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The enthusiastic STETHS team hoist their trophy after victory over Vere Technical High in the finals of the GraceKennedy Rural Limited-Overs Competition for the Grace Headley Cup. YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | FEBRUARY 21-27, 2012


‘Forgive My Guilt’ yl:english literature

BERYL CLARKE Contributor

The key to a good memory is paying attention in the first place.

OW! TIME must be wisely used to ensure that your results are excellent. If you are going to achieve your goals, you should pay attention, close attention, in class and to your personal study sessions; then you will not have to spend time going over the same material again and again.


catch them failed. Do you see the result of his action, his failure to make clean, killing shots?

The birds, even handicapped as they were by broken wings, swim proudly away from him into the deep. Unfortunately, they can no longer fly so they cannot take off with the others of their kind who leave for warmer climes. In addition, we learn from the speaker that “for days” he heard the birds “crying out to their kind in the blue” and that “The cries went out one day”. Imagine how he had felt, knowing that he was the cause of their suffering! His feeling of remorse is so deep that in his mind he continues to hear the cries long after the birds are dead and no other sound of pain has had as devastating an impact on him. This is why he is hoping for forgiveness.

Forgive My Guilt by Robert P. Tristram Coffin is this week’s poem of study. It tells the story of a man who is reflecting on an action he took when he was a boy. This deed has haunted him ever since and he hopes strongly that he will be forgiven.

Next week we will turn our attention to other aspects of this poem. Enjoy your school days and God bless!

FORGIVE MY GUILT Not always sure what things called sins may be, I am sure of one sin I have done. It was years ago, and I was a boy, I lay in the frostflowers with a gun, The air ran blue as the flowers; I held my breath, Two birds on golden legs slim as dream things Ran like quicksilver on the golden sand, My gun went off, they ran with broken wings Into the sea, I ran to fetch them in, But they swam with their heads high out to sea, They cried like two sorrowful high flutes, With jagged ivory bones where wings should be. For days I heard them when I walked that headland Crying out to their kind in the blue, The other plovers were going over south On silver wings leaving these broken two. The cries went out one day; but I still hear them Over all the sounds of sorrow in war or peace I ever have heard, time cannot drown them, Those slender flutes of sorrow never cease. Two airy things forever denied the air! I never knew how their lives at least were split, But I hoped for years all that is wild, Airy and beautiful will forgive my guilt.

What do you think of this poem? Is it simple, easy to understand? Do you like it? Does it cause you to think of something you once did that you now regret? Indeed, it is easy for us to get the information being shared by the speaker. Words such as frostflowers, plover and quicksilver that may be unfamiliar do not present any problem. We have the resources, don’t we, to familiarise ourselves with them? Once we understand the events we must turn our attention to theme and style. When I was a girl I knew that some of the boys in my community went bird shooting with their slingshots. From the stories that they told I got the impression that this was something they found enjoyable. For them it was not only fun to pit their skill against the 12

Beryl Clarke is an independent contributor. Send questions and comments to

birds but also to roast and eat their catch. What a contrast to the reaction of the speaker in this literary work! Here we have someone who must have had the intention of killing birds. Note how he “lay in the frost flowers” (any of a group of delicate cluster of ice crystals that form directly from water vapor usually on the face of sea ice) and this tells us that he was both prepared and determined to shoot something. Why then does he react so strongly to what happens? Read from lines 10 to 17 again. He did not kill the birds that he shot but broke their wings and his attempt to



T IS a pleasure to be with you all once again. This lesson is a continuation of last week’s on the market structure perfect competition. The previous lesson had considered the definition and features of perfect competition. We will now discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this market structure even though in the strictest sense this market structure does not exist in reality.



m All buyers and sellers are treated equally. m There is only one price ruling in the market at a time and this price is not determined by any single buyer or seller but by the market forces of demand and supply. m Competition keeps prices lower than under other market structures. m Since the product is homogenous, sellers do not have to spend money on advertising. m Competition between firms also forces them to be efficient. m Firms under perfect competition


respond to changes in consumer demand, therefore, the consumer is said to be sovereign or king.


m Lack of variety because an undifferentiated good is produced. m They may not be able to afford the technology that allows them to be efficient. m The number of firms in the industry makes it impossible for them to benefit from collusion. m There may be frequent changes in price as the market forces of demand and supply change.

