Dipali Maurya Visual Communication Design Diploma Project Documentation, 2016
Project By Course Project Facilitator
: Dipali Maurya, Post Graduate Diploma Program : Visual Communication and Branding, 2016 : Yamini Temujin
Give A New Life
Acknowledgement I would like to thank my college â€˜Srishti Institute of Art, Design and Technologyâ€™ for providing me an opportunity to undertake such an interesting project. Sincere thanks to Jyoti Hosagrahar, UNESCO Chair Professor who brought in this project and to my mentor, Yamini Temujin for her guidance and constant supervision. I would also like to thank Waseem who helped me in developing my software skills and for being very patient with me. I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude towards my parents for their kindness and motivation. A big thank you to Rahul Maurya for patiently answering all of my software related questions. Very special thanks to my best friends Rohan and Sravya, without whom it would not have been possible to complete the project. Thanks to Afsar Ahmed, ITC Limited, PSPD who has played a major role in providing me with the information required throughout various phases of this project, and to Ravindra for providing guidance on the end product I used for delivering my message. I would also like to thank Ravi Anna, Wet Lab assistant for helping me with and teaching me how to do Screen Printing. Thanks to the councillors Sumitha Raghavan, Priyal Chandrani, Dr. Manjiri Joshi for keeping me motivated all along the way. Thank You so much all, without your support it would not have been possible.
Seminar-1 Client Brief New Direction Primary Research Project Brief Area of Focus Why Organic Waste Secondary Research Organisations working towards a similar goal Insights and Observation Proposal
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Seminar-2 Feedback from seminar 1 Mixed Media Shadow Research Iteration Stage
32 33 35 36
Feedback from seminar-2 Exploration on concepts Challenges encountered Process of screen printing Final Product User Testing Learning Outcome References
41 42 43 44 46 48 50 51
Client Brief How can we, as designers, devise design solutions to make cities and the future safe, sustainable, inclusive and resilient? Out of the various topics given to us, I chose to take up my project on a topic that I found very intriguing. My problem statement was - ‘What does a sustainable city mean in South Asia? Through study/research on urbanisation in South Asia (you can choose a city or country), visualize and represent key issues.’ The task is to spread awareness to a specific audience/age group through Visual Communication material. I conducted thorough research on South Asian Countries. I feel that if I am conducting research on a particular geographic area, it’s better to go to the concerned place and observe, instead of just looking up online resources. This was the reason that motivated me to choose India as my country of interest for this project. Since this topic is too vast, we all were stuck on to how to take this project further. We had many discussions with our mentor and after a thorough understanding of the problems we were facing, our mentor decided to further break it down into smaller topics.
Notes On South- Asian Countries
New direction Goal-11 – Sustainable cities and Communities The heads of many states, government leaders, United Nations high level representatives and civil society met in September 2015, at the 70th Session of the UN General Assembly, and adopted the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These represent a universal, ambitious, sustainable development agenda, an agenda “of the people, by the people and for the people,” crafted with the active involvement of UNESCO with the aim of ending poverty, protecting the planet, and ensuring prosperity for all. On 1 January 2016, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development — adopted by world leaders in September 2015 at an historic UN Summit — officially came into force. Over the next 15 years, these universally applicable goals will attempt to end poverty with strategies that build economic growth and address a wide range of social needs including education, health, social protection, and job opportunities, while tackling climate change and environmental protection. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals. Our project aims to promote Goal 11 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Sustainable development cannot be achieved without significantly transforming the way we develop and manage our urban spaces. Goal 11 focuses on improving resource use and reducing pollution, poverty, access to basic services, energy, housing, transportation, waste management and more. 3
Primary Research Begins As part of initial field work, I spoke to the people of Bangalore about the problems they face regarding safety, pollution, waste management etc. I clicked photographs, made observations, came across fliers on the wall. I used tools like â€œI see, I think, I wonder.â€? I visited Malleshwaram, MG Road, Brigade Road, Commercial Street, Brigade Gateway, Majestic, Indiranagar, Yelahanka New Town, Shivajinagar, Betahalli Village, Chickpet and Koramangala as part of the observation process. All this research was conducted while considering India as a whole. I spoke to people, got to know their problems and tried to connect them with the targets of Goal 11. Once again, focusing on Goal 11 as it pertains to India as a whole country was too vast a topic and we were not able to focus on just one particular thing. It was too generic to be covered by such a small class. Finally, it was decided by the powers that be that our project be made Bangalore specific. Another factor that was involved in this narrowing down of topics was that every state has its own culture and art, considering them as one unit did not make sense in this context.
