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The Gleaner’s Denique Mathis (right) clearly has Errol Stewart (centre), principal of Grange Hill High School, and his students captivated as she speaks about the various Gleaner products during the school’s Career Day recently. YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | APRIL 24, 2012 APRIL 24-30, 2012


yl:social studies

Objectives & functions of OECS, CSME and CARICOM MAUREEN CAMPBELL



HE ACRONYM CARICOM stands for Caribbean Community. It started as an Anglophone Caribbean organisation linking countries that are owned or were once part of the British Empire. It has now become a wide-ranging regional organisation with members such as Suriname and Haiti.

THE OBJECTIVES OF CARICOM To promote unity by: a. The promotion of economic cooperation through the Caribbean Common Market. b. To promote the coordination of foreign policy among the independent member states. c. The establishment of common services and cooperation in functional matters such as in health, education, culture, communication and in industrial matters. The organisation of CARICOM (Organs)

THE CONFERENCE OF HEADS OF GOVERNMENT This organ consist of the prime ministers or executive presidents of all member states of the Caribbean Community.

It makes all the main decisions on all aspects of the Community. It acts as the final authority for the conclusion of treaties on behalf of the community. It is responsible for the making of financial arrangements to meet the expenses of the community.

THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS The second-highest organ of 12

CARICOM consists of ministers responsible for community affairs in their own countries, the development of strategic planning and coordination, especially with regards to economic integration, functional cooperation and external relations.

THE CARICOM SECRETARIAT This body is recognised as the principal administrative organ of the community and is headed by a secretary general, the chief executive officer of the community. The secretariat’s mission statement is: To provide dynamic leadership and service in partnership with Community Institutions and groups, toward the attainment of a viable, internationally competitive and sustainable Community, with improved quality of life for all.


 The initiating or development of proposals for the consideration and decision making by the relevant organs.  It is also responsible for the initiation, organisation and the conducting of studies related to issues in the Caribbean.  It is able to provide, on request, services to member states on community-related matters.  It facilitates meetings of the organs and bodies of the Community and take appropriate follow-up action on decisions taken.  It is responsible for the collecting, storing and dissemination of relevant information to member states.  Most of all it serves to assist

community organs in the development and implementation of proposals and programmes.

THE OECS The objectives of the OECS are to: 1. promote cooperation among its members and defend their sovereignty, territorial integrity. 2. promote economic integration, assist them in meeting their international obligations and responsibilities and establish, wherever possible, arrangements for joint overseas representation and common services.

THE OECS SECRETARIAT The functions of the OECS secretariat are set out in the Treaty of Basseterre, which was signed to set up the OECS. The purpose of this organisation is to assist member states in responding to multifaceted challenges by identifying scope for joint or coordinated action towards the economic and social advancement of their countries. The secretariat consists of four main divisions responsible for: external relations, functional cooperation, corporate services and economic affairs. These four divisions oversee the work of a number of specialised institutions, work units or projects.

CSME In the Grande Anse Declaration and Work Programme for the Advancement of the Integration Movement, heads of government expressed their determination to work towards establishing a single market and economy. The CARICOM Single Market and Economy is intended to benefit the people of the region in various ways. One of its aims is to provide more and much better opportunities for the

production and selling of our goods and services and, thereby, also attracting much-needed investment. Its goal is to create one large market among the participating member states.

OBJECTIVES OF CSME The main objectives of the CSME are: the full use of labour in the region and the full exploitation of all other factors of production, which include our natural resources and capital, as well as the encouragement of competitive production which should lead to greater variety and quantity of products and services, resulting in trade with other countries. If these objectives are met, then it is expected that they will, in turn, provide improved standards of living and work and sustained economic development for the region.

at first point of entry into the region and the provision for sharing of collected customs revenue.

FREE MOVEMENT OF CAPITAL Through measures such as eliminating foreign exchange controls, a common currency and an integrated capital market such as a regional stock exchange.

A COMMON TRADE POLICY Agreement among the members on matters related to internal and international trade and a coordinated external trade policy negotiated on a joint basis.



This will become possible by introducing measures such as the removal of all obstacles to intra-regional movement of skills, labour and travel, harmonising social services such as education and health.

This should be achieved through measures such as the elimination of all barriers to intra-regional movement and the harmonisation of standards to ensure acceptability of goods and services traded.

