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PALMS FOR INDIA small-tips to achieve BIG RESULTS in growing Palms

www.small-tips.com

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PALMS FOR INDIA c

Dinesh Rawat

Published : Jun, 2008

All rights are reserved. No part of this work must be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher and copyright owner.

Published by : Sahayog Hortica (P) Ltd. Bakhrahat Road, Samukpota, 24 Parganas (S), W. B. 743503, India E-mail : palms@sahayoghortica.com www.sahayoghortica.com

Printed by :

N.K.Gossain & Co.Pvt.Ltd. 13/ 7 Ariff Road, Kolkata 700 067

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Co n te n ts A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t .. .... .... .... ... .... .... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... . 5 P r ef a c e . .. . . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. 7 Foreword.......................................................................9 Getting familiar with the book.........................................10 Introducti on......... .......................................................11 Why palms are becoming so popular........................................12 Propagation of palms through seed germination.................14 Collection and viability of palm seeds.........................................15 Viability of palm seeds...........................................................16 Water proof labeling.................................................................17 Cleaning of palm seeds..............................................................18 Pre-treatment for better germination.................................19 Process of germination.....................................................20 Preparation of seed beds...................................................22 Germinating media.............................................................23 Protection of seeds during germination process..............24 Palm seeds requiring special germinating conditions.......25 Germinating conditions.....................................................26 Process of excavating seedlings for potting........................27 Propagation by division...................................................28 Type of potting mix for seedlings.........................................29 Fertilizing young palm seedlings.......................................30 Selection of pots or bags for potting palm seedlings.........32 Positioning of palm seedlings as per shade or sun requirements.....33 Transplantation of palms...................................................35 A-Z Palm description with Images and pronounciation...............41 Glossary..............................................................................124 Categorisation of palms......................................................129

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Dr. S. K. Basu

Mr. Kampon Tansacha

Mr. Shanta Perera

Mr. T. A. Suby

Dr. M. Sanjappa

Dr. G. S. Giri

Dr. S. S. Hameed

Sri. Lala Shridhar

Smt. Prabha Shridhar

Mrs. A. K. Rawat

Mr. Dinmay Rawat

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Mr. Michael D. Ferraro

Miss. Chandni Rawat


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I owe sincere thanks and appreciations to many of my friends, associates and family members, many of whose names I might have missed out. I must make a special mention of Dr. S. K. Basu who helped me untiringly by editing each section of this book. He is the one who motivated me to write an elaborate handbook after coming across my small pocket book on Palms a couple of years ago. I am highly indebted to Mr. Kampon Tansacha with whose support I have been able to gather knowledge about various species of palms during my several visits to Nong Nooch Tropical Garden, Thailand. He allowed me to photograph many palms and landscapes which I have used in this book. Mr. Michael D. Ferraro has been my teacher by giving me initial lessons on Palms and has generously helped me all over in giving technical details for the book. Mr. Shanta Perera from Sri Lanka has also been a major helping hand in editing some parts of the book. Mr. T. A. Suby of Sri Lanka was my primary source of inspiration on Palms when I visited his nursery near Colombo in 2003. I must give my sincere thanks to him for providing me with continuous support and guidance. Dr. M. Sanjappa, Director Botanical Survey of India and Dr. G. S. Giri, Joint Director Indian Botanical Garden, extended ample opportunity to me to learn in depth about palms by signing an MOU with my organization for Palm collection at Indian Botanical Garden. Dr. S. S. Hameed of IBG has always been a very helpful hand in exchange of information with us in every field. I must extemed my sinceremost thanks to Smt. & Sri Lala Shridhar for their continuous support and encouragement. Sri Prabir Malik, Sri Sujit Parui and Sri Kaushik Mukherjee have put in their best efforts day and night to ensure that the book gets a high quality appearance. I must thank my wife Maya and son Dinmay who motivated me and provided whole hearted support to write this book. Last but not the least, I must give my heartfelt appreciations to my sweet daughter Chandni who helped me day and night for proof correction and editing.

(Dinesh Rawat)

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PREFACE While travelling various palm growing countries throughout the world, I came across many books on Palms written by learned and reputed authors. I studied them and found that they were quite expensive and none suited to Indian conditions. Hence, I decided to publish this book giving details of palms that can be best grown in Indian sub-continent. My writing is based on my own experience and interactions with experts of palms from all over the world. Palms are excellent plants, commonly seen and much admired in our landscape. They have been very less promoted in India as ornamental plants due to lack of awareness and higher initial cost. But now, awareness towards palms is growing like wild fire. Town Planners, Landscapers and Gardeners have realised that though expensive initially, in the long run palms are worthy of investment. They enhance value of properties; have excellent symmetry and are self maintaining. Generally, palms grow slowly in the initial years and thereafter, they grow quite rapidly and uniformly. They are evergreen, do not require pruning; fertilizing is straight forward – available water is all that is required. They do not take much ground space on account of their compact and fibrous root system. Therefore, they can be transplanted with ease compared to other trees. They are quite hardy and capable of growing almost any where in any type of soil. Some types of them thrive well even without regular irrigation and with little maintenance. Nearly all the palms covered in this hand book can be grown all over the Indian sub-continent. Agro climatically, most of our Indian subcontinent is quite suitable for palm culture. With the active support of Indian and International experts and botanists in the field of palm horticulture, we hope that this publication, titled “Palms for India” that provides simple ‘small tips’, will prove to bring ‘BIG RESULTS’. We shall be grateful to have your valuable suggestions and feedback, which would be of immense help in our forthcoming publications.

Dinesh Rawat

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Archontophoenix alexandrae. A fast growing, beautiful palm; excellent for landscaping;grows straight. Hence, very much desirable along pathways.

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FOREWORD Palms are one of the most exciting groups of plants that attract attention of botanists because of the characteristics they manifest amongst the Monocot group of plants. The distribution of the family Palmae (Arecacae) is mostly pan tropical, although there are some genera and species which have limited distribution in the subtropical to temperate regions of the world. Most of the genera and species of Palms prefer moist and humid conditions, both in soil and atmosphere although there are some genera and species with natural distributions in the arid regions and oasis of sandy deserts and in savannahs. Due to obvious ornamental nature of palms, from bushy to tall, single stemmed to cluster forming, feather-like leaves to circular, glossy, fan-like leaves, flowering and fruiting habit, palms are prefered by the horticulturists and landscapers, as potent landscape materials for use as avenue plants, grove plants or using a large ornamental Palm as a focal point in a large landscape garden. Palms are also very hardy, and they remain in juvenile form for several years if grown in pots and most of them do not require any special type of soil as most of them remain healthy in soil with neutral PH. Now there is a great demand for potted ornamental plants as house plants for home decoration. As palms are hardy plants and thrive best among all other house plants, their usefulness now being realized is many-fold, although they are a little expensive initially. Since culture of palms is slightly different from other ornamental plants, a little bit of knowledge on the identity, morphology, ecology and planting and growing technique is most essential for growing and maintaining palms outdoors or indoors in pots. There are not many books published from India dealing with horticultural aspects of Palms, such as their selection and basic identification of Palms of ornamental value, describing their shape, size and leaf form, their cultivation needs like soil, humidity parameters, irrigation needs, light requirements etc., and at the same time such palm species that are suitable for landscape horticulture and use as house plants. This hand Book of ‘Palms for India’ published by Mr. Dinesh Rawat is at present the only book of its kind available to Horticulturists, and Palm lovers of India, where all necessary parameters have been elaborated with wonderful colour pictures of each Palm species. I hope this hand Book of ‘Palms for India’ will be well taken in India and abroad. Dr. Shyamal K. Basu Ph. D. Member, Species Survival Commission (Palm Group) International Union for Conservation of Nature & Natural Resources ( I.U.C.N.) Former, Curator, Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, India. Council member, The Agri-Horticultural Society of India, 1,Alipore Road, Kolkata 700027, India

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GETTING FAMILIAR WITH THE BOOK This handbook has been designed to give maximum information in minimum possible words. There is a section “Categorisation of Palms� giving suggestions to users as to which palms would be suitable for which locations. Pronounciations have been provided along with every palm species. This would help remove confusion and make pronounciation easier for those who are interested in learning about palms. Individual chapters have been provided in this book giving brief and accurate information for proper palm growth, cultivation & culture.

The following Icons have been used throughout the book so that the user of the book can get details of a palm at a glimpse:-

- Normal height of stem / Palm. - Single stem. - Clustering stems. - Size, colour and description of fruit. - Shape, structure and colour of leaf. - Preferred soil. - Requirement of sunlight. - Water requirement. - Humidity. - Suitable temperature (minimum - maximum). - Origin of the species. - Pot culture. - General information.

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A partly divided palmate leaf Acoelorrhaphe wrightii

A costapalmate leaf Bismarckia nobilis

A bipinnate leaf Caryota mitis

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A pinnate leaf Chamaedorea elegans

An undivided palmate leaf Licuala grandis

A fully divided lamina of palmate leaf Licuala spinosa

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Palm structure.

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Adonidia merrillii(Golden). A splendid meduim hight palm well known for the beauty of its golden yellow colour. An attractive & unique palm for landscaping.

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42 Adonidia merrillii (ad-o-NID-ee-a mer-RIL-lee-eye)

Christmas palm, Manila palm, Adonidia, Veitchia merrillii green 30 ft. - 50 ft. Less than 12 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, olive shape and size, red when ripe. Feather type, light to dark green. Well drained sandy soil. Regular watering, prefering drying out between two doses.

Full sunlight or partial. 50%.

15°C ~ 40°C.

Philippines. Suitable fo r indoors.

One of the foremost palms used in tropical gardens and landscapes, utilised worldwide, on account of its easy to grow in nature and it can be transplanted readily; requires little space.Most gardeners call it Veitchia merrillii.

Adonidia merril lii golden form (ad-o-NID-ee-a mer-RIL-lee-eye)

Christmas palm, Manila palm, Adonidia, Golden Veitchia 30 ft. - 50 ft. Less than 12 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, olive shape and size, red when ripe. Feather type, pale yellow or lime green. Well drained sandy soil. Regular watering; prefering drying out between two doses. Full sunlight or partial. 50%.

15°C ~ 40°C.

Philippines. Not suitable for indoors. This particular yellow green form of the above species arose as an un usua l seedling. Very good ornamental pa lm f or p ot cult ure; sh ould be gro wn i n se mi sha d e con d it i on .

Aiphanes aculeata (EYE-fa-neez a-kyoo’-lee-AHT-a)

Ruffle palm, Mararay, Coco rura, Corozo, Macaguita 35 ft. 6 inch diameter, single stem, black with spines. Spherical, marble size and shaped, orange red when ripe. Feather leaflets in dusters,dark green or light green, covered with spines.

Well drained soil.

Water sparingly. Partial shade to full sunlight. 60%.

15°C ~ 40°C.

Trinidad, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia & Brazil. Not suitable for indoors. Not suitable as house plants due to spiny nature of the stem and leaves. If one is pricked there is risk of swelling.

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44 Arc hont opho enix my o lens is (ahr-kont´-o-FEE-nix my-o-LEN-sis)

Myola palm 80 ft. 12 inch diameter, single stem. Ovoid, grape size fruits, red when ripe. Feather leaf, dark or light green. Loamy soil enriched with organic matter.

Needs regular watering; withstands flooding . Partial shade to full sunlight. 70% or higher

10°C ~ 35°C.

Australia-Kuranda west of Cairns, Queensland. Not suitable for indoors. This palm is the rares t ty pe known i n Aust rali a. To this day its entire colony in nature, exists as a private property. Its natural distribution area is less than 2 square kilometers.

Are ca c atec hu (a-REEK-a KAT-e-kyoo)

Betel nut palm, Bunga, Supari, Pahk, Areca nut, Puwak 100 ft. Less than 12 inch diameter, single stem. Ovoid, hen's egg size and shape, green yellow when ripe. Feather leaf, bright green to dark green. Humus laden acidic soil. Plenty of water. Semi shaded sites to full sunlight. 60% or higher.

15°C ~ 40°C.

India to Malaysia, Indonesia and New Guinea. Not suitable for indoors. This palm has moved around the globe according to trade cycles of mankind for its consumption is masticatory.

Areca catechu cv.Alba (a-REEK-a KAT-e-kyoo)

Betel nut palm, Bunga, Supari, Pahk, Areca nut, Puwak 100 ft. Less than 12 inch diameter, single stem. Ovoid, egg shaped and size, yellow when ripe. Feather leaves, light yellow to golden yellow. Humus laden acidic soil. Plenty of water. Semi shaded sites to full sunlight. 60% or higher.

15°C ~ 40°C.

Indonesia. Not suitable for indoors. An extremely rare, pale yellow colour form of the species, known from a single small village in Ambon, Indonesia. Very ornamental when planted in groves.

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46 Areca nagrensis (a-REEKA-a NARG-en-sis)

Tambol or Ram tambol 10 ft. Less than 2 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, bullet shape and size, red when ripe. Feather leaves, bright green. Slightly acidic, humus laden soil. Plenty of water. Full shaded site to partial sun. 60% or higher.

15°C ~ 40°C.

India-Assam to Nagaland and Mizoram, Myanmar. Not suitable for indoors. One of India's rarest palms confined to mostly forested sites in the far north-east of the country. Not in cultivation, but appreciated by tribals in its native region where its immature fruits are eaten as betel nut or supari substitute.

Areca t riandra (a-REEK-a try-AN-dra)

Tambol, Triandra palm 30 ft. 2 inch diameter, clustering stems, (usually) bright green. Ellipsoid, bullet shaped, olive size, red when ripe. Feather leaves, broadly segmented, dark green. Well drained, rich humus, sandy loam. Water lover. Partial shade to full sun. 70%.

30°C ~ 35°C.

India-Andaman Islands, Thailand, Laos, Malaysia & Indonesia. Suitable for indoors. Versatile palm that is easy to cultivate and enjoys growing in any site around the garden where water is always available, useful indoors, many variable forms are known in nature.

Areca vestiaria (a-REEK-a ves-tee-AHR-ee-a)

Langlois palm 20 ft - 25 ft. 3 inch - 4inch diameter on small stilt roots, stem. Ellipsoid, olive size and shape, orange to red when ripe. Feather, broad segments. Well drained, rich humus, sandy loam. True lover of also prefers well drained site. Partial shade to full sun. 80% or higher.

30°C ~ 35°C.

Indonesia-islands of Sulawesi, Halmahera. Not suitable for indoors. This palm has distinct crownshaft color and forms, ranging from yellow to orange and red to brown. Though usually clustering,single stem forms are also seen rarely.

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48 Ar en ga c au da ta (a-RENG-a kaw-DAHT-a)

See siam 5 ft. - 7 ft. 1 inch diameter, clustering (densely) stems. Ovoid, pea like in shape and size, red when ripe. Feather, broad segments, dark green. Well drained, rich humus, sandy loam. Regular water supply. Filtered light to full sun. 60%.

25°C ~ 30°C.

Myanmar,Thailand,Laos,and Malaysia,cambodia.etc. Not suitable for indoors. Extremely tough palm that can withstand drying conditions, so long as it is in a shady site and water is available. Many variations in leaf size and form are known.

