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CONTRIBUTED

Prince Myers (second right), manager, NCB Christiana, proudly shares a happy moment with Spaldings High School students and team winners of the 2011 JPS Science Technology Expo (l-r) Rejae Fagan, Jevon Givans, Doran Brown, Demari Brown and Oraine Campbell. The team received scholarships from the NCB Foundation in recognition of sweeping three awards at the 2011 JPS Science Technology Expo.Their project of using fish scales to create plastic items, glues and fertilizers won for Best Overall Display, Most Innovative Display and first in the Tertiary Category. YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE |

MARCH 13-19, 2012

11


Using enzymes information yl:biology

MONACIA WILLIAMS

Contributor

OW ARE you this week? Did you find the information on enzymes useful? I hope you did! This week we will look at another way that you are often asked to use the information. Enzyme study is associated with experiments, and it is also associated with graphs because the experiments that are carried out produce results that can be measured and quantified. This week we will be looking at the connection between enzymes and graphs. Since measuring enzyme activity results in the production of numbers, once these numbers are produced tables and graphs can be drawn. Let us see how this can be done.

H

a) A student carried out an investigation into the effect of increasing the concentration of the enzyme sucrase on the rate of the above reaction. He kept the concentration of sucrose constant. He used six different concentrations of sucrase and for each of these concentrations he measured the time taken for the sucrose to be broken down into glucose and fructose. (Do you remember how this o can be done?). He carried out all these reactions at 40 C. The student’s results are shown below.

Monacia Williams teaches at Glenmuir High School. Send questions and comments to kerry-ann.hepburn@gleanerjm.com

yl:chemistry

i) Plot a graph of these results. Join the points with straight lines. ii) Describe how increasing the concentration of the enzyme (sucrase) affected the time taken for sucrose to be digested. o b)i) Suggest why he carried out all the reactions at 40 C. ii) Describe one way that he could have kept the temperature o constant (at 40 C). What is your graph going to look like? It will look like the example shown below.

o

Let us look at the following question.

QUESTION Sucrose can be digested to give glucose and fructose. This reaction is sped up by the enzyme sucrose. Sucrose 12

sucrase

glucose + fructose

The answer to the next question is provided by the first graph that o we had looked at. This temperature, 40 C, is the optimum temperature for enzyme activity. It is the temperature at which enzyme works best. The temperature can be maintained by carrying out the experiment in a water bath. Use the figures to plot the graph and compare! Have fun! See you next week!

Look at the graph. On the X axis you have temperature in oC, while on the Y axis you have the rate of the reaction. The rate of the reaction indicates how fast the substrate is changed into end product. Let us interpret the graph. What do we notice?

m At temperatures below 30 C the rate of the reaction is slow; not much of the substrate is broken down. o m As the temperature increases above 30 C the rate of reaction o increases rapidly until the temperature gets to about 42 C, after o which the rate falls rapidly until the temperature gets to about 50 C when it appears to level off. However, if the temperature is increased o above 50 C, the graph will fall to the 0 line which indicates that the enzyme has stopped working altogether. m The peak in the graph shows that the enzyme acts best at o temperatures between 37 and 40 C. This is the optimum temperature for the enzyme. o m Why is the reaction slower at temperatures below 30 C? This is because the molecules are deactivated, meaning they are not moving quickly hence the rate of collision with the substrate molecules is less. If the enzyme and the substrate do not meet, they cannot form the complex and the reaction cannot take place. o m Why does it stop at temperatures above 60 C? In this instance the enzyme is denatured, not deactivated. The shape of the enzyme changes and this destroys the active sites so the complex can no longer be formed, hence the reaction cannot take place. Denaturation cannot be reversed but deactivation can be reversed by increasing the temperature.

concentration constant and vary the substrate concentration, the graphs produced would be identical.

Revision questions FRANCINE TAYLOR-CAMPBELL

Contributor

QUESTION 1 Two of the isotopes of phosphorous are 32P, which is radioactive, and 31P, which is not radioactive. (a) Explain the meaning of isotopes and of radioactive in this statement. (ii) How many electrons, protons and neutrons are present in one atom of 32P? (iii) Give a use for a named radioactive isotope. (b) An element is in Group VI of the Periodic Table. Give two chemical properties which this element is likely to have. (c) Name one of the elements in Group O of the Periodic Table. Give a use for this element.

ANSWERS 1. Isotopes are elements having the same atomic number (protons) but different mass number (neutrons). A substance is said to be radioactive if its nucleus is unstable and readily breaks down to give smaller atoms and emits radiation. (ii) 32P has 15 protons and 15 electrons. # neutrons = 32 - 15 = 16 (iii) 14C is used in determining the age of rocks

Notice that the time is on the Y axis and the enzyme concentration is on the X axis. This time, the graph produced is a straight line decreasing from left to right. What does this mean? The answer to this question provides the answer for a) ii). Notice that as the concentration of the enzyme increases, the time taken for the hydrolysis of the sucrose decreases. For example, increasing the concentration of the enzyme from 0.10 to 0.25 reduced the time taken for hydrolysis by 63%.

(b) An element in Group VI would be an oxidising agent and would form covalent compounds with non-metals.