What is Sustainability Sustainability is the ability to continue a defined behaviour indefinitely. It can also be defined as the ability to be supported, upheld, or confirmed. In other words, it is the endurance of systems and processes. If an activity is said to be sustainable, it should be able to continue forever. Sustainability is an important concept, as itâ€™s about taking what we need to live now without jeopardising the potential for people to meet their needs in the future . Considering sustainability as a primary factor during the planning stages of development programs will ensure that the Earth does not run out of key resources a few years down the road. 6
The worldâ€™s urban areas are already overcrowded and, particularly in developing countries, suffer from shortages of clean water, electricity, and other resources essential to the support of their exploding populations and fragile economies.
Project Brief Below is Goal 11 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals, and the task is for Visual Communicators to promote ‘Awareness of Goal 11’ to a specific audience/age group through Visual Communications material. The problem statement for this project is How can you as Visual Communicators promote ‘Awareness’ by depicting how Bangalore City and the future can be Safe, Sustainable, Inclusive and Resilient through Visual Communication material. The various intervention areas are • • • • •
Brand Development Publication Design Infographics Postage Stamps Handouts, Bookmarks, Totes, Notepads etc.
MG Road 9
Area of Focus My focus area will be Target 6 of Goal 11, stated by the UN as – “By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management”. I will be focusing on creating awareness towards residential organic waste management.
Why waste management? Once upon a time Bangalore used to be called ‘Garden city´ and now it is called ‘Garbage city’. The reason why I chose this topic is because managing waste has become a major concern in Bangalore nowadays. Whenever we step out of our houses, we see garbage lying around everywhere. And we cannot blame the government for that, because it is our duty to keep our surroundings clean in the first place. We keep our homes clean, but when we are out on the streets, we forget this duty and start littering. One of the main reasons for environmental degradation is improper waste management. Improper waste management can lead to various problems like affecting health, air and water pollution, release of greenhouse gases like methane, affecting wildlife, leachate in landfill sites.
Problems related to improper waste management • Mandatory waste segregation laws were introduced in 2012 by BBMP. Fines have been levied as well but the condition is worsening day by day. This is owing to the fact that many people are still unaware of the fact that waste segregation has been made mandatory. Even those who are aware do not segregate waste because of their careless attitudes. 11
• People blame the government for not placing and maintaining dustbins, not collecting waste on time, laxation in imposing strict laws etc. instead of doing their individual work in segregating waste and keeping our environment clean. • The ‘Garbage Mafia’ – a nexus of corporators, officials and garbage contractors - do not want segregation at source and bio-methanisation of the waste at ward level, as they profit from the trucks ferrying the garbage.
Burning of dried leaves on road side causes pollution
Waste Management Hierarchy
Anupammaâ€™s Master Class on Safe, Sustainability, Inclusive and Resilient
Research Questions In order to do so effectively, research had to be undertaken in order to gain insights on the current situation regarding waste management. This motivated me to come up with a set of questions that formed the basis for my research.
