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Maine’s History Magazine

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Volume 29 | Issue 1 | 2020

15,000 Circulation

Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties

Aroostook County Men In The Civil War Many gave the ultimate sacrifice

Fort Kent War Stories

As told at the Hotel Dickey

The Northern Maine Sanatorium

Presque Isle fights against tuberculosis

www.DiscoverMaineMagazine.com facebook.com/discovermaine


Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties

Inside This Edition

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3 It Makes No Never Mind James Nalley 4 The Passing Of The Eastern Cougar Once the king of Maine’s forests John Murray 8 Fort Kent War Stories As told at the Hotel Dickey Charles Francis 12 Perham’s Edward Dahlgren A soldier’s struggle during and after the war James Nalley 18 Fort Kent’s Catherine Ouellette The Madawaska Training School Charles Francis 22 Acadian Culture Takes Hold Revolution instrumental to settlement here Brian Swartz 26 Lyman Pendell And The Aroostook Republican The power of the press Charles Francis 30 The Northern Maine Sanatorium Presque Isle fights against tuberculosis Charles Francis 34 Houlton’s Brigadier General Frank Hume Confidence in arms and men James Nalley 42 Aroostook County Men In The Civil War Many gave the ultimate sacrifice Paul Emerson 47 From Maine To Florida Pioneer aviator Merle Fogg Charles Francis

Maine’s History Magazine

Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties

Publisher & Editor Jim Burch

Layout & Design Liana Merdan

Advertising & Sales Manager Tim Maxfield

Advertising & Sales Jennifer Bakst Dennis Burch Tim Maxfield

Field Representatives Matt Connolly Jim & Diane Nute

Office Manager Liana Merdan

Contributing Writers Paul Emerson Charles Francis John Murray James Nalley Brian Swartz

Published Annually by CreMark, Inc. 10 Exchange Street, Suite 208 Portland, Maine 04101 Ph (207) 874-7720 info@discovermainemagazine.com www.discovermainemagazine.com Discover Maine Magazine is distributed to town offices, chambers of commerce, financial institutions, fraternal organizations, barber shops, beauty salons, hospitals and medical offices, newsstands, grocery and convenience stores, hardware stores, lumber companies, motels, restaurants and other locations throughout this part of Maine. NO PART of this publication may be reproduced without written permission from CreMark, Inc. | Copyright © 2020, CreMark, Inc.

SUBSCRIPTION FORMS ON PAGE 39

Front Cover Photo: Residents in front of a home on Park Street in Presque Isle. Item # LB2007.1.102095 from the Eastern Illusrating & Publishing Co. Collection and www.PenobscotMarineMuseum.com All photos in Discover Maine’s Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties edition show Maine as it used to be, and many are from local citizens who love this part of Maine.

Photos are also provided from our collaboration with the Maine Historical Society and the Penobscot Marine Museum.


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DiscoverMaineMagazine.com

It Makes No Never Mind by James Nalley

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t the time of this publication, most Americans will be contemplating their holiday feasts. However, the question is whether to have turkey or ham on the table. Although the idea of a juicy, slow-roasted turkey is the epitome of Thanksgiving, many people believe that a savory, honey-glazed ham should be the centerpiece. According to Time magazine, “Americans consume an estimated 22 million turkeys on Christmas. They also purchase an estimated 318 million pounds of ham around the holidays. A back-to-back calculation would suggest turkeys, weighing in at around 15 pounds, are neck and neck with ham in total pounds consumed.” As in any debate, it is important to weigh the pros and cons. First, out of the two, turkey is the healthier choice. As stated by Real Simple magazine, turkey is lower in sodium, given all the other foods at the table (e.g., marshmallow-laden potatoes, mashed potatoes and gravy, etc.). However, the USDA found that the average roasted turkey has 7.39 grams of fat, compared to a whole cured, boneless roasted ham at 3.13 grams of fat. Second, ham offers the perfect balance between sweet and

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salty, as suggested in the following description by Honey Baked Spiral Ham: “Our hams are bone-in, smoked to perfection over selected hardwood chips for up to 24 hours, spiral sliced, and drenched in our sweet and crunchy glaze.” Meanwhile, turkeys can become incredibly dry. Third, although many people count on turkey sandwiches the day after Thanksgiving, ham is far more versatile. For instance, in addition to ham sandwiches at lunch, it can be used for breakfast (e.g., omelets, ham and eggs, etc.) and dinner (e.g., chowder, pot pies, pastas, etc.). Possibly to sway those away from ham, the National Turkey Federation (NTF) offers a whopping list of more than 100 Christmas recipes for turkeys, including various stuffings and side dishes. Finally, as for taste, even after considering the per capita consumption figures supplied by the NTF, Americans tend to choose ham over turkey by a 3-to-1 margin. Based on these findings, perhaps pigs are becoming more aware of their impending fate. For example, in October 2018, a 50-pound pig was found dashing through traffic in Augusta. As stated by NBC, “police in Maine’s capital city found the owner of a 50-pound

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pig that wore itself out while dodging traffic, after presumably escaping. The animal was in good condition, aside from being exhausted from running around. It was apparently a classic case of a ham on the lam.” Well, allow me to close with the following holiday-themed jest: One Christmas long ago, Santa was getting ready for his annual run. However, there were problems that stressed him out. First, four elves were sick, and the toys were not being produced as quickly as usual. Second, three of his reindeer were about to give birth and two had jumped the fence. Third, when he began to load the sleigh, one of the floorboards cracked and the toys scattered everywhere. Frustrated and cursing, Santa went into the house for a shot of whiskey. However, he dropped the bottle, which shattered all over the kitchen floor. Just then, the doorbell rang. As he opened the door, there was a little angel with a big Christmas tree. She cheerfully said, “Merry Christmas Santa! Isn’t it a beautiful day? Isn’t this just a lovely tree? Where would you like me to stick it?” Thus, began the tradition of the little angel on top of the Christmas tree…

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Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties

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The Passing Of The Eastern Cougar Once the king of Maine’s forests by John Murray

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he Maliseet hunter peered at the fresh track of the whitetail deer. This deer would provide many days of fresh meat to the members of his tribe, and he would not stop his hunt until achieving success. As the skilled hunter moved soundlessly through the dense forest, he began to feel uneasy. A seasoned hunter with many years of experience in the woods, he now realized he was not the only hunter in the forest. Turning to look behind him, he saw the large cougar crouched beneath the low branches of a spruce tree. For a moment, the two locked eyes, and the hunter slowly backed away from the large cat, who was the undisputed ruler of the forest. The nearby deer would

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be yielded to the cougar as a sign of respect. This big cat was well known to the Maliseet and Penobscot Indians who resided in the northern section of Maine. For as long as the Indians could remember, the majestic cat was always present in the forest. The native tribes had great respect for this animal, and stories were told for generations about the strength, courage and cunning of the cougar. The cougar that resided in Maine would be later classified as the eastern cougar by biologists. The cougar was called many different names, including mountain lion, puma, panther and catamount. This cougar was a large animal, and its length would sometimes exceed

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eight feet from the tip of the long tail to nose. It was not uncommon for the cougar to weigh upwards of 150 pounds, and larger specimens were documented. Light brown in color to help the cougar stayed hidden in the forest, cougars were powerful and fast, and could climb the tallest tree with ease. Proficient ambush predators, it would slowly stalk its prey until it was very close in a concealed position. Leaping outwards in a great bound, the cougar would always grab the unsuspecting prey by the neck. With a violent shake, the neck of the attacked prey animal would quickly break, and then the cougar would drag his quarry to a concealed location to begin its meal.

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DiscoverMaineMagazine.com Upon arriving in Maine, the English settlers were initially unfamiliar with the cougar that prowled the forests of what is now modern day Aroostook and northern Penobscot counties. As the settlers gradually cleared forest for the purpose of creating farmland, the settlers would soon have encounters with the animal. The cougars were instinctively drawn to the newly created farmland, and took an immediate interest in the cows and sheep that now inhabited the cleared sections of land. Unlike the whitetail deer that had great senses and speed to make a capture for the cougar challenging, the cows and sheep were easy prey. Attacks on the farm animals would almost always occur during the darkness, and the bodies of the animals were always dragged off for long distances into the surrounding forest. The settlers would follow the trail of the unknown beast during the next day, only to discover the uneaten portions of the

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farm animals were that were covered in branches and leaves. A great fear rapidly spread amongst the settlers. Lurking in the nearby forest was a powerful beast who would arrive unseen and disappear like a ghost after feasting on the farm animals. Not realized by the settlers was the fact that with the arrival of more settlers, the encounters with cougars would be dramatically increased. There were a couple reasons for the increase in cougar encounters. There would be more forest land cut down, and this meant that the cougar was losing habitat at a rapid pace. Also, the preferred prey of the cougar was the whitetail deer, and the number of these deer was declining quickly. The decline of deer was linked to the unregulated hunting laws, and too many whitetail deer were being harvested by hungry settlers for the deer to properly sustain the breeding population. As the number of whitetail deer became fewer, the cougar was

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forced to completely change its appetite to the farm animals. Habitat loss combined with the removal of the cougar’s natural prey resulted in more frequent negative encounters between the cougar and settlers. In contrast to how the people of the native tribes viewed the cougar with respect, the settlers had much disdain for the cougar. For the settlers of Maine, the cougar was a serious threat to both farm animals and people, and the settlers began rigorously hunting, trapping and poisoning the cougar. The existing government of Maine had the same negative view of the cougar, and a bounty was attached on its head. Every single cougar that was encountered in Maine was killed. As the years ticked by, fewer and fewer cougars were sighted in the state of Maine, and the last known documented cougar was trapped in northern Maine near the Canadian border in 1938. This cougar was captured by Ro(cont. on page 6)

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Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties

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(cont. from page 5) sarie Morin, who was a longline Quebec trapper who was running a lengthy trap line on each side of the border of Quebec and Maine. Rosarie Morin was not interested in capturing a cougar, but was actually targeting lynx. After the cougar was captured and dispatched by Morin, he realized the implications of encountering this rare eastern cougar. Rosarie Morin gave the cougar to the Canadian government, and the mounted specimen can still be viewed today in the New Brunswick museum in St John, New Brunswick. Once common throughout Maine and every other state in the northeast, the eastern cougar was ultimately reclassified by the United States Department of the Interior. In January of 2018, the Department of the Interior officially declared the eastern cougar extinct. Once home to 23 states, the eastern cougar is now considered nonexistent, and a ghost to the areas where it once was the master alpha predator

of the forest. A subspecies known as the western cougar still has a viable population in the western states, and in Canada and Alaska. In these areas also, encounters with humans and domestic farm animals are on the increase, and the ultimate fate of the western cougar is still unclear. Even though the eastern cougar is now considered extinct by the US Department of Interior, there is still a glimmer of hope for this majestic animal. Today, there are a handful of Maine residents that still encounter cougars, and some have pictures as proof. Approximately 50 sightings of cougars are reported each year in Maine. These suspected cougar sightings have been investigated by biologists, but are considered to be either species misidentification, or perhaps a western cougar which is passing through the area. Only time will help determine the truth. * Other businesses from this area are featured in the color seciton.