In your text, the graph that you will see may not be similar to this one because in most instances the time taken for the reaction to occur is converted to rate of reaction. How is this done? It is done by dividing the numeral 1 by the time taken in order to calculate the rate. For example, the rate for 0.10 concentration of enzyme would be 1/950 = 0.0011. When these rates are plotted against concentration, the graph produced is the opposite of the one included. It increases from left to right rather than decreases. You will find, however, that if you continue to increase the concentration you will get to a point where the rate will not increase but will remain constant so your graph will become flat. If you were to reverse the conditions and keep the enzyme

Question 2 This question is based on the following oxides: carbon dioxide, copper II oxide, sodium oxide, carbon monoxide, silicon dioxide and sulphur dioxide. (a) Which oxide has a macromolecular structure? (b) Which oxide is used to bleach wood pulp in the manufacture of paper? (c) Which oxides are acidic and which are basic? (d) Which oxides are common atmospheric pollutants? (e) Which oxide is the main constituent of sand? (f) Which oxide produces a blue solution when heated with dilute sulphuric acid? CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE

YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | MARCH 13-19, 2012

(c) Helium is in Group O which is also known as Group 8. It is used to fill weather balloons.


Mass wasting

yl:geography

continued from previous page ANSWERS 2. (a) Silicon dioxide (b) Sulphur dioxide (c) Carbon dioxide, silicon dioxide and suphur dioxide are acidic while copper II oxide and sodium oxide are basic (d) Carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide (e) Silicon dioxide (f) Copper II oxide (CuO + H2SO4 = CuSO4 blue + H2O)

QUESTION 3

MARJORIE HENRY Contributor

N THE previous lesson I had begun to share with you on external forces - those that are constantly affecting the surface rocks. As directed by the syllabus, the processes involved were defined - denudation, weathering, mass wasting and erosion. In order to discuss landslides and soil creep as promised, I need to share some general information on mass wasting.

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In reference to the text Morphology and Landscape by Harry Robinson, we are told that the term mass wasting or mass movement is often used to embrace all the different kinds of down-slope movement that are due to the pull of gravity. The text outlines several conditions that result in mass wasting. Some of the information is tabulated below: i. the amount of moisture present, for water acts as a lubricant ii. when the soil and the mantle rock are loose or poorly consolidated and deeply weathered, since such conditions facilitate their disturbance iii. the angle of rest of the soil and waste mantle material and the degree of inclination of rock strata will influence down-slope movement and the rate of movement iv. when hard and soft rocks are interbanded, and especially if the sequence includes clay which takes up water, there is a greater tendency to movement v. the absence of a substantial cover of vegetation; a grassy sod surface and the binding and holding function of deeply penetrating tree roots help to hold soil and mantle in place. Mass movement varies widely in its nature. Fundamentally, there are two principal types: flows, which are of a relatively slow nature, and slips, which move quickly and usually suddenly. The distinction between the two types of movements depends upon the presence or absence of a slip plane (that is, a surface along which definite shearing action can take place) separating the mass of moving material from the stable ground. Flowage of any kind is a quiet, gradual and unspectacular but continuous movement and there is no slip plane present. On the other hand, true sliding movements involve definite shearing action on a slip surface and occur with rapid motion. Soil creep is an example of slow flowage, the slow movement of surface soil and rock fragments. The slow downhill movement of soil and weathered mantle rock takes place on any moderately steep slope and is evident in many ways, for example by bended tree trunks, tilted fence posts, broken retaining walls, displaced joint blocks, the accumulation of soil at the foot of the slope or behind obstacles such as walls which may eventually be burst by the weight of soil above. Soil creep is imperceptible and is a continuous down-slope movement of the soil. Below is a diagram to illustrate soil creep.

PHOTO BY DAVE LINDO

Mavis Williams (left), manager, information systems and editorial administration of The Gleaner, greets Olympian Deon Hemmings McCatty at the launch of the Manchester leg of the Journey of Champions archival exhibition at the Manchester Parish Library. Landslips or landslides are very rapid kinds of movement and occur when a large mass of soil or rock falls suddenly. They are essentially movements of a catastrophic and destructive nature. They usually occur on steep slopes such as in mountainous areas, and on cliffs where man has artificially steepened slopes; for example, in road or rail cuttings. Landslides may be caused because a steep slope is undercut by a river or the sea so that it falls by gravity. Earthquakes or volcanic disturbances may loosen rocks and start off a landslide. Manmade steepening both undercuts the slope and sets up vibrations which may loosen rocks or soil. However, landslides are often caused by the lubricating action of rain water. Water may collect in joints or bedding planes in rocks so that one layer slides over another, especially in areas of tilted strata. The topic will be continued in the next lesson.

ANSWERS 3. (a) Relative molecular mass refers to the ratio of the mass of the molecule to 1/12 the mass of carbon-12. The Mr of CO = 12 + 16 = 28 (b) Allotropes are forms of the same element having different structural formulas but existing in the same state. They possess the same chemical properties but different physical properties. Eg. Diamond (C) and graphite (C). (c) Cracking is the process of breaking up large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller ones. Eg. C9H20 ==== C4H8 + C5H12 Nonane breaks up to give butene and pentane. (d) Corrosion is the ‘eating away’ of a solid surface (metal) by the action of air, moisture and pollutants. Eg. Iron corrodes to form rust which is hydrated iron III oxide (Fe4O3.xH2O).

REFERENCES: Certificate Physical and Human Geography - Goh Cheng Leong Morphology And Landscape - Harry Robinson Marjorie Henry is an independent contributor. Send questions and comments to kerry-ann.hepburn@gleanerjm.com

(e) Electrolysis refers to the decomposition of a substance by the passing of electric current through it. Eg. Molten NaCl gives Na and Cl2 when electrolysed. (f) Anhydrous salts are those that have lost their water of crystallization. Eg. CuSO4 (white) from CuSO4.5H2O (blue) (g) Saturated solution is one which contains as much solute as can be dissolved in it at a given temperature. (h) Hard water refers to water that does not lather easily with soap due to dissolved calcium and magnesium salts. CaSO4, MgSO4, Ca(HCO3)2 and Mg(HCO3)2

See diagram Soil creep is most common in damp soils where the water acts as a lubricant so that individual soil particles move over each other and over the underlying rock. It is found where continuous trampling by animals grazing on the slopes sets up vibrations which loosen the soil and cause it to move.