Why Organic Waste? Out of all generated waste, at least 65% is organic waste, 30% is recyclable waste and 5% is reject waste. Research has shown that residences contribute 75% of this organic component. 3500 tonnes of waste is being generated per day according to the latest information from the Hindustan times. But as per to ITCâ€™s research, Bengaluru generates 4500 tonnes of waste per day. 2,625 tonnes is organic waste out of 3500 tonnes. If it is composted we can generate 9,18,750 KGs of compost or 214 cylinders or 52,500 units of electricity from it. 11,25,000 kgs of organic waste is being dumped on the roadside everyday. Based on my research and data I collected, I found that people are not aware about the adverse effects of organic waste on our environment and ways to reduce it. They have careless attitudes towards waste management, and do not know how to reduce wet waste or compost it. They think that wet waste decomposes and so it does not harm our society. If organic waste is dumped into landfills, it causes a lot of problems. Organic waste in landfills does not get proper exposure to air and sufficient amounts of oxygen. This leads to anaerobic decomposition and the formation of methane gas, which is a powerful greenhouse gas. On the other hand, in compost pits, aerobic decomposition occurs because of worms and other micro-organisms, leading to the formation of carbon dioxide. Composting thus helps prevent global warming. Another issue is that due to organic waste, a â€œleachateâ€? is produced in the landfills, which contaminates ground water, emits a horrid smell and causes many diseases. 18
Secondary Research I went through various e-news websites to try and find out what exactly is happening in Bangalore even after so much awareness on waste segregation has been created and NGOs are working in different wards for the same. Visiting an NGO in Bangalore and an urban slum also helped me gain better insights into the garbage problem.
Context As a part of my previous charrette work, I had explored the harmful effects of not segregating waste. This project gives me an opportunity to further the charrette work by attempting to spread awareness about the ill effects of waste management, and also about simple ways to reduce the waste generated in our homes. I will endeavour to create awareness through visual communication materials about the importance of composting organic waste and reducing waste at source itself by which tonnes of waste will be kept away from the landfills.
Organisations working towards a similar goal Saahas “When someone says that problems are opportunities to improve, the silent truth is that one needs to work very hard to actually take advantage of challenges. Waste management in India is one of those ‘hot boiled potatoes’ which no one is really willing to hold in their hands because it poses questions complicated enough to give everyone terrible headaches - first being how to create a centralised system to collect and eliminate it.” – Saahas idealizes. Saahas programs convert at least 7 tons of waste everyday into a range of resources. Apart from organic composting, Saahas also promotes vermi-composting and biogas generation.
Daily Dump Poonam Bir Kasturi launched the Daily Dump brand in 2006. She thought of how design could make a difference in our daily lives. An industrial designer by profession, her premise behind Daily Dump is: ‘to convert your kitchen waste into compost at home using a composter.’ Daily Dump offers terracotta composters and various other products for both the home and the larger community while encouraging others to clone their concepts. The compost can then be used in homes or community parks, or it can be sold to organic enthusiasts and nurseries as well. With a presence in 15 cities of India, they are clear that decentralised waste management is the only way to a sustainable future. Their idea is to create a large impact through a large number of people doing small actions.
Workers Segregating Waste
Health is Wealth
Ashoka Bio-Gas Plant
Different Types Of Composters Manure
Illustrations on Waste Management
Notes based on my research
Insights and Observations Based on my research I found that many of them were aware of harmful effects of dry and reject waste but many people did not know about the harmful effects of not managing organic waste. People produce more of wet waste rather than dry and reject waste in their homes. Waste composition studies estimate that approximately 72% of municipal waste going into landfills is organic waste . Though segregation of waste at source might not be desired by all, due to the fact that it requires slightly higher effort, it is a very practical approach. Segregating the waste at a centralized location is nigh impossible, as the amount of waste generated is just too high.
Benefits of Recycling Organic Waste
Proposal Decentralization of the entire waste management system is the only solution, which means we need to manage our own waste, and it barely costs anything. Waste segregation at source, recycling and composting are efficient ways to achieve effective waste management. Garbage should not be thought of as something to be disposed of but as a ‘Special Resource. I will involve my stakeholders by using visual communication material to create the required awareness on “Household Organic Waste”.