The provision for the transfer of social security benefits and establishing common standards and measures for accreditation and equivalence throughout the region.



It further stipulates:

To permit the establishment of CARICOM-owned businesses in any member state without any form of restrictions or discrimination.

A COMMON EXTERNAL TARIFF Refers to a rate of duty applied by all members of the market to a product imported from a country which is not a member of the market.

FREE CIRCULATION The free movement of goods that are imported from extra-regional sources, which would require collection of taxes


a. What are some of the benefits of the CSME? b. State areas in which the objectives of the OECS and CARICOM are similar. Give reasons why they are similar. c. Suggest three reasons why it is necessary for the region to integrate. Explain your answer. d. Identify five ways in which the region is promoting regional cooperation. Maureen Campbell teaches at St Hugh’s High School. Send questions and comments to


Excretion (part 2) MONACIA WILLIAMS



OW ARE you this week? Have you been keeping well? Of course you have been! All your SBAs are now finished, you got a good score and you are just finishing off those last few labs that might appear on the question paper so all has to be well!

This week we will be continuing our study of excretion, and one of the things that we will be looking at is the structure and function of the kidney.

THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE KIDNEY The major organ of the excretory system is the kidney. Did you know that although we all have two kidneys we can function just as effectively with one? This means that as long as we are healthy we can all be organ donors! The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs that are positioned on either side of the vertebral column in the lower back region. They are found behind the intestines. Two narrow tubes run from the kidneys to the bladder. These tubes are the ureters. The bladder is a muscular tube lying at the bottom of the abdomen. Leading from the bladder is another tube, the urethra, which connects it to the outside via the penis in the male or via the vagina in the female.

STRUCTURE OF A NEPHRON THE BOWMAN’S CAPSULE The Bowman’s capsule contains a network of capillaries known as the glomerulus. Blood enters the glomerulus from the renal artery. This blood contains the nitrogenous waste (you need to remember that the blood also contains the normal constituents of oxygenated blood). The arteriole entering the glomerulus is known as the afferent arteriole and the one leaving is known as the efferent arteriole. Do you remember the meaning of these two words? Afferent means towards and efferent means away from. That is why the afferent arteriole is the one leading to the glomerulus and the efferent is the one leading away from the glomerulus. There is also a difference in the diameters of the two arterioles. The diameter of the afferent arteriole is wider than the diameter of the efferent. What does this cause? This causes a high pressure to build up in the capillaries. The pressure build-up is due to the fact that the same volume of blood that enters the structure is the same volume that will leave but through a narrower tube so the pressure has to increase in order to force the contents through. The high pressure that builds up forces the smaller contents of the blood out from the capillaries. The contents that are filtered out form the glomerular filtrate. 1. Afferent arteriole has a larger diameter; efferent diameter has a smaller diameter. 2. Pressure builds up in the glomerulus. 3. Smaller components of the blood are pushed out of the capillaries.


4. The filtrate moves down the proximal convoluted tubule.

The renal artery brings to the kidneys blood with nitrogenous and other wastes. When the blood passes through the kidney it is cleansed and is returned to the vena cava by way of the renal vein.

THE KIDNEY TUBULE/NEPHRON The kidney consists of a mass of tubules arranged in the different compartments of the kidneys.

THE REGIONS OF THE REPHRON  The nephron consists of cup-shaped structure known as the Bowman’s capsule.  The proximal convoluted tubule  The Loop of Henle  The distal convoluted tubule  The collecting duct


The glomerular filtrate contains glucose, amino acids, vitamins, hormones, salts and urea. You will realise that some of the constituents of the filtrate are useful and, hence, the body has to find ways to prevent them from being excreted.

Next week you will see what happens as we continue our study. See you then! Monacia Williams teaches at Glenmuir High School. Send questions and comments to





 Examinations are designed to test specific areas, namely knowledge and comprehension, use of knowledge and experimental skills. Thus, you must know and be trained to remember facts, use these facts to solve new problems and be competent at the experimental skills of observation, recording, making measurements, planning and designing and drawing conclusions. Note that knowledge and comprehension carries 45% of the exam weighting, use of knowledge 35%, and experimental skills 20%.  The SBA component is valued at 20%, so you must make use the opportunity to gain the maximum number of points from this area.  Remember that you are not only studying chemistry to pass an exam but that it will help in application for life.  The syllabus is divided into three main sections: principles of chemistry, organic and inorganic chemistry and the options section. Ensure that you are knowledgeable in all three areas so as to not be at a disadvantage in your exams. Remember that section C of Paper 02 deals specifically with the option topics, hence you can fully prepare for this beforehand.