Ar e n g a e n g l e r i (a-RENG-a ENG-l'r-eye)

Formosa palm, Taiwan palm 15 ft. 3 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ovoid, marble shape and size, orange when ripe. Feather leaves, medium green, slighly white-gray underneath. Well drained, rich humus, sandy loam. Adequate water. Adequate light to full sun. 50%.

25°C ~ 35°C.

China-Taiwan - japan. Suitable for indoors. A most cold tolerant palm of manageable size and versatility, in ground as well as container-grown. Male flowers emit a wonderful sweet frangrance unmatched in the palm world! Fruits have irritable juice, beware when handling.

Ar en ga h oo ke ri an a (a-RENG-a hook-'ree-AHN-a)

See siam, Paddle leaf palm, Rooster tail palm 2 ft. - 5 ft. 1 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ovoid, pea like shape and size, red when ripe. Fronds entire, dark green to white underneath. Well drained, rich humus, sandy loam. Adequate water. Adequate light to full. 50%.

25°C ~ 30°C.

Thailand, Malaysia. Not suitable for indoors. Speculation exists as to whether or not it is but an exaggerated foliar abberration of Arenga caudata, as many leaf forms are known in cultivation, and height range and girth is quite variable. Verging on extinction in the wild.

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50 Ar en g a p o r p h y r o c a r p a (a-RENG-a por-fy-ro-KAHRP-a)

5 ft. 1 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ellipsoid, bullet shape and size, crimson when ripe. Feather type, broad leaflets, green above, silver underneath.

Rich soil. Adequate water. Partial shade or full sun. 60%.

20°C ~ 40°C.

Indonesia-Sumatra. Suitable for indoors. Good as a garden specimen and for landscaping. Versatile and tolerant of most conditions in tropical climates.

Ar e n g a t r e m u l a (a-RENG-a TREM-yoo-la)

Dwarf sugar palm 12 ft. 4 inch diameter, clustering stems. Spherical, grape shape and size, crimson when ripe. Feather leaf, broad leaflets, green above, silver underneath. Rich soil. Adequate water. Partial shade or full sun. 60%.

20°C ~ 40°C.

Philippines. Not suitable for indoors. A handsome palm with easy to manage nature, be aware of fruits containing caustic juice, highly irritant to human skin, wash with water immediately.

Arenga undulatifolia (a-RENG-a -un-dyoo-lat-i-FO-lee-a)

Aren Gelora 20 ft. - 30 ft. 12 inch - 24 inch diameter, clustering stems. Spherical, have irritant juice, apricot size, dark or gray green when ripe. Feather type, broad leaflets, dark green above, paler underneath. Rich soil. Demands lot of water. Partial shade to full sun. 60%.

20°C ~ 40°C.

Indonesia-Borneo and Malaysian Borneo Philippines. Not suitable for indoors. Tolerant of all tropical climate conditions but needs lot of space to show off its full dimension.

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52 Astrocary um alatum (ass-tro-KAHR-ee-um-a-LAHT-um)

Coquito, Coquillo 20 ft. 2 inch diameter, single stem, covered with spines . Ovoid, marble shape and size, light brown when ripe. Pinnate entire, sometimes splitting, dark green above, lighter below. Rich soil. Demands lot of water. Full shade or part sun. 80%.

13°C ~ 38°C.

Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Not suitable for indoors. A nicely proportioned palm with beautiful, mostly entire leaves that will fit into small gardens. Beware of spines on its stem and leaf bases which can impart a painful sting and so should be disinfected accordingly.

Astrocary um mexicanum (ass-tro-KAHR-ee-um mex-i-KAHN-um)

Lancetilla, Chocho 20 ft. 2 inch diameter, single stem, covered with spines. Ovoid, marble shape and size, dark brown when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green above, silver below. Rich soil. Demands lot of water. Full shade or part sun. 50%.

13°C ~ 38°C.

Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras.

Not suitable for indoors. Very similar to Astrocaryum alatum to which it is closely related, differs mostly in its regularly arranged leaflet design; beware of its spines also.

Attalea allenii (at-TAL-ee-a al-LEN-ee-eye)

Taparin, Taparo, Igua, Mangue 3ft. - 8ft. 24 inch diameter, single stem. Ovoid, shape and size of small chiku, dark brown when ripe. Feather leaf type, dark green. Alluvial soil. Demands lot of water. Full sun. 60%.

10°C ~ 38°C.

Panama to Colombia. Not suitable for indoors. Perfectly suited to small gardens, enjoys a large lawn area in full sun with abundant water, rare in cultivation still.

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Borassus flabellifer. Though commonly seen everywhere in lndia, the beauty of this fan leaf palm with its royal crown is just splendid.

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56 Bismarckia nobilis (bis-MARK-ee-a NO-bi-lis)

Bismarck palm 40 ft. - 50 ft. 12 inch - 18 inch diameter, single stem. Ovoid, small egg shaped and size,when ripe, gray-black. Palmate, gray green to silver or green. Well drained sandy soil. Water sparingly. Full sun. 40%.

10°C ~ 45°C.

Madagascar. Not suitable for indoors. Finest fan leafed palm in the gardening world, is extremely tough and easy to grow, only flaw is it resents being moved from the ground, once established. Available in green, blue and silver form.

Borassodendron machadonis (bo-ras-so-DEN-drahn mah-cha-DO-nis)

Elephant crying palm 50 ft. 12 inch diameter, single stem. Ovoid, avocado size and shape, dark green when mature. Palmate, dark (glossy) green. Rich compost or alluvial silt soil. Water lover. Partial shade to full sun. 70%.

10°C ~ 40°C.

Thailand and Malaysia-Peninsula. Not suitable for indoors. Beautiful fan palm that needs maximum humidity and unlimited water to thrive, initially slow growing but over time, speeds up, beware of razor- sharp leaf stems which can slice human flesh like a surgeons' knife!

Borassus aethiopium (bo-RAS-sus ee-thee-O-pee-um)

African palmyra palm, Black fan palm 76 ft. 36 inch diameter, single stem. Ovoid, cannon ball shape and size, black when ripe. Costa palmate, light green to gray. Very sandy soil. Water lover. Full sun. 30%.

10°C ~ 48°C.

Eastern and Southern Africa. Not suitable for indoors. Giant fan palm that is characteristic of dry interior districts of m uch of Africa; it needs no special conditions to grow, only space!

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58 Brahea edulis (BRAH-ya ED-yoo-lis)

Guadelupe palm 35 ft. 14 inch diameter, single stem. Ovoid, olive shape and size, yellow when ripe. Palmate, bright green. Sandy soil. Water sparingly. Full sun. 30%.

5°C ~ 48°C.

Mexico-Guadalupe island, near extinction in the wild. Not suitable for indoors. A handsome fan palm with bright shining green fr onds, w hil e ini ti al ly sl ow to grow, speeds up over time. Landscape plant.

Butia capitata (BYOO-tee-a kap-i-TAHT-a)

Pindo palm, Wine palm, Jelly palm, Yatay palm 20 ft. 18 inch diameter, single stem. Ovoid, marble size and shape, orange when ripe. Feather leaf, gray-silver and gray-green. Sandy soil. Water sparingly. Full sun. 30%.

0°C ~ 48°C.

Brazil. Not suitable for indoors. Much sought after palm for landscapes and gardens throughot the world on account of its compact habit and graceful colour form. Silver colour selections attract maximum price and interest.

Butia eriospatha (BYOO-tee-a er’-ee-o-SPAITH-a)

Woolly butia 20 ft. 20 inch diameter, single stem. Ovoid, marble size and shape, orange when ripe. Feather leaf, gray-silver and gray-green. Sandy soil. Needs regular watering. Full sun. 30%.

0°C ~ 45°C.

Brazil. Not suitable for indoors. The species is similar to B. capitata and differs mainly in details of its inflorescence, with light brown tomentum that covers the emerging spathe.

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59 Butia paraguayensis (BYOO-tee-a pah’-ra-gwah-YEN-sis)

20 ft. 18 inch diameter, single stem. Ovoid, marble size and shape, orange when ripe. Pinnate, arching. Sandy, open sunny site. Drought tolerant. Full sun 60%.

10°C ~ 40°C.

Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. Suitable for indoors. This palm of small to medium height in habit is found in open forest with persistant leaf bases, leaves even more arched and recurved, almost always bending back to the trunk inself.

Butia yatay (BYOO-tee-a yah-TAH-ee)

Yatay palm 20 ft. 18 inch diameter, single stem. Ovoid, marble size and shape, orange when ripe. Feather leaf, gray-silver and gray-green. Sandy soil. Prefers regular watering. Full sun. 60%.

10°C ~ 40°C.

Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Suitable for indoors. Leaves arching with narrow leaflets bluish of green in colour.

Calamus arborescens (KAL-a-musar-bo-RES-senz)

Gouri Bet palm 7ft. - 12ft. 2 inch - 3 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ovate, pea size and shape, pale yellow to tan when ripe. Feather leaf, light green. Silt soil, moist, rich in organic matter. Water lover. Full sun. 60%.

10°C ~ 40°C.

India, Malaysia,Myanmar,Thailand. Not suitable for indoors. A distinct rattan species for its clustering nonclimbing habit. Thrives in flood prone sites, can be grown along the edge of fresh water ponds.

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60 Calyptrocalyx spicatus (ka-lip-tro-KAI-lix spi-KAHT-us )

40 ft. 8 inch diameter, single stem. Ovoid, olive size and shape, crimson when ripe. Feather leaves, dark green above, light green beneath. Alluvial, silt, loam-based soils are best. Water lover. Partial shade to full sun. 60%.

10°C ~ 40°C.

Indonesia, New Guinea. Not suitable for indoors. Classic Moluccan palm known in cultivation for over a century! Easy to grow but needs maximum moisture, shade and high humidity to start with, thereafter rapidly growing.

Calyptrogyne ghiesbreghtiana (ka-lip-TRAH-ji-nee gees-brekh´-tee-AHN-a)

Coligallo, Capoca 8 ft. 2 inch - 3 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, bullet shaped, pea size, black when mature. Feather leaves, dark green. Alluvial, silt, loam-based soils. Water lover. Full shade. 80%.

15°C ~ 42°C.

Mexico, belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica. Not suitable for indoors. Characteristic simple leaved and beautiful shaped pal m of wet under s tor y r ainf or es ts of Cent ral Amer ic a, best admired as a potted specimen, but otherwise fits into a small garden easily.

Calyptronoma plumeriana (ka-Lip-tro-NO-ma ploo-mer-ee-AHN-a)

Confite palm 30 ft. Solitary trunk. Round pea size, black colour. Earching leaves. Wet soil. Water lover. Semi shade lover. 50%.

100C ~ 350C.

Cuba, Hispaniola. Not suitable for indoors. This is a fast growing palm, althogh it loves water but it is drought tolerant also. Its male flowers are eaten for their sweet nectar. Excellent on landscapes.

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61

Butia capitata. Medium height, solitary trunk palm with long arching; beautifies any landscape. It is happy in all types of climatic conditions.

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62 Carpentaria acuminata (kahr-pen-TAHR-ee-a a-kyoo-mi-NAHT-a)

Carpentaria palm 50 ft. - 53 ft. 8 inch diameter, single erect stem. Ovoid, small marble shape and size, red when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green to lighter green. Sandy, rich in loam, well drained soils. Water lover. Partial shade to full sun. 50%.

80C ~ 100C.

Australia-Northern Territory. Not suitable for indoors. One of the hardiest among Australia's native palms, can tolerate all sites and situations without any retardation of growth. Maximum usage is in landscapes.

Caryota maxima (kar-ee-O-ta MAX-i-ma)

Giant mountain fishtail palm, Kitul 80 ft. - 100 ft. 24 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, marble shape and size, maroon-black when ripe. Bipinnate feather, light green. Sandy, silt or loam based soil. Water lover. Part shade to full sun. 50%.

00C ~ 450C.

India-Assam, Sikkim, Myanmar, Thailand-Pen.etc. Not suitable for indoors. Not so giant as its name,but grows very tall,but shortlived palm, 6 -10 years approx. In gardens, always ensure, before planting it, how much space it will take. Fruits secret caustic juice that can severely irriate human skin.

Caryota mitis (kar-ee-O-ta MIT-iss)

Clustering fishtail palm 15 ft. - 20 ft. 3 inch - 4 inch diameter, clustering stems. Spherical, marble shape and size, black when ripe. Bipinnate feather leaves, light green. Sandy to clay, rich in organic matter. Water lover. Full shade or full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 450C.

India-Andamans, throughout South-East Asia. Not suitable for indoors. A versatile palm with neat clustering habit and ideal for creating living hedges and suited to indoors as well, only needs removal and trimming-off of dead stems as they flower, fruit and die off! Fruits have caustic juice.

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63 Caryota no (kar-ee-O-ta NO)

Giant fishtail palm, Enau 74 ft. 12 inch - 18 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, large marble shape and size, black when ripe. Bipinnate feather leaves, light green. Sandy, silt, loam-based soils. Water lover. Full sun. 150C ~ 450C.

50%.

Malaysia and Indonesia. Not suitable for indoors. A giant of the palm world. Always ensure unrestricted space for its planting site! Equally, remember that it will have to be removed in 10 or so years time, as life span is short. Fruits have caustic juice.

Caryota rumphiana (kar-ee-O-ta rump-fee-AHN-a )

Wild sago palm 58 ft. 12 inch - 18 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, marble shape and size, maroon black when ripe. Bipinnate feather leaves, light green. Clay or loam based soils, kept constantly wet. Water lover. Part shade to full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 450C.

New Guinea. Not suitable for indoors. Similar to others in this genus, of similar appearance and growth behaviour, for which careful positioning of it, in gardens, is advisable. Fruits have caustic juice, be careful if handling.

Caryota urens (kar-ee-O-ta-yoo-renz)

Giant fishtail palm, Bhirly-mad kitul palm 100 ft. 17 inch - 18 inch diameter, single stem.

Spherical, large marble shape & size, maroon black when ripe. Bipinnate feather leaves, light green. Sandy-loam based soils are best. Water lover. Part shade to full sun. 50%.

00C ~ 400C.

India-all states, Sri Lanka. Not suitable for indoors. In nature, this palm appears much like the above, however it is much more suited for sub-tropical and temperate climates, precautions are as above. Fruits have extremely caustic juice which will burn skin intensely.

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64 Chamaedorea adscendens (kai-mee-DOR-ee-a ad-SEN-denz)

2 ft. 1 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea shape and size, ripens dark green to black. Feather leaf, gray green broad segments. Well drained loam. Water sparingly. Full shade. 100C ~ 400C.

70%.

Belize and Guatemala. Suitable for indoors. A very attractive gray-green foliaged palm, requiring deep shade and high humidity to thrive. Dwarf habit.

Chamaedorea arenbergiana (kai-mee-DOR-ee-a ar-en-burg-ee-AHN-a)

Chim or Pacaya 10 ft. 0.5 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea shape and size, black when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green broad segments. Well drained, compost rich soil. Water sparingly. Full shade. 70%.

100C ~ 400C.

Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama. Suitable for indoors. Regular-looking palm within its group, apparently quite tolerant of cold and drying conditions in cultivation.