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DiscoverMaineMagazine.com

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Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties

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Fort Kent War Stories As told at the Hotel Dickey by Charles Francis

He was the greatest man I ever met,” Major William Dickey told his son Cyrus. “When General Scott walked into a room, he dominated it as if he was the President, which he would have been if the voters had had more sense than to elect Franklin Pierce. Winfield Scott knew when to fight and he knew how to avoid a fight.” Major Dickey and his son were sitting in the front room of the Hotel Dickey on the bank of the Fish River in Fort Kent. The Hotel Dickey was located on the site of the officer’s barracks used during the Aroostook War not far from the blockhouse that was erected in 1840 as a defense against a possible invasion of British forces from

ground tek

the Province of New Brunswick. Major Dickey had first come to the Fish River region in 1838 as an officer of a militia contingent that the State of Maine sent to drive out New Brunswick loggers guilty of timber trespass. Dickey had been so taken with the area that he had eventually returned to become a permanent resident. He and his son Cyrus were two of the most influential and farsighted men in the Fort Kent region. They were also keenly interested in preserving the history of the area as well as the historic buildings that dated back to the time of the Aroostook War. Both Dickeys had come to Fort Kent from Gardiner. The elder Dickey had established the Hotel Dickey, one of

the first hotels in the area, and it had become famous for its cuisine, which featured venison, salmon, and trout. The hotel was an imposing two-and-ahalf-story structure, commanding one of the grandest views in the upper St. John Valley. Major Dickey especially liked telling the hotel’s guests stories of Winfield Scott and the Aroostook War. Major William Dickey had met Major General Winfield Scott in 1838 in Augusta, where the general had been sent by President Martin Van Buren to negotiate a peaceful settlement to the northeast boundary dispute between Maine and New Brunswick. General Scott had arrived in Maine with a staff which included Captain Robert

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DiscoverMaineMagazine.com Anderson and Lieutenant E.D. Keyes. (During the Civil War Anderson would be the major in command of Fort Sumter when Confederate forces fired upon it to begin the War Between the States and Keyes would become a major general. Much later Camp Keyes in Augusta would be named for him.) Willaim Dickey often began his stories of the Aroostook War by quoting from a popular ballad of the time which went: Bring out the big gun of brass, which forges July thunder; Bring out the flag of Bennington, and strike the foe with wonder. Then he was off telling his audience how Winfield Scott and the loyal sons of the State of Maine saved Aroostook County from becoming a part of Canada. “When we got here there were Canadian loggers all over the place. There were fifty on the Grand River, thirty on the Green and seventy right here on the

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Fish. But when they saw us they just turned and ran.” Actually, it hadn’t quite been like that, but if it hadn’t been for Winfield Scott there just might have been a real war for the citizens of New Brunswick were just as convinced of their claim to the disputed territory as were the people of Maine, who were ready and willing to resurrect the “Spirit of ‘76.” When Winfield Scott arrived in Augusta, the Maine legislature had already appropriated a million dollars and approved a draft of over ten thousand officers and men to defend the Aroostook region. On its part New Brunswick was also in the process of raising forces. In addition, Lieutenant Governor Sir John Harvey had jailed several Maine men, including Rufus McIntire, a land agent appointed by the Maine Legislature, in Fredericton. It was at this point that General Scott took charge. Winfield Scott had first gained notoriety in the War of 1812. In addition to

conducting several brilliant actions, he had gained the respect and friendship of the British for his fair and humane treatment of prisoners. One British officer, who had become Scott’s acquaintance, was none other than Sir John Harvey. Calling upon this relationship, Scott was able to persuade Harvey to withdraw his forces from the Madawaska territory across the St. John River from the Aroostook region. At the same time most Maine militia were withdrawn from the Aroostook. A small force remained at the future site of Fort Kent for four years and constructed the largest blockhouse in the state and several barracks. Major William Dickey was one of the officers stationed at the fort. At the end of the confrontation Dickey returned to Gardiner where his son Cyrus was born. Prior to his return to Aroostook County William Dickey lived in Gardiner and Portland. When his hero Winfield Scott led a successful invasion (cont. on page 10)

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Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties

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(cont. from page 9) force into Mexico during the Mexican War, which made the general a national hero, the major read the reports of the action with intense interest. And, when General Scott ran for the presidency against Franklin Pierce in 1852, Major Dickey campaigned actively for him telling how Scott led twelve hundred men, defeating a much larger Mexican force with apparent ease. He especially liked to tell how Scott hesitated before Mexico City in order to give the Mexicans one last chance to make peace before storming the great fortress of Chapultepec guarding the city. This he felt was the same situation as in the Aroostook War, and a good reason why Scott should be president. Cyrus Henry Dickey was born in 1850. After attending Portland schools and graduating from Colby College, he spent several years clerking in a Portland shoe store. In the meantime his father had returned to Fort Kent, es-

tablishing himself as one of the most prominent residents in the budding community which was incorporated on February 23, 1869. That same day Dionne Plantation was incorporated as Dickeyville in his honor. (Later Dickeyville was renamed Frenchville due to the nationality of the majority of its residents.) Following his father to Aroostook County, Cyrus Dickey first settled in Dickeyville. In Dickeyville the younger Dickey went into partnership forming the firm of Eaton and Dickey, a logging company. After several years he sold out his interest to Eaton and moved to the township east of Fort Kent that now bears his name. At Dickey he built a mill, which used the power of the river, and manufactured shingles, which he then shipped down the St. John. Cyrus Dickey’s turn-of-the-century mill was used as one of the models in arguing for the Dickey-Lincoln hydroelectric

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project supported by Senator Edmund Muskie. In 1895 Dickey moved to Fort Kent, building a fine home on the bank of the Fish River directly across from the Hotel Dickey. Cyrus Dickey followed in his father’s footsteps, establishing himself as one of the more influential residents of Fort Kent. He served as Deputy Collector of Customs from 1904 to 1927. His territory was one of the largest in the country, covering nearly two hundred miles of the St. John River. He was one of the founders of the Fort Kent Trust Company and later served as its president. He was also noted for raising fine horses. Cyrus Dickey’s great love, however, was the same as that of his father, the military heritage of Fort Kent. Cyrus Dickey was one of the organizers of the Fort Kent Historical Society. In part due to the efforts of the Dickey family, the society was able to raise enough money, acquired a grant

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DiscoverMaineMagazine.com from the state, and purchased the Fort Kent Blockhouse so dear to his father’s recollections of his first experiences in the area. Today the Fort Kent Blockhouse is a state memorial maintained by the Boy Scouts. It stands on a hill commanding a view of both the St. John and Fish Rivers. Thanks to its current caretakers as well as the Fort Kent Historical Society and Major William and Cyrus Dickey, the craftsmanship of its builders has been preserved. Its hand-hewn timbers and carefully wrought ironwork around the doors and windows illustrate the painstaking work of a time long gone, and evokes images of men like Major William Dickey who were ready to risk their lives to maintain the integrity of their state’s borders. A picture of Cyrus Dickey taken around 1910 shows a large, powerful, heavyset man. The face is commanding. He is looking directly into the cam-

era as if to say “here I am, this is what I stand for and where I come from.” His hair is cut short and is graying at the temples. There are laugh lines at the eyes and his mouth, almost hidden by a walrus mustache. He appears to have a slight smile. He looks as if he is about to tell a story. Perhaps it is one of his father’s war stories. Or, perhaps he is merely pleased with helping to preserve the Fort Kent Blockhouse as a tribute to his father and his memories.

* Other businesses from this area are featured in the color section.

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Perham’s Edward Dahlgren A soldier’s struggle during and after the war by James Nalley

L

ike many European immigrants looking to better their lives in the United States, the Dahlgren family from Sweden arrived in Maine and became potato farmers. Edward Dahlgren, the son of Edward C. and Minnie Dahlgren, was born on March 14, 1916 in Perham, after which he was raised in a Swedish-speaking home. By the time he entered high school, it was clear that his purpose in life was to follow in his father’s footsteps, and he became a potato farmer. With agriculture as his first love, he worked diligently on the family farm until the age of 26. After the outbreak of World War II, he felt the desire to help in the war effort, and was em-

ployed as a defense worker in a Massachusetts machine shop. However, his life dramatically changed in 1943, when he was drafted into the United States Army. After completing Army basic training, Dahlgren was assigned to the 36th Infantry Division (142nd Infantry, 2nd Battalion), after which he was shipped to North Africa in the summer of 1943 for the impending invasion of Italy. According to the book, Medal of Honor: Portraits of Valor by Peter Collier, “In September, his unit hit the beach in Salerno and for months fought its way to Monte Cassino, where early in 1944, Dahlgren was shot in the shoulder.”