Let us now consider the possible profits that can be earned in the short and in the long run under perfect competition.

part 3

SHORT-RUN EQUILIBRIUM In the short run, some of the firms will earn normal profit, some will earn supernormal profit and some will earn subnormal profit. Normal profit is that level of profit which is just enough to keep a firm in the industry. Once it is earning this level of profit, it will not leave the industry. In this situation, average revenue (AR) is equal to average cost (AC). This level of profit is often referred to as zero economic profit. If supernormal profits are being earned, this is so because AR is greater than AC.

When AC is above AR or AR below AC, the firm is earning subnormal profit. You may consult an economics textbook to see how these levels of profit are illustrated graphically.

LONG-RUN EQUILIBRIUM In the long run, all the firms under perfect competition will be in the situation where they are earning just normal profit AR=AC. Just how did this come about? In the long run, all the firms that had been earning subnormal profit in the short run AR<AC will leave the industry and will go into industries where they can at least earn normal profits. When these firms leave, supply will fall and prices and profits will rise.

yl:business The firms that are earning supernormal profits AR>AC will attract other firms into the industry by their attractive level of profits. As firms enter supply will increase and prices and profits will fall. This rise and fall in profits will continue until all firms in the industry will be earning normal profit, AR=AC. When this occurs there will be no more incentives for firms to either enter or leave the industry. Thus, the industry will be in long-run equilibrium. Again, the graphical illustration of this situation can be seen in most economics texts. Well, folks, that is it for this week. Next time we will outline another market structure – monopoly. You can begin to read up on this structure based on the headings I gave you in last week’s lesson. You will learn some interesting facts about this market structure and some common myths will be explained and dismissed. See you then. Yvonne Harvey teaches at Glenmuir High School. Send questions and comments to

Adam Stewart, chief executive officer of Sandals Resorts International (centre), welcomes the 26 successful applicants to the company’s Management Trainee Programme. The new recruits are currently undergoing an intensive two-week orientation session at Beaches Boscobel, to sensitize them to the company’s goals, objectives and service standards. YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | FEBRUARY 21-27, 2012


Organic chemistry


3. Alcohols can be oxidised to organic acids using powerful oxidizing agents such as acidified potassium dichromate (VI) or acidified potassium permanganate (VII) solution. C2H5OH (l) + 2[O] ====== CH3COOH(aq) + H2O (l) Ethanoic acid

The oxygen is from the oxidising agent. If potassium permanganate is used, the reaction mixture changes from purple to colourless. If potassium dichromate is used, the mixture changes from orange to green as the dichromate VI ion is reduced to green chromium III ion. This forms the basis for the breathalyser test for drunken drivers. 4. Alcohols can undergo dehydration reactions to the corresponding alkene using concentrated sulphuric acid (170 0C) or passing the vapour activated alumina (Al2O3). C2H5OH (l) ========== C2H4 (g) + H2O This reaction effectively removes water from the alcohol to form the alkene. 5. Alcohols react with acids to form esters. C2H5OH + CH3COOH =========== CH3COOC2H5 + H2O Ethylethanoate

REACTIONS OF ORGANIC ACIDS 1. Organic acids are weak acids (incompletely dissociated in solution) and can react with metals to form salts and liberate hydrogen. 2Na (s) + 2CH3COOH (aq) ===== 2CH3COONa (aq) + H2 (g) sodium ethanoate Only the hydrogen of the -COOH is replaceable in these acid-type reactions.

Members of the Jamaica Olympics Association team (from left) Don Anderson, first vice-president; Compton Rodney, honorary treasurer; and Michael Fennell, president, look on as Belinda Williams, group corporate communications manager at NCB, accompanied by Christopher Vendryes, senior marketing officer at NCB, commits to assist the local Olympic team in its preparation for the upcoming Games.

2. Acids react with oxides and hydroxides of metals. MgO (s) + 2CH3COOH (aq) ==== (CH3COO)2Mg (aq) + H2O Magnesium ethanoate 3. Organic acids react with carbonates and hydrogencarbonates to form salts and carbon dioxide. CH3COOH (aq) + NaHCO3 (aq) =====CH3COONa (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O



m Alcohols can be prepared by the hydration of alkenes. m Alcohols have the general formula Cn H2n+1OH. m Carboxylic acids are generally weak acids and have the formula Cn H2n+1COOH. m Alcohols and carboxylic acids combine to produce esters which have the general formula RCOORâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; where R is an alkyl group such as CH3 and C2H5.