Chamaedorea brachypoda (kai-mee-DOR-ee-a brak-ee-PO-da)

Pacaya 5 ft. 0.5 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ovoid, rice grain size and shape, black when ripe. Entire leaf, light green. Well drained, compost rich soil. Water lover. Full shade to part sun. 70%.

100C ~ 400C.

Guatemala and Honduras. Suitable for indoors. Vigorously clustering with long, wiry, running and upright stems- grows densely like a bamboo thicket! Needs regular watering and full shade to look its best.

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65 Chamaedorea cataractarum (kai-mee-DOR-ee-a kat-a-RAK-ta-run)

Cascade or cat palm, Guayita de los arroyos 5 ft. 1 inch diameter, clustering stems. Spherical, bullet shape and size, black green when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green. Well drained, silt or sandy soil. Water lover. Full shade to part sun. 150C ~ 400C.

70%. Mexico.

Suitable for indoors. One of the most versatile of all species in its group, can be used indoors as well as under almost full sun position, easy to grow and is self-maintaining once established.

Chamaedorea costaricana (kai-mee-DOR-ee-a kos-ta-REEK-a-na)

Pacaya, Pacayita, Tenera 20 ft. 1 inch diameter, clustering stems. Spherical, marble size and shape, black when ripe. Feather leaf, bright green. Well drained, compost rich soil. Water lover. Full shade to part sun. 70%.

150C ~ 400C.

Mexico through much of Central America-excludes Belize. Suitable for indoors. Typical reed-like stemmed palm, amply clustered with simple feather leaf design yet, attractive in most respects. Easy to grow provided full shade and maximum water are available to it.

Chamaedorea elegans (kai-mee-DOR-ee-a EL -e-genz)

Parlour palm, Neanthe bella, Chate, Pacaya, Palmilla 5ft. - 10ft. 0.5 inch - 1 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea shape and size, black when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green. Well drained soil, rich in humus. Water lover. Full shade. 80%.

100C ~ 450C.

Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Suitable for indoors. Most popular species of this group, cultivated for over 200 years as a conservatory/parlour palm in Europe, and is still much sought after for this reason, as an indoor plant its hardiness is legendary.

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66 Chamaedorea ernesti-augustii (kai-mee-DOR-ee-a er-nest-ee-aw-GUS-tee-eye)

Ernest august's palm guaya guayita 5ft. - 10ft. 0.5 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea size and shape, black when ripe. Entire leaf, bifid shape, dark green. Well drained soil, rich in humus. Water lover. Full shade, part sun. 50C ~ 450C.

70%.

Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Suitable for indoors. Classic, simple leafed, thin stemmed palm of elegant design and neat proportions, ideal for shaded areas in small gardens. Very hardy, once established.

Chamaedorea klotzschiana (kai-mee-DOR-ee-a klaht-shee-AHN-a)

Tepejilote 12 ft. 2 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea size and shape, black when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green. Rich, organic-based loam, soils. Water lover. Full shade, part sun. 70%.

50C ~ 450C.

Mexico. Suitable for indoors. A peculiar variation of leaf-type amongst this group, as leaflets arranged at odd angles and in clusters. Other wise growing conditions are same as m ost species in this group.

Chamaedorea metallica (kai-mee-DOR-ee-a me-TAL-lik-a)

Metallic palm Commonly 2 ft - rarely up to 4 ft. 0.5 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea size and shape, black when ripe. Entire leaf, gray-green to silver, with heavy sheen. Well drained soil, rich in humus. Water lover. Full shade. 80%.

50C ~ 450C.

Mexico. Suitable for indoors. Unique, silver-metallic coloured leaf with simple design, ensures its popularity will endure in cultivation, for which there is little else comparable to it in the known palm world.

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67 Chamaedorea seifrizii (kai-mee-DOR-ee-a say-FRITZ-ee-eye)

Bamboo palm, Reed palm, Xate 10 ft. 1 inch diameter, clustering stems. Spherical, pea size and shape, black when ripe. Feather leaf, gray green to dark green. Well drained, rich in humus. Water lover. Full shade to part sun. 50C ~ 400C.

50%.

Mexico, Guatemala, Belize and Honduras. Suitable for indoors. Classic, bamboo-shaped and designed palm, which has long been a main stay of global indoor plant industry and well adapted to pot plant culture, in use over 100 years.

Chamaerops humilis (ka-MEE-rahps HYOO-mi-lis)

European fan palm 20 ft. 12 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ovoid, dark gray to dark brown ellipsoid, olive shaped & size. Palmate, silver and gray green. Sandy soil with loam. Water sparingly and periodically. Full sun. 60%.

50C ~ 450C.

Northern Africa coasts, Morocco, Southern European countries, bordering Mediterranean Sea. Not suitable for indoors. Common fan palm, cultivated and much prized throughout Europe for hundreds of years, associated with formal gardens and often seen as symmetrically planted potted specimens in most sites.

Chambeyronia macrocarpa (shahm-bai-RO-nee-a mak-ro-KAHRP-a)

Red leaf palm 40 ft. 10 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, crimson when ripe, olive shaped and size. Feather type, dark red when leaf is emerging otherwise green.

Well drained, rich in humus. Water lover. Full shade to full sun. 60%.

00C ~ 400C.

New Caledonia. Suitable for indoors. Unique palm known in a country whose native palms are considered to be amongst the most isolated and soil/site specific in the world. Elegant design with bright red newly emerging fronds.

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68

Chamaerops humilis.

This splendid small/medium height palm has very attractive, sharp leaves; usually clumping; suitable only for subtropical to temperate locations.

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69 Coccothrinax argentata (kok-ko-TRY-nax ahr-jen-TAHT-a)

Silver thatch palm, Silver top, Palmicha 20 ft. 6 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea size and shape, maroon to black, when ripe. Palmate, dark green above, silver below. Well drained sandy, loam based. Water sparingly and periodically. Full sun. 100C ~ 450C.

50%.

U.S.A-Florida, Bahamas, Cayman, Cuba, Jamaica, Mexico & Honduras. Suitable for indoors. A characteristic fan palm, very hardy and able to withstand extreme conditions esp. when planted by the seaside, its natural habitat.

Coccothrinax argentea (kok-ko-TRY-nax ahr-JEN-tee-a)

Hispanolan silver palm, Guano, Latanye maron 20 ft. - 30 ft. 8 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea size and shape, dark brown or black when ripe. Palmate, dark green above, silver below. Well drained sandy, loam based soils. Water sparingly periodically. Full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 450C.

Haiti, Dominican Republic. Not suitable for indoors. Similar in most respects to the other species, except fronds are not as deeply cleft or splitting, and are of a larger dimension, esp. when compared to Coccothrinax argentata.

Coccothrinax barbadensis (kok-ko-TRY-nax BAHR-ba-DEN-sis)

Antilles fan palm 48 ft. 8 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea size and shape, purple or black when ripe. Palmate, dark green above, lighter below. Well drained sandy, loam-based soils. Water sparingly periodically. Full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 450C.

Lesser Antilles Islands-group,incl.Carribean islands. Not suitable for indoors. Typical fan palm from this region of the world, confined to sea shores and coastlines with minumum protection from elements, thus having attributes of drought tolerance, proximity to sea water, salt spray, windy conditions, ideal for sea side gardens.

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70 Coccothrinax crinita ssp. Crinita (kok-ko-TRY-nax kri-NEET-a) Old man's beard palm, Guano barbudo, Guano petate

25 ft. 10 inch diameter, single stem, covered in long fibres. Spherical, pea size and shape, purple to black when ripe. Palmate, dark green above, lighter below. Well drained sandy, loam based soils. Water sparingly periodically. Full sun. 100C ~ 450C.

50%. Cuba.

Not suitable for indoors. Unique palm whose appearance draws comparisons to comic characters or elderly men! Much prized for use in dry landscapes and gardens, very slow growing, so mature plants attract very high prices.

Cocothrinax ekmanii (kok-ko-TRY-nax ek-MAHN-ee-eye)

Gouane palm 50 ft. Single stem, solitary trunk. Small black papper size, round shape, brown colour. Palmate, half circular, deep green, silver beneath. Well drained, alkaline soil. Water sparingly periodically. Full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 450C.

Cuba. Not suitable for indoors. Typical Carribean fan palm of small dimensions. Very hardy and easy to grow amongst its kind, fronds are very stiff and plastic-like in texture imparting distinctive appearance.

Cocothrinax miraguama (kok-ko-TRY-nax meer-a-GWAHM-a)

Miraguama palm 30 ft. - 40 ft. 6 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea size and shape, black when ripe. Palmate, dark green above, silver below. Well drained sandy loam soil. Water sparingly periodically. Full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 450C.

Cuba. Not suitable for indoors. Typical Carribean fan palm of small dimensions. Very hardy and easy to grow amongst its kind, fronds are very stiff and plastic-like in texture imparting distinctive appearance.

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71 Coccothrinax spissa (kok-ko-TRY-nax SPIS-sa)

20 ft. - 30 ft. 8 inch diameter (at base), light silver, bulges at the middle, single stem.

Spherical, dark purple, when ripe. Palmate, semicircular, light to dark green, silver below. Drought tolerant, well drained soil. Water sparingly periodically. Full sun lover. 60% or higher.

200C ~ 350C.

Cuba. Not suitable for indoors. Very good palm for landscape beautification, hardy and sustain partial drought.

Cocos nucifera (KO-kos noo-SIF-e-ra)

Coconut palm, Coco palm, Kalapa 90 ft. - 100 ft. 12 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, football size, light green to golden yellow or brown. Feather leaf, olive green to yellow green. Well drained sandy loam, unfussy as to soil type. Water sparingly periodically. Full sun. 50%.

150C ~ 500C.

Pan Tropical. Not suitable for indoors. Most commonly recognised palm in the world and is still the most popularly cultivated and utilised palm, giving many benefits to mankind.

Cocos nucifera golden dwarf (KO-kos noo-SIF-e-ra)

Coconut palm, Coco palm, Kalapa 8 ft. - 10 ft. 12 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, football size fruit, golden or orange. Feather leaf, olive green to yellow green. Well drained sandy loam, unfussy as to soil type. Water sparingly periodically. Full sun. 50%.

150C ~ 500C.

Malaysia. Not suitable for indoors. As above, but this particular form was developed to suit smaller style plantations and will fit into an average sized garden without occupying much space, compared to the regular coconut palm.

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72 Copernicia bailyana (ko-p’r-NIS-ee-a bay-lee-YAHN-a)

Bailey fan palm 20 ft. - 35 ft. 24 inch diameter, gray, free of leaf base, single stem. Round size and shape, brown to black. Costapalmate, lighter to dark green. Not particular soil type, well drained. Water lover. Full sun lover. 200C ~ 350C.

80%. Cuba.

Not suitable for indoors. The leaves are not very large, teeth of the petiole smaller. Very good palm for landscape planting.

Copernicia brittonorum (ko-p’r-NIS-ee-a brit-toe-NO-rum)

Jata de Costa 30 ft. 12 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, marble size and shape, ripens to orange or brown. Palmate, dark green to lighter green under sides. Well drained soil. Water lover. Full sun. 50%.

200C ~ 500C.

Cuba. Not suitable for indoors. An interesting fan palm that enjoys more vigour and hardiness than many of its relatives and much sought after palm for the landscaping trade as it is quick growing, and easier to maintain than the rest within this group.

Copernicia gigas (ko-p’r-NIS-ee-a GY-gas)

Barrigon 48 ft. 12 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, marble size and shape, ripens to orange or brown. Palmate, green to light green. Sandy-clay based, sodden soil sites are best. Water lover. Full sun. 50%.

200C ~ 500C.

Cuba. Not suitable for indoors. A distinctive fan palm amongst its group, on account of erect fronds held upwards at sharp angles to the stem and never fraying with age, best suited to full sun and very wet, water logged sites.

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73 Copernicia hospita (ko-p’r-NIS-ee-a HAHS-pi-ta)

Cuban wax palm, Guano cano, Yarey 20 ft. - 25 ft. 12 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, marble size and shape, ripens to orange or brown. Palmate, green to gray green to silver. Well drained soil. Water lover. Full sun. 200C ~ 500C.

50%. Cuba.

Not suitable for indoors. All time favourite and much appreciated fan palm, the silver-most forms attract maximum price and interest amongst gardeners.

Copernicia macroglossa (kopper-NIS-ee-a mak-ro-GLAHS-sa)

Cuban petticoat palm, Jata de Guanabacoa 15 ft. 8 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, marble size and shaped, ripens to orange or brown. Palmate, green to gray green. Well drained soil. Water lover. Full sun. 50%.

200C ~ 500C.

Cuba. Not suitable for indoors. A most distinctive and initially slow growing fan palm, with distinctive rigid appearance, as spent leaves remain attached to stem to create a natural petticoat.

Copernicia prunifera (kopper-NIS-ee-a proo-NIF-e-ra)

Carnauba wax palm 35 ft. - 48 ft. 10 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, marble size and shaped, ripens to gray-light green. Palmate, green to gray green to silver. Well drained soil. Water lover. Full sun. 50%.

200C ~ 500C.

Brazil- North-Eastern parts. Not suitable for indoors. Much utilised palm in the industry wherein wax is collected from its mature leaves for making car and furniture polish. Versatile and hardy fan palm, found along wide range of terrain and climate types.

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74 Corypha utan (ko-RYF-a OO-than)

Gebang palm, buri, tale, tad-patri 121 ft. 36 inch diameter, single stem, monocarpic palm. Spherical, large marble shape and size,goldenbrown whenripe. Costapalmate, green to silver and white underneath. Un fussy. Water lover. Full sun. 200C ~ 500C.

50%.

Southern India, parts of South East Asia, New Guinea & Australia. Not suitable for indoors. Commonly recognised giant fan plam, amongst its kind. Found in rural areas of southern India, enjoys full sun and periodic inundation, but equally hardy in drought.

Corypha umbraculifera (ko-RYF-a um-brak´-yoo-LIF-e-ra)

Talipot palm, Tale, Tad-patri 120 ft. 36 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, large marble shape/size,gray-green when ripe. Costapalmate, yellow-green, pale green underneath. Unfussy. Water lover. Full sun. 50%.

200C ~ 500C.

Southern India to Sri Lanka. Not suitable for indoors. Known since antiquity, much revered giant fan palm with religious significance, needs much space to grow well, an un-cluttered lawn is ideal to look its best. Life span is between 10 -15 years only.

Cryosophila warscewiczii (KRY-o-sahf-i-la wahrs-se-WIK-zee-eye )

Rootspine palm, Guagura, Palma de escoba 20 ft. - 30 ft. 6 inch diameter, single stem with long spines (at base). Spherical, cherry size and shape, becomes white when ripe. Palmate, dark green above, white-silver underneath. Rich loam or alluvial sand. Water lover. Part shade to full sun. 60%.

200C ~ 450C.

Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Suitable for indoors. Beautiful fan palm with characteristic colour feature, requires high humidity and shaded conditions to look its best. Beware of sharp root spines and trunk spines that can cause major injury to hands.

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75

Coccothrinax ekmanii.

This beautiful medium height palm is quite attractive, it is suitable for subtropical climate where it thrives well.

