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JNMR005M03 8 Table 4.

Erik Jansen and Dirk-Jan Povel Pairwise comparisons of the progression conditions. Condition






12.59 0.002*

27.84 <0.001* 10.70 0.004

9.10 0.007 0.80


15.66 <0.001*

8.74 0.008 21.13 <0.001* 3.24

I-VI-V-I 59.99 <0.001* 26.12 <0.001* 0.68 38.33 <0.001* 350.66 <0.001*

Note. Statistical testing of the comparisons of the conditions was performed against a Bonferroni-corrected alpha of 0.003.

nificantly from the progressions with II, III, and VI, F(1, 19) = 70.25, p < 0.0001. This was in line with the predictions because the progressions with targets I, IV and V involve only category 1 chord changes, whereas II, III, and VI also contain less usual changes. Second, target IV was rated significantly lower than a combination of I and V, F(1, 19) = 7.77, p < 0.05. This was also according to the predictions because the progression IIV-V-I employs one chord change more than the progression I-V-I, which is effectively the progression of both I-I-V-I and I-V-V-I. In fact, the targets I and V do not differ. Third, according to the predictions condition VI (usualness of 4) would be rated higher than condition III (usualness of 7). However, condition VI was not rated higher. Even condition II (usualness of 5) was rated higher than condition VI, F(1, 19) = 26.12, p < 0.0001, whereas the reverse effect was predicted. Thus, particularly the low rating for VI is not in accordance with the predictions. In sum, the effects for progression are reasonably well predicted by the usualness of the implied chord progression, but the results do not completely conform to the predictions derived from Piston’s table: The results with regard to targets I, IV, and V are in line, whereas those regarding II, III, and VI are to some extent in conflict with the predictions. The main effect for Contour was examined further using planned pairwise comparisons. Simpler contours are rated higher than less simple contours: both category 2 and category 3 differ significantly from category 1 (at a Bonferroni corrected alpha of 0.0167), F(1, 19) = 50.66, p < 0.0001, and F(1, 19) = 52.85, p < 0.0001, respectively. The difference between categories 2 and 3 is non-significant. This lack of difference may be explained by the fact that category-2 and category-3 contours both have one contour change, and are similar in terms of contour complexity. The results are interpreted in terms of the hypotheses as follows: First, the results support the hypothesis that implied harmony plays an important role in the perception of the

sequences. This corroborates results reported in Jansen and Povel (submitted-b) and Povel and Jansen (2001, 2002). Second, the effect for contour structure confirms the hypothesis that simpler contours lead to higher goodness ratings. Finally, the observed interaction suggests that the contour sometimes affects the processing of implied harmony. In sum, the findings support the hypothesis that the evaluation of underlying chord changes plays an important role in the perception of the sequences.

3. Experiment 2 In order to monitor the chord identification process while the tone sequence unfolds the stimuli of Experiment 1 were presented as increasing initial fragments and rated for melodic goodness. Each sequence was presented as a series of 8 initial fragments the first one consisting of the initial 3 tones, the final one consisting of all 10 tones. The results are analysed in terms of the stimulus features Fittingness, Uncertainty, and Chord Change. 3.1 Method 3.1.1 Participants Twenty students and staff members of the University of Nijmegen, 8 women and 12 men, volunteered to participate in the experiment, 16 of which had also participated in Experiment 1. Ages ranged from 19 to 60 years, with a median of 26. All listeners had experience playing an instrument, mainly piano and guitar, for a median 11.5 years. Seventeen had received formal instruction for a median 6 years. Twelve listeners also played a second instrument. Listeners’ backgrounds varied, but were mainly in classical and pop music. If they wished, they received course credit for their participation. 3.1.2 Stimulus materials and apparatus The stimuli were the same 10-tone sequences as employed in Experiment 1. Of each sequence 8 initial fragments were formed in length increasing from three to 10 tones. The stimuli were presented using the same experimental setup in the same timing and velocity patterns as in Experiment 1. 3.1.3 Procedure In each trial, a respondent first listened to the initial fragment of three tones and provided a goodness rating as in Experiment 1. When the listener clicked the “Next” button on the computer screen, or pushed “enter” on the numeric keypad of the computer keyboard, a fourth tone was added to the sequence and the entire fragment presented. After the listener had provided a rating the fifth tone was added, and so forth, until the entire 10-tone sequence was presented. The listener could repeat each fragment by clicking the “repeat” button


Abstract JNMR005M03 Nijmegen Institute for Cognition and Information, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Erik Jansen and Dirk-Jan Povel Accepted: 24...