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13

DiscoverMaineMagazine.com After he was released from the hospital, his unit was redeployed to France, where the 36th Infantry landed near Marseilles in August. In February 1945, Dahlgren (currently a sergeant) was leading his platoon to rendezvous with an American platoon pinned down near Oberhoffen in the Alsace-Lorraine region of France. As stated by Collier, “They were proceeding down a narrow street when Dahlgren saw several German soldiers cross through some pastureland about a hundred yards away. From his cover in a nearby barn, he killed six and wounded several others with his Thompson submachine gun. Then, through heavy enemy fire, he led his men to the besieged American platoon. In the midst of the fighting, he noticed a familiar smell and realized that it came from potatoes planted in the field.” After assuming command of the rescued unit, Dahlgren led them into the town of Oberhoffen. After coming Celebrating Over 75 Years

under fire from an enemy-occupied house, he ran into the building, threw a grenade, and started firing his weapon, after which eight German soldiers surrendered. As he approached the house next door, bullets flew all around him. He then used rifle grenades to take out the position, which produced two additional German soldiers. According to Collier, “When German soldiers began shooting at him from a barn across the street, he rushed their position, throwing grenades and firing his submachine gun. Five more Germans surrendered. Sergeant Dahlgren then entered another house through a window, trapping several soldiers in the cellar. He opened a trapdoor and tossed a grenade down the stairs, wounding several and forcing ten more Germans to surrender. At the end of the block, Dahlgren entered a fourth house which seemed deserted, but then he heard German being spoken in hushed tones in the cellar. He kicked open the cellar door and

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fired several bursts down the stairway. Sixteen men hiding there filed out with their hands up.” After his heroic acts, Dahlgren’s men requested that he receive the Congressional Medal of Honor. The following day, the unit slowly fought its way further into Germany, where, in March 1945, Dahlgren received a battlefield commission as a second lieutenant. After the Germans surrendered in May 1945, Dahlgren had been in combat for an incredible 340 days. On August 23, 1945, Dahlgren received the Congressional Medal of Honor from President Harry Truman. This accolade was in addition to his numerous medals, including the Silver Star, the Bronze Star, Oak Leaf Cluster, and Purple Heart. As his Medal of Honor citation stated, “The bold leadership and magnificent courage displayed by Sgt. Dahlgren in his heroic attacks were in a large measure responsible for repulsing an enemy counterattack and (cont. on page 14)

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Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties

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(cont. from page 13) saving an American platoon from great danger.” Subsequently, he returned home to Maine, married Pauline Mahan, and was employed by the Maine Department of Agriculture as a seed potato inspector. He would remain in this position for the next 37 years. In his remaining years, he became an active member of various organizations, including the Disabled American Veterans and the Knights of Columbus, and the founding director of the Maine Veterans Home and Clinic. On May 31, 2006, Dahlgren died peacefully at the Maine Veterans Home in Caribou and was buried with military honors at Pierce Cemetery in Mars Hill. On a closing note, it is important to mention that such actions in battle come at a serious cost to those who die for the cause as well as those who survive. According to the 2012 book In the Shadow

of a Mountain, by his daughter Susan Dahlgren Daigneault, although Edward Dahlgren wore a chest full of medals, he suffered from survivor’s guilt and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. For instance, after returning home to Maine, he had lost 40 pounds, suffered from jaundice, and stammered on the telephone, while his hands shook so much that it was difficult to hold a cup of coffee without spilling it all over himself. He also suffered from night terrors in which he imagined that German soldiers returned from the dead in order to kill him. This book not only honors his wartime actions, but it details his valiant efforts to support a family of four by working 60-hour workweeks and earning a relatively small paycheck, while quietly suffering from PTSD. It is a testament to a man who, despite the odds, found ways to live honorably and live life to the fullest.

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DiscoverMaineMagazine.com

Parade scene in Presque Isle. Item # LB2007.1.102098 from the Eastern Illustrating & Publishing Co. Collection and www.PenobscotMarineMuseum.org

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Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties

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Fish River in Fort Kent, ca. 1920. Item # 6801 from the collections of the Maine Historical Society and www.VintageMaineImages.com

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DiscoverMaineMagazine.com

Horace A. Bailey, left, and Henry L. Withee, on a lunch break at Eagle Lake during their nine-day canoe trip from Moosehead Lake to Fort Kent. Item # 1911 from the collections of the Maine Historical Society and www.VintageMaineImages.com

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Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties

18

Fort Kent’s Catherine Ouellette The Madawaska Training School by Charles Francis

M

ary P. Nowland, principal of the Madawaska Training School at Fort Kent, sat back in her chair and considered the report she had just completed for State Superintendent of Public Schools Payson Smith for the 1909-1910 school year. The report was a good one because the Madawaska Training School had just completed a good year serving over a hundred students, introducing a Manual Training Program and operating the Model School for training future teachers for the French-speaking St. John Valley. Though the report was a good one, Mary wished it wasn’t so cut and dry. If only she could put into it a real sense of the enthusiasm the students in

her charge had. She especially wished she could include her feelings of pride in the accomplishments of Catherine Ouellette, the valedictorian of the class of 1910. Mary knew that Catherine was going to be an exceptional teacher, but little could she guess that Catherine would become one of the first female school superintendents in the State of Maine as well as one of the state’s most prominent and respected leaders in the field of education. The Madawaska Training School in Fort Kent was one of the most unusual educational experiments in turn-of-thecentury Maine. The school, which was opened in 1878, was designed to serve the French-speaking inhabitants of the

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Madawaska region. In 1863 the Legislature had begun to provide funding to improve instruction in schools all across Maine. In doing this the Legislature had stipulated that all instruction was to be in English. However, in the St. John Valley use of the French language was almost universal, and no teachers had been found for service there. To deal with this unique situation the state had charged the Madawaska Training School with training teachers for the common schools of the region. The result of this effort was that young people of the St. John Valley were being taught English. The first permanent settlers of the St. John Valley were the children and

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19

DiscoverMaineMagazine.com grandchildren of the Acadians who had been driven from Nova Scotia by the British in 1784. The Acadians were soon joined by other French settlers from Quebec. These early pioneers lived in almost complete isolation in settlements along both sides of the St. John River. While there was a limited degree of communication with settlements in New Brunswick and Quebec, there was almost none with the English-speaking settlers in the rest of the Aroostook region. The French settlers practiced a self-sufficient, pioneer sort of agriculture primarily raising buckwheat and at times supplementing their diet by hunting. In their early years in the Madawaska region the French settlers sometimes faced famine and other almost unbearable hardships. However, their settlements continued to expand, and the St. John Valley slowly became a prosperous farming region, but there were few schools. The latter part of the nineteenth cen-

tury and the first part of the twentieth century saw the first efforts for major school reform in Maine. The Free High School Law of 1873 brought about the opening of a hundred and fifty high schools in the year after its passage. From 1860 on there were State Superintendents of Public Schools who began setting standards for curriculum and teacher certification. In addition, normal schools like the Madawaska Training School and the Aroostook Normal School were established to train teachers. The greatest education reform, however, was doing away with local school districts. Prior to 1894 towns divided themselves into small districts, each of which was responsible for maintaining its own one-room schoolhouse. A town like St. Francis with a school population ranging from a hundred to a hundred and fifty could have a half dozen or more school districts with each district setting its own standards. While

some local districts provided good education many did not. In 1895 State Superintendent of Public Schools W.W. Stetson visited more than two hundred rural schools. He graded forty-one percent of them as “poor” or “very poor.” Some schoolrooms he found decorated with “glaring advertisements of some favorite brand of tobacco.” In addition, he found many teachers allowing “a stream of pupils ... to ask foolish questions, questions which the pupils themselves could answer with a little study.” In forty-three percent of schools he found work in arithmetic to be a “senseless committing of rules.” Reading classes were “often an unintelligent repetition of words with a discouraging number of mispronunciations.” That same year Stetson reported that sixteen percent of school superintendents had no more than a common school education, thirty-five percent had never taught, and sixty-eight percent had never read a (cont. on page 20)

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Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties

20

(cont. from page 19) book on teaching methodology. Thirty-five percent of all teachers in the state had never taken the teacher examination that was required by law. These were some of the conditions the Madawaska Training School was instructed to correct for the St. John Valley. When Catherine Ouellette attended the Madawaska Training School the curriculum included, besides basic academic courses and the model school for training future teachers, courses in manual training, domestic science, and agriculture. These latter courses were designed specifically for those young people who would return to their home farms and they were correlated with basic academic courses. In her report to the State Superintendent of Public Schools, Principal Mary Nowland described some of the Madawaska Training School’s accomplishments for the 1909-1910 school year. Agriculture instructor L.B. Boston from the University of Maine had

worked with his students to plow, harrow, and scale into plots, three acres of farmland. Mr. Boston’s students also had built a granary and a hen house where eighty-five chicks were hatched. In addition, they had built a hot house where lettuce and radishes were raised. Mary Nowland was especially proud of the accomplishments of the Manual Training and Household Science programs. In the former, boys routinely stayed after school to finish work they were not required to do. The latter program, she reported, “has awakened a keen interest among all the girls in the school.” It was the Model School, however, that was the centerpiece of the Madawaska Training School, and it was the initial training ground for Catherine Ouellette. The Model School had opened in September of 1909 and, as Mary Nowland reported, “won golden opinions from parents and scholars.” The Model School, which was under the direction

of a Miss Teed and a Miss Bucknam, allowed training school pupils like Catherine Ouellette the opportunity to work with and observe first hand younger students. That Catherine Ouellette profited from this teacher training is seen in her subsequent career. Catherine Ouellette was born in Fort Kent on September 18, 1892 to Onezime and Sophia Ouellette. After attending the common schools of Fort Kent she spent four years at the Madawaska Training School. For the next two years she taught in local one-room schoolhouses. She then enrolled in Aroostook Normal School, graduating after four years in 1916, and went back to teaching in the rural schools of the St. John Valley. In 1919 State Commissioner of Education Augustus Thomas named Catherine as one of the one hundred outstanding teachers in Maine, which allowed her to take a special training program in leadership in rural schools

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21

DiscoverMaineMagazine.com at the state’s expense at Castine Normal School. For one year the state paid her to act as a “helping teacher” in several rural schools. In 1925 Catherine furthered her formal training at Columbia University. She also became superintendent of schools for Fort Kent, New Canada, St. Francis, St. John and Wallagrass. The district had almost forty schools with a student population of over twenty-six hundred, making it one of the largest school districts in the state. Catherine Ouellette came to be recognized as one of Maine’s most prominent educators. Thanks in part to the teacher training program at the Madawaska Training School, the St. John Valley had one of the state’s first women school superintendents, an administrator who saw that the welfare and prosperity of her community depended on the education and training of its young people.