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76 Cyrtostachys renda (seer-toe-STAIK-iss REN-da)

Sealing wax palm, Lipstick 60 ft. 2 inch - 3 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ellipsoid, bullet shape, rice grain size, turns black when fully ripe. Feather leaf, dark green with red or orange stems & crownshaft. Alluvial or clay soil or mud, nearby in water. Lives in water. Light shade to full sun. 150C ~ 450C.

80%.

Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Not suitable for indoors. A swamp palm in nature, which initially is slow growing, but becomes a spectacular feature of any tropical garden and landscape setting, with time.

Daemonorops jenkinsiana (dee-MO-no-rahps jen-kin-see-AHN-a)

60 ft. 2 inch - 3 inch diameter, clustering stems. Spherical, marble shaped and size, white to tan when ripe. Feather leaf, light green. Alluvial sand-soils, rich in organic matter. Water lover. Partial shade to full sun. 80%.

150C ~ 450C.

India, Bangladesh and Bhutan. Not suitable for indoors. A much utilised giant rattan for furniture making and other cottage industries, needs little attention onc e es t abl i s he d ap ar t f r o m a l ar g e t r ee or structure to accommodate its climbing nature.

Dictyosperma album (dik-tee-o-SPURM-a AL-bum)

Princess palm, Hurricane palm 30 ft. - 40 ft. 6 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, bullet size and shape, chocolate when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green. Well drained, sandy soils are best. Water sparingly. Partial shade to full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 450C.

Mascarenes-Reunion island. Not suitable for indoors. A simple shaped and designed palm, known in three forms, that can withstand dry conditions and unforgiving soil types, self-maintaining once established. At seedling stage its foliage is outlined in red, it may carry this trait through to adulthood.

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77 Drymophloeus hentyi (Dry MAHF- lee-us -HENT-ee-EYE)

20 ft. 2 inch - 3 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, marble shape and size, red when ripe. Feather, in broad triangle segments, light green. Sandy or clay-based soils, near water. Water lover. Partial shade to full sun. 70%.

150C ~ 450C.

Papua, New Guinea-New Britain Island. Not suitable for indoors. Small palm wit h large t riangle-s haped leaflets arranged in perfect symmetry, fronds are held in arching manner, bearing a distinctive appearance.

Dypsis albo-farinosa (DIP-sis ALBO-FAR-in-osa)

Farihazo, Tongalo 25 ft. 2 inch - 3 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ellipsoid, bullet shape and size, golden yellow when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green, leaf base white. Well drained sandy loam. Regular watering. Shade to full sun. 50%.

150C ~ 450C.

Madagascar. Suitable for indoors. A close relative of golden cane palm Dypsis lutescens, can fit into confined spaces, where the former cannot. Stems are very slender, steel grey-black color, leaf crown covered in dense white powder.

Dypsis cabadae (DIP-sis ka-BAH-dee)

Cabada palm 25 ft. 6 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ellipsoid, rice grain size and shape, red when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green, pink when new leaf is emerging. Sandy soil with humus and kept moist at all times. Water lover. Part shade to full sun. 50%.

150C ~ 450C.

Comores Island Madagascar,Cuba. Not suitable for indoors. A close relative of all Madagascan Dypsis palms, but disjunct in its locality, with slender dark green stems and prominent white rings, crown is gray-white. Easy to grow, but appreciates shade when young.

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78 Dypsis decaryi (DIP-sis de-KAHR-ee-eye)

Triangle palm 25 ft. - 35 ft. 20 inch diameter, single stem. Ovoid, large marble shaped and size,ripens to light green. Feather leaf, pale green, gray-green, held in upright ‘V’ manner. Well drained sandy, loam based soil. Water sparingly. Full sun. 50C ~ 500C.

30%. Madagascar.

Not suitable for indoors. Quintessential palm, unique, on account of its trianglecrowned appearance with steely-gray erect foliage. Easy to grow, but needs maximum sun light and dry/heat with free draining soil conditions.

Dypsis lastelliana (DIP-sis las-tel’-ee-AHN-a)

Col rouge palm or Teddy bear palm 74 ft. 8 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, bullet shape and size, light green when ripe. Feather leaf, yellow green with red or brown base. Well drained soil, rich in humus. Water lover. Shaded site or part sun. 60%.

00C ~ 450C.

Madagascar. Not suitable for indoors. Confused still with Dypsis leptocheilos, to which it is closely related, however it is much slower growing palm and appreciates more shaded and wetter conditions, thus not fully hardy in all but the most benign tropical climates.

Dypsis leptocheilos (Dip-sis lep-toe-KY-los)

Red neck palm 75 ft. 8 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, marble shape and size, white when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green with brown or red crownshaft. Well drained, sandy silt based soils. Water lover. Part shade to full sun. 60%.

100C ~ 450C.

Madagascar. Not suitable for indoors. Often passed off as the former species, but is instantly recognizable on account of its fast growing habit and exposed based roots. Full tolerance to sun and dry conditions at an early stage. Transplants readily.

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79 Dypsis lutescens (DIP-sis loo-TES-senz)

Golden cane palm, Areca palm, Butterfly palm 25 ft. 2 inch - 3 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ellipsoid, bullet shape & size, golden yellow to orange when ripe. Feather leaf, light green yellow. Well drained, sandy-silt based soils. Water lover. Part shade to full sun. 100C ~ 500C.

50%. Madagascar.

Suitable for indoors. An all time favourite palm, popular in all aspects of use in gardening, for indoors and in landscapes, spread worldwide. Multiple/novel foliage and colour forms are known, but are almost all vegetatively propagated.

Dypsis lutescens ‘nana’ (DIP-sis loo-TES-senz)

5 ft. 1 inch diameter, single or clustering stems. Not known. Feather type, light green to yellow. Well drained sandy soil. Water lover. Part shade to full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 500C.

Madagascar. Suitable for indoors. This cultivar is dwarf form of D. lutescens. It is an ideal container plant and forms a thick and beautiful bush. It is propogated by division.

Dypsis madagascariensis (DIP-sis mad-a-gas-kar-ee-EN-sis)

Laafa, Solitary trunked form called Lucubensis palm 25 ft. 6 inch diameter, single or clustering stems. Ellipsoid, bullet shape and size, golden-yellow when ripe. Feather type, with plumose form, light/dark green to gray green. Well drained sandy-silt based soils. Water lover. Part shade to full sun. 50%.

200C ~ 450C.

Madagascar. Suitable for indoors. Variable species in nature found across a broad range wherein it occurs as both a single stemmed form, var. lucubensis and clustering form, var. madagascariensis. Fast growing and drought tolerant.

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80 Elaeis guineensis (e-LEE-iss gin-ee-EN-sis)

African oil palm 40 ft. - 60 ft. 36 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, grape size and shape, orange when ripe. Feather leaf, glossy dark green. Grows in all soil types. Lives near water. Shade or full sun. 50%.

250C ~ 450C.

West Africa, Central Africa to Southern-Eastern Africa. Suitable for indoors. Almost pan tropical in its global distribution, remains the back bone of vegetable oil industry. An easy to grow palm, with no real demands, except for abundant water.

Elaeis oleifera (e-LEE-iss o-lee-IF-ra)

American oil palm, Corozo palm, Caiaue, Noli, Ujun 20 ft. 24 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, grape size and shape, orange when ripe. Feather leaf, glossy dark green. Grows in all soil types. Lives in or near water. Shade or full sun. 50%.

250C ~ 450C.

Central America to Colombia, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador. Not suitable for indoors. A related species to the latter, despite ocurring on the other side of the world! Not well known and slower to establish as seedlings. It has a trunkless habit, preferring to snake its way across the ground.

Euterpe edulis (yoo-TURP-ee ED-yoo-lis)

Yayhi, Jusara, Palmito 30 ft. 6 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, marble shape and size, purple-black when ripe. Feather leaf, light green to dark green. Well drained, sandy soil. Lives in or near water. Full shade to full sun. 60%.

50C ~ 350C.

Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay. Not suitable for indoors. A beautiful palm, more at home in sub-tropical and upland tropical elevations. Fast growing and much utilsed as an indoor palm subject, it lends itself to any small garden site.

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81 Euterpe oleracea (yoo-TURP-ee o-l-RAI-see-a)

Assai palm, Murrapo, Naidi, Manaka, Manac 60 ft. - 80 ft. 6 inch diameter, clustering stems. Spherical, marble shape & size, black when ripe with waxy cast.

Feather leaf, light green. Alluvial and silty sand, prefers to be nearby water. Lives near water. Shade or full sun. 100C ~ 350C.

60%.

Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Trinidad. Not suitable for indoors. B ea ut i f ul s hape and designed palm, clustering, well proportioned, requires much water and full sun to look its best, becoming popular in tropical landcapes throughout the world.

Gaussia maya (GOWS-see-a MAH-ya)

Maya palm, Palmasito, Cambo, Palma cimarrona 60 ft. 6 inch - 8 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, coffee bean size & shape, ripens red but has causticjuice.

Feather leaf, dark green to gray green. Sand- silt based. Water sparingly. Full sun. 40%.

100C ~ 500C.

Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Not suitable for indoors. A rather understated palm with simple crown and smooth green stem, somewhat sparse in appearance. Suited to all tropical areas but does well where droughts are prolonged. Displays a swollen stem when young, but fades with maturity.

Heterospathe elata (het-ero-SPAITH-ee ee-LAHT-a)

Sagisi palm 50 ft. 12 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, rice grain size and shape, white when fully ripe. Feather type, dark green, pink-brown when newly emerging. Not particular about soil type. Water lover. Full sun shade to full sun. 60%.

150C ~ 450C.

Philippines to Palau. Not suitable for indoors. Hardy palm whilst slow, to start with compensates for time lost by growing its' trunk in record time! It is not fussy as to soil conditions or water availability, it can tolerate extremes of heat and dry.

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82

Cyrtostachys renda.

Red stems of this clumping palm makes it the most attractive object. Splendid for landscape but it can’t withstand extreme heat or extreme cold.

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83 Howea forsteriana (HOW-ee-a for-ster-ee-AHN-a)

Kentia palm, Thatch palm 50 ft. - 60 ft. 6 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, bullet size and shape, red when ripe. Feather type, dark green. Sandy-silt based soil, rich in organic matters. Water lover. Shade or full sun. 00C ~ 400C.

60%.

Australia-Lord Howe Island. Suitable for indoors. Cultivated for 2 centuries as the premier indoor palm in European conservatories and sitting rooms, not suited for tropical climates wherein constant heat and warm humidity causes it to suffer.

Howea belmoreana (HOW-ee-a bel-mor-ee-AHN-a)

Curly palm, Sentry palm 30 ft. - 40 ft. 16 inch diameter, single stem. Yellow to red when ripe. Feather type, dark green arching. Sandy-silt based rich,soil. Water lover. Prefers shady condition. 60%.

100C ~ 300C.

Australia, Lord Howe Island. Suitable for indoors. It is a widely cultivated palm and performs well in pots as indoor plants. It cannot stand heat, prefers moderate temparature.

Hydriastele microspadix (hy-dree-a-STEE-lee myk-ro-SPAI-dix)

60 ft. 4 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ovoid, rice grain size and shape, maroon-brown when fully ripe. Feather type, dark green, crownshaft, white. Alluvial-sand and silt based soils. Lives in or near water. Shade or full sun. 80%.

150C ~ 450C.

New Guinea. Not suitable for indoors. Rare in cultivation, initially very slow to grow as seedlings, but with strong light and constant watering, pace increases. In the garden, it appreciates a position nearby abundant water.

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84 Hydriastele pinangoides (HY-dree-a-STEE-lee pin-ain-GOI-deez)

Nengella 20 ft. 1 inch - 2 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ellipsoid, rice grain size and shape, red when ripe. Feather in broad triangle segments, dark green. Well drained, alluvial-silt based soil. Water lover. Full shade to full sun. 00C ~ 400C.

80%. New Guinea.

Suitable for indoors. An elegant understory palm with distinctive triangular foliage with graceful appearance, multiple forms are known and eagerly sought for gardens, thrives in very wet soil conditions with maximum humidity and protection from direct sun light.

Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (hy-o-FOR-bee lag-e-ni-KAW-lis)

Bottle palm or Champagne palm 10 ft. 24 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, bullet shape and size maturing gray-brown. Feather type, olive green with orange stems. Well drained sandy silt. Water sparingly, periodically. Full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 450C.

Mascarenes, Round Island. Not suitable for indoors. Odd, bottle shaped stem, of distinctive appearance, fronds are sparse but balanced in proportion to stem. Easy to grow, not particular as to soil type and appreciates full sun from young age, but will not stand water-logging.

Hyophorbe verschaffeltii (hy-o-FOR-bee ver-sha-FELT-tee-eye)

Spindle palm 25 ft. 12 inch - 18 inch diameter, single stem. Bullet shape and size, maroon-black when ripe. Feather type, olive green to yellow green. Well drained sandy or silt. Needs regular watering. Full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 450C.

Mascarenes-Rodriguez Island. Not suitable for indoors. Peculiar spindle-shaped, swollen stem with sparse crown, closely related to the former but lacking its' distinctive shape, enjoys similar growing conditions and has alike requirements to the former.

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85 Hy phaene compressa (hy-FEE-nee kahm-PRES-sa)

Doum palm 60 ft. 24 inch diameter, single stem that branches aerially. Rounded or oblong, apple fruit size but with a flattened shape, chocolate or brown when fully ripe. Costapalmate, gray green to light green. Well drained / sandy, silt based, dry sites. Needs regular watering. Full sun. 50C ~ 500C.

50%.

Somalia-coastal belt, through as far as Tanzania. Not suitable for indoors. Fan palm, that grows in prominent colonies near coasts. Fully hardy and impervious to drought or heat and flooded soil conditions, initially slow to establish as seedlings.

Hyphaene coriacea (hy-FEE-nee kor-ee-AY-see-a)

Lala or Ifafa palm, Ravan tad, Doum 30 ft. 24 inch diameter, clustering stems, branching aerially. Pear shape and size, golden orange/brown when fully ripe. Costapalmate, gray green to light green or silver. Sandy or clay derived soils. Water lover. Full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 500C.

Somalia through to Republic of South Africa, probably India-Goa. Not suitab le for indoors. Somewhat similar to the above, but usually with clustering stems, fruits are distinctively pear-shaped and much relished for their dry mealy flesh, eaten in times of famine. In India a form of this is found in Goa, but is classified as another species H. dichotoma but is so similar to it may not be distinct enough to warrant separation.

Hyphaene petersiana (hy-FEE-nee peet-rz-ee-AHN-a)

Lala palm 60 ft. or more. 24 inch diameter, single stem, sometimes twin stemmed but not aerially branching. Spherical, apple size and shape, chocolate-brown when ripe. Costapalmate, gray green to silver gray. Sandy-silt based soils. Water lover. Full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 500C.

Botswana and Namibia. Not suitable for indoors. A mostly single stemmed, rarely twin stemmed, fan palm, inhabiting barren interiors. Steel gray-silver foliage and rounded, apple sized fruits that are chocolate-brown. Rare in cultivation.

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86 Hyphaene thebaica (hy-FEE-nee thee-BAI-i-ka)

African doum palm 30 ft. - 50 ft. 24 inch diameter, clustering stems, branching aerially. Oblong, apple size and shape, chocolate-brown when ripe. Costapalmate, gray green to silver. Sandy-silt based soils. Water lover. Full sun. 50%. 100C ~ 500C. Sudan-Sahara desert through interior parts of Western Africa, through to Eastern Africa as far as Arabian peninsular. Not suitable for indoors. A large multi stemmed fan palm with numerous aerial stems that can form into a canopy of a tree! Large rounded-oblong shaped fruits much relished in times of drought and hardship.

