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ADRIAN FRUTIGER


Journeyman.

____


Copyright Š 2016 by Dillon Looney. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law. Printed in Ireland. Content Credit: Adrian Frutiger: Typefaces The Complete Works. Linotype.com Image Credit: Unknown. Book design and production by Dillon Looney, www.dillonlooney.com


When I put my pen to a blank sheet, black isn’t added but rather the white sheet is deprived of light. Thus I also grasped that the empty spaces are the most important aspect of a typeface�.


Frutiger’s Journey

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____Journeyman ____Preface ____Birth

8

9

10

____Interlaken ____Eberhard

11

12

____Apprenticeship ____Franz

13

Knuchel 14

____Alfred

Willimann 16

____Walter

Kach 18

____Deberny ____Emil

& Peignot 22

Ruder 23


Our Journey

____

____Turning ____Air

Point 25

26

____Aéroport

d’Orly 28

Roissy 30

____Aéroport

____Hong Kong Airport 32 ____Frankfurt Airport 34 ____Rail

36

____Paris

____Nederlandse

____Montreal

____Road

44

____Walt

Metro 38 Spoorwegen 40

Metro 42

Disney Resort 46

____Swiss

Road Signage 48


Journeyman.

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Frutiger’s final submission ’Die Kirchen am Thunersee’ of which Ernst Jordi, the head of the printing firm wrote the introduction.

“ This little work before you must be judged, first and foremost, as an independent creation in words and pictures - his journeyman’s piece, as it were - of our young friend and colleague, Adrian Frutiger. On his journey and walks, he has turned time and again to the homely, yet most beautiful building in our small corner of the world, the churches on Lake Thun. With much love and dedication he has drawn it, made woodcuts of it, and then immersed himself in it’s history. It fills us with joy and pride to be present at the birth of this small volume, and to have been able to lend a hand in it’s printing. We express the hope that with it, this young craftsman will have taken a first step, upon which he can further build, gradually to take his place in the realm of the arts. That he succeeds in this, I wish him with all my heart. God bless art!”

8


Preface

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Adrian Frutiger, a Swiss national, is regarded as one of the greatest typographers and typeface designers of the 20th century. In his career he developed more than seventy typefaces, of which many have gone on to become standard fonts, are now in daily use, and continue to shape our reading habits on a daily basis. Along Frutiger’s personal journey, there were several influential people that Frutiger met that helped guide and shape him into becoming the great designer he became. It is in this book that several of them and their influence will be highlighted. In addition to Frutiger’s journey, this book will look at several typefaces he created that went on to be used in way-finding applications which guide us on ‘our’ own journeys. In particular during a period of rapid growth in air, rail and road travel.

9


Birth

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May 24, 1928 Unterseen

10

Adrian Frutiger was born May 24, 1928 in the town of Unterseen, Switzerland. From a very young age he began experimenting with stylized handwriting and invented scripts defying the formal curvise penmanship then taught at Swiss schools.


1934 Interlaken

In 1934 Frutiger’s family moved to the town of Interlaken where his father opened a handloom workshop. While living in his new home, which was situated next to train tracks, he was

surrounded by numerous engineering objects such as coal silos with their loading cranes, and a cable car of which he could see by the mountain through his back window. In addition

to this, he had a fascination with model traction engines and electricity. He was surrounded by numerous engineering objects such as coal silos and a cable car of which he would see by the mountain through his back window.

Frutiger would go on to say that witnessing all of this engineering from a very young age had a profound effect on him and in effect provided a natural education to him.

OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

____

Interlaken

11


Eberhard

____

Frutiger began his primary school education in 1935. In his teenage years he discovered the children books of the then well known Swiss illustrator Ernst Eberhard. What really captivated him was their hand drawn ink illustrations. One story that particularly stood out to him was of a boy who inherited a lot of money and he then used it to attend the prestigious School of Applied Arts in Bern.