A surveying crew in Madawaska, ca. 1900. Item # 5424 from the collections of the Maine Historical Society and www.VintageMaineImages.com

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Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties

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Acadian Culture Takes Hold Revolution instrumental to settlement here by Brian Swartz

T

oday’s Acadians descend from families brought to the Bay of Fundy region in the 17th century to establish a French fait accompli in an area claimed by both Great Britain and France. Settling in Massachusetts rather than the intended Virginia in 1620, the blown-off-course Pilgrims directly gave Britain “boots on the ground” in what became New England. But predating the Pilgrims by some 10 years, French settlers had already staked claim to the Fundy shore. After France’s initial North American colony failed at St. Croix Island, French attention shifted to Port Royal in today’s Nova Scotia. Settlers arrived in

1610 and 1611; English colonists busted up the Port Royal colony in 1613, but some French settlers remained. French colonization resumed in the 1630s. Drawn from several French provinces, settlers established homes and farms at various places around the Bay of Fundy; some 45 to 50 families living at Port Royal or LaHave in future Nova Scotia “are generally considered to be the founders of the Acadia population,” indicates Acadian Culture in Maine, a National Park Service publication. Writing in How the Acadians Came to Maine, Lawrence A. Violette states that “the Acadian families which set-

tled the St. John Valley came from the west of France, some from the Province of Poitou, others from Saintonge, but they came principally from Brittany. “The people of Madawaska (initially the region and later the town) are Britons and Normans at the same time,” Violette stated. The growing English population in New England collided with French interests in Quebec and l’Acadie, and Britain permanently occupied the Fundy region after the Treaty of Utrecht ended yet another war with France in 1713. Not until two wars later did the British governor of Nova Scotia, Charles Lawrence, require the Acadimadtownclothing@yahoo.com

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DiscoverMaineMagazine.com ans (now much more numerous than in 1713) to swear allegiance to Britain. The Acadians collectively responded, “Non,” and Lawrence ordered them kicked out of l’Acadie in summer 1755. Thousands died or suffered exile during Le Grand Derangement, but some “1,000 to 2,000 Acadians” evaded British troops and fled to remote areas in Nova Scotia, the lower St. John Valley in New Brunswick, and elsewhere, according to Acadian Culture in Maine. Once the latest war ended, British authorities let the surviving Acadians remain in scattered settlements in the future Maritimes. Ironically, yet another war — the American Revolution — created the Acadian culture in what became northern Maine. After the Revolution ended, some Loyalists fleeing the fledgling United States settled on the New Brunswick coast, particularly in the lower St. John Valley. Predominantly Anglican, the francophone Loyalists collided with

the Catholic Acadians, who had already developed productive farms along the St. John River. Lawrence Violette thought the Loyalists, “who had been persecuted” in the colonies “and who had been expelled,” would be “fully of sympathy for Acadians.” Perhaps seeking someone to kick around after being kicked around themselves, the Loyalists, “on the contrary … became unbearable neighbors” by burning Acadian farm fences (for firewood), “stealing their cattle, and by opening the doors of basements during the coldest days of winter to let their vegetables freeze. “They wanted to get rid of these French Squatters,” claimed Violette, defining the nationalism dominant among Loyalists settlers lusting for the Acadian farmlands stretching from Saint John upriver to Fredericton. Attuned to French concerns as the governor of Quebec Province and its majority French population, Frederick

Haldimand wrote to John Parr, the royal governor of Nova Scotia (which then encompassed New Brunswick). An Acadian named Louis Mercure had told Haldimand “that several of his people” wanted to move to Quebec, where their Catholicism would be accepted. Instead of bringing more Frenchmen to Quebec, why not grant these Acadians land “near Grand Falls on the St. John River” well upriver into the Madawaska region, then lightly populated by Europeans, Haldiman suggested. According to Violette, “Parr was jubilantly pleased.” Having already grabbed some Acadian farms along the lower St. John River, Parr saw a legal way to send the French-speaking Acadians packing. They might be loyal in oath and deed to Great Britain by now, “but as ever, the English always came first when the present interest of the fatherland was concerned,” Violette noted. (cont. on page 24)

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(cont. from 23) So “in June 1785, a few families left Fredericton and vicinity” to paddle upriver, portage Grand Falls (still imposing despite the modern hydroelectric facilities), and reach “a promontory which dominated the valley of the lower St. John River,” Violette wrote. From the high ground the Acadians “could see a broad valley, with hills on both sides. “They were at the door of the promised land and there they took a very needed rest,” commented Violette. The Acadians had taken many long days to travel a distance that motorists on the Trans-Canada Highway can now cover in perhaps two hours. “The travelers continued their journey until they set foot on the south bank of the St. John River,” Violette wrote. A cross and park now mark the site. Safely removed from overbearing English governance, the Acadians developed farms along both shores of the upper St. John River, practiced their

religion, spoke French (somewhat different from Quebecois French), and minded their own business. Some Acadians moved to the region from Que-

bec, and the distinctive Acadian culture took hold along the St. John River and its tributaries.

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Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties

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Lyman Pendell And The Aroostook Republican by Charles Francis

T

The power of the press

he Northern Aroostook County town of Caribou was the last major population center in the State of Maine to acquire its own newspaper, and it was largely due to the efforts of Lyman Pendell that it did. This paper was the Aroostook Republican. There was really nothing unique about the establishment of a paper to serve the region north of Presque Isle and Fort Fairfield. It was undoubtedly inevitable that either Caribou or Van Buren would eventually have a newspaper. What is unique about the founding of a paper for the region is that the

man who was largely responsible for the first real success and continued existence of the Aroostook Republican was one of the most remarkable newspapermen north of Bangor in that he already had a broad range of experience in journalism and publishing by the time he arrived in Caribou. Prior to the establishment of the Aroostook Republican, the county was served by the aptly named Houlton Pioneer. Then, around 1870 there seems to have been a flurry of interest in the newspaper business, which centered in Caribou. In fact, according to Ayer’s

Registry, an early compendium listing Maine newspapers, Presque Isle’s Star-Herald had actually started in Caribou as the North Star, which in turn had been started as a competitor for the Republican which had come into existence a year earlier. While all this is a bit confusing, what does seem clear is that it was Lyman Pendell who had the greatest degree of influence on northern Aroostook County journalism. Lyman Pendell was born in Brookfield, Massachusetts in 1865. While he was still a child his father, who was a Methodist minister, moved the family

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DiscoverMaineMagazine.com to Edinborough, Pennsylvania. Pendell grew up with the goal of either following in his father’s footsteps into the ministry or becoming a teacher. Initially he chose the latter goal and enrolled in Edinborough Normal School where he was drawn to the school newspaper. This experience irrevocably altered his life. Upon his graduation from Edinborough Normal School, Lyman Pendell went to work for a local newspaper publishing house, acquiring a thorough grounding in journalism and more importantly in publishing. His position brought him into contact with the Philadelphia publishing empire of Portland native Cyrus Curtis, which eventually led him to Maine, where he decided to settle in Aroostook County, the fastest growing region of the state. Pendell first settled in Presque Isle in 1897 where he secured a position on the Star-Herald. At the time the

Star-Herald was owned and edited by G.H. Collins, who had purchased the Aroostook Republican from Joseph Hall in the early 1890s. Lyman Pendell stayed with the Star-Herald for almost seven years, learning the ins and outs of local journalism as well as Aroostook County politics under the tutelage of G.H. Collins, who was a devoted Republican. During that period Collins sold the Aroostook Republican. After G.H. Collins had sold the Republican, the Caribou paper went through several owners who seem to have been less than successful in running it. Then, in 1904 the paper again came on the market. It was bought by A.W. Hall who had been one of the previous owners, and who immediately put it on the market again. Lyman Pendell bought it from Hall in 1905. In certain respects the Aroostook Republican was Caribou’s counterpart to

the Presque Isle Star-Herald. Like his mentor, Lyman Pendell was a staunch Republican, and as editor of the paper inevitably supported Republican candidates over Democratic candidates, which were, as they say, almost “as scarce as hen’s teeth.” (Actually, the Republican’s chief rival, the Fort Fairfield Review, styled itself as “independent democratic” in politics.) Upon moving to Caribou, Lyman Pendell threw himself into the life of the community, joining such organizations as the Masons, the Modern Woodmen of America, the Shriners, and the Knights of Pythias. He also used his paper to help to build a sense of community in Caribou as well as the surrounding communities. One of Pendell’s innovations was the introduction of a semi-regular feature on local history, which he felt helped develop a sense of local pride. For example, around 1910 the Repub(cont. on page 28)

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(cont. from 27) lican ran a series of features on the history of some of the early settlements like Lyndon and Eaton Grant. As these settlements were directly linked to the establishment of Fort Fairfield, Pendell was, of course, competing directly with his chief rival, the Fort Fairfield Review. But that was smart journalism. In becoming editor and publisher of the Aroostook Republican, Lyman Pendell took a local newspaper that was on the verge of collapse and turned it into what was for the time, a progressive, journalistic enterprise devoted to promoting Caribou and the surrounding area. It was an accomplishment worthy of a man who had once considered the ministry and teaching as careers and perhaps embodied both. Discover Maine

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The Northern Maine Sanatorium Presque Isle fights against tuberculosis by Charles Francis

T

he most dreaded disease at the turn of the nineteenth century was tuberculosis, commonly referred to as TB. The disease, which is characterized by small lumps called tubercles, first appeared in Europe and the United States in epidemic proportions in the mid-nineteenth century. While some people survived its onset to be left with scarring of infected tissue, most commonly the lungs, many who contracted it succumbed to a horrible, lingering, and painful death. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, it was found that people who went to areas where there was an abundance of clean healthy air had the best chance of recovery. To this end, tuberculosis sanatoriums were es-

tablished in the United States, most often in mountainous or elevated regions away from the damp of the shore and pollution of urban industrialization. In Maine, this meant the interior part of the state. Maine was one of the last areas of the United States to suffer from outbreaks of tuberculosis. One reason for this was that the state was not highly industrialized. Another more important reason was that Maine was, to a certain extent, isolated from the most highly infected areas of the country. Therefore, Maine came late to the treatment of TB. For this reason, the state was able to take advantage of the hard-won successes made across the country in the