Explain the following terms. In each case give a specific example to illustrate your answer. In your answers, use formulae or symbols as appropriate. (a) Relative molecular mass, Mr (b) Allotropes of an element (c) Cracking (d) Corrosion (e) Electrolysis (f) Anhydrous salts (g) Saturated solution (h) Hard water (i) Hydrocarbon

(i) Hydrocarbon is a substance containing only carbon and hydrogen. Eg. CH4 is a hydrocarbon. (Source: Morphology And Landscape - Harry Robinson) YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | MARCH 13-19, 2012

Francine Taylor-Campbell teaches at Jamaica College. Send questions and comments to kerry-ann.hepburn@gleanerjm.com

13


United States & the Caribbean

yl:history

DEBBION HYMAN Contributor

OBJECTIVES

the century and, gradually, there was a steady stream of emigrants headed for the US, especially after the Second World War.

AT THE end of the lesson you should be able to evaluate the economic, political and ideological factors which influenced the United States’ interest in the Caribbean up to 1962.

m The Caribbean represented a large potential market for American manufactured goods. This would further encourage the growth of industry, thus the creation of wealth.

The United States’ (US’) relationship with its Caribbean neighbours has been shaped primarily by factors related to defence, expansionism, trade and ideological dictates. As early as 1823, the nation started crafting doctrines that would protect its interests.

m The Caribbean possessed a variety of raw materials that America wished to exploit in its own economic interest. Agricultural enterprises such as sugar and banana attracted American investors at first, but bauxite, oil, tourism as well as railroads became increasingly important outlets for American investment up to 1962.

The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 primarily shaped American involvement in the Caribbean in the 19th century. This policy statement was introduced by President James Monroe, who issued a stern warning to European countries that the Americas was closed to further ownership/colonisation by European countries. President Monroe went as far as to state that America would regard any attempt to re-colonise any territory that had gained its independence as a direct threat to the US. This was primarily directed at Spain, who at the time was busy trying to recapture its Latin American territories. This ideological position was expanded throughout the 19th century as the principle of manifest destiny became entrenched in the American psyche. The belief that the US was ‘destined by God’ to dominate the Western hemisphere ‘from the Atlantic to the Pacific’ fuelled American dreams and actions.

US policy during the first decades of the 20th century was nationalistic, expansionist and aggressive. It was based on a feeling of racial and cultural superiority of the people of America. This ideology is often described as the ‘big stick policy’ and is often illustrated by actions such as the ‘taking’ of the Panama Canal from Colombia and the issuing of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904). The Roosevelt Corollary was issued by President Theodore Roosevelt and asserted the right of the US to intervene in the affairs of the neighbouring states if there was perceived to be any threat to American lives and investments. This document is important as it marked yet another turning point in AmericanCaribbean relations. The corollary had, in effect, declared the US the ruler of the Caribbean basin and made clear American intention to rule by force if necessary.

The Roosevelt Corollary paved the way for American intervention in the region as it “accorded the United States government the power of an international policeman and implicitly and explicitly undermined the independence of the republics within the hemisphere”. The corollary stated clearly that America was not interested in acquiring colonies and that it would not interfere in any country that was stable and prosperous.

The big stick policies of the US government caused great unease and resentment throughout the Caribbean. The US found itself increasingly portrayed in a negative light. Many of the smaller, poorer states resented the manner in which the US used its increasing economic wealth to enforce its policies. Critics regarded many of these policies as contrary to the best interest of these territories . This attitude was described as ‘Dollar Diplomacy’. In an attempt to repair its image, the US embarked on a new approach to its neighbours. In the 1930s, the administration of President Franklin Roosevelt pledged itself to pursue the policy of a ‘good neighbour’. This good-neighbour policy witnessed the US withdrawing its claims to rights of interference in the governments of other countries. Consequently, the Platt Amendment was annulled in 1934 and a 1936 treaty ended US’ right to intervene in Panama. There was also the creation of the Peace Corps that was to foster better relations between the US and its neighbours. These phases continued until the Second World

This belief resulted in a very aggressive and domineering attitude on the part of the US. It led to the Spanish-American War of 1898 between the US and Spain. Cuba was at that time embroiled in armed struggle to gain its independence from Spain. The Americans seized this opportunity to undermine further Spain’s influence in the region. Their participation in the war brought swift defeat to Spain and heralded the emergence of the US as a world power. The end of the war also signalled greater American involvement in political interest in the region, as well as increased economic investments. The region was important in helping the US to fulfil its manifest destiny for the following reasons: m Its proximity influenced defence issues. The security of the US depended on its control of neighbouring territories to ensure the safety of its borders, its citizens and its property. m With large populations of mainly unskilled, unemployed labour, US capitalists saw the Caribbean as potential source of cheap labour. Many Caribbean nationals were used in the construction of the Panama Canal at the turn of 14

War (1939-1945). The end of the war would witness a new period in world history with the development of two distinct blocs. There was the communist bloc led by the Soviet Union and the anti-communist bloc led by the US. These two distinct ideologies would play out during the Cold War era and this period witnessed a changing dynamic in AmericanCaribbean relations. The US was now determined to keep its ‘area’ free from the influence of communism. To this end, it tightened control over the Caribbean basin. Countries in the region were expected to sign agreement which provided money and military assistance in order to prevent them succumbing to the temptation to enter into any negotiation with communist interests. The United States also developed new and more powerful weapons, many utilising nuclear power. The Panama Canal assumed greater importance due to its strategic location. The US government began to view its security in terms of the canal’s safety and security. The ‘communist threat’ became one of the most important factors in US-Caribbean relations from the 1960s. The work of the Central Intelligence Agency became important in the region during this period and has continued to the present. In 1962, the US and the Soviet Union almost went to war over the incident known as the Cuban Missile Crisis.