Examination review QUESTION

1. Aluminium, copper and iron are the most common metals used in making cooking utensils. (a) Indicate the methods used for the extraction of aluminium and iron and give a reason, in each case, for the use of that method. (b) Account for the following: (i) Certain types of foods cause pitting (eating away of small areas of the metal), especially in aluminium and iron pots. (ii) In moist air, the surface of copper pots first turns black very quickly and then gradually goes green. Your explanation must also include relevant equations.

(iii) Why is it likely to cost a householder less money for electricity if rainwater is habitually used in an electric kettle instead of tap water?

ANSWERS 1. To extract aluminium the molten ore (bauxite Al2O3.2H2O) is electrolysed. This method is used as aluminium is a reactive metal. Reducing agents such as carbon or carbon monoxide are reacted with the ore (haematite Fe2O3) to extract iron. A less powerful method of reduction is used as iron is not very reactive. (b)(i) The moisture and the weak acids in these

foods can react with the aluminium and iron pots. This is usually referred to as corrosion. (ii) The black colour on the copper is due to the formation of copper oxide. 2 Cu (s) + O2 (g) == 2CuO (s) The change to a green colour is due to the reaction between the copper oxide and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Note that the carbon dioxide in the moist atmosphere could also react with the water vapour to form the weak carbonic acid (H2CO3). CuO (s) + CO2 (g) == CuCO3 (s) CuO (s) + H2CO3 (aq) == CuCO3 (s) + H2O (can be lost to the atmosphere) (iii) Rainwater is said to be soft as it does not contain dissolved calcium and magnesium ions which make water hard. Tap water is hard water and when boiled ‘fur’, which is CaCO3 and MgCO3, are deposited in the kettle. This can eventually cause blockage in the kettle and requires more energy to bring the water to a boil. Francine Taylor-Campbell teaches at Jamaica College. Send questions and comments to

yl:geography MARJORIE HENRY



REETINGS TO all you readers! Grade-11 students, I trust that your preparations for the external examinations are going well. I hope you have developed for yourself a study timetable, being guided by the CSEC timetable. Some of you may have already done some examinations. I hope you were able to manage those tests well. For several weeks now, I have been sharing information on selected topics taken from Section B - Natural Systems - of the geography syllabus. Coast is another topic listed in the content of this section. This topic includes types of waves and landforms that result from wave processes and corals. I will share a bit with you on corals. Before doing so, however, I must advise you that in your review of landforms formed by waves you must be clear in your minds about the types of waves, whether constructive and destructive. Following on to this, you must be able to distinguish between the landforms resulting from constructive waves and those from destructive waves. This must be stated in your account if you are required to write about the landforms that result from wave processes. In addition, practise drawing relevant diagrams which you can use to assist you in discussing the different landforms, should you be asked to do so. There are times when it is stated specifically in the question - ‘With the aid of a diagram, explain the formation of ...’. If you do not produce the diagram, or in some instances the series of diagrams, you will lose marks. Take the matter of drawing diagrams seriously. Sometime you are given diagrams (or photographs) of coastal landforms for you to identify. Be prepared for this as well. For ‘Corals’, the syllabus indicates that you must be able to state the conditions necessary for successful coral reef formation and be aware of the types of coral reefs in the Caribbean. I begin by asking - ‘What is a coral reef?’ Here are definitions of a coral reef from two sources:


Coasts ‘A coral reef is a community of marine animals in an ecologically balanced environment. The remains of the calcareous materials (shells) produced by corals and other marine organisms build up over time to form coral limestone.’ Geography for CSEC - Jeanette Ottley et al ‘A coral reef is a hard, rocky ridge built up from the sea bed by many tiny coral animals. It is one of the richest ecosystems on Earth and is sometimes called the ‘rainforest of the sea.’ Geography for CSEC - Nelson Thornes What conditions are necessary for the successful coral reef formation? In reference to the available textbooks, we are informed that corals have restricted habitats, thriving only under specific conditions. These are tabulated below: 1. Coral reefs can only survive in tropical and subtropical marine environments, 30onorth and south of the equator where the sea temperature is between 23oC and 25oC. (Please note that the textbooks vary on this temperature. One has suggested an average temperature of 18oC and over.) There are few coral reefs found outside the tropics or where there are cold sea currents. Cold water slows the growth but if the water is too warm it bleaches the corals, eventually killing them. YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | APRIL 24-30, 2012