REACTIONS OF ALCOHOLS (USING ETHANOL) 1. Alcohols burn in air or oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, heat and energy. 2C2H5OH (l) + 7O2 (g) =========== 4CO2 (g) + 6H2O (g) 2. Alcohols react with metals such as Na, Li, Mg and Ca to yield hydrogen gas and to form salts called alkoxides. The reaction is similar to the reaction of metals with water because of the presence of -OH. (H2O can be written as H - OH.) 2Na (s) + 2C2H5OH (l) ======= 2C2H5OHONa (aq) + H2 (g) sodium ethoxide YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | FEBRUARY 21-27, 2012

4. They react with alcohols to produce esters in a reaction called an esterification reaction. Ester formation is a type of condensation reaction in which a large molecule is formed from the joining of two reactive groups with the elimination of a small molecule such as H2O. Esters can be hydrolysed (broken down) using acid or alkali to yield the acid (or salt of the acid) and alcohol that formed the ester. Francine Taylor-Campbell teaches at Jamaica College. Send questions and comments to


N LAST week’s lesson we started our discussion on the persuasive (rhetoric) discourse. I left you with an extract from Dr Martin Luther King’s I have a Dream. Were you able to identify any persuasive techniques or devices?


Here are a few which can be found in the extract: m Repetition of “I have a dream”. This was used to emphasise Dr King’s vision of racial freedom and unity. m Direct personal appeal, for example, his reference to “my friends” in the first line. It gives the audience the impression that he is close to them. m Metaphor – for example, “table of brotherhood” to paint a picture of unity between the races in the context of a common understanding.

Persuasive writing part 2

When you compare you show the similarities between things. When you contrast you show the differences between them.

EVIDENCE BASED ON AUTHORITY (STATISTICAL INFORMATION) In support of your argument it is useful to draw on evidence based on recognised sources such as research findings, personal experience or some authority in the particular field of knowledge. It is also helpful to use statistics from established sources.

The organisation of your argument is crucial. Take a look at the following guidelines:


m Television brings images of the world to the Caribbean. More precisely, it brings images of the United States. Some 75 per cent of television programming in the English-speaking Caribbean originates outside the region, primarily in North America.

STEP 1 Begin by introducing the topic and making clear your position in an introductory paragraph.

Summarise your argument in a concluding paragraph by restating your position and the supporting reasons for it. Please note that a persuasive argument is

In putting your arguments together you must present general statements (i.e. topic sentences) with supporting evidence. See if you can write at least one supporting point for the following general statements/topic sentences: m Smoking marijuana will lead to death. m Carnival is a waste of time, money and effort.


Do you recall that I had given you a list of persuasive techniques/strategies in last week’s lesson? Well, please review these with your friends and ensure that you understand how each strategy works.



This is when you state what benefits are to be obtained from something or the negative aspects of something. For example, you can give the benefits of taking one job over another or dissuade a friend from taking harmful substances.

Now we will move to the actual argumentative piece which you will be required to write.

Develop each point in a separate paragraph. It is most effective to present your reasons in order of importance. Some writers begin with the least important reason and then lead up to the most important one; others, however, start with the strongest reason and follow it with the lesser reasons. This section of your essay may consist of three to four paragraphs.

m Dishonesty and corruption are ills in our society today. m Lack of education is the cause of many social problems in our society. m There is a general breakdown in our education system.


m Antithesis (the balance of two contrasting words, phrases, sentences or ideas) - for example, “a desert sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression will be transformed into an oasis of freedom” and “... we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope”. Dr King makes a contrast between the oppressive situation of racial segregation and the freedom of racial liberation.


yl:english language

Paul Ebanks (right), branch manager, First Global Financial Services, congratulates Donovan Nelson, captain of the St Elizabeth Technical High School, after his team defeated Vere Technical High School in the finals of the recent GraceKennedy Rural Limited-Overs Competition for Grace Headley Cup teams. STETHS won the match with 154 for seven, while Vere Technical scored 150 for seven.

presented most effectively when it is based on valid and reliable evidence, sound logical reasoning and the writer’s firm belief in the position he/she holds. So, when you write your essays, be confident in your approach. Let us now take a closer look at some of the strategies you must use in your persuasive essays.

GIVING REASONS One of the major strategies in good arguments is the giving of reasons to support a writer’s position, stance or point of view. Reasons can be valid or weak. In constructing your argument, therefore, it is always vital that you assess the reasons you offer in support of your position. What reasons can you give for the following statements?