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Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties

(cont. from page 30) their patients with what were perhaps the most advanced and humane methods of the time. At a time when tuberculosis sufferers were looked upon much as the first AIDS sufferers were — which meant fear and trepidation and to be avoided at all costs — treatment in Maine’s sanatoriums meant providing patients with complete medical care, contact with the public, and venturing beyond the confines of the sanatorium. Tuberculosis has existed from the dawn of recorded history. TB tubercles have been found in Egyptian mummies and the first writings of people of the Middle East and China make reference to them. However, not until the early 1800s in France, where it was found that the disease was transferable, was any concentrated research applied to the disease. At first the disease was thought to be an affliction of the refined

and well-to-do, as they had the financial wherewithal to seek out treatment. Then as more and more cases were found among the poor and working classes, it was thought to be the product of a degenerate lifestyle. It was this latter circumstance that was responsible for the TB sufferer being looked upon as something akin to a leper. The first serious research into tuberculosis in the United States was done by Dr. Edward Trudeau. Trudeau had twice been affected by the disease. Both times he was sure he was going to die, and both times he traveled to Saranac Lake in upstate New York to spend his last days. However, both times he found himself cured. Attributing his cure to the fresh air of the mountains, he built the first tuberculosis sanatorium at Saranac Lake in 1885. It became the model for more than six hundred sanatoriums across the country and, of

course, for those in Maine. The Northern Maine Sanatorium in Presque Isle was located some two miles from town on a hill overlooking the Aroostook River and the rolling hills and fields of the surrounding country. The sanatorium, the third and last to be established in Maine, came to be located in Presque Isle through the efforts of Harry Pipes, the owner of Harry Pipes and Son, a dry goods and furnishing store in Presque Isle. Pipes, who was a member of the state board for tuberculosis sanatoriums, had himself shown a determination to succeed in the face of diversity. (He had lost his entire business to a devastating fire.) Besides being responsible for establishing the Northern Maine Sanatorium in Presque Isle, Pipes had secured its superintendent, Dr. Loren Carter. Carter was a veteran of the World War and had been assistant superintendent of the


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Central Maine Sanatorium. The total capacity of the three Maine TB sanatoriums was approximately three hundred and eighty patients. Generally there were four female patients for every three male patients. Between the opening of the first two sanatoriums in 1915 and 1927, which was the peak treatment year, 4,560 patients were admitted to Maine’s sanatoriums. During 1926 and 1927, the Northern Maine Sanatorium had a hundred and thirty-six patients, eighty-two females and fifty-four males. It is not the total number of patients the sanatorium had but rather the release rate and the length of the patient’s stay that tells of the success of the Northern Maine Sanatorium. The average length of residence was just over five months. One patient had been there for four years and one for just one day. The age groups of the patients are perhaps the most reveal-

ing statistics for identifying just who was most susceptible to the disease as well as who the sanatorium served. Fifty-three of the patients were between twenty and thirty. Thirty-one were between ten and twenty. And twenty-two were between thirty and forty. No other age group had such large numbers. The largest group of patients were classified as students and the next as housewives. In other words, tuberculosis was a young person’s disease and women were the most susceptible. In that 1926-1927 time period, a hundred and thirty-four patients at the Northern Maine Sanatorium recorded a weight gain and only thirty lost weight. More significantly, one hundred and thirteen patients were released and only twenty-six died. Without doubt, the Aroostook County environment as well as the attitude of Presque Isle people played a part in the remarkable success

of the sanatorium. Area residents paid regular visits to the sanatorium — even if they knew no one there. In addition, area bands and other musical and cultural groups put on programs there. The Presque Isle Opera House also opened its doors for free to show movies to sanatorium patients on a weekly basis. In 1924 French scientists developed a TB vaccine. It was during the peak 1926-1927 peak year that the vaccine became widely available in Maine. From this time on the number of tuberculosis patients at the Northern Maine Sanatorium steadily declined. The many who left the Northern Maine Sanatorium kept the memory of the wonderful treatment they received there and the generosity of Presque Isle people like Harry Pipes forever in their hearts. Discover Maine

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Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties

34

Houlton’s Brigadier General Frank Hume by James Nalley

Confidence in arms and men

D

uring World War I, more than 32,000 Mainers served in the United States Armed Forces (out of a population of approximately 777,000). As stated by The U.S. World I Centennial Commission, although approximately 1,000 would not return home alive, “Mainers made their presence known through their vitality, can-do attitude, and Yankee ingenuity.” Among these soldiers, there was Frank M. Hume from Houlton, Maine, who not only fought valiantly and survived the war, but also provided detailed accounts of his experiences as well as

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those of the soldiers that fought under him. Born on January 7, 1867, in Bridgewater, Hume was the middle child of an older sister and a younger brother. Although Bridgewater was his place of birth, Houlton would be where he would spend most of his life. Like many young boys his age, he played “backyard war games” and created “armies” with his friends. However, as he became older, he started studying historic battles in more detail, with the goal of serving in the military. As he entered high school, Hume focused on graduating with high

enough marks to gain admission to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. Unfortunately, he contracted scarlet fever, which affected his eyesight and his dream of becoming a West Point graduate. According to the book The Old Man of the 103rd by Colby McIntyre, “This setback did not stop him. Hume subsequently attended Riverview Military Academy in Poughkeepsie, New York, and completed his education at Harvard University.” Interestingly, after obtaining his college degree, he returned to Bridgewater and formed his own army, recognized

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DiscoverMaineMagazine.com as Company L of the Maine National Guard. After the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898, Hume promptly enlisted in the 2nd Maine Infantry and served as the Captain of Battery B, 1st Battalion, of the Heavy Artillery Maine Volunteers from June 20 to March 31, 1899. Due to his leadership qualities, Hume moved up the ranks relatively quickly. For example, between 1899 and 1903, Hume went from being a major to a lieutenant colonel. By 1910, he had become a colonel in command of the 2nd Maine Infantry, which eventually served on the Mexican border in Laredo, Texas, from June to October 1916. According to Jonathan Bratten (Maine National Guard historian) in the Bangor Daily News, “From June 19 to 28, the 2nd Maine gathered at Camp Keyes and was recruited to full strength under the command of Col. Frank Hume. Many men joined just for the opportu-

nity for adventure. The entire University of Maine band joined up, becoming the regiment’s band section. It was the only college band in the entire U.S. Army.” Bratten also stated that the regimental band itself made quite an impression on the community in Laredo, since it presented frequent concerts in the town square. A total of 1,043 men from the 2nd Maine were assigned to defend this border town. Unbeknownst to them, the majority would soon relieve the U.S. Marines in France, and experience some of the worst combat in World War I. On April 6, 1917, the U.S. officially joined its allies (Great Britain, France, and Russia) to fight in World War I. With the buildup of troops, Hume was placed in command of the 103rd Infantry Regiment, 26th Division, of the U.S. Army. This regiment mainly consisted of National Guard troops from the 2nd Maine Infantry and the 1st New Hamp-

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shire Infantry. After several months of intensive training in Massachusetts, the 103rd Infantry arrived in France in October 1917 for additional combat training under the 162nd French Infantry. As stated in the History of the 103rd Infantry by Col. Frank Hume, “Shortly after the regiment arrived in the area, the officers and men were taught the operation of automatic rifles, rifle grenades, bombs, and maneuvers, all based on French tactics. At Noncourt, just southeast of Neufchateau, a system of trenches was completed, all under the supervision of the French.” Although the training was difficult and maneuvers were held both day and night, the troops became accustomed to the “bad weather, intense darkness, and the necessity for silence. In addition, signal rockets, buzzers, and runners were used, and everything was done to make conditions as real as possible.” (cont. on page 36)

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(cont. from page 35) September 1917 to April 1919, Hume and his men were incredibly active, serving in five major engagements: Chemin des Dames (February 5 to March 20, 1918); The Toul Sector (April 1 to June 27, 1918); The Second Battle of the Marne (July 4 to 26, 1918); The St. Mihel Drive (September 12 to October 12, 1918); and the Argonne-Meuse Offensive (October 24 to November 6, 1918). During the Chemin des Dames engagement, Hume experienced “shell concussion” and lost his hearing in one ear. As for this type of concussion, proximity to a shell blast has the potential to stop one’s heart, rupture internal organs, and damage the brain and central nervous systems. For his actions in the Battle of Seicheprey, Hume was awarded the Croix de Guerre. He also received the Distinguished Service Medal for “exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services while in command of

the 103rd Infantry, during the St. Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne operations.” Despite his achievements and the news reports back home that glossed over the horrors of war, Hume provided first-hand accounts of his experiences. For example, Hume, in the aforementioned History of the 103rd Infantry, wrote the following; “On May 10 at 1:15 a.m., the enemy put over a gas attack against the Center of Resistance, St. Agnant, by means of projectors… There were two sets of projectors discharged: phosgene and mustard gas. An idea of the density of the concentration can be gained from the fact that grass, bushes, trees, rats, alive and unprotected, were killed and the ground burnt…the toll was heavy – something over 200 casualties. This was one of the worst through which our men had to pass.” Hume was also known as a thoughtful and considerate leader. According to McIntyre, “Col. Hume

always checked on the boys to ensure that they were healthy and comfortable. In one instance, Hume gave a speech to his troops and warned them to steer away from “whiskey and women.” After the war, Hume returned to Maine and was appointed Treasurer of Aroostook County, a position he would hold until January 1927. In March 1927, he became the new Collector of Customs and remained in that position until June 1933. In August 1937 Hume was officially placed on the retired list of the Maine National Guard, as a brigadier general. He died two years later, on June 6, 1939, and was buried at Evergreen Cemetery in Houlton. He was 72 years of age. As for Hume’s legacy, it comes down his leadership under pressure and his unwavering belief in his soldiers on the front lines. In this regard, he wrote the following: “It was a day which gave confidence to all, and though our losses

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DiscoverMaineMagazine.com were heavy, the gain in morale was of great value in subsequent actions when engaged not merely in the holding of

a line, but in offensive action. So, one step farther had been taken and gained – confidence in arms and men.”