SUMMARY The US influence extended in most Caribbean territories. Additionally, America’s relationship with the region was characterised by four objectives. These were: m The formation of alliances to prevent interference by other powers m The encouragement of trade m Regional support for American policies on the international scene m The protection of American interests In order to ensure the achievement of these objectives, the US maintains steady interest in the affairs of the region to guarantee governments that are friendly towards its interests and to maintain peace and stability in the region.

SOURCES

Photo by Dave Lindo Custos of Manchester Sally Porteous (third from right) cuts the ribbon to officially open the ‘Journey of Champions’ archival exhibition at the Manchester Parish Library on Thursday, March 1. Looking on are (l-r) Lorraine McLean of Jamaica Library Service, Janet Billings Frith of Scotiabank, Basil DePass of Scotiabank and Mavis Williams of The Gleaner. YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | MARCH 13-19, 2012

m Lest You Forget, A Study and Revision guide for CXC Caribbean History: The United States in the Caribbean - Doris Hamilton-Willie m Development and Decolonisation - Hamber & Greenwood m Caribbean Revision History for CXC Ashdown & Humphreys m Freedoms Won - Hilary Beckles & Verene Shepherd

Debbion Hyman teaches at St Hugh’s High School. Send questions and comments to kerry-ann.hepburn@gleanerjm.com


Key programming terms

NATALEE A. JOHNSON Contributor

TUDENTS, THIS is lesson 26 in our series of Gleaner IT lessons. In this week’s lesson, we will look at some key terms associated with programming as well as an introduction to the Pascal language.

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Al g o r i t hm A sequence of steps designed to perform a particular task. Algorithm can be written in any suitable form such as in a programming language or pseudo code. P s e u d o c o de An imitation computer program written using mathematical notations and English-like statements to describe the logic to solve a problem or carry out a procedure. Test dat a Data which is used to test a program for errors; special data created by a programmer to test the correctness of the program. Dry ru n The process whereby a program is checked to ensure that it does what it was designed for. Bug A coding error that causes an unexpected defect, fault, flaw or imperfection in a computer program. S t r uct u r ed w a l kt hr ou gh A manual trace of the logics of a program using test data. R u n -t i m e E r r o rs Occur when a syntactically correct program statement cannot execute successfully. A common example is attempting to divide by zero. Lo a d in g The process of transferring program and data from secondary storage to primary storage. S y n t a x e rr o r s Errors reported by the compiler/interpreter when the rules of the language are not obeyed.

yl:information technology When you are adding comments to your program, they are included between parenthesis { } or between (* *) and can span multiple lines. Below is a table comparing the keywords of a pseudocode versus the keywords used in Pascal code.

Logical errors Errors occurring when the expected results of a program are not met. Testing The process of checking a program for errors. Debugging The process of testing, locating and correcting mistakes by running the program.

INTRODUCTION TO THE PASCAL LANGUAGE You would have learnt last week that the Pascal Language is a high-level language. Now you are going to learn how to write a program using the Pascal Language and appreciate the first step of the implementation phase (translate the algorithm into a specific programming language).

KEY DISTINCTIONS IN PASCAL

¢ The difference between READ and READLN There is no difference between read and readln when working with numeric values such as 2, 6, and 10. The difference applies when working with string values or characters on different lines such as ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’. When the computer reads the first letter (‘A’) if you use the keyword READ the program will not move to the next line to read B and C. So the keyword READLN is used to read in such values. ¢ The difference between WRITE and WRITELN The keyword Write outputs text or values to the screen in a single line leaving the cursor positioned at the end of line. On the other hand, Writeln which means write line, outputs text or values to the screen in more than one line, leaving the cursor at the beginning of the next line instead of at the end of the current line. For example, if you were outputting the sentence “My First Program”.

STRUCTURE OF A PASCAL PROGRAM A Pascal program has three distinct parts: 1. The program heading 2. The program block 3. The program terminator (a period) The program heading is a single statement beginning with the word program. The heading assigns a name to the program and lists the input and output streams in parentheses. The program block is the body of the program. The block is divided into two distinct parts: 1. The variable declaration section where all the variables and data structures used by the program are defined (shown in program as var). 2. The statement section where all the action statements of the program are specified. The statement section is encapsulated within beginning and end statements. Begin and end are examples of keywords used in Pascal. Keywords (or reserved words) are those that have special meaning in Pascal and can only be used in the predefined context. That is, they cannot be used as variable names or in any other context. Other key words are: program, type, var, const, read, write, readln, and writeln.

Using the Write keyword it would look like this:-

TRANSLATING PSEUDOCODE INTO PASCAL CODE

m The first step in translating an algorithm into Pascal code is to make a list of all the variables used in the algorithm and determine their data type (i.e. the type of values that each variable is to store). m Translate the pseudocode into Pascal code based on the Pascal structure you were given above. We have come to the end of this lesson. Remember that if you fail to prepare, you should prepare to fail.

Natalee A. Johnson teaches at Ardenne High School. Send questions and comments to kerry-ann.hepburn@gleanerjm.com

YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | MARCH 13-19, 2012

15


NATASHA THOMAS-FRANCIS Contributor

HIS WEEK we shall be looking at another medium of persuasion – the advertisement. The study of advertising techniques is particularly useful for the comprehension section of Paper 02, as well as for the multiple-choice paper.

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There are several interesting and creative advertisements seen on the television, heard on the radio and read in newspapers and magazines. Which advertisements are your favourites? What is appealing about them?