In this example, the writer uses evidence of research to support his argument. m According to CXC Report 1992, 42 per cent of the students who wrote the English A examination attained either a grade 1 or 2. In this example the source is authoritative. In next week’s lesson we will continue with our discussion of this crucial topic. Until then, remain focused on the task at hand! Natasha Thomas-Francis teaches at Glenmuir High School. Send questions and comments to



OW ARE you all this week? Has the week been good? I am sure that by now your studies have been coming along nicely and that you are nearing the point where thoughts will begin to gel, causing you to feel as if you can master Mount Everest. You do know that if you have been keeping abreast with the work that you have done so far, then that feeling will not elude you. This week we will continue our study of what happens in the digestion of foods in humans. Do you remember where we stopped last week? We stopped at the sphincter muscles of the stomach opening at intervals to release small amounts of the chyme (acidic partially digested food) into the duodenum, the first section of the small intestines. If the small intestine has a first section, this means that it is made up of more than one section, doesn’t it? What are these sections?


The small intestine is a long, narrow, continuous tube which is about 5 metres long and is divided into three sections. These are: Duodenum – which represents the first section. Jejunum – which represents the middle section. Ileum – which represents the last section.

DUODENUM This section of the intestines receives, in addition to the chyme from the stomach, secretions from the pancreas. What is the pancreas? This is a creamcoloured gland found lying just below the stomach. The pancreatic duct connects the pancreas with the duodenum. The secretion that is released from the pancreas contains:

AMYLASE Do you remember what this is? Of course, you do! This is an enzyme, and we discussed its use when we were looking at what happens to food in the buccal cavity. Remember this enzyme which breaks down starch to simple sugars? What does this tell you about the pH of the duodenum? That’s right! It is different from the pH of the stomach; the pH of the duodenum is alkaline while the pH of the stomach is acidic. Note that the change in conditions is necessary for the different enzymes to work.

The digestive process m It contains bile salts which emulsify fats/lipids, breaking them up in to smaller pieces, making it easier for the enzyme lipase in the pancreatic juice to act on them, converting them to fatty acids and glycerol. This process involving the action of bile is known as emulsification.

JEJUNUM AND ILEUM The small intestine also secretes enzymes which complete the digestion of the food. These are:

part 2

m Maltase - This enzyme breaks down maltose to glucose. m Sucrose - Breaks down sucrose to glucose and fructose. m Lactase - breaks down lactose to glucose and galactose. m Proteases - Break down polypeptides to amino acids. m Lipases - Break down fats to fatty acids and glycerol. This concludes our discussion of digestion. We need to consider next what happens to the digested food?

yl:biology What do you think? That’s right! It is absorbed into the blood stream for transport. Let us see how this takes place.

ABSORPTION The ileum of the small intestine is the site of absorption. This is logical because this is where digestion is completed. Do you remember why digestion has to take place? Of course you do. It has to take place so that the food is broken down into molecules that are small enough to diffuse across the cell membranes. Absorption is described as the passage of digested foods, salts, vitamins and water through the walls of the small intestines into the transport system. What makes the ileum suitable for absorption? It has the following adaptations: m It is very long, over six metres. m It has finger-like projections known as villi. These serve to increase the surface area of the ileum. m It has a network of capillaries which serves to transport the digested food from the ileum. m It has lacteals (part of the lymphatic system) to receive digested fats. We will complete our study of digestion with a look at the functions of the liver, an organ which plays a role in digestion. The liver is the largest organ in the body. It weighs over 1kg and functions as a chemical factory, a food store and a central heating system.

FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVER 1. Stores glucose as glycogen. 2. Stores copper, potassium and iron (for red blood cells). 3. Stores Vitamins A, B, and D. 4. Deaminates amino acids deamination removes the amino group from amino acids converting these to urea, a waste material which is excreted by the kidneys. 5. Detoxifies the blood by removing toxins from germs, alcohol and blood. 6. Produces bile which is stored in the gall bladder and is used in digestion. 7. Produces fibrinogen which is needed for the clotting of blood. 8. Produces heat because of its high level of activity. This heat serves to maintain our body temperature.

TRYPSIN This is an enzyme which acts on protein (protease), breaking it down to amino acids.

LIPASE This is the enzyme which acts on lipids, breaking them down to fatty acids and glycerol. Sodium hydrogen carbonate is alkaline and neutralizes the acid of the chyme. The duodenum also receives bile which is produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. Bile enters the duodenum through the bile duct. What is bile?