Kerriodoxa elegans (ker-ree-o-DOX-a EL-e-ganz)

White elephant palm 8 ft. 6 inch - 8 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, ping-pong ball shape and size, cream-yellow with orange raised spots when ripe. Palmate, dark green above, white below. Sandy or loam, rich in organic matter. Water lover. Full shade or part sun. 80%.

150C ~ 450C.

Thailand-Phang Nga. Not suitable for indoors. Fan leaved palm with paper-like thin leaves, brilliant white beneath. Found only in isolated pockets of wet rainforest in southern Thailand and remains highly prized in every palm garden collection.

Latania loddigesii (la-TAN-ee-a lo-di-GAI-zee-eye)

Blue Latan palm, Lantanier 35 ft. 10 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, tear drop shape and size of date, brown-gray when mature. Palmate, bright green, edges red. Sandy, loam based soils. Water sparingly, deeply. Full sun. 50%.

00C ~ 450C.

Mascarenes-Round island. Not suitable for indoors. Small sized fan palm able to tolerate extremes of heat, wet or dry soil, fast growing and attractive foliage at juvenile stage, when leaves are dark red, over time mature leaves will turn gray.

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87 Latania lontaroides (la-TAN-ee-a lon-ta-ROY-deez)

Red Latan palm, Lantanier 36 ft. 10 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, tear drop shape and size of date, brown-gray when mature. Palmate, bright red when young leaf emerges. Sandy, loam based soils. Water sparingly, deeply. Full sun. 50%.

00C ~ 450C.

Mascarenes-Reunion Island. Suitable for indoors. Similar in all respects to the above, however it retains red petioles from seedling stage through to maturity, its juvenile leaves are often fully flushed red, but they become green as they mature, with a hint of gray shading

Latania verschaffeltii (la-TAN-ee-a ver-sha-FELT-ee-eye)

Yellow Latan palm, Latanier 37 ft. 10 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, tear drop shape & size of date, brown-black when ripe. Palmate, light green, yellowish petioles. Sandy, loam based soils. Water sparingly, deeply. Full sun. 50%.

00C ~ 450C.

Mascarenes-Rodrigues island. Suitable for indoors. Similar in respects to both of the above species, however not developing reddish new leaves at all, (only outline of leaf is red) it has a yellow cast to its appearance which in course of time time becomes golden-green, develops gray upper and underside over time.

Licuala grandis (li-KWAH-la GRAN-dis)

Licuala palm, Vanuatu fan palm, Palas payung 10 ft. 3 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea shape and size, orange when ripe. Palmate with entire form, dark green. Sandy, loam based soils, rich in organic matter. Water lover. Full shade to part sun. 80%.

150C ~ 450C.

Vanuatu. Suitable for indoors. A familiar fan palm, grown the world over as an indoor or parlour palm,often seen potted,despite this,it is equally suited to growing in ground and maintains an elegant and neat shape for the small garden. Appreciates shade when young.

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88 Licuala paludosa (li-KWAH-la pa-loo-DOE-sa)

Swamp fan palm 12 ft. - 15 ft. 2 inch diameter, clustering stems. Spherical, pea shape and size, red or orange when ripe. Palmate, dark green. Silt sandy or muddy soil. Lives in or near water. Part shade to full sun. 150C ~ 450C.

80%.

India-Andaman islands, Myanmar,Thailand. Suitable for indoors. Fan palm, much confused with Licuala spinosa whilst closely related,it lacks such prominent spines, and leaf segments are usually broader. It thrives in muddy soil and inundated areas where other palms rarely grow, is salt water tolerant to a degree.

Licuala peltata (li-KWAH-la pel-TAHT-a)

Giant fan palm 20 ft. 5 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, bullet shape and size, orange when ripe. Palmate or entire form depending on variety, dark green. Silt sandy or muddy soil. Lives in or near water. Part shade to full sun. 80%.

150C ~ 450C.

India-Andaman islands, Bangladesh Myanmar-Thailand & Malaysia. Suitable for indoors. F an pal m w it h st i ff l y hel d um br ell a- li k e f ronds , init iall y a very s low growi ng pal m. Enj oy s hi gh hum i di ty, br ight li ght and v ery w et/ muddy s oil .

Licuala ramsayi (li-KWAH-la Ram SAY-eye) Northern Queensland fan palm

50 ft. 12 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea shape and size, orange when ripe. Palmate, dark green. Silt, sandy, clay based soils, near permanent water. Water lover. Full shade to part sun. 70%.

100C ~ 450C.

Australia-Northern Queensland. Suitable for indoors. A classic fan leafed palm with closest relatives in New Guinea, appreciates very wet, muddy soil conditions and shaded site when young, as it advances with age it will take full sun.

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89

Dypsis decaryi. This special palm with triangular crownshaft and blue to green pinnate leaves is very conspicuous in any landscape. Suitable for dry areas.

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90 Licuala spinosa (li-KWAH-la spi-NO-sa)

Spiny licuala palm, Mangrove fan palm 15 ft. 2 inch diameter, clustering stems. Spherical, pea shape and size, orange when ripe. Palmate, olive green. Silt sandy or muddy soil. Lives in or near water. Part shade to full sun. 80%.

150C ~ 450C.

India-Andaman islands, coastal belt of Myanmar,Thailand. Suitable for indoors. Similar in all respects to Licuala paludosa, but with denser spines and less broad segments, known for broad distribution range across India and South-East Asia, can grow in salt water.

Livistona australis (liv-i-STON-a aw-STRAL-iss)

Australian fan or Cabbage palm 100 ft. 12 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, olive shape and size, chocolate to black when ripe. Palmate, dark green. Sandy, loam based soils. Water when available. Full shade or full sun. 50%.

00C ~ 450C.

Australia-Southern Queensland to N. S. W. Suitable for indoors. Fan palm occurring in southern Australia is able to withstand frost and freezing temperatures. Very fast growing and tolerant of all soil conditions and water availability. Drought tolerant.

Livistona chinensis (liv-i-STON-a CHI-nen-sis)

Chinese fan palm 40 ft. 12 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, olive shape and size, gray-green when ripe. Palmate, lighter green to dark green. Not particular as to soil type. Water when available. Full sun. 50%.

00C ~ 460C.

China-Southern Coastal parts, Taiwan. Suitable for indoors. Incredibly hardy fan palm, known the world over, will grow in almost any soil type, needs regular water, though can withstand drought. Easy to transplant, but care must be taken.

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91 Livistona decora (liv-i-STON-a de-COR-a)

Australian fan ribbon palm, Weeping cabbage palm 100 ft. 10 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea shape and size, light brown-black when ripe. Palmate, torn into shreds, lighter green to dark green. Sandy-loam based soils. Lives near water, can also thrive in dry conditions. Full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 500C.

Australia-Tropical, Eastern Queensland. Not suitable for indoors. Known earlier as L. decipiens, it remains one of Australia's most popular fan palms, much cultivated around the world. Prized on account of its ease of growing and hardy nature, has shiny fronds with tips that hang down in long curtains.

Livistona jenkinsiana (liv-i-STON-a jenk-inz-ee-AHN-a)

Assam fan palm 80 ft. 12 inch - 18 inch diameter, single stem. Ovoid, olive shape and size, dark blue when ripe. Palmate, dark green. Well drained soil, rich in compost and organic matter. Regular watering. Full shade or full sun. 70%.

00C ~ 400C.

India-Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Myanmar to Thailand. Suitable for indoors. Despite being well known for over 100 years and once popular in European glasshouses, its popularity has fallen in recent time. Fan palm from high mountains with giant canopy proportions. Enjoys cool temperatures.

Livistona mariae (liv-i-STON-a -MAHR-ee-eye)

Australian fan palm, Central australian, Cabbage palm 100 ft. 20 inch - 25 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea shape and size, light brown-black when ripe. Palmate, light green to gray-green. Not particular as to soil type. Lives near water, can also thrive in dry conditions. Full sun. 150%.

100C ~ 500C.

Australia-Central, Southern Queensland. Not suitable for indoors. One of Australia's well known cabbage palms in cultivation for a century or more, best attributes are its rapid rate of growth and attractive reddish leaves colouration in juvenile stage, much able to tolerate cold and drought.

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92 Livistona muelleri (liv-I-STON-a MYOOL-l’-ry)

North Queensland fan palm 40 ft. 8 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, bullet shape and size, dark blue/gray when ripe. Palmate, gray green, lighter under side. Not particular as to soil type. Regular watering. Full sun or partial shade. 150C ~ 450C.

50%.

Australia- Northern Queensland-Northern Territory. Not suitable for indoors. Somewhat cosmopolitan i n its homeland, s o not popularly cultivated there. Abroad much appreciated for its small stature, and general hardiness, in a garden setting will not take up much space.

Livistona rotundifolia (liv-i-STON-a ro-tun´-di-FO-lee-a)

Footstool palm, Anahaw palm 80 ft. 12 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, cherry-tomato size and shape, orange when ripe. Palmate, entire form, lighter green. Not particular as to soil type. Regular watering. Full shade to full sun. 60%.

100C ~ 450C.

Philippines, Indonesia and New Guinea. Suitable for indoors. Very widely distributed species, juvenile plant, leaves are extensively used for floral decorations. Trunk looks very attractive till palm grows to about 20 inches.

Loxococcus rupicola (lahx-o-KAHK-kus roop´-i-KO-la)

Ran Doe-ta-loo 10 ft. 7 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, marble size and shape, black when ripe. Feather leaf, light green. Moist sandy, clay-based soil. Regular watering. Partial shade to full sun. 80%.

50C ~ 250C.

Sri Lanka-Singharaja National Park. Not suitable for indoors. Rare, beautiful small palm, less known in cultivation, restricted to a protected sanctuary-Singharaja National park, in Sri Lanka. Requires constant moisture and high humidity to thrive.

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93 Nannorrhops ritchiana (NAN-o-rahps rich-ee-AHN-a)

Mazari palm 15 ft. 8 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ellipsoid, pea shape and size, orange when ripe. Costapalmate, blue gray to green. Well drained, very sandy soil. Water periodicaly but deeply. Full sun. 00C ~ 400C.

40%.

Pakistan and Afghanistan. Not suitable for indoors. Desert fan palm, thrives in areas where water is not abundant and droughts are common, it occurs in 3 color shades, varying from green, grey-green to silver. Cannot stand waterlogging and very difficult to transplant or re-locate successfully.

Normanbya normanbyi (nor-MAN-bee-a nor-MAN-bee-eye)

Black palm 60 ft. 6 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, chiku size and shape, red when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green above, silver gray below. Sandy, clay or silt soil, rich in organic mulch. Lives in or near water. Part shade to full sun. 60%.

0째C ~ 35째C.

Australia-Far North Queensland. Not suitable for indoors. Although often promoted as a black stemmed version of Foxtail palm, this is an erroneous notion for they are not even closely related! Difficult to grow as seedlings, many losses will occur just to survive some that can be transplanted into the ground! Needs wet soil, high humidity and fully shaded site to succeed.

Nypa fruticans (NY-pa FROOT-i-kanz)

Mangrove palm, Nipah, Dotu palm 6 ft. tall. 24 inch diameter, clustering stems. Seed-angular in fist-sized wedges, fruit-spherical, basket-ball size, chocolate-brown. Feather leaf, olive green to yellow. Lives in mud. Needs to be placed in water, salt or fresh. Part shade to full sun. 80%. 150C ~ 450C. India- Sunder ban, Andaman islands, S.E .Asia (al l coastl ines) to Northern Australia. Not suitable for indoors. Most widely distributed palm, untested in gardens generally, though local accounts in Bengal are good. Constant water (either fresh or salty) must be kept nearby for it is an aquatic palm. Initially difficult to start off as seedlings.

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94 Oncosperma fasciculatum (ahnk-o-SPURM-a fa-sik-yoo-LAHT-um)

Kata kitul 20 ft. tall. 4 inch - 5 inch diameter, clustering stems. Spherical, marble size and shape, black when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green, underneath gray. Sandy-silt based soils with compost manure added. Regular watering. Full shade to part shade. 100C ~ 300C.

80%. Sri Lanka.

Not suitable for indoors. Rare palm, sparingly cultivated, on account of its spiny stems, but undeservedly so. Requires constant moisture and high humidity and shade protection at seedling stage.

Oncosperma tigillarium (ahnk-o-SPURM-a tij-i-LAHR-ee-um)

Nibung palm 80 ft. or more. 6 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ellipsoid, large bullet shape and size, black when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green glossy. Sandy or silt loam, near permanent water. Lives near water. Partial shade to full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 450C.

Thailand, Malaysia. Not suitable for indoors. Robust and densely clustered palm smothered with long black spines all over and so needs to be managed with great care! Prized in larger landscapes and park settings, it enjoys being in or near permanent source of water.

Pelagodoxa henryana (pel’-a-go- DAHX-a- hen-ree-AHN-a)

Pelagodoxa palm, Henry palm 25 ft. 8 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, orange shape and size, brown wart-like shell covering. Pinnate entire, some times splitting, light green to dark green. Sandy, silt based soil rich in organic matter. Needs regular watering. Part shade to full sun. 80%.

150C ~ 400C.

Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Marquesas-Tahiti. Suitable for indoors. Ent ire l eafed pal m s pec ies, wi th rarely spl itti ng fronds with silvery undersides. Requires constant moisture and abundant water to thrive.

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95 Phoenicophorium borsigianum (feen-i-ko-FOR-ee-um- bor-SIG’-ee-AHN-um)

Stevensonia or Thief's palm 20 ft. 8 inch diameter, single stem. Ovoid, swollen rice grain size and shape, orange when ripe. Feather,entire form then splitting,dark green with orange trimming. Silt, loam based soil with compost. Needs regular watering. Part shade to full sun. 100C ~ 450C.

80%. Seychelles.

Suitable for indoors. This palm rarely exhibits split leaves, if kept growing in an understory site. Will take full sun conditions at maturity, but looks its best in shade. Stem and leaf bases are covered with dense spines but they are somewhat unobtrusive and will evenutally fall off.

Phoenix acaulis (FEE-nix a-KAW-lis)

2 ft. - 5 ft. tall. 5 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, pellet size and shape, black when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green to light green. Sandy soil. Water sparingly. Full sun. 40%.

00C ~ 450C.

India-Khasi and Kumaon, Himachal Pradesh. Not suitable for indoors. Rarely cultivated, dwarf palm known from drier parts of North-W estern India, it buries its stem below ground! Above ground it rarely grows a few feet tall and is liberally covered in spines at its leaf bases.

Phoenix canariensis (FEE-nix ka-nar-ee-EN-sis)

Canary Island date palm 40 ft. - 70 ft. 24 inch - 36 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, bullet-shape and size, orange when ripe. Feather leaf, dark, olive green. Sandy soil. Water periodicaly. Full sun. 40%.

00C ~ 450C.