1935 Bern

This inspired him to write to the Eberhard who in return replied in a beautiful script typeface. This correspondence formed the start of a long lasting friendship with Frutiger who provided him with advice and mentoring towards improving his sketches and drawings by way of yearly critiques. He was officially Frutiger’s first mentor and was influential from the very start.

12


Apprenticeship

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Otto Schalefli Buchund Kunstdruckerei AG

1944-48 Interlaken

Encouraged by his mentor Ernst Eberhard, Frutiger began a typesetting apprenticeship at the Otto Schalefli Buchund Kunstdruckerei AG (a book and fine art printer). While he attended the accompanying day classes at the Gewerbeschule in Bern, the school’s governing body suggested that he attend an additional day per week to study drawing and woodcuts as they saw great potential in him. This extra class developed his drawing skills which he would later use in his career.

13


Franz Knuchel

Herman Hesse

____

14

1948 Interlaken

While Frutiger was working on his final submission for his diploma in typesetting he developed a deep friendship with his former primary school teacher and lover Franz Knuchel and his wife Leny.

It was they who inspired him to take up reading classical literature where he drew particular inspiration from the

classical works of Herman Hesse, in particular ‘Steppenwolf’, ‘Narcissus and Goldmund’ and ‘The Glass Bead Game’.


“The material of typography is the black, and it is the designer’s task with the help of this black to capture space, to create harmonious whites inside the letters as well as between them.”

15


Alfred Willimann

____

1949 Zurich

Shortly after his 21st birthday he began classes at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich where he studied type design. While there he attended various courses under Alfred Willimann and Walter Kach. While at one of Willimann’s first preparation classes in letterform he saw him explaining calligraphy to the other students. For Willimann the essence of calligraphy was “not building up the black, but rather covering the white, so that the light of the white page remains alive�.

16


Sketch of a downstroke from one of Willimann’s letterform classes.

17


____

Walter Kach

May 24, 1928 Unterseen

18

Walter Kach was in turn responsible for teaching Frutiger lettering. By good timing, Kach’s book ‘Schriften Lettering Ecritures’, a standard work on type design was released just as Frutiger’s further education was beginning and this proved to be inspiration to him as he adopted many of the form giving principles in the book which were particularly influential in shaping his canonical forms. He also advised Frutiger on Univers regarding optical rules for his letter shapes. Of real note though was Kach’s idea of thinking of typefaces in terms of families and it was this philosophy that was so influential in the creation of the famous typeface Univers.


19


“Typography must be as beautiful as a forest,not like the concrete jungle of the tenements,


it gives distance between the trees,the room to breathe and allow for life.�


Deberny & Peignot

____

|h|o| 1952-60 Paris

22

After completing his further education Frutiger got a job as a type designer working for the type foundry Deberny & Peignot. It was here where he got to put all of his education into practise and at the same time broaden his knowledge and experience in type production, initially in hot metal production, and from 1954 onwards, in photosetting.


____

Emil Ruder

oo| |h h | p| || o 1953 Paris

While Frutiger was working on the typeface Univers, typographer Emil Ruder who Frutiger befriended, acted as a mentor to him providing him with feedback and suggestions during the typefaces development. “His influence on my work as a type designer was decisive. At each of our meetings, he was my point of reference�. 23


“From all these experiences the most important thing I have learned is that legibility and beauty stand close together and that type design,in its restraint, should be only felt but not perceived by the reader.� 24


Turning Point

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With Frutiger now two years into his career, he was beginning to produce typefaces at an increasing rate. It was also a time when the number of people using air, rail and road travel rapidly increased as economies grew and prices decreased sharply. As Frutiger’s philosophy was that ‘legibility must come first and foremost’, it was for this reason that so many of his typefaces were perfectly suited for way-finding applications. Today they can be found guiding us on our own journeys in numerous airports, rail networks and public road signage systems throughout the world. As such it can be said that the rapid rise in travel can be directly linked to the journey of Adrian Frutiger. In the following chapters a number of his typefaces and real life applications of where they are used will be examined.