Persuasive advertisements

We will discuss the purpose of advertising, the desires to which they appeal and the techniques that are used to persuade the consumer to purchase an item or use a service. You have, most likely, studied advertising at an earlier grade level. It is one of the most important means of communication you encounter daily.

EXPERT OPINIONS Such as those given by doctors or dentists (for example, Crest toothpaste).

BANDWAGON A statement suggesting that everyone is using a specific product so you should too (for example, Nike).

I have provided some examples of advertisements which use the above-mentioned techniques. Try to think of other examples. Now take a look at the following advertisement. After you have read it at least twice, answer the following questions: 1. To which target audience does the advertiser appeal? 2. What is the main desire being appealed to in the advertisement? 3. Identify two persuasive techniques utilised and provide an example of each. 4. List three emotive words and explain their effectiveness.

ADVERTISING DESIRES Advertisements also appeal to several human desires, some of which are listed below:

THE NEED TO:

To dispense with the drudgery of work, the sameness and staleness of metropolitan living, here is the escape.

m feel secure m achieve success m experience financial security m be associated with a popular group m feel beautiful or handsome m live a comfortable life m be attractive to the opposite sex Can you think of any advertisements to which these desires are applicable?

A Treasury of Nature’s Charms Yo can enjoy plains and terraces of Jamaica – a picture of rural tranquility and contentment. You can travel to historic settings, view the verdant lush scenery, and experience the cultural riches and modern fashionable style of life in this isle of paradise.

TECHNIQUES OF ADVERTISEMENTS Advertisers will use particular techniques to persuade their target audience. These techniques include:

Absorb the serenity of the scene, the balmy zephyrs, the refreshing rustic air and the variety and glitter of night life, peerless among holiday resorts.

SLOGAN A catchy phrase/statement (for example, ‘Nobody does it better’).

Make the experience unforgettable, the time of your life, exciting and colourful as well as peaceful and serene.

REPETITION To ensure that you remember the name of the product.

Here is Jamaica – vintage among holiday isles.

JINGLES IAN ALLEN/PHOTOGRAPHER

Boys’ Under-18 100 metres winner Odail Todd (left) gets congratulations from second place finisher Odean Skeen at the Jamaica Athletics Administrative Association/Supreme Ventures National Junior Championships at the National Stadium recently.

normally found in printed advertisements. 16

Such as the ones given in the Immunogizer advertisements.

Creating strong feelings about a situation or product.

Persuasive advertisements have two main purposes: 1. To provide information about a product or service. 2. To persuade someone or a group to purchase a product or service.

BOLD PRINT

TESTIMONIALS

EMOTIONAL APPEAL

PURPOSES OF ADVERTISEMENTS

These normally contain rhymes and an appealing rhythm.

yl:english language

YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | MARCH 13-19, 2012

Until next week, be good and remember that the CXC season will be here in the blink of an eye! Natasha Thomas-Francis teaches at Glenmuir High School. Send questions and comments to kerry-ann.hepburn@gleanerjm.com


A Contemplation Upon Flowers BERYL CLARKE CONTRIBUTOR

N 1592, the wife of the Bishop of London gave birth to a baby son. Bishop and Mrs King named their son Henry. He attended Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford, and at the age of 33 he received his doctorate in divinity. In 1642, he became Bishop of Chichester. The work to which we now turn our attention was written by him. Do you know the meaning of the word ‘contemplate’? If you do not, please find it for we are going to examine a poem called A Contemplation Upon Flowers.

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I love flowers. In fact, I love plants and get great pleasure from planting and reaping the produce, but you will agree with me that there is something special about flowers. Consider the many varieties, the different sizes, shapes, colours and the perfume (scent) that they give off. Yes, we do have reason to stop and admire flowers, or as the title suggests, thinking deeply about them. Please read the poem now. The opening lines are devoted to admiring flowers. The speaker says that they are ‘brave’ and ‘gallant’. Aren’t these unusual words to be used in describing blooms? Together these words convey the ideas of being able or ready to face and endure danger and disgrace or pain; splendid, spectacular; fine, stately. What we must seek to find out is his reasons for saying these things. In addition, do notice that the speaker wishes that he were like the flowers, brave and gallant and be “as little vain”. He continues in this vein throughout, finding ways and causes to praise flowers. You did notice, didn’t you, that the speaker humanizes the flowers? Now, here is what I want you to do: o Read the poem through and think about the following – brave, gallant, vain, come abroad, harmless show, beds of earth, birth, embroidered garments, months and times, ever spring, winter, truce, bier and spruce. o If you have to look up the meanings of any, do so.

o Discuss them (the words above) with your friends and in your study group, trying to explain their role in the poem. In other words, consider, for example, why the speaker says that the flowers obey their “months and times” while he “would have it ever spring”. Is he expressing the view that while human beings worry about getting old, flowers just enjoy whatever period of existence they get? o Identify the things that the speaker likes about the flowers.

yl:english literature

A CONTEMPLATION UPON FLOWERS Brave flowers, that I could

gallant it like

you And be as little vain; You come abroad, and make a harmless show, And to your beds of earth again; You are not proud, you know your birth For your embroider’d garments are from earth: You do obey your months and times, but I Would have it ever spring, My fate would know no winter, never die Not think of such a thing; Oh, that I could my bed of earth but view And smile, and look as cheerfully as you: Oh, teach me to see death, and not to fear But rather to take truce; How often have I seen you at a bier, And there look fresh and spruce; You fragrant flowers, then teach me that my breath Like yours may sweeten and perfume my death. - Henry King, Bishop of Chichester

o Discover the lessons that he wishes to learn from flowers? o Put the final six lines in your own words. Recently, I read a few lines that I will now share with you. They were written by Lillian Dickenson. May they give you much food for thought and help you to grow! Until next time, God bless! Life is a coin. You can spend it any way you wish, but you can only spend it once. Beryl Clarke is an independent contributor. Send questions and comments to kerry-ann.hepburn@gleanerjm.com

YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | MARCH 13-19, 2012

17


Vectors

yl:mathematics

part 2

CLEMENT RADCLIFFE Contributor

AS WE continue the review of vectors we will begin with the solution to last week’s homework. By reviewing the graph you should have determined the following:

CONTINUED ON THE NEXT PAGE 18

YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | MARCH 13-19, 2012


Types of office careers yl:office administration

HYACINTH TUGMAN Contributor

VERY ORGANISATION needs an office in order to function effectively. The office is the central point for the whole organisation. Office personnel have various duties; these may include working in the human resource office or working as an administrative assistant, general clerk, accounts clerk, receptionist, data entry clerk and many others.