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Looking down Main Street in Presque Isle. Item # LB2007.1.102094 from the Eastern Illustrating & Publishing Co. Collection and www.PenobscotMarineMuseum.org

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Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties

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Aroostook County Men In The Civil War Many gave the ultimate sacrifice by Paul Emerson

T

hese men were from Houlton and enlisted when Lincoln’s first call for men went out throughout the nation. Officers, Captain John W Freeze; 1st Lieutenant, Timothy Swan; 2nd Lieutenant, Joseph G. Butler; Sergeants, Richard Norris, Enoch Phalon, W. Scott Cook, Alonzo Guinon, James Lindsay; Corporals, James McGinley, Hiram Hinds, Charles W. Nelson, E.G. Snell, Watson Hunnewell, A. Fogg, Sherman Radcliffe, James Syphers; Musicians, Thomas Mills and William Hudson; Clerk, M. Palmer, Jr.; Wagoner, Albert Bessy. Privates in the company numbered ninety-three.

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The Company was assembled within two months and all enlisted for three years. There were no drafts of the Houlton men. Most of the men in the Company hailed from Houlton. With a population of 2,035, Houlton did its share by sending more than her quota, and rendering service “beyond the call of duty.” Houlton’s quota was 22 men, and 96 responded to the nation’s first call. As the 7th Regiment Maine Volunteers was being organized, Houlton supplied 193 men and 21 officers. The town of Houlton was represented in companies B, D, F, H and K of that regiment.

Houlton men also enlisted in other Maine companies and regiments. The roster of the 22nd Maine Volunteers (Infantry) recorded the names of many Houlton men. Some of these infantrymen of the 7th Maine Volunteers returned to Houlton as they had left. Some who went as privates became officers. Some returned wounded and maimed for life, and some were buried in southern soil. The Regiment reached Baltimore on August 25, 1861 and on the 7th of November, they marched into Fairfax County, Virginia, where they spent the winter doing picket duty, drilling and

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DiscoverMaineMagazine.com scouting. In April of 1862 the 7th took part in the advance upon the fortifications of Yorktown and Williamsburg, receiving special commendation from General McClellan. During the summer, in addition to constant scouting and picket duty, the regiment took part in the battles of White Oak and Malvern Hill. On September 14, 1862 the 7th took part in the battle of South Mountain and on the 17th they fought the bloody battle of Antietam, where the 7th, charging the enemy’s position, was caught between the fires of both sides and suffered severe losses. Major Thomas W. Hyde in his report said: “I brought out of the battle four officers and 65 men from the fifteen officers and 160 men who went in.” The regiment behaved with its usual spirit and bravery, and was rewarded by being a temporarily detailed bodyguard of General Franklin and General Smith, the highest honor which could be be-

stowed upon them. In October, 1863 the regiment was ordered home to recruit, in order to bring the number to that necessary for field duty. Captain Freeze served as Provost Marshal at Augusta during the recruiting in 1863. Returning to field duty in 1863, the regiment saw much hard fighting around Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. In the assault on Cemetery and St. Mary’s Heights, Lieutenant Joseph C. Butler of Presque Isle, commanding Company D, was killed while gallantly leading his men. Adjutant Charles H. Hasey of Houlton, during the battle, volunteered as aide to Brigadier General Neil, and won high commendation. Later, in the fighting around Spotsylvania Court House, Adjutant Hasey (a grandson of James Houlton) was killed, and Captains George McGinley of Company I, and Timothy Swan of Company K, both from Houlton, were wounded.

On the expiration of their term of service (August 21, 1864), the regiment was discharged, the re-enlisting men joining the newly organized First Veterans Volunteers. Meanwhile another group had left Houlton. In September of 1861 the 9th Regiment of Infantry Volunteers had been organized and in less than two weeks from the arrival of the first company in Augusta, the 9th was on its way to Washington, more than a thousand strong. Among the Houlton men were Benjamin Atherton, Daniel Atherton, William Geddis, 1st Lt. Robert J.Gray, Co. G, Frederick Hanson, Capt. Enoch H. Hines, Co. G, Hugh Monroe, Joseph Neeley, John Ryan, 2nd Lt Bradley Smith, Co. G, George T. Sprague, Stephen O’Sullivan, Robert B. Watts, and Joseph I. Webb. The 9th Regiment had been organized to serve three years. The original number, except reenlisted veterans, were mustered out of service Septem(cont. on page 44)

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(cont. from page 43) ber 27, 1864, and the regiment, composed of veterans and recruits, was retained in service until July 13, 1865, when it was mustered out. This regiment saw service in the Departments of the South and Virginia. It was engaged in the capture of Port Royal, South Carolina, Fernandina, Florida, and Morris Island, South Carolina in several assaults on Fort Wagner (in which over 300 members of the regiment were killed, wounded or missing), at Walthal Junction, Drury’s Bluffs, Bermuda Hundred, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Forts Harrison and Gilmore, Chapin’s Farm, Derbytown Road, and Fort Fisher, North Carolina. It was assigned to General William Tecumseh Sherman’s forces for the capture of Port Royal, North Carolina Landing. They were with the 6th and 7th Connecticut and the 4th New Hampshire regiments. To the 9th Maine fell the privilege of being the first to

return Old Glory to the state of South Carolina. They remained at Hilton Head, drilling and doing picket duty until the last of January, 1861. Captain Hines resigned as Captain of Company G on December 24, 1861, and was succeeded by Lt. Robert J. Gray, who was promoted to Captain March 21, 1862. The 9th took part in the capture of Fernandina in February 1862, being the first to land from Admiral Dupont’s ships and encamping there as a garrison. The general deemed it fitting that they should have the honor of holding the town, having been the first to take possession of it. They took part in the capture of Morris Island in July 1863. The flags of the 21st South Carolina Regiment were taken by Privates Goodwin of Veazie and David G. Hoyt of Passadumkeag of Company I, 9th Maine volunteers, this regiment carrying the rifle pits in front of the enemy works.

On the morning of July 11, 1863, the regiment was one of three that assaulted Fort Wagner, and fell back only when left by the other two regiments and ordered to retreat. Until July 18th they were constantly in the line in front of Fort Wagner, under arms night and day. They formed the center of the assaulting column on that night of the 18th, supporting Colonel Robert Gould Shaw’s 54th Massachusetts in its advance. After losing every commanding officer and nearly half its men, the 1st Brigade was drawn back from the attack on Fort Wagner. For the third assault the 9th was again selected to form a part of the attacking party. When the old regiments were called upon to re-enlist, the 9th responded at once. The re-enlisted men went home on a furlough in February 1864. In the campaign of 1864, the 9th was a part of the Army of the Potomac, and assigned to General Adelbert Ames’

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45

DiscoverMaineMagazine.com division. In the fierce fighting around Washington, May 31st, Captain Gray was slightly wounded. The regiment participated in the battles in front of Petersburg, Virginia, and won high repute for bravery. On June 30, under command of Captain Gray, the regiment was ordered to occupy a line of rifle pits within sixty yards, and directly in front of the enemy’s line. One hundred and two men went in and 52 came back. On the 3rd of October, Captain Gray was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, but he had been killed in action September 29, 1864 on the Petersburg and Weldon Railroad while bravely leading his troops. Lieut. Edwin S. Rogers Edwin Searle Rogers was born in Patten, January 31st, 1843, and was a student at Bowdoin College in the class of 1865. While in his junior year, regarding it to be his duty to enter the United States service, he left college in

February and returned to Patten, where he enlisted about 30 men, and was thereupon commissioned 2nd Lieut. Co. E, 31st Regt. Maine Volunteers, and was mustered into the U. S. service in March, 1864, at Augusta. In the absence of superior officers, he took and held command of the company until within a few days of his capture and death. Lieut. Rogers was in the Battle of the Wilderness and shared in the dangers of the eight days of fighting and fatiguing marches previous to the Battle of Spotsylvania, in which he also participated. He was again with his regiment in the subsequent actions and marches until the battle of Cold Harbor, where, on the 7th of June, 1864, while in command of a picket line, he was struck by a rifle-ball which passed through his lungs. He was then taken prisoner and left by the rebels in a tent on their way to Richmond, where it is conjectured he died

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on the same day. The deceased was a young man of much promise, genial in society and in camp, and brave on the field, thus winning the affection of his comrades and the approbation of his superior officers. Capt. Samuel J. Oakes Samuel J. Oakes was born at Passadumkeag in September, 1833. In August, 1861, while in trade in Old Town, where he resided, and actuated by a sense of duty to his country, he closed up his business and enlisted as a private in the 18th Regiment Infantry, and was soon afterwards promoted to 2nd Lieutenant. When the organization of the regiment was changed to the 1st Heavy Artillery, he was further promoted to 1st Lieutenant, and participated in all the battles in which his regiment was engaged, including those of the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor and Hatchers Run. While in front of Petersburg, he was promoted to Captain and (cont. on page 46)

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Aroostook & Northern Penobscot Counties

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(cont. from page 45) continued in command of his company until March 25th, 1865 when he was killed by a shot from the enemy. Capt. Oakes was a good citizen, a true patriot, a devoted Christian and a brave soldier, and died deeply lamented not only by his family, but by all his comrades and a large circle of friends. Lieut. Dudley H. Johnson A resident of Presque Isle, he was born at Sullivan, March 23, 1830. In August, 1862 he left a mercantile business in which he was engaged and enlisted in the 17th Regiment, being commissioned 1st Lieutenant, Co H. He fought with his regiment in the battle of Fredericksburg in the following December, and was also in Burnside’s “mud march” of January, 1863. At the battle of Chancellorsville, May 3rd, 1863 while bravely leading his men in a desperate charge on the enemy, he received a ball through the heart, killing him instantly. His body was necessarily left on the field and never recovered. Lieut. Johnson acquitted himself honorably as an officer and was much beloved and respected in his regiment.