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AIR


-. -.-.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -. -.-.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -. -.-.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. -. -.-.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -. -.-.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -. -.-.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -. -. -.-.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. .. -.-. .-.. -.-. .-..-.-. .-.. -.-. .-.. -.-. .-.. -..-.. -.-. .-..-.-. .-.. -.-. .-.. -.-. .-.. -.-. .-.. -.-. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. . --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. . --. -. -.-. --. -. . --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. . --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. -. --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. . --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. . --. -. -.-. --. -. . --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. . --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. -. --. -. -.-. --. -. Aeroport d’Orly . --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. Aeroport Roissey Hong Kong Airport . --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. -Frankfurt Airport . --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. . --. -. -.-. --. -. -.-. --. -. .. -.-. .-.. -.-. .-.. -.-. .-.. -.-.


Aéroport d’Orly

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(IATA: ORY, ICAO: LFPO)

Typeface Alphabet Orly Designed 1959 - Published 1961. Commissioned by Aeroport de Paris Orly Sud Typesetting technology 3d neon lettering. Manufacturer Unknown Weights 2

28


D

E

P

Alphabet Orly is based on a combination of the typefaces Cassandra and Univers and was designed in 1959 as a commission from Peignot for the opening of the new AÊroport d’Orly in the south of Paris. Even though it was Frutiger’s first signage typeface he designed, Peignot played a large part in its overall look. In particular was the choice of colours placed behind the letters. The departures using a light blue and the arrivals using a dark blue colour.

A

R

R


Aéroport Roissy

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(IATA: CDG, ICAO: VHHH)

Typeface Aéroport Roissy Designed 1970-72 - Published 1972. Client Aéroport de Paris Typesetting Foil Stamping | Transfer Stamping Manufacturer Unknown | Letraset Weights 1

30


70-72 In 1968, Adrian Frutiger was commissioned to develop a sign and directional system for the new Airport Roissy, later named Charles de Gaulle Airport, in Paris. The font was bolder than original typesetting fonts in order to offer better legibility for the light boxes of the signage system. Adrian Frutiger worked carefully on the letterforms so that characters and words could be recognized even in poor light conditions or when the reader

was moving quickly past the sign. He tested with unfocused letters to see which letterforms could still be identified. The font was named Roissy after the airport. Dr. Greisner, managing director of D. Stempel AG, asked Adrian Frutiger if Stempel could make this typeface for the Linotype typesetting machines. After slight modifications in the stroke thickness, the first weights were produced and were to become known as Frutiger.


Hong Kong Airport

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(IATA: HKG, ICAO: VHHH)

ĺ œ Typeface Avenir Designed 1987 - Published 1988. Typesetting technology Digital setting PostScript Weights 12

32


87-88

č˝Śĺœş Avenir was designed in 1988. The word Avenir means future in French. In an interview with Linotype, Frutiger said he felt an obligation to design a linear sans not only in the tradition of Erbar and Futura, but to also make use of the experience and stylistic developments of the twentieth century. But unlike Futura, Avenir is not purely geometric; it has vertical strokes that are thicker than the horizontals, an O that is not a

perfect circle, and shortened ascenders. These nuances aid in legibility and give Avenir a harmonious and sensible appearance for both texts and headlines. In 2004 Adrian Frutiger and the type director of Linotype GmbH Akira Kobayashi reworked Avenir to become Avenir Next for on screen clarity. Used today throughout Hong Kong International Airport, the typeface today guides almost 70 million passengers annually.


Frankfurt Airport

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(IATA: FRA, ICAO: EDDF)

Typeface Univers Designed 1953 - Published 1957. Commissioned by Deberny & Peignot Typesetting Handsetting Manufacturer Deberny & Peignot Weights 20

34

A


g u

A

fl b The clear, objective forms of Univers make this a legible font suitable for almost any typographic need. In 1954 the French type foundry Deberny & Peignot wanted to add a linear sans serif type in several weights to the range of the Lumitype fonts. Adrian Frutiger, the foundry’s art director, suggested refraining from adapting an existing alphabet. He wanted to instead make a new font that would, above all,

be suitable for the typesetting of longer texts - quite an exciting challenge for a sans-serif font at that time. Starting with his old sketches from his student days at the School for the Applied Arts in Zurich, he created the Univers type family. In 1957, the family was released by Deberny & Piegnot, and afterwards, it was produced by Linotype. Used throughtout Frankfurt Airport, the typeface guides passengers on their journeys.