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MANAGEMENT Management functions involve planning, organising, staffing, controlling and directing employees in order that the organisation may operate efficiently. There are various levels, each of which is responsible for different aspects of decision making. Some levels of management and their areas of decision making are listed below:

LEVEL

DECISIONS

Board of Directors Senior Managers Middle Managers Junior Managers

Policy Programme Interpretation Implementation

THE MANAGER A manger should have an intimate knowledge of the administrative and general functions of his/her department. He/She should be able to supervise and delegate responsibility to other members of staff in order to get effective results. An efficient manager will command respect from all his/her staff. The role of the manager, therefore, is to plan the overall policy of the business.

THE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGER The HR manager must hire persons with the necessary qualifications and experience to promote the organisation. Suitable methods for initial selection and retraining of staff should be devised. The HR manager should notify all internal personnel of job opportunities whenever they arise, which may lead to promotion. He/She will bargain with trade unions re

salaries, dismissal and other matters affecting conditions at work.

Perhaps most important, a receptionist must be able to get along with people.

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT

SKILLS

In business, an administrative assistant has many opportunities to make use of his/her skills/talents, for example, arranging meetings and reporting procedures and decisions. He/She is responsible for taking the necessary action and circulating correspondence emanating from his/her desk, and in some cases to direct the supervision of junior clerks. The administrative assistant is responsible for dealing with incoming and outgoing mail, drafting letters, sending replies, making appointments, operating various machines found in the office and meeting people, among other things.

Changes are occurring regularly in every aspect of office work. New technologies and systems are designed to promote efficiency in an organisation. A rigid attitude towards customary procedures will not assist in achieving desired results. Certain aspects of office work are now performed by a computer and other technical equipment. These changes must be accepted by all involved.

GENERAL CLERK

CONTINUED FROM PREVIOUS PAGE

ACTIVITY List some other duties not mentioned above that an administrative assistant may perform. Have a productive week.

All clerks have to handle large quantities of documents. They fill in forms and sort and file information. A junior clerk may be responsible for collecting the mail, sorting and distributing it. He/She may also be required to meet visitors, operate various machines found in the office, undertake banking transactions and answer the telephone. He/She may also be responsible for dealing with customers, ordering stock and replying to routine correspondence.

Hyacinth Tugman teaches at Glenmuir High School. Send questions and comments to kerry-ann.hepburn@gleanerjm.com

Clement Radcliffe is an indepnedent cotributor. Send questions and comments to kerry-ann.hepburn@gleanerjm.com

ACCOUNTS CLERK In a large organisation there is an accounts department which is responsible for all accounting matters. One of the positions in the accounts department is that of ‘accounts clerk’. The duties of an accounts clerk are preparing payrolls, processing vouchers, handling petty cash, using accounting software and filing records.

RECEPTIONIST A receptionist is responsible for looking after callers, those with appointments and those without. The receptionist has to be able to greet callers, announce their arrival and, if possible, escort them to the right office.

Campion students eagerly respond to career tips and questions presented by Ms Andrea Dempster, owner of Bookophilia and director of human resources at Digicel Jamaica. Ms Dempster delivered a presentation at Campion College’s annual career fair held on March 2.

YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | MARCH 13-19, 2012

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Incomplete records

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ROXANNE WRIGHT Contributor

T IS my hope that all examination candidates preparing for exam in May/June 2012 have already prepared and are being guided by their study/review timetable. In continuing to give assistance to you, a worked example is presented below. Read the question carefully, look at the reasoning and the workings, then try solving the question on your own. At the end, match your answer with the solution given.

I

QUESTION Melba Lee started her business on January 1, 2011, with $40,000 which she deposited in a business bank account. Although full accounting records were not kept, the following information was available about her business as at December 31, 2011:

(b) A Trading and Profit and Loss Account drawn up from double-entry records shows, among other things: i. Sales ii. Expenses iii. Gross profit These data cannot be found in the statement prepared in (a). Sales data are important so that owners can see how much sales are made for that year and hence can compare to other years. The future of a business depends on its sales volume, so this data is important if owners want to check the progress of their businesses.

The bank statement for 2011 showed that Lee had sold some private investments for $8,000 which had been used for business purposes. [>1]

Expenses represent the cost of goods and services used up in the process of obtaining revenue. Owners can see where their money goes to and whether any effort is made to control costs and expenses. High sales may be offset by high expenses, hence resulting in low net profit. Low expenses must be ensured to secure maximum profits.

The bank statement also showed that Lee had withdrawn $20,000 for her personal use. She decided at December 31, 2011, that $4,000 should be provided for depreciation on the fixed assets. [>2] (a) Prepare a statement, in good style of layout of your own choice, clearly showing the profit or loss for the year ended December 31, 2011. [>3]

Gross profit is used to help determine whether the produces sold are profitable. It also helps in deciding whether to increase or decrease price and whether costs could be reduced further. Visit with me again next week when my presentation will be company account. See you then.