Canary Islands. Not suitable for indoors. Popular palm on account of its over use in European and American cities, with a prominent canopy of armed fronds displayed in an arching manner. Transplants readily, despite being very large, hybrids have been made with it and other Phoenix species.

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96

Dypsis lutescens. Most

commonly grown palm in india. It is guite hardly and attractive; ideal for hedging and creating screens. Adaptable to most of India climatic conditions.

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97 Phoenix dactylifera (FEE-nix dak-ti-LIF-e-ra)

Date palm 70 ft. - 90 ft. 18 inch - 24 inch diameter, single or clustering stems. Ellipsoid, bullet size and shape, brown when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green to gray green. Sandy soil. Regular water deeply. Full sun. 00C ~ 500C.

40%.

Jordan, Syria, Israel-Palestine. Not suitable for indoors. Date palm of antiquity, little is known of its true/wild origin. In landscape and garden it requires full sun, well drained site where watering can be controlled, it dislikes intense humidity and prefers an arid environment.

Phoenix loureiri var. pedunculata (FEE-nix loo-RAI-ry pe-DUNK-oo-lata)

Hills date palm 3 ft. - 12 ft. 12 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, bullet shape and size, dark brown to black when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green to yellow green. Sandy, well drained soil. Sparingly and deeply watering. Full sun. 40% or less.

100C ~ 450C.

Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Not suitable for indoors. Extremely variable species in nature, leaf bases armed with spines and with sharp leaflet edges, tolerates extremes of wet and dry and heat conditions, transplanted fairly readily.

Phoenix paludosa (FEE-nix pa-loo-DOE-sa)

Mangrove date palm 15 ft. 2 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ellipsoid, bullet shape & size, golden orange to brown/black when ripe.

Feather leaf, gray green. Muddy soil or sandy (wet) soil. Lives in water. Full sun. 60%.

200C ~ 450C.

India-Sunderban & Andamans, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia. Not suitable for indoors. Swamp palm and also found near seaside in nature, clustering stems, with sharp spines on leaf bases, trunks become smooth with age. Rarely cultivated as seedlings since they grow slowly. Appreciates muddy soil & saline water.

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98 Phoenix pusilla (FEE-nix POO-sill-a)

Sand dune or Coast date palm 10 ft. 5 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, bullet-shape and size, purple or black when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green to glossy. Not particular, as to soil type. Regular watering. Full sun or partial shade. 100C ~ 350C.

60%. Sri Lanka.

Suitable for indoors. Similar in appearance to Phoenix loureiri, but found in coastal thickets often near sea shore, leaflets are arranged in spokes and are shiny green and very sharp. Spines are found along leaf base.

Phoenix reclinata (FEE-nix rek-LI-naht-a)

Clustering date palm, African date palm 33 ft. tall. 3 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ellipsoid, bullet shape and size, orange or red when ripe. Feather leaf, green or gray green. Not particular as to soil type. Needs regular watering. Part shade to full sun. 40%.

100C ~ 500C.

Central, Western and Southern Africa. Not suitable for indoors. Extremely variable palm found throughout much of Africa and exhibiting natural variation in size and form and color and vigour. Generally large growing with prodigious stems,so careful site planning must be made in advance.

Phoenix roebelenii (FEE-nix ro-be-LEN-ee-eye)

Pygmy date palm 8 ft. - 10 ft. 3 inch diameter, single or clustering stems. Ellipsoid, grain of rice size & shape, brown/black when ripe. Feather leaf, green glossy. Not particular as to soil type. Water periodically. Part shade to full sun. 40%.

100C ~ 450C.

Southern-China, Laos, Vietnam. Suitable for indoors. Extremely variable species in nature, mostly seen with clustering stem form. In cultivation, single stem form is common. Easily distinguishable amongst all other palms of its kind, it is much loved by landscapers worldwide as it is versatile and hardy.

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99 Phoenix rupicola (FEE-nix roop-i-KO-la)

Cliff date palm, Schelu 26 ft. 10 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, bullet-shape and size, yellow/orange when ripe. Feather leaf, (glossy) dark green to light green. Well drained sandy soil. Regular watering but not water logging. Full sun. 40%.

00C ~ 450C.

India-Sikkim and Assam. Suitable for indoors. Prized palm amongst its kind, with soft foliage, of shiny green nature, spines on leaf bases are soft or are minimal. Prefers well drained site, with sandy soil and full sun, it is much in demand abroad because of its unique qualities.

Phoenix sylvestris (FEE-nix sil-VES-tris)

Silver date palm, Sugar date palm, Khajuri, Indian date palm 50 ft. 18 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, bullet-shape and size, orange to brown when ripe. Feather leaf, bright green to full gray green. Not particular as to soil type. Unfussy as to degree of watering. Full sun. 50%.

00C ~ 500C.

India. Not suitable for indoors. Very attractive but very common palm in Eastern part of India. Their long bluish leaves make a splendid mark in any landscape or roadside.

Pinanga adangensis (pi-NAING-a ah-dahn-GEN-sis)

Thailand or Siam ivory cane palm 18 ft. 1 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ellipsoid, coffee bean shape and size, black when mature. Feather leaf, bright green. Moist soil, rich in compost, well drained. Regular watering. Full shade or part sun. 80%.

100C ~ 400C.

Thailand-Malaysia. Suitable for indoors. Poorly known palm, though locally abundant in its range, easy to cultivate, grows rapidly as a seedling, transplants with ease. Tolerates full sun from young age and is suitable for almost any position in the garden.

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100 Pinanga coronata (pi-NAING-a kor-o-NAHT-a)

Ivory cane palm 20 ft. 2 inch diameter, clustering stems. Spherical, coffee bean shape and size, black when mature. Feather leaf, light green, most times mottled, when seen in juvenile form. Moist soil, rich in compost, well drained. Regular watering. Full shade to full sun. 100C ~ 400C.

80%.

Indonesia, Malaysia. Suitable for indoors. It is already well known and a very popular subject for tropical landscapes and gardens in many South-East Asian countries. Often called Pinanga kuhlii in horticultur text.

Pinanga dicksonii (pi-NAING-a dik-SO-nee-eye)

Indian ivory cane palm 25 ft. 2 inch diameter, clustering stems. Spherical, coffee bean shape and size, black when ripe. Feather leaf, light green, some times mottled. Moist soil, rich compost, well drained. Regular watering. Full shade or part sun. 80%.

100C ~ 400C.

India-Kerala. Suitable for indoors. Si m i la r to b ot h of t he o th er m e nt io ne d sp ec ie s, h ow ever r em a in s sc a rc e ly c ult iva te d lo c ally a n d d es e rve s t o b e b r ou g h t in t o pr o m ine n c e , n o t m u c h is k n ow n a bo u t i t s ho r ti c ult ur a l r eq u ir m en t s, so is st i ll un d er tr i al.

Pritchardia pacifica (prit-CHAHRD-ee-a pa-SIF-i-ka)

Fiji fan palm 30 ft. 12 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, marble shape and size, dark brown when mature. Palmate, light green. Well drained sandy soil. Water sparingly. Full sun. 70%.

150C ~ 450C.

Solomon Islands, Samoa. Suitable for indoors. Fan palm that grows well by t he sea s hore yet remains poorly promoted in this regard. Enjoys full sun from a young age and is not particular as to soil type. Transplants with difficulty from in-ground and so should be kept pot grown if intended to be moved.

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102 Ptychosperma elegans (ty-ko-SPURM-a EL-e-ganz)

Solitair palm 40 ft. 4 inch diameter, single stem. Ovoid, coffee bean size and shape, red when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green. Not particular as to soil type. Water lover. Part sun to full sun. 150C ~ 450C.

60%.

Australia (for North Queensland). Suitable for indoors. Robust palm of great utility and durable in almost any climate situation, is grown across the globe for its use as a garden subject. Thrives whenever high humidity and part protection are available.

Ptychosperma furcatum (ty-ko-SPURM-a foor-KAHT-um)

18 ft. 1 inch - 2 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ovoid, coffee bean size and shape, black when ripe. Feather, diamond shaped leaflets, dark green. Not particular as to soil type. Enjoys regular watering. Part shade to part sun. 50%.

100C ~ 450C.

Papua New Guinea. Suitable for indoors. Similar designed palm to Ptychosperma caryotoides, but densely clustering and with large, more triangular shaped leaflets, able to withstand full sun as long as adequate water is available.

Ptychosperma lineare (ty-ko-SPURM-a lin-ee-AHR-ee)

50 ft. 1 inch diameter, single stem, sometimes clustering. Ovoid, coffee bean size and shape, black when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green. Not particular as to soil type. Water lover. Part shade or full sun. 50%.

150C ~ 450C.

Papua New Guinea. Suitable for indoors. Similar in appearance to P. elegans wherein its fruits ripen fully to black, the former ripens to red, it would appear to require much the same horticultral conditions as P. elegans.

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104 Ptychosperma macarthurii (ty-ko-SPURM-a mak-AHRTH-ree-eye)

Macarthur palm 25 ft. - 35 ft. 2 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ovoid, coffee bean size and shape, red when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green. Not particular as to soil type. Lives in or near water. Part shade or full sun. 100C ~ 450C.

50%.

Australia-Northern Queensland. Suitable for indoors. Much utilised around the tropical zones of the world on accout of its durability and hardiness in cultivation, easily grown from seed and able to withstand any growing condition, except for extreme cold and drought.

Ptychosperma microcarpum (ty-ko-SPURM-a myk-ro-KAHRP-um)

30 ft. 2 inch - 5 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ovoid, coffee bean size and shape, red when ripe. Feather leaf, leaflets held in clusters, dark green. Not particular as to soil type. Lives in or near water. Part shade or full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 450C.

Papua New Guinea. Suitable for indoors. Similar palm in regard to P. macarthurii to which it is related, but leaves are arranged in tight clusters and the fruits are much smaller. It enjoys similar growing conditions, to the former species.

Pty chosperma propinquum (ty-ko-SPURM-a pro-PINK-wum)

25 ft. 0.5 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ovoid, coffee bean size and shape, black when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green. Not particular as to soil type. Lives in or near water. Part shade or full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 450C.

Indonesia-West Papua. Suitable for indoors. This palm is almost an exact copy of P. macarthurii and differences are more discreet- relating to its flowers. In form and habit it is barely distinguishable from the former, except that its fruits ripen fully to black.

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106 Ravenea rivularis (rav-e-NAI-a riv-yoo-LAR-iss)

Rexona or Majestic palm 80 ft. 24 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, coffee bean shape and size, red when ripe. Feather leaf, medium dark green. Not particualr as to soil type. Water lover. Part shade or full sun. 100C ~ 450C.

60%. Madagascar.

Not suitable for indoors. V er satile palm t hat can gr ow in s tand ing wat er , ac cept s m os t s o il t y p es , r e q u i r e s s o m e p r o t ec t io n a s y o un g s eed li ng s . V er y f as t g r owin g and eas i ly t r ans plant ed , main dr awback is it s sof t, spongy st em that is t oo easily damaged and attr act ive to ins ect bor ers /beetles.

Reinhardtia gracilis (ryn-HART-tee-a GRAS-i-lis)

Window pane palm, Coquito, Coyolito 5 ft. - 10 ft. Not more than 1 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ovoid, bullet-like and shape, rice grain size, black when ripe. Feather with broad leaflets with windows, dark green. Moist at all times, rich in loam and silt. High watering requirement. Full shade. 80%.

150C ~ 350C.

Mexico, Belize, Honduras. Suitable for indoors. Distinctive, petite palm bearing ornate leaves with thin slits arranged as in the spokes of a window, hence its common name. Much prized as a potted plant, for shaded sites in gardens where bigger palms cannot be accomm- odated due to their size.

Reinhardtia simplex (ryn-HART-tee-a Sim-plex)

Window pane palm, Upuka 5 ft. - 10 ft. Not more than 1 inch diameter, clustering stems. Ovoid, bullet-like shape, rice grain size, black when ripe. Feather entire form, dark green. Moist at all times, rich in loam and silt. High watering requirement. Full shade. 80%.

150C ~ 350C.

Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Suitable for indoors. Similar to R. gracilis, however leaves are simple in design without slits apparent, slighty more delicate than the former in its growing requirements, nevertheless if care is given it will become a much prized specimen.

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108 Roscheria melanochaetes (ro-SHER-ee-a-mel-ANO-keet-eez)

Palmiste rouge 10 ft. 1 inch - 2 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea size and shape, red when ripe. Feather leaf, pale green, pink when new leaf emerges. Well drained, sandy soil. Requires regular watering. Part shade to full sun. 100C ~ 400C.

50%. Seychelles.

Not suitable for indoors. A small palm of understated beauty, with small sharp spines on its leaf bases and stem, but they fall off with age, emerging fronds are reddish pink and it does well in full sun situation.

Roystonea borinquena (roy-STON-ee-a bo-reenk´-AIN-a)

Puerto rican royal palm, Palma caruta, Palma real, Palmiste 50 ft. 18 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea size and shape, brown black when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green crown maroon. Well drained sandy soil, otherwise not particular. Requires regular watering. Full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 400C.

Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Virgin Islands. Not suitable for indoors. Statuesque palm of large proportions and not prone to having bulging stems, unlike related R. oleracea does. It is more slender and evenly proportioned, floral differences and minor other details are used to separate it from the others.

Roystonea oleracea (roy-STON-ee-a o-le-RAI-see-a)

Royal palm, Cabbage palm, Mapora 130 ft. 24 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea size and shape, brown black when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green, crown lighter green. Well drained sandy soil, otherwise not particular. Requires regular watering. Full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 400C.

Lesser Antilles and Trinidad, Venezuela, Colombia. Not suitable for indoors. Largest growing in this category of palms, known as royal palm, has gigantic dimensions and acquires a bulge in its stem with age. Various forms have been noted, requires maximum water and light to produce a fine specimen.

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110

Phoenix sylvestris. Although commonly seen in the wild, this palm is very attractive with long pinnate leaves with silvery touch; quite hardy and adoptable to almost any climate in India.

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112 Sabal minor (SAI-bahl MY-nor)

Dwarf palmetto, Bush palmetto, Swamp palmetto Trunk less or upto 5 ft. 12 inch diameter, single stem, trunk less. Spherical, pea shape and size, black when ripe. Costapalmate, gray green. Well drained sandy soil. Heavy watering. Full shade to full sun. 100C ~ 400C.

50%.

U.S.A-all Southern states into some Eastern states. Not suitable for indoors. A dwarf amongst the genus, uncharacteristic for Sabal species, it is a ground hugging almost trunkless palm that snakes it’s way across the ground. It can take extremes of wet and dry.

Sabal palmetto (SAI-bahl pahl-MET-toe)

Sabal palm, Palmetto palm, Cabbage palm, Cana 80 ft. 24 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical to pear shape, pea size, black when ripe. Costapalmate, gray green. Muddy to sandy, and silt based soils. Require heavy watering to thrive. Full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 400C.

USA, South-Eastern states, Bahamas and Cuba. Not suitable for indoors. Iconic fan palm and symbolic of swamps and scrub areas of Florida. Though often maligned by locals, nevertheless is seen in great numbers both in nature and along Florida’s many expansive highways.

Sabal rosei (SAI-bahl RO-zee-eye)

Palma de llano 40 ft. or more . 12 inch diameter, single stem. Hemi-spherical, pea shape and size, gray-green, black when ripe. Costapalmate, yellowish green. Well drained sandy silt. Requires heavy watering to thrive. Full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 400C.