Seminar - 2
Feedback from seminar 1 The feedback I received from my mentors at the end of seminar one was strongly positive. I realized that in order to make people aware about composting, I had to start doing it myself first. So I bought myself a composter and did just that. Though it felt like a dirty task initially, I soon got over my disgust and started to enjoy composting. I found that composting is in fact a very simple and fun activity, and it also helps save the environment. Motivated by my findings, I set out to spread the awareness.
Mixed Media Matt Lee, a faculty member of Srishti, instructed us for a week on mixed media â€“ what it is and how to make the most out of it. The lectures were very informative, and we were ready to delve into the world of mixed media, using it to spread our message to as many people as possible. We explored with mediaâ€™s like acrylic, pencils, ink, collage. We developed our illustrations and got them ready for the next stage.
Mixed Media- Resilient- Waste Management
Class Exercises by Matt Lee
Things we observed about Bengaluru
Shadow research Kumkum Nadig, Graphic Designer reviewed my work and advised me to undertake shadow research. Shadow research means to tail a person and observe them for a long time, trying to understand their habits and how they handle various situations, in the context of waste disposal and management. I shadowed a few people in and around Yelahanka. I also spoke to many people living in a large society in Peenya, observing their garbage disposal habits and trying to get as much information as possible.
People in Peenya segregating Dry, Wet and Reject Waste
Iteration Stage Initially, I came up with the idea of making infographic posters. But then when we had a feedback session with Anupamma and Lee, and I realised that posters will not really help. People just look at posters once and forget them. Very few people actually pay attention to what the poster is trying to convey. Putting up the posters on walls was also a challenging task. Also, posters have already been made on waste management but they have not brought any changes in peoplesâ€™ attitudes. Then I came up with the idea of making brochures in different languages but again I realised after yet another feedback session with Lakshmi that there was nothing unique in it. People see brochures and fliers and throw them away or turn them into paper planes. After discussing with the faculty and a long brainstorming session, I came up with different ideas for my medium of communication - dustbins, pots and coasters. A thorough understanding and research on various media made me realise that the medium best suited to communicate my message to the masses would be â€˜Tote Bagsâ€™. These days, plastics have been banned in Bengaluru, and people use non-woven and cloth bags instead. Fruit stalls, shops, supermarkets all provide customers with cloth bags. I found out that non-woven bags have some plastic content, and the government is trying to ban them too. I was left with a 100% eco-friendly product which is pure cotton cloth bag. Supermarkets and general stores sell printed cloth bags, provided by BBMP. Taking inspiration from these bags, I will print my designs on tote bags, which can be distributed in general stores and supermarkets. Since people use tote bags every day, the design on the bags can be made to deliver a message about the benefits of composting organic waste. This will remind them daily to compost their waste and become more responsible citizens, since daily reminders are always effective in getting a simple message across. 36
BBMP worker segregating waste on roadside
Iteration for Brochure
People making video games on garbage
Iterations for Tote Bag
2 iterations out of the 15 iterations I made
Feedback from Seminar-2 Looking back on the previous 2 semesters, and getting feedback from many different people about my designs, I was ready to phase into part 3 of the project. Now, I will finalize my designs and get them printed to create a prototype, so that I can conduct user tests and further improve my designs.
Improving my designs Since I am from a non-designing background, I have never used important designing software like Photoshop and Illustrator. I always prefered to draw on paper rather than on a computer. But in this digital age, using software definitely gives us an edge over hand drawing. So I approached Waseem to learn the basics and put me on the right track. Waseem patiently taught me the basics of designing using computers and helped me out with any doubts I had. After learning about the basic tools at my disposal, I made my first design on a computer. After making my first design using software, I decided to Screen Print it on a tote bag, to see how it looks on one.