Roxanne Wright teaches at Immaculate Academy. Send questions and comments to kerry-ann.hepburn@gleanerjm.com

(b) State three ways in which a trading and profit and loss account drawn up from full double-entry records gives the information about a business which the owner needs.

REASONING [>1] This is additional capital contributed by Melba Lee to the business. [>2] Subtract depreciation from the Fixed Assets when computing the Ending Capital at December 31, 2011. [>3] Compute the profit or loss by using the formula: Net Profit = Capital attend - Additional Capital + Drawings - Capital at Beginning [>4] View the relevant components found in the Trading and Profit and Loss Account which are not found in the Statement in (a) and explain briefly their relevance in checking the progress of a business. RUDOLPH BROWN/PHOTOGRAPHER

EXAMINATION PREPARATION TIP As you get closer to your examination date, to assist with your preparation I encourage you to review your notes and solve at least one question per day. Identify and start putting together the items you need to take to your examination room.

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Anthony Hylton (right), minister of industry, investment and commerce, greets Miss St Catherine Terry-Ann Virtue at the St Catherine Credit Union (STCCU)35th Anniversary Thanksgiving Service at Portmore New Testament Church of God, Bayside, recently. Looking on (from second left) are Sandra Thompson, STCCU’s general manager; Sonia Smith;Winston Fletcher, STCCU’s president and Glenworth Francis, general manager of the Jamaica Co-operative Credit Union League.

YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | MARCH 13-19, 2012


Determinants of price

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YVONNE HARVEY Contributor

ELLO, EVERYONE. We are still on marketing, and this week we will consider how price is determined once goods are produced and are ready for sale. There are a number of ways in which a seller can determine the price at which the goods or services can be sold. One way is through the use of the equilibrium price. This price is found by using the forces of demand and supply.

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DEMAND AND SUPPLY Demand refers to the quantity required by the consumer at a particular price and at a particular time. Consumers tend to demand the lower price more, therefore, the demand curve slopes downwards from left to right showing an inverse relationship between price and quantity demanded. Supply refers to the quantity put on the market at a particular price and at a particular time. Producers tend to supply the higher price more, therefore, the supply curve slopes upwards from left to right showing a direct relationship between price and quantity supplied. When quantity demanded and quantity supplied are equal, this is referred to as the equilibrium point. The price at which they are equal is known as the equilibrium price. At that price demanders are satisfied and suppliers are satisfied. There is neither surplus nor shortage and so the market clears. This price at which quantity demanded and quantity supplied is equal is also known as the market clearing price. If price is set above the equilibrium price, there will be a surplus which will cause price to fall back to the equilibrium. If price is set below the equilibrium, there will be a shortage which will cause price to rise back to the equilibrium. There is, therefore, a tendency for price to be always at the equilibrium. Reference can be made to an economics textbook for a graph showing demand curves and supply curves. See if you can identify the equilibrium price and the equilibrium quantities demanded and supplied. This information can also be found by looking at a combined demand and supply schedule such as the one below: Quantity Price Demanded Supplied $ Units Units 10 1000 400 500 800 15 20 600 600 400 1000 25 30 200 1500

From the schedule above we can see that $20 is the equilibrium price, since at that price the quantity demanded is 600 units and the quantity supplied is 600 units. Therefore, both demanders and suppliers are satisfied and there is neither surplus nor shortage. The market clears and so $20 is the market clearing price. At price $15, there is a shortage of 300 units since 800 is demanded, while only 500 is supplied. At price $25, there is a surplus since only 400 is demanded, but 1,000 is supplied. The surplus is 600 units. Now, let us move on to another aspect of marketing, packaging and branding.

PACKAGING The package is the outer wrapper or container for goods. Packaging takes place after the goods have been produced. Packaging is done by the production department even though the marketing department creates the package and the label and does the branding. There are a number of purposes that the package serves, including: m improving the presentation of the good.

m helping to prevent spoilage, thus preserving the life of the product. m reducing tampering since packaged goods cannot be easily tampered with. m improving handling for the seller and the customer. m enabling branding; packaged goods can be easily branded. m saving time since it facilitates distribution. m increasing sales and profit. m making goods more attractive. m protecting goods from dust and dirt. m keeping goods in a more stable condition for longer periods than those not packaged. m preventing health hazards that could result from use of the product.

PRESENTATION OF PACKAGES Attractive packaging is an important marketing tool. An old established product in a new and improved package usually enhances the marketing potential of the product. Packaging decisions must be made on the form, size, shape and colour of the package. The package must appeal to the consumer. The label is a part of the package.

Labels have certain functions. They contain information such as: m name of the product and/or the brand m grades the product, e.g. chickens and eggs m description of the product in terms of size, expiry date, ingredients, nutritional values, directions for use, warnings about use and misuse and the registered office of the manufacturer.

BRANDING The term branding refers to giving a product a distinctive name, term, symbol, sign, design or combination of these to enable it to be recognised easily. Branding is done on the outside package, ie. on the bottle, box, wrapper, etc. Nowadays, hardly anything goes unbranded. A mark or symbol can be registered with the Registrar of Trade Practices so that other producers would not use that particular name or symbol and the branding would differentiate one producer’s product from another’s, which may be similar or dissimilar. A product may have a brand name, which is that part of the brand that can be spoken, eg, Avon, or it may have a

brand mark or a trademark or a combination of types of branding.

THE USE OF BRANDING

m it gives identity to commodities. m it allows products to be identified from a distance. m it aids production, distribution. m it creates the need for advertising. m it results in increased rate of turnover and hence increased profits. m it adds value to a product. m it (trademark) provides the producers with legal protection of the unique features of the product, so that competitors cannot imitate the products. m it facilitates different products being grouped under different family brand names.