Mexico. Not suitable for indoors. Easy to identify fan palm amongst this group with an odd yellow-green colour shade, (whereas most other Sabal species are gray-green) finely dissected leaves, and preferring drier soil sites.

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114 Salacca zalacca (sa-LAHK-ka za-LAHK-ka)

Salak, Snake fruit palm 8 ft. 16 inch diameter, clustering, spiny all over. Ovoid, red onion shape & size, thin-scaly skin, brown when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green, spiny all over. Rich loam compost soil. Water lover. Part shade to full sun. 200C ~ 450C.

50%.

Indonesia-Bali and Sumatra. Not suitable for indoors. This palm produces what is known as the Balinese snake ski n fruit and is highly prized by Balinese, ef fort s have been made t o im pr ov e fr ui t tast e and s ize.

Satakentia liukiuensis (saht-a-KENT-ee-a leeook’-ee-oo-en-sis)

Satake palm, Samurai palm 60 ft. 12 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, bullet shape and size, light green-yellow when ripe. Feather leaf, olive-green. Well drained sandy soil. Regular watering. Part shade to full sun. 50%.

00C ~ 450C.

Japan-Ryuku Island. Not suitable for indoors. An isolated palm of great beauty, although the irregularly arranged fronds in the crown always give it a dishevelled appearance. The crown shaft of this palm is maroon-purple in colour and is the feature most appreciated by gardeners.

Schippia concolor (ship-PEE-a KAHN-kul-or)

Schippia palm, Silver pimento, Pimento 6 ft. 6 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, ping-pong ball shape and size, white when ripe. Palmate, dark green. Sandy soil. Regular watering. Part shade to full sun. 50%.

100C ~ 450C.

Belize and Guatemala. Not suitable for indoors. Slightly built fan palm, able to fit into confined spaces of a garden, full sun from young age. Initially very slow growing from seed, it has a sparse crown but leaves are perfectly arranged in scale with the small stem dimensions.

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116 Syagrus schizophylla (sy-AG-rus skits-o-FYL-la)

Arikury palm, Aricuriroba, Licurioba 10 ft. - 15 ft. tall. 6 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, olive size and shape, orange when ripe. Feather leaf, dark green or olive green. Sandy soil. Regular watering. Full sunlight. 40%.

10°C ~ 45°C.

Brazil. Not suitable for indoors. Lesser known species, small in size, enabling it to fit into most gardens and even as a potted plant. Its requirments are non-specific and it enjoys mostly any soil condition as long as water is available and full sun position is provided.

Thrinax excelsa (TRY-nax ek-SEL-sa)

Jamaican thatch palm, Broad thatch, John crow thatch palm 35 ft. 8 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea shape and size, white when ripe. Palmate, light green. Well drained sandy, silt or loam soil. Regular watering. Part shade to full sun. 60%.

15°C ~ 45°C.

Jamaica. Suitable for indoors. Medium sized fan palm, grown in many Caribbean island nations, well suited to coastal and sea side locales where full sun, strong winds and sandy soil are present. It is popular on account of these traits.

Thrinax parviflora (TRY-nax pahr-vi-FLO-ra)

Broom palm, Thatch pole palm 50 ft. 6 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, pea shape and size, white when ripe. Palmate, light green. Sandy loam or silt soil. Regular watering. Part shade to full sun. 60%.

15°C ~ 45°C.

Jamaica. Suitable for indoors. Similar fan palm in many repects to the T. excelsa, however with a more slender trunk, leaves are not as full in the crown. It is commonly seen in Caribbean localities and grows in fully exposed sites along the seashore making it a popular subject for sea side gardens.

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118 Thrinax radiata (TRY-nax rai-dee-AHT-a)

Floorida thatch, Silktop thatch 10 ft. - 20 ft. 8 inch - 10 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, profuse white when ripe. Palmate, deep green above, white below. Prefers sandy, soil slightly alkaline. Regular watering. Part shade. 60%.

20°C ~ 30°C.

Central America, Floorida, Mexico & Caribbean island. Suitable for indoors. A ver y or nam ent al palm f or gar den pl ant i ng, al s o s ui t abl e as pot gr ow n hous e pl ant .

Trachycarpus fortunei (traik-ee-KAHRP-us for-TOON-ee-eye)

Chusan palm, Chinese windmill palm 40 ft. 8 inch - 10 inch diameter, single stem. Reniform, jelly bean shape, grape size,dark blue-black when ripe. Palmate, dark green (upper), lighter underneath. Not particular, well drained soil. Regular watering. Part shade to full sun. 50%.

0°C ~ 45°C.

China-Yunnan province. Not suitable for indoors. Robust fan palm known for many years in cultivation in European gardens, grows outside where winters are freezing. Thick set stem, covered in dense fibres and woolly residue, it has rigid leaves that are impermeable to freezing water and ice damage.

Trachycarpus martianus (traik-ee-KAHRP-us marhrt-ee-AHN-us)

Windmill palm, Deng-klue, U-kleul 20 ft. 7 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, coffee bean shape and size, gray-blue when ripe. Palmate, dark green, lighter green underneath. Grows in well drained soil. Prefers regular watering. Full sun. 50%.

0°C ~ 20°C.

India-Arunachal Pradesh, Shillong, Nepal and Myanmar. Not suitable for indoors. Slight fan palm, smaller than T. fortunei, thin stem is naked for much of its length, with sparse leaf crown, adapts reasonably well to tropical climates, but requires a well drained, sunny site, appreciates cooler night time drop in temperature to thrive.

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120 Veitchia winin (VEECH-ee-a WIN-in)

Winin palm 50 ft . Less than 12 inch diameter, single stem. Ellipsoid, pea size, turns red when ripe. Feather leaf, yellow green to light green. Not fussy. Regular watering. Shade or full sun. 60%.

15°C ~ 42°C.

Vanuatu. Not suitable for indoors. The Winnin palm is similar in respect to both species above, however it is of a smaller stature and leaves aren't as many or large in dimension, compared to both of them. The fruits are small and resemble more Ptychosperma fruits, in dimension.

Verschaffeltia splendida (ver-sha-FELT-ee-a splen-DEED-a)

Verschaffeltia palm, Colombo palm 50 ft. tall. 12 inch - 16 inch diameter, single stem covered in dense spines. Spherical, ping-pong ball size, green-golden brown when ripe.

with orange outline. Not fussy. Regular watering. Part shade to full sun. 60%.

20°C ~ 42°C.

Seychelles. Not suitable for indoors. Distinctive palm with stilt roots habit and elegant crown of entire fronds that split up only at maturity. Needs regular watering and high humidity. Sharp spines are located on its lower stem and root zone and leaf bases.

Wallichia caryotoides (wahl-LIK-ee-a kar-ee-o-TOI-deez)

4 ft. - 5 ft. tall. 4 inch - 5 inch diameter, clustering stems. Pear shape, grape size, red-maroon when ripe. Feather-leaflets diamond shape, dark green above, light green underside. Well drained humas rich soil. Regular watering. Shade conditions only. 60%.

10°C ~ 40°C.

India- Assam, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Southern China. Suitable for indoors. Well known in cultivation elsewhere, but passed over in India. Elongated triangular-shaped leaflets comparable to fishtail palms. Stems are squat and sparsely clustering, underside of leaves are light coloured. Requires high humidity and a cool and shaded site. Good for pot culture.

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122 Washingtonia robusta (wash-ing-TO-nee-a ro-BUS-ta)

Mexican fan palm, Washingtonia fan palm, Petticoat palm 60 ft. 37 inch - 48 inch diameter, single stem. Pea size and shape, yellow-brown when ripe. Palmate, light dark green. Well drained sandy soil. Regular watering but can tolerate drought conditions. Full sun. 40%.

0째C ~ 45째C.

Mexico-Baia California, Sonora. Not suitable for indoors. Similar to W. filifera, fronds are generally sparser. Stem is not so stout and is evenly proportioned for its entire length, however it often surpasses the former species in terms of its overall height.

Wodyetia bifurcata (wod-YET-ee-a by-foor-KAHT-a)

Foxtail palm, Wodyetia palm 50 ft. 12 inch - 16 inch diameter, single stem. Spherical, ping-pong ball size, red when ripe. Feather leaf, leaflets arranged in plumose fashion, dark green. Not particular as to soil type. Regular watering but can tolerate drought conditions. Full sun. 40%.

15째C ~ 45째C.

Australia-Cape Melville, Far North Queensland. Not suitable for indoors. Voted most popular palm in the world, but only recently arrived on the horticultural scene and already a favourite in many countries. Fronds look like the shape of a fox's tail. Fast growing, hardy in almost any soil or climatic condition, does not have a high water requirement. Can be transplanted readily.

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123

Sabal domingensis.

Dark and bluish green leaves of this palm make it highly sought after in landscapes. Its large crown creates an excellent landscape view.

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124

Glossary Alluvial - sand, silt and soil that has been washed down through a creek or stream system and deposited in banks to form a coarse mix, usually very well draining. Bifid - a form of palm frond, of a feather (pinnate) type, that is undivided, and forms a trapezoid shape, of two equal sides, that can be elongated or obtuse. Binomial - the scientific format in which a palm is named, always with a genus and a species name component. Bipinnate - a specialized form of a feather leaf, wherein the leaflet is replaced by a stalk bearing small or large triangular shaped leaflets that have branched off the (would be) leaflet, adapted into a stalk. Applies specifically to all Caryota spp. fronds. Cleft - a sharp V shaped notch that is situated at the distal (terminal end) portion of a palms’ frond/leaf. Eg. certain Ptychosperma spp Compost - broken down vegetative matter, (leaves or stems or roots of plants) rotted down to form a uniform brown and usually very coarse textured mix. Costapalmate - a distinctive form of a fan leaf, wherein the outline of the frond is not perfectly circular, but elliptic or sub-elliptic, caused by the leaf stalk’s attachment to the frond stretching it beyond the point of attachment into an extension. eg, Borassus, Corypha and Hyphaene. Crown - the entire canopy of the palm composed of its fronds/leaves, flower spikes and or fruit spikes Crownshaft - the apical portion of the crown’s stem where the fronds wrap around to form a cylindrical shaft, hence the term. Used for feather leaved palms only. Distichous - a specific arrangement of palms’ fronds in which they are inserted one above the other in a single plane, either side of the stem, giving the appearance of a fan, eg. Wallichia disticha Ellipsoid - used to describe a seed shape wherein one side is blunt or slightly pointed, but the opposite side is drawn out and elongated, exactly like that of a bullets’shape. Fronds - a general term to describe leaves of a palm. Genera - plural form usage of the below, genus.

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125

Genus - the scientific first name (part) of a palm, that is used to describe a group or single form of a palm with a set of characters that enable it to be recognized, at a primary level, amongst all other palms. Glaucous - a waxy coating on the leaflet (pinnae) or segment (lamina) of a palms’ frond that gives it a gray or bluish white appearance, often seen on the underside of the frond. Hastula – the union confirming the petiole attachment to a palmate or costapalmate frond, which is in the form of a small flap, often projecting outwards into a blunt or sharp spike. Humus - degenerated vegetative matter, as in leaves/stems/branches of plants that have rotted down to form a fine substance, and which, in turn, is mixed with sand or soil to make a uniform blended mixture. Lamina - a specific botanic term to describe the individual leaflet/s that radiate out from a central point (hastula) of a palmate leaved palm. Leafbase - the lower most portion of the stalk of a frond that wraps around the stem of a palm and is often divided into 2 equal portions, esp used for palmate palms. eg Corypha, Hyphaene, Sabal. Leaflets - the individual spokes/divisions that make up a frond of a feather leaved palm, technically called pinnae. Loam - fine sand and basic soil mixed to form a fine grade. Ovoid - eggs-shaped, evenly drawn out at one end, similar to a hen’s egg. Used to describe seeds or fruits of palms. Palmate - the frond (leaf of a palm) that is fan shaped and circular in outline, maybe entire or split up into spoke-like sections (lamina) giving appearance of a cart wheel. eg, Coccothrinax, Licuala, and Livistona. Petiole - the stalk of a frond/leaf of a palm, that is attached to the trunk of the palm, whether palmate or pinnate format. Pinnae - the specific botanical term used to describe the leaflets of a palm. Pinnate - an adjective used to describe a palm with feather like fronds/leaves. eg Archontophoenix, Dictyosperma and Heterospathe. Rattan - a generic Malay- based word term that has been adapted to describe any climbing palm, usually spiny, with whip-like appendages that grasp or grapple onto trees. Specifically used for these genera readily recognized

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126

within South East Asia and Southern Asia, but now widely used to describe like palms in Africa and Central and Southern America as well, eg Calamus or Daemonorops. Segments - the individual leaflets (lamina) that are familiar to palmate leaves and also used to describe specific leaflets (pinnae) that are broader then usual, and form distinctive sections within a feather palms’ frond. Species - the scientific second name (part) of a palm that is used to describe it, at a specific or secondary level, and allows it to be recognized as distinctfrom its own kind, belonging to/within the same genus. Stem - the trunk of the palm, in 2 formats, either solitary (single stemmed) or clustering, with multiple stems. Sometimes it can be aerially branching as in Hyphaene. Stilt root - A root that arises from the *lower bole and that runs obliquely to the ground, as in mangroves and a few palms (*Palmac). Sodden soil - Soil that is throughly soaked & saturated ; soggy & heavy.

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Root ball of a palm seperated for making it ready for transplantation.

Phoenix Sylvestris dug out from ground - ready for sale with root ball.

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Phoenix Canariensis. A hardy and one of the finest plants for living avenues. Its majestic crown brings out its glory.

Copernicia baileyana An attractive and hardy Cyrtostachys renda - One of the most beautiful palm species; every part plant palm foroflandscaping. is nice. The red stems of the palm are splendid to behold.