The Aroostook Ave. school in Millinocket. Item # LB2007.1.101512 from the Eastern Illustrating & Publishing Co. Collection and www.PenobscotMarineMuseum.org

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From Maine To Florida Pioneer aviator Merle Fogg by Charles Francis

W

hen the news reached Fort Lauderdale on May 1, 1928, all those who knew Merle Fogg were stunned and shocked. That a young man with such potential and so much to offer the world was dead seemed beyond belief. Merle Fogg, the first licensed aviator in Maine as well as Florida, and ally of General Billy Mitchell in his crusade for the largescale development of military air power, had crashed in an orange grove near the West Palm Beach Airport when the controls of his plane failed. Fogg was flying two student pilots to Palm Beach and was preparing to land when he crashed. The impact forced the engine into the cockpit, crushing Fogg and one of the student pilots, who died immediately. The other student, who was in the rear of the plane, survived. Merle Fogg died several hours later at the Good Samaritan Hospital at the age of twenty-nine years, eleven months and eighteen days. Friends of the pioneer aviator later raised $1,200 to purchase an abandoned nine-hole golf course, which became Fort Lauderdale’s first airport and

was named the Merle Fogg Airport. Today, much expanded, it is the site of the Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport, one of the premier airports in the world. Walter Houghton, an airport historian and Assistant to the Director of Aviation for the Broward County Aviation Department, has put together a Merle Fogg display in the airport museum, which includes a life-size replica of Fogg, to which he added a mustache to make the figure look more like a 1920s barnstormer. In a little park off Las Olas Boulevard, overlooking the New River Sound, is a monument dedicated to Merle Fogg. It is constructed of Florida ojus and Maine granite and bears the inscription: Merle L. Fogg A Scholar - Soldier - Aviator First licensed aviator in the State of Maine Pioneer aviator of Broward County Merle Fogg Airport At the Fogg family’s cemetery plot in Mount Hope Cemetery in Bangor, where Merle Fogg is buried, the family monument sports a biplane carving in

memory of this remarkable man who in a few short years did so much to advance aviation both in Florida and Maine. Merle Fogg was born in 1898 in Enfield to Leslie and Alberta Fogg. When he was asked where he was from, Fogg would always say West Enfield, as there were two major population centers in the town, one on Cold Stream Pond, which was called Enfield, and one on the Penobscot River, West Enfield, which was directly across from Howland. Enfield was a town with a rich military history, which undoubtedly had an influence on forming Merle Fogg’s character. During the Civil War, when the town’s population was three hundred and twenty-nine, fifty-four men joined the Union Army. In fact, one man sent his six sons off to fight and then joined himself. Fogg enlisted in the army during World War I but did not take part in any fighting. It was at this time that he had his first exposure to aviation, although he did not fly until several years later. After mustering out of the army, Fogg enrolled at the

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(cont. from page 47) University of Maine, where he studied engineering. He did not pursue a career in this field, however. The lure of flying was simply too strong. In the fall of 1922 Merle Fogg went to Okeechobee, Florida to learn to fly. Fogg’s desire to fly was something his father adamantly opposed. In fact, every time Fogg mentioned flying, his father tried to discourage his interest. Because of this, Fogg said nothing to his parents about his real reason for going south, except that he wanted to spend his winters in a warmer climate. The first time Fogg’s parents learned of their son’s direction in life was when he shipped an airplane engine home. This was in the summer of 1923, just before he flew from Florida to Maine. After learning to fly in Okeechobee, he spent the first part of 1923 barnstorming all over Florida in a Curtis JN4 D. This was a period when both civilian and military aviation was at a low point. Military pilots were forced to fly obsolete war surplus planes due to budget cuts, and much of the aircraft industry’s airframe and engine business dried up. Former World War I pilots were reduced to flying mail routes or barnstorming. It was with this latter group that Merle Fogg found his first true home, and where he made friends with members of the Florida-based Sparks Family Flying Circus.

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Late in the spring of 1923 Merle Fogg wrote his parents that he would be flying home to West Enfield, and that George “Daredevil” Sparks would join him later. He intended, he said, to engage in flight instruction and passenger carrying work in his hometown and go barnstorming with George Sparks across the state. By this time, Merle Fogg’s father had become an enthusiastic supporter of aviation. Fogg flew from Okeechobee to Jacksonville, and from there to Savannah, Georgia. His next stops were Somerville and Rocky Mount, North Carolina. From there, he flew on to the naval station at Norfolk, Virginia, Boiling Field outside of Washington, D.C., to Mineola, Long Island, and then Portland, Maine. The flight from Long Island to Portland took him four hours and thirty minutes. At times the headwinds were so strong and the fog so thick along the Massachusetts coast, that Fogg was literally forced to skim the waves. From Portland, Fogg flew to Bangor, landing in Stroudwater, near the State School for Boys. The next day, he flew to West Enfleld, where his parents hosted a reception in his honor. Fogg made good on his intent to give flying lessons and start a passenger carrying service in West Enfield. In the latter endeavor, he was one of the first pilots to offer floatplane service in

Maine. In addition, he went barnstorming with George Sparks. There are two interesting stories from Fogg’s barnstorming days in Maine. One involves a miraculous parachute jump by Daredevil Sparks, and the other is about controversial General Billy Mitchell. In the summer of 1923 Fogg and Daredevil Sparks had been giving flying demonstrations to appreciative audiences for several weeks at Camp Keyes in Augusta. Fogg had taken various city and state dignitaries for rides in his plane, and Sparks had performed wing walking and given parachute demonstrations. On one of the last days in Augusta, Fogg gave a ride to a soldier from Camp Keyes who had won an equipment race. The flight went well, despite the fact that a thick fog had rolled in over the field, limiting visibility to less than two hundred feet. Fogg’s final flight was to be an aerobatics demonstration featuring Sparks. Unfortunately, the moisture from the fog got into the engine of the plane. Fogg and Sparks had barely gotten into the air when the plane’s engine began to sputter. George Sparks, realizing that the only chance of preventing a crash was to lighten the plane, bailed out at an altitude of a hundred and fifty feet. Horrified, spectators watched as Sparks plummeted earthward, struggling to release his parachute, which did not open

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until he was within a few feet of the ground. Sparks landed, chest-first, on a rock pile on the Locke farm adjacent to Camp Keyes. Fortunately, the only injury he sustained was massive bruising. The incident involving General Billy Mitchell took place in Bangor late in the summer of 1923 when Fogg and George Sparks were barnstorming at the Bangor State Fair. World War I had served as the impetus for tremendous developments in the American aircraft industry. However, with the end of the war, the industry went into a slump. One reason for this was that American military leaders, especially those in the navy, saw no justification to the arguments presented by flyers like General Mitchell that air power should be a major component of the country’s defense system. Mitchell, who was later court-martialed and drummed out of the army for insubordination, was the head of the Army Air Service. He was also an acquaintance of Merle Fogg. Mitchell believed that the United States needed a strong air force if it was to be able to protect its shores. Part of his plan called for the development of a series of airfields on both coasts to supplement one major military air base at Langley Field at Hampton Roads, Virginia. He also wanted one in northern New England, which was not surprising, given that he had a summer home in

York Beach. As a matter of fact, he had narrowed his northern New England site choices to Burlington, Vermont and Bangor, Maine. Mitchell sent one of his officers to survey both cities and the officer found two abutting farms on outer Hammond Street in Bangor that would make a perfect landing strip. The only question that remained was when to land in Bangor to gain the greatest amount of publicity. Mitchell chose the day that Merle Fogg and George Sparks were barnstorming at the Bangor State Fair. In fact, he even timed the flight of his planes to pass over the fair at the same time that Fogg was in the air. What a spectacle the fairgoers were presented with. Just as George Sparks completed a parachute jump to the center of the fair’s race track and Merle Fogg was circling the fairgrounds, eight Haviland scout planes and sixteen Martin bombers flew by in the greatest air maneuver since World War I. The planes went on to land in the pastures on outer Hammond Street. When Mitchell and several of his officers flew in later, there were twenty-six military aircraft lined up in a quarter mile stretch. As hard as it may be to believe today, those twenty-six planes represented the bulk of the nation’s military air defense at the time. And the fields where they sat, chosen by the officer from General Mitchell’s staff, later be-

came Dow Field, site of Dow Air Force Base during World War II, and now the home of Bangor International Airport, as well as various military elements of our country’s air defense system. Merle Fogg did not stay in Maine for long. In 1925 he returned to Florida, settling in Fort Lauderdale where he established the Merle Fogg Flying Service. His hangar and airstrip were north of Las Olas Boulevard. It was the first commercial flying service in the city. His real dream, however, was the establishment of a major airport in Fort Lauderdale. At the time of his death, Merle Fogg had become one of the best-known residents of Fort Lauderdale, and his achievements as a flier had gained him national attention. When a hurricane of devastating proportions hit the east coast of Florida in 1926, Fogg offered his services to his adopted city. He went up over the city in a Wacoland aircraft, accompanied by two reporters, and provided a complete survey of the devastation wrought by the hurricane. On another occasion he became the first pilot to land on Andros Island in the Bahamas. Actually, it was a forced landing. Fogg had been flying over the Gulf Stream looking for a lost barge when he ran out of gas and had to either land or ditch the plane in the ocean. He and his flight companion almost died of (cont. on page 50)

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(cont. from page 49) thirst before a passing fisherman rescued them. The memorial to Merle Fogg in Fort Lauderdale was formally unveiled on May 1, 1929. Almost everyone in the city turned out for the ceremony, and Merle Fogg’s parents were there from Enfield. Wilfred Gibson, a close friend of Merle Fogg, dedicated the following poem to the fallen pilot: He is gone. I do not understand. I only know that as he turned to go, And waved his hand, In his young eyes a sudden glory shone, And I was dazzled by a sunset glow. The author wishes to thank Walter Houghton, Assistant to the Director of Aviation, Broward County Aviation Department, and Norman Houle of the Maine Aviation Historical Society for their contributions to this article.•

Laine’s store in Enfield. Item # LB2007.1.100710 from the Eastern Illustrating & Publishing Co. Collection and www.PenobscotMarineMuseum.org

* Other businesses in this area are featured in the color section.