RA Paris Metro Nederlandse Spoorwegen Montreal Metro

36


A IL

37


Paris Metro

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Typeface Alphabet Métro Designed 1972 - Published 1973. Client RATP Typesetting technology Photosetting Manufacturer H.Berthold AG Weights 1

In the early 1970s, spurred on by the development of the RER system and by the opening of several new extensions on the network, the RATP undertook a program to harmonize the Metro’s corporate identity by replacing the many different fonts then in use with a unified, standard typeface. The font eventually chosen, Métro Alphabet, was developed by Frutiger as a special, modified version of his Univers typeface. Installed throughout it’s the network between 1973 and 1994, Métro Alphabet became the most widespread font used on the network. 38


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Nederlandse Spoorwegen

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Typeface Frutiger Designed 1974 - Published 1976. Client D.Stempel AG Typesetting Photostatting Linofilm Manufacturer D.Stempel AG | Linotype Weights 8

The Dutch railway operator ‘Nederlandse Spoorwegen’ uses Frutiger as their house style font. NS runs 4,800 scheduled domestic trains a day, serving 1.1 million passengers including an all night service and a high speed train.


City Night Line (CNL) HSL-Zuid High-Speed Line


Montreal Metro

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Typeface Univers Designed 1953 - Published 1957. Commissioned by Deberny & Peignot Typesetting Handsetting Manufacturer Deberny & Peignot Weights 20

The font family Univers is one of the greatest typographic achievements of the second half of the 20th century. The family has the advantage of having a variety of weights and styles, which, even when combined, give an impression of steadiness and homogeneity. Used throughout the Montreal Metro, and in particular on the networks platforms, guiding the stations passengers on and off the trains. 42


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RO


AD Walt Disney Resort Swiss Signage


Walt Disney Resort

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Typeface Univers Designed 1953 - Published 1957. Commissioned by Deberny & Peignot Typesetting Handsetting Manufacturer Deberny & Peignot Weights 20

With the rapid rise in car ownership over the 60s and 70s, our world suddendly expanded. No longer were people contained to staying locally, they could now travel independantly whenever and wherever. Walt Disney World, owned and operated by Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, chose Univers for guiding tourists on the resort’s vast road network throughout the resorts 27,258 acres. Chosen for it’s clarity and legibility it’s perfectly suited for guiding customers between the resorts 36 hotels, four theme parks, two water parks and four golf courses. 46


47


Swiss Road Signage

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Typeface Frutiger Designed 1953 - Published 1957. Commissioned by Deberny & Peignot Typesetting Handsetting Manufacturer Deberny & Peignot Weights 20

Switzerland has a network of two lane national roads. These roads usually lack a median or central reservation. Some stretches are controlled-access, in that all traffic must enter and exit through ramps and must cross using grade separations. Two of the important motorways are the A1, running from St. Margrethen in northeastern Switzerland’s canton of St. Gallen through to Geneva in southwestern Switzerland, and 48

the A2, running from Basel in northwestern Switzerland to Chiasso in southern Switzerland’s canton of Ticino, using the Gotthard Road Tunnel. Autobahn (plural: Autobahnen) is the German name; in French speaking Switzerland they are known as autoroutes, and in Italian-speaking Switzerland they are known as autostrade (singular: autostrada). Swiss motorways have general speed limits of 120 km/h (75 mph).


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49


“If you remember the shape of your spoon at lunch, it has to be the wrong shape.The spoon and the letter are tools; one to take food from the bowl, the other to take information off


the page... When it is a good design,the reader has to feel comfortable because the letter is both banal and beautiful.�



___Journeyman