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CATEGORISATION OF PALMS

Palms with spines Acrocomia aculeata Aiphanes aculeata Aiphanes minima Astrocaryum alatum Astrocaryum mexicanum Bactris gasipaes Bactris major Calamus erectus Chamaerops humilis Cryosophila warscewiczii Daemonorops jenkinsiana Licuala spinosa Oncosperma fasciculatum Oncosperma tigillarium Phoenicophorium borsigianum Roscheria melanochaetes Salacca zalacca Verschaffeltia splendida Livistona sp

Clustering palms Acoelorraphe wrightii Areca triandra Areca vestiaria Bactris gasipaes Bactris major Calamus erectus Calyptrocalyx stenoschistus Caryota mitis Chamaedorea brachypoda Chamaedorea cataractarum Chamaedorea costaricana Chamaedorea seifrizii Chamaerops humilis Dypsis albo-farinosa Dypsis cabadae Dypsis lutescens Dypsis madagascariensis Hydriastele microspadix Hydriastele pinangoides Licuala paludosa Licuala spinosa Nannorrhops ritchiana Nypa fruticans Phoenix paludosa Phoenix reclinata Phoenix roebelenii Pinanga adangensis Pinanga coronata

Pinanga dicksonii Ptychosperma furcatum Ptychosperma macarthurii Ptychosperma microcarpum Ptychosperma propinquum Phoenix dactylifera Ptychosperma sanderianum Ptychosperma schefferi Ptychosperma waitianum Reinhardtia gracilis Reinhardtia simplex Salacca zalacca Serenoa repens Syagrus cearensis Wallichia caryotoides Wallichia densiflora

Drought tolereant species Acrocomia aculeata Arenga engleri Bismarckia nobilis Butia capitata Corypha utan Dypsis decaryi Dypsis lutescens Dypsis madagascariensis Gaussia maya Hyophorbe lagenicaulis Hyophorbe verschaffeltii Livistona decora Livistona muelleri Nannorrhops ritchiana Phoenix sylvestris Serenoa repens Syagrus cearensis Syagrus romanzoffiana Syagrus schizophylla

Water loving species Acoelorraphe wrightii Actinorhytis calapparia Areca concinna Areca triandra Areca vestiaria Arenga caudata Arenga hookeriana Arenga obtusifolia Arenga pinnata Arenga tremula Arenga undulatifolia

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Arenga westerhoutii Asterogyne martiana Attalea cohune Balaka seemannii Borassodendron machadonis Calyptrocalyx spicatus Calyptrogyne ghiesbreghtiana Caryota urens Caryota mitis Caryota no Chamaedorea cataractarum Chamaedorea costaricana Chamaedorea seifrizii Cocos nucifera Corypha umbraculifera Cyrtostachys renda Daemonorops jenkinsiana Euterpe oleracea Hydriastele microspadix Hydriastele pinangoides Kerriodoxa elegans Licuala paludosa Licuala peltata var. peltata Licuala spinosa Normanbya normanbyi Nypa fruticans Pelagodoxa henryana Phoenix paludosa Phoenix pusilla Phoenix reclinata Pinanga coronata Ravenea rivularis Sabal mauritiiformis Salacca zalacca Serenoa repens Syagrus romanzoffiana Veitchia arecina Veitchia joannis Veitchia winin Washingtonia filifera Washingtonia robusta Wodyetia bifurcata

Fast growing species Actinorhytis calapparia Adonidia merrillii Areca catechu Arenga pinnata Bactris gasipaes Bentinckia nicobarica Bismarckia nobilis Carpentaria acuminata Chamaedorea elegans

Chamaedorea seifrizii Dypsis leptocheilos Dypsis lutescens Dypsis madagascariensis Elaeis guineensis Euterpe oleracea Hyophorbe lagenicaulis Licuala spinosa Livistona australis Livistona chinensis Livistona decora Livistona rotundifolia Phoenix reclinata Phoenix roebelenii Phoenix sylvestris Pinanga coronata Pritchardia pacifica Ravenea rivularis Sabal mauritiiformis Ptychosperma macarthurii Ptychosperma microcarpum Ptychosperma sanderianum Ptychosperma schefferi Salacca zalacca

Very slow growing species Attalea allenii Butia capitata Coccothrinax crinita ssp. crinita Copernicia macroglossa Copernicia gigas Hyphaene petersiana Hyphaene thebaica Loxococcus rupicola Nannorrhops ritchiana Nypa fruticans Oncosperma fasciculatum Phoenix acaulis Phoenix canariensis Phoenix paludosa Phoenix pusilla Phoenix rupicola Ptychosperma waitianum Rhapis humilis Roscheria melanochaetes Sabal minor Schippia concolor Serenoa repens Trachycarpus martianus Trachycarpus takil

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Suitable for hedges & screening Acoelorraphe wrightii Areca triandra Arenga caudata Arenga engleri Arenga hookeriana Arenga microcarpa Arenga porphyrocarpa Arenga tremula Arenga wightii Bactris gasipaes Bactris major Calyptrocalyx stenoschistus Chamaedorea brachypoda Chamaedorea cataractarum Chamaedorea costaricana Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti Chamaedorea metallica Chamaedorea elegans Chamaedorea seifrizii Chamaerops humilis Cyrtostachys renda Dypsis albo-farinosa Dypsis cabadae Dypsis lutescens Dypsis madagascariensis Euterpe oleracea Hydriastele microspadix Hydriastele pinangoides Nannorrhops ritchiana Nypa fruticans Phoenix acaulis Phoenix loureirii var pedunculata Phoenix paludosa Phoenix pusilla Phoenix reclinata Phoenix roebelenii Pinanga adangensis Pinanga coronata Pinanga dicksonii Ptychosperma macarthurii Ptychosperma microcarpum Ptychosperma propinquum Ptychosperma sanderianum Ptychosperma schefferi Rhapis excelsa Sabal etonia Sabal minor Sabal riverside Salacca zalacca Syagrus cearensis Trachycarpus fortunei

Small species upto 7ft. Areca nagaensis Arenga caudata Arenga hookeriana Attalea allenii Balaka seemannii Calyptrogyne ghiesbreghtiana Chamaedorea adscendens Chamaedorea brachypoda Chamaedorea cataractarum Chamaedorea metallica Chamaedorea elegans Kerriodoxa elegans Phoenix acaulis Phoenix pusilla Reinhardtia gracilis Reinhardtia simplex Rhapis excelsa cv. ‘NANA’ Rhapis humilis Sabal etonia Sabal minor Wallichia caryotoides

Palms suitable for indoors Actinorhytis calapparia Adonidia merrillii Areca triandra Arenga engleri Arenga porphyrocarpa Asterogyne martiana Balaka seemannii Chamaedorea adscendens Chamaedorea arenbergiana Chamaedorea brachypoda Chamaedorea cataractarum Chamaedorea costaricana Chamaedorea elegans Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti Chamaedorea klotzschiana Chamaedorea metallica Chamaedorea seifrizii Chambeyronia macrocarpa Coccothrinax argentata Cryosophila warscewiczii Dypsis albo-farinosa Dypsis lutescens Dypsis madagascariensis Elaeis guineensis Howea forsteriana Hydriastele pinangoides Latania lontaroides Latania verschaffeltii Licuala grandis

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Licuala paludosa Licuala peltata var. peltata Licuala ramsayii Licuala spinosa Livistona australis Livistona chinensis Livistona jenkinsiana Livistona rotundifolia Pelagodoxa henryana Phoenicophorium borsigianum Phoenix pusilla Phoenix roebelenii Phoenix rupicola Pinanga adangensis Pinanga coronata Pinanga dicksonii Pritchardia pacifica Ptychosperma lineare Ptychosperma elegans Ptychosperma furcatum Ptychosperma macarthurii Ptychosperma microcarpum Ptychosperma propinquum Ptychosperma sanderianum Ptychosperma schefferi Ptychosperma waitianum Reinhardtia gracilis Reinhardtia simplex Rhapis excelsa Rhapis humilis Serenoa repens Thrinax excelsa Thrinax parviflora Wallichia caryotoides Wallichia densiflora

Larger species over 40 ft. Actinorhytis calapparia Archontophoenix alexandrae Archontophoenix cunninghamiana Archontophoenix myolensis Areca catechu Arenga pinnata Arenga westerhoutii Attalea cohune Bactris gasipaes Bentinckia condapanna Bentinckia nicobarica Borassus aethiopium Borassus flabellifer Calyptrocalyx spicatus Carpentaria acuminata Caryota urens

Caryota maxima Caryota no Caryota rumphiana Cocos nucifera Copernicia prunifera Corypha elata Corypha umbraculifera Corypha utan Dictyosperma album Dypsis cabadae Dypsis leptocheilos Dypsis lastelliana Dypsis lutescens Dypsis madagascariensis Elaeis guineensis Euterpe oleracea Gaussia maya Hydriastele microspadix Hyphaeane spp Latania spp Licuala ramsayi Licuala spinosa Livistona spp Normanbya normanbyi Oncosperma tigillarium Phoenix canariensis Phoenix dactylifera Phoenix sylvestris Pritchardia pacifica Ptychosperma spp Rhopaloblaste augusta Roystonea spp Sabal mauritiiformis Sabal palmetto Sabal yapa Satakentia liukiuensis Syagrus romanzoffiana Veitchia spp. Wallichia disticha Washingtonia spp Wodyetia bifurcata

Saline soil/salt tolerant species Acoelorraphe wrightii Borassus aethiopium Borassus flabellifer Cocos nucifera Copernicia gigas Copernicia macroglossa Copernicia rigida Corypha elata Corypha umbraculifera

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Corypha utan Cyrtostachys renda Dypsis lutescens Hyphaene compressa Hyphaene coriacea Hyphaene petersiana Hyphaene thebaica Licuala paludosa Licuala spinosa Livistona chinensis Nypa fruticans Oncosperma tigillarium Phoenix canariensis Phoenix dactylifera Phoenix paludosa Phoenix pusilla Phoenix sylvestris Pritchardia pacifica Ptychosperma schefferi Sabal bermudana Sabal palmetto Sabal yapa Washingtonia filifera Washingtonia robusta

Heat tolerant species (over 380 C to 450 C) Acoelorraphe wrightii Arenga engleri Arenga pinnata Attalea cohune Bismarckia nobilis Borassodendron machadonis Borassus aethiopium Borassus flabellifer Brahea aculeata Brahea armata Brahea edulis Butia capitata Carpentaria acuminata Copernicia prunifera Corypha elata Corypha umbraculifera Corypha utan Dypsis decaryi Hyophorbe lagenicaulis Hyophorbe verschaffeltii Hyphaene compressa Hyphaene coriacea Hyphaene petersiana Hyphaene thebaica Latania loddigesii

Latania lontaroides Latania verschaffeltii Livistona chinensis Livistona decora Nannorrhops ritchiana Phoenix acaulis Phoenix canariensis Phoenix dactylifera Phoenix loureirii var pedunculata Phoenix pusilla Phoenix reclinata Phoenix roebelenii Phoenix rupicola Phoenix sylvestris Roystonea oleracea Roystonea regia Sabal bermudana Sabal domingensis Sabal etonia Sabal mauritiiformis Sabal mexicana Sabal minor Sabal palmetto Sabal rosei Sabal uresana Sabal riverside Sabal yapa Serenoa repens Washingtonia filifera Wodyetia bifurcata

Cold tolerant species (100 C to 00 C ) Areca macrocalyx Arenga engleri Brahea aculeata Brahea armata Brahea edulis Caryota maxima Caryota obtusa Chamaedorea adscendens Chamaedorea arenbergiana Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti Chamaedorea klotzschiana Chamaedorea metallica Chamaedorea seifrizii Chamaerops humilis Daemonorops jenkinsiana Howea forsteriana Livistona australis Livistona chinensis Livistona jenkinsiana

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Nannorrhops ritchiana Phoenix acaulis Phoenix canariensis Phoenix loureirii var pedunculata Phoenix roebelenii Rhapis humilis Sabal etonia Sabal minor Sabal riverside Satakentia liukiuensis Trachycarpus fortunei Trachycarpus martianus Trachycarpus takil Wallichia caryotoides Wallichia densiflora Wallichia disticha Washingtonia filifera Washingtonia robusta

Full sun loving species Acoelorraphe wrightii Acrocomia aculeata Actinorhytis calapparia Adonidia merrillii Archontophoenix alexandrae Archontophoenix cunninghamiana Archontophoenix myolensis Areca catechu Arenga engleri Arenga microcarpa Arenga obtusifolia Arenga pinnata Arenga tremula Arenga undulatifolia Arenga westerhoutii Arenga wightii Attalea allenii Attalea cohune Bactris gasipaes Bactris major Bentinckia nicobarica Bismarckia nobilis Borassus aethiopium Borassus flabellifer Brahea aculeata Brahea armata Brahea edulis Butia capitata Carpentaria acuminata Caryota urens Caryota maxima Caryota mitis

Caryota no Caryota rumphiana Chamaerops humilis Coccothrinax argentata Coccothrinax argentea Coccothrinax barbadensis Coccothrinax crinita ssp. crinita Cocos nucifera Copernicia brittonorum Copernicia gigas Copernicia hospita Copernicia macroglossa Copernicia prunifera Corypha elata Corypha umbraculifera Corypha utan Cyrtostachys renda Dictyosperma album Dypsis decaryi Dypsis lutescens Dypsis madagascariensis Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera Euterpe oleracea Gaussia maya Hydriastele microspadix Hydriastele pinangoides Hyophorbe lagenicaulis Hyophorbe verschaffeltii Hyphaene compressa Hyphaene coriacea Hyphaene petersiana Hyphaene thebaica Latania loddigesii Latania lontaroides Latania verschaffeltii Licuala paludosa Licuala spinosa Livistona australis Livistona chinensis Livistona decora Livistona jenkinsiana Livistona mariae Livistona muelleri Livistona rotundifolia Nannorrhops ritchiana Nypa fruticans Phoenix acaulis Phoenix canariensis Phoenix dactylifera Phoenix loureirii var pedunculata Phoenix paludosa Phoenix pusilla

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Phoenix reclinata Phoenix roebelenii Phoenix rupicola Phoenix sylvestris Pritchardia pacifica Ptychosperma lineare Ptychosperma elegans Ptychosperma furcatum Ptychosperma macarthurii Ptychosperma microcarpum Ptychosperma propinquum Ptychosperma sanderianum Ptychosperma schefferi Ptychosperma waitianum Roystonea borinquena Roystonea oleracea Roystonea regia Sabal bermudana Sabal domingensis Sabal etonia Sabal mauritiiformis Sabal mexicana Sabal minor Sabal palmetto Sabal rosei Sabal uresana Sabal riverside Sabal yapa Satakentia liukiuensis Schippia concolor Serenoa repens Syagrus cearensis Syagrus romanzoffiana Syagrus schizophylla Thrinax excelsa Thrinax parviflora Trachycarpus fortunei Trachycarpus martianus Trachycarpus takil Veitchia arecina Veitchia joannis Veitchia winin Wallichia disticha Washingtonia filifera Washingtonia robusta Wodyetia bifurcata

Shade loving species Aiphanes aculeata Aiphanes minima Archontophoenix alexandrae Archontophoenix cunninghamiana Areca concinna

Areca nagaensis Areca vestiaria Arenga caudata Arenga hookeriana Arenga porphyrocarpa Asterogyne martiana Astrocaryum mexicanum Balaka seemannii Calyptrogyne ghiesbreghtiana Chamaedorea adscendens Chamaedorea arenbergiana Chamaedorea brachypoda Chamaedorea cataractarum Chamaedorea costaricana Chamaedorea elegans Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti Chamaedorea klotzschiana Chamaedorea metallica Chamaedorea seifrizii Cryosophila warscewiczii Dypsis lastelliana Euterpe edulis Hydriastele pinangoides Kerriodoxa elegans Licuala grandis Licuala peltata var. peltata Licuala mattanensis Licuala ramsayii Livistona jenkinsiana Loxococcus rupicola Normanbya normanbyi Oncosperma fasciculatum Pelagodoxa henryana Phoenicophorium borsigianum Phoenix zeylanica Pinanga adangensis Pinanga coronata Pinanga dicksonii Ptychosperma sanderianum Ptychosperma waitianum Reinhardtia gracilis Reinhardtia simplex Rhapis excelsa Rhapis excelsa Rhapis humilis Rhopaloblaste augusta Salacca zalacca Verschaffeltia splendida Wallichia caryotoides Wallichia densiflora Wallichia disticha

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Notes

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Palms for India  

A hand book on palms in India

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