DISADVANTAGES

m it creates the need for excessive persuasive and competitive advertising. m it raises production costs. m it ties up a lot of capital in branded goods in order to get sales. m it (the branding process) may lead to monopoly by a product and thus increase the price to the consumer.

QUESTIONS 1. (a) What is meant by the term, packaging? (2 marks) (b) State a suitable form of packaging for the following items: (i) fresh vegetables (ii) shoes (iii) a computer (iv) meat (4 marks) (c) Discuss three reasons goods are packaged. (6 marks) (d) Discuss three points that should be considered when selecting a package for the good. (6 marks) (e) Which department is responsible for designing the package and which department is responsible for placing the package over the good? (2 marks) Total marks: 20 2.(a) What are branded goods? (2 marks) (b) Differentiate between a brand name and a brand mark. (4 marks) (c) Discuss two advantages and two disadvantages of branded goods. (8 marks) (d) Discuss three functions of the label. (6 marks) Total marks: 20

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RUDOLPH BROWN PHOTOGRAPHER

Prince Harry examines the Rings of Life statue by master sculptor Basil Watson while Sir Patrick (left, foreground) and Health Minister Fenton Ferguson (second left, foreground) look on at the Victoria Jubilee Hospital in Kingston on Tuesday, March 6.The statue commemorates the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee. YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | MARCH 13-19, 2012

That’s it for this week. See you all next week. Yvonne Harvey teaches at Glenmuir High School. Send questions and comments to kerry-ann.hepburn@gleanerjm.com

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MAUREEN CAMPBELL Contributor

“The past is a foreign country. They do things differently there.” L.P. Hartly IGRATION REFERS to the movement of people from one geographical area to another. Migration will occur within a country (internal migration) or between countries (external or international migration).

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Gross migration rate refers to the number of persons per year per 1,000 members of a population who enter or leave a geographic area.

Moving in, moving out!

for entertainment as they complain about the lack of theatres, cinemas, game arcades, shopping malls, and cable television. Also, most areas lack proper sporting facilities which are available in the city. 4. We must admit, however, that there is a scarcity of employment opportunities other than in agriculture in the rural areas. Most of us consider agricultural work to be laborious, low-paying, risky and menial. There is a rush to the city in search of white-collar jobs.

EFFECTS OF CITY LIFE a. Provided with more chances to pursue a career of their own choosing. b. The many job opportunities that may be available allow individuals to enter into occupations that are in harmony with their talents and abilities. They will enjoy the fulfillment of pursuing a career which they love and enjoy. c. Individuals who fail to obtain gainful employment will be forced into illegal and demoralising activities in order to earn a living. d. People may be forced to live in slums as they are unable to pay high rents which come with living in the city.

Net migration refers to the annual increase or decrease per 1,000 members of a population resulting from migration into and out of the population. It is also possible to have a negative net migration rate which would show that more people, overall, left an area than entered it. There are two main types of migratory patterns: immigration and emigration. This is referred to as external or international migration. Emigration involves movement into another country where you become an immigrant. An example is movement from Jamaica to the United States. This movement is usually associated with push factors (encouraging you to leave your country) and pull factors (inviting you, beckoning you to come because we have what you desire). Examples are: - Need for education - Fleeing the law - Violence in the country of origin - Step migration - Chain migration

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COPING WITH INCREASED POPULATION IN THE CITIES

Olympic sprint champion Usain Bolt teaches Prince Harry how to strike his famous pose at the University of the West Indies on Tuesday, March 6.

1. Addressing the deficiencies in the rural areas and making these areas more attractive for settlement. 2. The erection of industrial sites and building of industrial plants in the rural areas. 3. Erection of proper infrastructure such as roads, water and sporting facilities to help reduce the move to the cities.

ACTIVITIES ADVANTAGES

m Higher standards of living and better life chance m Educational opportunities m Less violence m Employment opportunities m With family members who had previously migrated m Remittance to family members

DISADVANTAGES

m Broken families, since children are left in the care of relatives or friends. m Brain drain, as mostly the educated persons migrate from our countries; this term is referred to as brain drain. m Inability to communicate as well as a culture shock.

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m Lack of or menial job opportunities. m Discrimination based on colour, race, etc.

common that it is now taken for granted in many parts of the world. Today, it is believed that almost as many people live in urban areas as in rural areas.

Immigration refers to the movement of individuals into your country. In the Caribbean, people usual immigrate to our island when they

REASONS FOR URBANISATION 1. People are pushed out of their villages

have retired from working in foreign lands and want

because expanding rural population cannot be

to live a quiet life.

supported by the existing agricultural economy.

There is also another category of migration,

2. Poor people are attracted to the cities,

internal migration, or the movement of individuals

believing that there are opportunities for better

within a country. In the Caribbean, this movement

education, employment, social welfare support and

tends to be from the rural areas to the urban ones to

good medical care. Unfortunately, they are likely to

settle. Rural to urban migration has resulted in

be disappointed.

1. State three reasons individuals migrate. 2. Differentiate between emigration and immigration. Internal and external migration. 3. What do you understand by the term ‘barrel children’? 4. Define chain and step migration and state any other forms of migration that was/ is practised in the Caribbean region to date. 5. Suggest three ways in which a government can prevent internal migration. Explain why it is necessary to lesson internal migration. 6. Suggest three strategies that may be used by the government to prevent brain drain in your country. Give reasons you think these strategies may be successful.

urbanisation – the process by which an increasingly larger proportion of the world’s population lives in or very near to cities. Urbanisation has been so

3. Mostly young people tend to migrate to the cities, seeking all of the above plus opportunities

YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | MARCH 13-19, 2012

Maureen Campbell teaches at St Hugh’s High School. Send questions and comments to kerry-ann.hepburn@gleanerjm.com


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