See you all next week. Have a great week!


m Yellowish green, watery liquid. m It does not contain enzymes.


Monacia Williams teaches at Glenmuir High School. Send questions and comments to


Glossary of government terms





This is a member of parliament who is not a minister and, therefore, has no portfolio. Such a person does not sit on the front benches reserved for Cabinet ministers.


An instrument used to make a secret vote in an election.


A suggestion for a law that the legislature is asked to debate on and consider for a law.


The plan of where the Government is going to get money for a given year and how it will spend this money.




A country that is governed by people who are elected by its citizens to make decisions on their behalf.

This is a situation in which political parties win an equal number of seats in Parliament. Therefore, no party has a clear majority in Parliament.

A survey conducted find out what people think on a certain topic.

PRIME MINISTER ELECTORATE All persons who are qualified to vote in an election.

ELECTION The selection of a person or government by voting. In Jamaica, general elections for members of parliament must be constitutionally held at least every five years and local government every three years.

FLOATING VOTER This describes a voter who does not vote consistently for one or other of the political parties.


This is formed by the group of ministers appointed by, and who work closely with, the prime minister.

FRANCHISE The right of an individual to vote on the basis of citizenship and having reached the age of 18.


A member of parliament who is usually head of a government department appointed by the prime minister.

CANDIDATE A person considered suitable for office.


GOVERNING PARTY The political party that forms the government because it won the election and had more of its members elected to the House of Representatives by the people than the other political party.

INDEPENDENT (SENATOR OR MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT) This is a member of the Senate or House of Commons who does not belong to an established political party.

A rule for all which is usually made by the Senators and members of parliament through discussion and voting.

LEADER OF THE OPPOSITION This is the leader of the political party that got the second-most elected MPs in an election. The members of this party do not always agree with the ideas of the governing party and often question them about their decisions.

The council that manages the business of a municipality which covers either a village, town or city. The council members are elected by the people living in that area. In Jamaica, it is constitutionally due every three years.

LOWER HOUSE Another name for the House of Representatives.

This body is also known as the Upper House of Parliament.

SENATOR A member of the Senate. The Senate has 21 Senators to represent the Government and the Opposition. Senators are appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister (13) and the leader of the opposition (8).



This describes a document outlining a political party’s opinions for intentions should it become the government.

A speech delivered by the governor general at the start of a new session of parliament, describing what the Government plans to do.

A Jamaican citizen is a person who was born in Jamaican or who moved here and met the requirements to become a naturalized citizen.

The representative of the monarch (queen or king) in England who acts on the monarch’s behalf with the advice of the prime minister and Cabinet.




The joining of two or more political parties to form a government or an opposition. This usually happens when there is no clear majority for any particular party after an election.

This is the printed document of the record of what members of parliament said in the House of Representatives.

A person elected to the House of Representative. There are 63 members of parliament representing all of the constituencies in Jamaica in the House of Representatives.

This is defined as the set of rules which a country follows to work well as a nation. Jamaica has a written constitution.





The governor general approves a bill passed by Parliament to make it law.

Describes as a large, heavy and richly ornamented staff which represents the power and authority of Parliament.


The area that a member of parliament represents in the House of Representative.


A member of parliament who is elected by the other members of parliament to run their meetings and to keep order in the House of Representatives.

This is a body of voters or the residents in a particular area who are represented by an elected legislator.

The prime minister is the head of government in Jamaica and she (The Honourable Portia Simpson Miller) is responsible for looking after the business of the country.

This is used to describe the stages where a bill is debated before it can be passed to become law.




This is the head of government and leader of the governing party. The prime minister is also a member of parliament and represents a constituency.


This ruling authority group that is responsible for the running the business of the country.


yl:social studies


PARLIAMENT A body responsible for the making of the laws that apply in the country.

UNIVERSAL ADULT SUFFRAGE This is the right of all people to vote once they have reached the age of 18 in Jamaica.

VOTE The way in which citizens choose a representative in an election. Next week we will continue with the structure and characteristics of a population.

POLITICAL PARTY HEAD OF STATE The monarch (queen or king) who is represented by the governor general.

A group of people who have the same viewpoint about how the country should be governed.