My 1st Screen printing on a tote bag
Exploration on Concepts For choosing which material to use for making tote bags, I had to consider many options. I initially considered using paper bags, but they were not durable enough. Using jute was another option, but jute is costly, and using it would increase the cost of my bags, which was not an option. 42
Finally, I decided to go with cotton tote bags, as cotton is a biodegradable material. Also, cotton bags, if stitched properly, are very durable and can be reused for different purposes. The cost and time involved in screen printing depends heavily on the number of colors used in the design to be printed. My initial designs had more than 4 colors, which made printing a very difficult task and also increased the cost of the printed product. Thus, I had to modify my designs to reduce the number of colors and make it easier to print. The size of the bags is yet another important aspect to be considered. I experimented with different sizes and finally decided upon 3 sizes, i.e small, medium and large which I will be using in my final product.
Challenges encountered During the course of designing and printing, I faced a lot of problems. The first and foremost one of them was my fear of using computer software, which I had to learn to overcome. Secondly, screen printing requires a lot of physical effort and patience. Since my designs have more than one color, screen printing them was going to be a challenge. Also, most screen printing studios only take bulk orders â€“ they refuse to create just one or two prints. I had to do the exposing of the screens in the wet lab at Srishti, with the help of the lab assisstant there. I exposed 20 screens just for 5 designs which was very time consuming and physically challenging process. I had to do the final printing work at a studio in Hebbal with the help of one of the studio operators.
Process of Screen Printing
Lab assisstant helping in exposing of the screens
Printing on the bag
The person who helped in screen printing
My friend who stitched the tote bag
Final Product I made 7 designs for my final product.
Front side of the bag
Back side of the bag 46
User Testing Due to a time constraint, I conducted most of the user tests in Yelahanka only. I visited a super market, a stationery store, a general store and a local branch of daily dump. I noticed that the people I showed the bags to were impressed by the designs. Most of the people understood the message portrayed without explaining anything to them. Also, quite a few of the people actually showed concern regarding the issue of waste management. The operators at the daily dump branch and the regional head of ITC liked the designs a lot as they could relate to the messages the designs contained. They wanted to buy the designs right away, but since this is a UNESCO project, their permission will be required for selling my designs.
Customer in ‘Daily Dump’ looking at the bag
School kid looking at the bag in ‘Loyal Supermarket’
Young man looking at the design in ‘Stationery Shop’
Learning Outcome By undertaking this project, I learned a lot about the ups and downs of being a designer. I learned the hard way that thinking about doing something and actually doing it are very different things. I felt very happy, since I overcame my fear of computers and that made me feel more like a designer than ever. Overcoming my software fear has boosted my confidence tenfold. During the course of this project, I also started to observe more carefully and try to derive meaning from everything. I also learned to design while keeping cost in mind, as I have developed a consumer product and its cost is very important.
References http://www.landlearnnsw.org.au/sustainability/what-is-sustainability https://mostlyeconomics.wordpress.com/how-did-bangalore-convert-from-garden-city-to-garbage-city https://www.google.co.in/organic+waste+dumped+in+landfills http://compostingcouncil.org/admin/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Keeping-Organics-Out-of-Landfills-Position-Paper.pdf http://bangalore.citizenmatters.in/articles/parliament-constituency-assembly-constituency-ward-bangalore https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste_management http://www.dailydump.org/ http://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/bengaluru/Garbage-Mafia-Calling-Shots http://social.yourstory.com/2015/04/saahas-waste/ https://wastenarratives.com/what-is-hasiru-dala/ https://www.amrita.edu/publication/leachate-characterization-and-assessment-ground-water-pollution-near-msw-dump-site http://bangalore.citizenmatters.in/articles/4561-swmrt-solid-waste-management-guidelines http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/bangalore/dry-waste-collection-sabotaged/article6589424.ece https://www.google.co.in/search?q=organic+waste+images https://www.google.co.in/search?q=organic+waste+icons https://www.google.co.in/search?q=landfill+icons&oq=landfill+icons 51
Donâ€™t Waste Your So Start Composting