wide

waasa’

wife

zooja, maraat*

wild

barri

to win

iksab

wind

hawa

window

shibaak

wine

khamra

winter

shitaa

wire

silk

with

ma’

without

biduun, bala*

wolf

diib

woman, women

mara*, hariim

wood

khashab

wool

suuf

word

kilma

work

shoghul

to work

ishtaghal

‫واش‬ ‫واﺗﺶ‬ ‫واﺗﺶ‬ ‫واﺗﺮ‬ ‫واﺗﺮ ﻓﺎل‬ ‫واﺗﺮ ﭘﻮل‬ ‫واﺗﺮ ﺗﺎﻧﻚ‬ ‫واﺗﺮﻣﻠﻦ‬ ‫واى‬ ‫وى‬ ‫وﻳﻚ‬ ‫وﻳﺬر‬ ‫وﻳﺪﻳﻨﺞ‬ ‫وﻳﻴﻚ‬ ‫وﻳﻠﻜﻢ‬

‫ﻳﻐﺴﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﻪ‬ ‫ ﻳﺮع‬, ‫ﻳﺸﻮف‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺪ‬ *‫ ﻗﻠﺖ‬,‫ﺑﺮآﻪ ﻣﻴﻪ‬ *‫ ﺣﻮض‬,‫ﺧﺰان ﻣﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻴﺦ‬ *‫ درب‬,‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫اﺣﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺟﻮ‬ ‫ﻓﺮح‬ ‫اﺳﺒﻮع‬ ‫ﻋﻔﻮا‬

‫وﻳﻠﻜﻢ‬

‫ اهﻼ وﺳﻬﻼ‬,‫ﻣﺮﺣﺒﺎ‬

‫وﻳﻞ‬ ‫وﻳﺴﺖ‬ ‫وﻳﺖ‬ ‫وات‬ ‫وﻳﻴﺖ‬ ‫وﻳﻴﻞ‬ ‫هﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫وﻳﺮ‬ ‫واﻳﺖ‬ ‫هﻮو‬ ‫هﻮل‬ ‫واى‬ ‫واﻳﺪ‬ ‫واﻳﻒ‬ ‫واﻳﻠﺪ‬ ‫وﻳﻦ‬ ‫وﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫وﻳﻨﺪو‬ ‫واﻳﻦ‬ ‫وﻳﻨﺘﺮ‬ ‫واﻳﺮ‬ ‫وﻳﺬ‬ ‫وﻳﺬاوت‬ ‫ووﻟﻒ‬ ‫ وﻣﻴﻦ‬,‫وﻣﺎن‬ ‫وود‬ ‫وول‬ ‫ورد‬ ‫ورك‬ ‫ورك‬

‫ﺑﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻏﺮب‬ ‫ﻣﺒﻠﻮل‬ ‫ اﻳﻪ‬, ‫اﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻗﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﺠﻠﻪ‬ ‫ اﻣﺘﻰ‬, ‫ﻣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ وﻳﻦ‬,‫ﻓﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﺑﻴﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫آﻞ‬ *‫ﻟﻴﺶ‬,‫ﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ آﺒﻴﺮ‬,‫واﺳﻊ‬ ‫ ﻣﺮاﺗــ‬, ‫زوﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮي‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺴﺐ‬ ‫ هﻮا‬,‫رﻳﺢ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﺎك‬ ‫ﺧﻤﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ‬, ‫ ﺑﻼ‬,‫ﺑﺪون‬ ‫ذﻳﺐ‬ *‫ ﻣﺮﻩ‬, ‫اﻣﺮأﻩ‬ ‫ﺧﺸﺐ‬ ‫ﺻﻮف‬ ‫آﻠﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻐﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺘﻐﻞ‬

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workshop

warsha

world

aa’lam

worm

duuda

wound

jarh

to write

iktib

wrong

ghalat

English year

Arabic in English sana

yellow

asfar

yes

naa’m, aywa

yesterday

imbarrah

yet

lissa, ba’d

you (singular masc/fem, plural) young

ente/enti, entu

youth

shabaab

English zucchini

Arabic in English koosa

sughaiyir

‫ورآﺸﻮپ‬ ‫وورﻟﺪ‬ ‫وورم‬ ‫ووﻧﺪ‬ ‫راﻳﺖ‬ ‫روﻧﺞ‬

‫ورﺷﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫دودﻩ‬ ‫ﺟﺮح‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻂ‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻳﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﻳﺲ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺮدﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻮو‬

‫ﺳﻨﻪ‬ ‫اﺻﻔﺮ‬ ‫ اﻳﻮﻩ‬,‫ﻧﻌﻢ‬ ‫اﻣﺒﺎرح‬ ‫ ﻟﺴﻪ‬,‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ اﻧﺘﻮ‬,‫اﻧﺘﻲ‬,‫اﻧﺖ‬

‫ﻳﻨﺞ‬ ‫ﻳﻮوث‬

‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﺎب‬

‫اﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰى ﺑﻠﻌﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫ﻋﺮﺑﻰ‬

‫زوآﻴﻨﻲ‬

‫آﻮﺳﻪ‬

Arabic by Suliman Subail el Heneny and Said Mahmoud Salah

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www.discoversinai.net â&#x20AC;&#x201C; A guide to the natural, cultural and historical faces of South Sinai

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