Maureen Campbell teaches at St Hugh’s High School. Send questions and comments to


Immigration & the P British Caribbean yl:history

yl:office administration

The purchasing department




OBJECTIVES T THE end of the lesson students should be able to: 1. Assess the effects of immigration on the sugar industry. 2. Describe the impact of selected migrant groups on society.


IMPACT ON THE SUGAR INDUSTRY British West Indian planters had turned to immigration as a tool of reviving the sugar industry. The hope was that with the steady supply of labour planters could focus on increasing their output. Immigration, however, did not have its desired impact especially in a colony such as Jamaica. In territories such as Trinidad and British Guiana, we cannot assume that immigration had saved their sugar industry. For instance, they introduced mechanisation and placed more lands under sugar cane cultivation. These other factors could have readily counted as factors that saved their sugar industries. Barbados could be used as another example. Up to 1848, they had seen an increase in their output by 250 per cent. However, by the end of the 19th century this had declined. We cannot assume that this was because Barbados was not using immigrant labour. During the period, Barbados was plagued by problems such as soil exhaustion and inadequate mechanisation. The overall conclusion must be that immigration did not cause increased sugar production in the British West Indies as many other factors could have been responsible.

OTHER ECONOMIC EFFECTS 1. As a result of Indian immigration, the rice industry was developed in British Guiana and the cocoa industry in Trinidad. 2. Indentured immigrants helped to make central factories profitable by cultivating cane on small farms then selling it to the central factory. 18


m Indians found work primarily in poorly paid jobs. They could not settle in the towns, but they lived in the countryside and formed an active peasant class. The employment of Indians, mainly as field workers, led to the employment of blacks in better jobs, for example, the police force. m The ex-slaves despised the Indians and refused to work alongside them in the fields. They were described as ‘heathens’ because of their speech and clothing. Indians also despised the blacks because of their alleged low moral standards. m Immigration led to the expansion of social services, for example, medical facilities and a large police force.

CULTURAL EFFECTS OF IMMIGRATION Family Indians brought their firm family structure in which all relations supported each other. The idea of extended family, which included several generations, was very strong. All males over 16 years were members of a family council. They made all decisions of the family, for example marriage, religious ceremonies and expenditure. Religion - Hinduism Hindus worshipped several gods of which Brahma was the most important. He was the supreme god or creator. They believed that when people died their souls were reborn in a new body. The Hindus had very strict divisions in the society. This was known as the caste system. Each person belonged to a special group or caste. The Brahmins, or the religious leaders, were at the top of the society and the Hindus in the Caribbean continued to follow them as their leaders. Islam The Indians who came were also Muslims. They believed in one God called Allah. They followed the teachings of the Quran.

Festivals Divali or Festival of lights was celebrated by the Hindus. They told stories, shared gifts, decorated their windows and doors with lights and candles.

Hosein This was a Muslim festival. Small temples made from paper and bamboo were decorated and carried in a procession through the streets, accompanied by dancing to the beats of drums. Education The Indians normally segregated themselves deliberately in the educational institution. Oftentimes they were unwilling to send their children to school since they feared they could be converted to Christianity. It was not until the late 1870s when separate schools for Indian children were established, mainly by the Canadian Presbyterian Mission to the Indians, that Indian children went to school and language barriers began to crumble. Buildings Hindu temples, Muslim mosques and houses were built in Indian styles. Indian integration in the Caribbean was not very easy since many of them spoke the Hindi language and this served as a language barrier.

REVISION ACTIVITY You are a Trinidadian planter who is also a representative in the local Assembly in the late-19th century. Write a speech for presentation in the Assembly in which you discuss the impact of immigration on the society. Include: (i) economic effects (ii) social and cultural effects Total: 25 marks Debbion Hyman teaches at St Hugh’s High School. Send questions and comments to

URCHASING IS simply buying anything from suppliers. However, in any business organisation items must be purchased in a systematic manner for the smooth operation of the business. In the department one person may be in charge of purchasing. The staff responsible for purchasing is to ensure that materials and equipment are available immediately when required in the organisation. Purchases must provide value for money and be within budget. They must also be authorised by the manager.