Elwood Downs Incorporated

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618 Main Street Lincoln, ME 04457 ehdowns@ne.twcbc.com Cell: 290-0338 Dakota: 290-0620

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Thompson’s Hardware Inc. “Serving you for over 35 years”

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DIRECTORY OF ADVERTISERS

BUSINESS

PAGE

A&L Construction Inc. ..........................................14 A.N. Deringer, Inc. ..................................................44 Acadia Federal Credit Union...................................19 Acadian Village.........................................................4 Alan Clair Building Contractor...............................40 Aroosta Cast, Inc. ...................................................41 Aroostook Band of Micmacs..................................27 Aroostook Foam Insulation.....................................33 Aroostook Hospitality Inn......................................29 Aroostook Real Estate.............................................19 Ashland Food Mart, Inc. .......................................41 B&M Hydraulic Jack Repairs & Sales....................10 B.R. Smith Associates, Inc. ....................................40 Babin Construction, Inc. ..........................................5 Bacon Auto & Truck Care......................................13 Barresi Benefits Group ...........................................30 Bean Maine Lobster................................................16 Ben's Trading Post, LLC.........................................30 Bouchard's Seamless Gutters....................................3 Bowers Funeral Home.............................................42 Briarwood Motor Inn..............................................37 Buck Construction, Inc. .........................................41 C&J Service Center................................................12 CAM Manufacturing...............................................14 Carl's Taxidermy......................................................21 Caron's Paving & Sealing.......................................20 Cary Medical Center................................................28 Central Aroostook Chamber of Commerce.............31 Chadwick-BaRoss................................................26 City Jewelry & Loan...............................................11 Coffin's General Store.............................................42 Colin Bartlett & Sons, Inc. .......................................3 Complete Construction...........................................42 Country Village Estates LLC..................................24 County Abatement Inc. ............................................4 County Electric........................................................27 County Stove Shop..................................................27 Countyqwikprint CQP Office Solutions..................25 Cove Corner Kennels..............................................18 Crandall's Hardware................................................45 Crossroads Motel & Restaurant..............................45 Crosswinds Residential Care...................................22 Cummings Health Care Facility, Inc. .....................38 Cushman & Sons Inc. ..............................................31 Danny Dubay Trucking, Inc. .................................19 Desjardins Logging...................................................5 Dirigo Waste Oil......................................................17 Doris' Café.................................................................6 Dr. Durwin Libby, D.M.D. .....................................37 Dubois' Garage..........................................................6 Elwood Downs Incorporated..................................50 Fields Realty LLC...................................................25 First Choice Market & Deli.....................................28 Fitzpatrick & Peabody Farms ..................................43 Forest Diversity Services Inc. .................................18 Fort Kent Powersports.............................................20 Frank Landry & Sons, Inc.......................................44 Freeport Antiques • Heirlooms Showcase...............16 Freightliner of Maine Inc. .........................................5 Furever Friends.......................................................49 Gary Babin's Groceries & Meats ..............................5 Gas-N-Go........................................................6 Gervais Fence..........................................................11 Giberson-Dorsey Funeral Home.............................10 GJ Auto Body............................................................8 GP Carpentry...........................................................17 Graves Shop 'n Save Superstore..............................15 Greater Fort Kent Area Chamber of Commerce.......7 Greater Houlton Chamber of Commerce................43 Greater Van Buren Chamber of Commerce..............8 Greenmark Information Technologies....................30 Ground Perfection Specialists Inc..........................40 Ground Tek Inc. ........................................................8 H&R Block - Caribou.............................................26 Haines Manufacturing Co., Inc. ............................40

BUSINESS

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Hanington Bros., Inc. .............................................46 Hemphill & Sons Butchery......................................13 High Street Market..................................................48 High View Rehabilitation & Nursing Center...........24 Hogan Tire...............................................................43 Hometown Fuels, Inc. ............................................25 Houlton Towing Auto Salvage & Repair................34 Huber Engineered Wood, LLC...............................30 Inn of Acadia...........................................................23 Irish Setter Pub........................................................15 Irving Woodlands, LLC..........................................22 J. McLaughlin Construction, LLC Excavating ........34 J.R.S. Firewood.........................................................7 Jato Highlands Golf Course....................................48 Jepson Financial Advisors, PA...............................11 Jerry's Shurfine........................................................44 John's Shurfine Food Store.......................................7 Katahdin Federal Credit Union...............................36 Katahdin General Store...........................................35 Katahdin Health Care..............................................45 Katahdin Valley Motel............................................35 Keep It On The Road Driving School.......................20 Ken L. Electric, Inc. ..................................................5 Kirkpatrick & Bennett Law Offices.........................12 Langille Construction, Inc. .....................................29 Leisure Gardens & Leisure Village..........................33 Levesque Business Solutions..................................25 Limestone Chamber of Commerce.........................11 Linda Bean's Maine Kitchen & Topside Tavern.......16 Linda Bean’s Perfect Maine Vacation Rental...........16 Linda Bean’s Maine Wyeth Gallery........................16 Long Lake Construction............................................9 Long Lake Motor Inn...............................................18 Long Lake Sporting Club Restaurant.........................4 Loon’s Nest Lodge...................................................37 Louisiana Pacific Corp. ..........................................35 M. Rafford Construction..........................................33 M.L. Pelletier Trucking, Inc. ...................................21 Macannamac Camps...............................................35 Madtown Clothing..................................................22 Main Street Pawn....................................................47 Maine Dept. of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife ....14 / 38 Maine Forest Service...............................................11 Maine Historical Society...........................................4 Maine’s Outdoor Learning Center............................42 Maine Warden Service.............................................21 Mark Cyr Apartments.............................................10 Mark's Towing.........................................................12 Mars Hill Pharmacy................................................42 Martin Acadian Homestead and Learning Center......9 Martin's General Store.............................................18 Martin's Motel.........................................................24 Martin's Point Health Care - TRICARE.................26 McCain Foods.........................................................29 McCluskey's RV Center..........................................15 McGillan Inc. Earthwork Contractor......................10 Micmac Farms........................................................27 Mike's Quik Stop & Deli.........................................28 Mockler Funeral Home...........................................13 Monica's Scandinavian Imports..............................27 Nickerson Construction Inc. ..................................43 NorState Federal Credit Union...............................24 North Woods Real Estate.........................................35 Northeast Propane...................................................13 Northern Dispatch Energy.......................................33 Northern Door Inn...................................................21 Northern Lights Motel.............................................31 Ogunquit Beach Lobster House...............................16 One Stop..................................................................13 Ouellette Cleaning Service........................................7 Ouellette's Garage......................................................9 Overlook Motel & Lakeside Cottages......................17 P&E Distributors.......................................................8 Paradis Shop 'N Save Supermarkets.........................20 Pat's Pizza - Presque Isle...........................................30

BUSINESS

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Pelletier Sewer Services............................................5 Penobscot Marine Museum........................back cover Percy's Auto Sales....................................................14 Perham Logging Corp. ..........................................13 Presque Isle Pharmacy.............................................41 Presque Isle Snowmobile Club, Inc. ........................30 R.L. Todd & Son, Inc. Electrical Contractors ...........12 Ramsay Welding & Machine, Inc. ............................47 Randy Brooker General Contractor.........................25 Raymond's Variety & Diner......................................46 RE/MAX North Realty - April R. Caron................12 Reliant Repair..........................................................33 Registered Maine Guide School .............................42 Rendezvous Restaurant...........................................11 Ridgewood Estates..................................................22 River's Edge Motel..................................................36 Riverside Inn Restaurant..........................................40 RLC Electric............................................................10 RMJ Cash Plus........................................................14 Robbie Morin Paving.................................................6 Robert Pelletier Building Contractor........................19 Robinson Builders General Construction...............37 Roger Ayotte Electric, Inc. ......................................9 Roots 2 Remedies....................................................36 Rozco......................................................................18 Rudolph Electronic Repair LLC.............................37 Russell-Clowes Insurance Agency, Inc. ...................26 S. Paradis & Son Garage..........................................17 S.O.B. Oil & Earthworks Co., LLC.........................50 Salmon Brook Valley Maine Maple Syrup ..............13 Sandra’s Kitchen & Pizza To Go.............................5 Savage Paint & Body..............................................35 Scootic In Restaurant...............................................45 Scovil Apartments...................................................41 Scovil Building Supply, Inc. ...................................41 Select Designs & Embroidery.................................47 Shallie's Place..........................................................42 Shaun R. Bagley Construction..................................15 Shear Delight Full Service Salon............................15 Sonny's Gun Shop ....................................................11 Spudnik..................................................................32 St. John Valley Chamber of Commerce & Tourism...10 St. John Valley Pharmacy.........................................19 St. John Valley Realty Co. ..........................................6 St. Joseph’s Memory Care, Inc. ................................22 Stardust Motel..........................................................34 STEaD Timberlands, LLC.......................................46 Storage Solutions.....................................................15 Sullivan's Wrecker Service......................................38 TA Service Center...................................................40 T.W. Willard, Inc. ...................................................12 Taylor's Katahdin View Camps...............................44 The Handy Stop.......................................................49 The Montague..........................................................49 The Pioneer Place, U.S.A. .....................................44 The Salvation Army - Houlton.................................34 The Swamp Buck Restaurant-Lounge......................7 Thompson's Hardware Inc. .....................................50 Timberland Trucking Inc. ........................................45 Town of Enfield.......................................................50 Town of Fort Kent......................................................6 Town of Frenchville.................................................17 Town of Lincoln......................................................38 Town of Linneus......................................................34 Town of Madawaska...............................................25 Town of Mars Hill.....................................................3 Tulsa, Inc. ..................................................................8 VintageMaineImages.com .......................................4 Voyageur Lounge & Restaurant...............................23 Waite General Store Inc. .........................................37 Ware's Power Equipment.........................................45 Wayne's Body Shop & Service Center......................8 Whitney's Outfitters.................................................48 York’s of Houlton....................................................44


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