m Sourcing suppliers. The purchasing manager will source the best materials that will be of benefit to the business. There will be a list of frequently used suppliers. These suppliers are expected to provide quality goods at competitive prices. Catalogues and brochures are usually given to the purchasing department. A catalogue is a book containing a list of items, including pictures, that can be bought from a particular supplier. They may or may not show the prices of the items listed but it is more than likely that the prices are shown on a separate list. m Negotiating. The purchasing manager will negotiate with the suppliers to get the best price for goods and prompt delivery. When a decision has been made as to who the supplier is, an order is placed. The following should be included on the order form: - Purchase order number - Name and address of buyer - Name and address of supplier - Suppliers quotation - Full details of goods - Delivery date - Delivery address - Trade discount - Terms of payment - Signature of person authorising the order m Placing contracts. A supplier must provide goods or services at stated times. A contract is a legally enforced, binding agreement between two or more parties. A contract involves an obligation on the part of the contractors. This contract may be expressed verbally or in writing. m Maintaining suppliers records. The purchasing department must monitor


stock records so that supplies can be reordered in good time so as to not stall the production process.

RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS In order for the purchasing department to carry out its functions effectively, it requires input from the other departments in the organisation. The stockroom must clearly monitor levels of stock so that the purchasing department can be given sufficient time to select the best supplier. The Receiving Department reports to the purchasing department about the condition, quantity and the quality of the goods received. This information enables the purchasing department to decide whether to continue ordering from the supplier. The Accounts Department checks the accuracy of figures shown on invoices and makes payment.

DUTIES OF A PURCHASING CLERK The following are the duties of a purchasing clerk: m Receive and check requisitions against stock issued and stock held m File purchase records m Maintain stock records m Maintain database of suppliers m Recommend suppliers

ACTIVITY Your supervisor has reacted to a particular problem with a decision to send a letter to all 3,000 members of staff, today, or first thing tomorrow morning. You put in a requisition for 3,000 C5 envelopes to be delivered today. The storeroom clerk rings you to say that they have no stock of C5 envelopes although the stock record (on computer) shows that there should be 1,500 in store. He has contacted the organisation’s usual supplier who says they can be delivered tomorrow afternoon. 1. What would you do? 2. Why might there be the discrepancy between the stock record and the actual stock? 3. Which of your ideas do you think is most likely? That’s all for this week. Hyacinth Tugman teaches at Glenmuir High School. Send questions and comments to


N THE last lesson I started to discuss crustal plates, one of the topics included in internal forces in the geography syllabus. Having already shared the definition for crust as given in the Dictionary of Geography, I will now continue the discussion by looking at the different types of crusts. I quote from Geography for CSEC written by Nelson Thornes, which informs us that:


‘There are two types of crusts: continental crust and oceanic crust. On the continents silica (Si) and aluminium (Al) are very common. When combined with oxygen they make up the most common rock, granite. Below the oceans the crust is mainly made up of basalt, where silica (Si) and magnesium (Ma) are dominant. Thus, continental crust is called sial and oceanic crust is called sima. Oceanic crust is continuous around the Earth’s surface. Continents occur where continental crust rests on top of oceanic crust. Oceanic crust is between 6 and 10km thick. Continental crust can be up to 70km thick.’ The text further informs us that the crust is broken up into a number of large and small segments known as plates. Specific objective 1 under natural systems states that the students should be able to define crustal plates. From the information given above, can you offer a definition for crustal plates? Make sure you can clearly distinguish between the sial and the sima. Here they are again as a reminder:

Crustal plates

yl:geography (Source: New Caribbean Geography - Vohn A. M. Rahil)

DIVERGENT PLATE MARGINS These are also referred to as constructive plate boundaries. They occur when two plates move away or pull apart from each other, leaving a gap. Molten rock or magma is forced slowly upwards between the two plates and, when it hardens, a strip of new crust is formed at the boundary. When this happens underwater it is described as sea-floor spreading. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is an example of a divergent plate margin. Volcanic activity is also associated with divergent plate margins resulting in the formation of volcanic islands.


Oceanic and continental plates come together at convergent plate boundaries. For example, the Nazca plate (oceanic crust) that is moving towards the South American plate (continental crust). One plate (the heavy oceanic) is being subducted under the other (the continental) and reabsorbed into the mantle. This is a subduction zone or destructive plate margin. Seventy-five per cent of the world’s earthquakes are at convergent plate margins. Most convergent plate margins are formed close to the edge of an ocean. Troughs or trenches, volcanoes and fold mountains are formed at convergent plate margins. Examples of fold mountains are the Andes and the Rockies which are formed close to the western margin of the South and North American Plates.

(Source: New Caribbean Geography - Vohn A. M. Rahil) The topic will continue in the next lesson.

REFERENCES Geography for CSEC - Nelson Thornes New Caribbean Geography - Vohn A. M. Rahil The Caribbean Environment for CXC Geography - Mark Wilson

Marjorie Henry is an independent contributor. Send questions and comments to

SIAL The continental crust. The upper part of the crust. It floats on the denser material. Beneath; that is, the sima.

SIMA The oceanic crust. The lower part of the crust beneath the continents. The crustal plates move very slowly, usually at speeds of only a few centimetres per year. The source quoted above also informs us that:‘Plates move because of what happens in the mantle below. The intense heat coming from the Earth’s core causes magma in the mantle to move very slowly in giant convection currents. These movements of magma are in places: m upward towards the crust m sideways or horizontal to the crust m downwards towards the core. These very powerful convection currents cause the plates of the Earth’s crust to move. Where the movement is upwards, plates are forced apart and new crust is formed. Where the movement is downward, plates are brought together and plate material may be destroyed. Where two plates meet, plate margins/boundaries occur. They form lines of weakness in the crust. There are different types of plate boundaries, namely convergent, divergent and transform. Specific objective 3 under natural systems in the syllabus states that the students should be able to: Distinguish among convergent, divergent and transform plate margins In reference to the available texts, I will share with you on each of these plate margins.


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Control statements NATALEE A. JOHNSON

yl:information technology THE TRACE TABLE FOR EXAMPLE ONE EXAMPLE 1 We will use the following numbers as input for the trace table: 2, 5, 6, 1, 10 and 0.

part 3


TUDENTS, THIS is lesson 23 in our series of The Gleaner lessons. In this week’s lesson I will conclude looking at control statements and will also look at trace tables.


THE REPEAT-UNTIL LOOP Here is an example to illustrate the explanation I provided in the previous lesson on the repeat loop.

m For the example above you will first initialise your variables as shown in the algorithm. m Then you would repeat step 2 to step 5 until the user enters ‘0’. The program will then stop. m The average will be calculated (24/5), average is 4.8 m Both the average and the largest value will be printed which is 4.8 and 10, respectively. We have come to the end of lesson 33. See you next week when we will look at relational operators and begin a new unit. Remember, if you fail to prepare, prepare to fail. Natalee A. Johnson teaches at Ardenne High School. Send questions and comments to

TRACE TABLE A trace table is an important tool for testing the logics of a pseudocode for correctness. A trace table is a rectangular array of rows and columns. The column headings are the variables in the pseudocode. As instructions in the pseudocode are carried out and the variables are modified, the changes are recorded in the appropriate column in the table. When the pseudocode terminates, the final values in the trace tables should reflect the correct result. Let us look at an example of how a trace table is executed using example 1 shown.

EXAMPLE 1 Write a pseudocode algorithm to read a set of positive integers (terminated by 0) and print their average as well as the largest of the set. 20

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Manufacturing account

yl:principles of accounts


. SAUNTER owns a small workshop and he makes iron gates. The following information was taken from the books on December 31, 2011.


(b) Saunter needs to calculate the cost of production to: 1. Find the cost of producing the iron gates per unit. 2. Assist in setting the price per unit of the iron gates.


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 1. The floor area of the premises totals 6,000 square metres. This is divided between the workshop, 4,800 square metres, and the sales and administrative offices, 1,200 square metres. The rent is apportioned accordingly. [>2]

EXAMINATION PREPARATION TIP: 2. Saunter sells the gates at a constant mark up of 25% on cost. [>3] You are required to: (a) (i) Select the appropriate balances and prepare the manufacturing account for the year ended December 31, 2011. Name CLEARLY within the account the: - Cost of raw materials consumed - Prime cost - Workshop overheads - Cost of production (ii) Select the appropriate balances and prepare the Trading Account for the year ended December 31, 2011. (b) Explain briefly why Saunter needs to calculate the cost of production.

As you get closer to your examination, to assist with your preparation I encourage you to: Get exposed to questions and give yourself and members of your study team enough time to research and produce the best answers to the questions. Endeavour to teach each other even as you ask questions for clarity; all of you will learn and you are all bound to recall and retain more. Visit with us again next week when we present - Trial balance, Errors and Suspense Accounts. See you then. Roxanne Wright teaches at Immaculate Academy. Send questions and comments to




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Coordinate geometry


part 2


E WILL continue the review of coordinate geometry with problems in the cartesian plane. If I may, I will begin the homework given last week.


Clement Radcliffe is an independent contributor. Send questions and comments to