2. In saline water, for they cannot flourish in fresh water. Corals will not grow where the water is not salty enough, for example, at the mouth of a river or where it is too salty, for example in some parts of the Red Sea. 3. In clear, clean water which is free from sediment. Clear water enables sunlight to penetrate easily. Water that is polluted or carries a lot of sediment is not suitable. The sediment makes the water cloudy, preventing sunlight from penetrating the sea water. Sediments also choke the corals. 4. Corals grow only in fairly shallow water, in sea depths of about 55 metres (180 feet). Sunlight must be able to penetrate down to where the coral is growing. They grow most luxuriantly near the sea surface where there is plenty of sunlight. Sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis. It allows the microscopic plants that corals feed on to make their food. These microscopic plants live in the tissue of coral polyps where they get nutrients and protection. In exchange, the corals have a ready supply of food. The depth of water also affects temperature as temperature decreases with depth of water. 5. In water which is well supplied with oxygen and plankton. Corals flourish where the equatorial currents have become warmed and agitated and abundantly supplied with oxygen and food. The discussion on coral reefs will continue in the next lesson.


General Geography in Diagrams - R. B. Bunett Geography for CSEC - Jeanette Ottley et al Geography for CSEC - Nelson Thornes

Marjorie Henry is an independent contributor. Send questions and comments to


Movements towards independence & regional integration up to 1985 DEBBION HYMAN


FEDERATION THE FEDERATION of the West Indies Act came into being on January 3, 1958. The federation comprised 10 British Caribbean colonies which included Jamaica, Antigua, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, St Kitts, St Lucia, Montserrat, St Vincent and Trinidad & Tobago. There were several attempts made at a West Indian Federation from as early as the 17th century, however, each of these attempts failed. The federal system instituted in 1958 would suffer a similar fate and the reasons are explained below.


REVENUE AND FUNDING The original levy of £2 million/$9 million per annum was inadequate. Of the total Jamaica, contributed 43 per cent, Trinidad 39 per cent and the others 18 per cent. The larger territories saw this as unfair as they were asked to carry the bulk of the levy with the benefits being derived by all federation members.

INCOMPLETE FEDERATION The refusal of British Guiana, British Honduras and the British Virgin Islands to participate in the federation weakened the general concept of it at the outset.

THE ISSUE OVER CHAGUARAMAS The site of the federal capital was disputed by Jamaica particularly as it was still, in 1958, a United States military base. In 1961, Trinidad negotiated with the United States for a continuation of the lease. Grantley Adams of Barbados was upset with this as he felt that the negotiation should have been a ‘federal’ issue and not a ‘local’ one. It appeared as if the islands were not operating as a collective unit but that each was only interested in fulfilling its individual interest.

CONSTITUTIONAL ARGUMENTS The federation as structured in 1958 was less advanced politically than Jamaica and Trinidad. Both countries, by 1960, had full internal self-government. This meant they had control of most areas of government except finance, foreign policy and security. As Verene Shepherd and Hilary Beckles outline, “the more autonomy the territories had, the less willing they were to surrender any portion of it and the less convinced they were that the union offered the only road to independence” (249). Thus, federation was not affording them any real improvements.

on would encourage an influx from the neighbouring islands (this was feared especially by Trinidad & Tobago).

FEARS OF JAMAICA AND TRINIDAD Jamaica and Trinidad held 77 per cent of the population of the federation, 83 per cent of the land and 75 per cent of the wealth of the federation. They contributed 82 per cent of the levy yet, because the smaller territories supported the WIFLP and other representatives dominated the ministerial seats in the federal cabinet, Jamaica and Trinidad feared (i) as ‘haves’ that their economies would be taxed to subsidise the ‘have-nots’, (ii) free migrati*

JAMAICA REFERENDUM Norman Manley was in favour of federation and Bustamante along with the Democratic Labour Party in Jamaica opposed it. Manley, in 1961, held a referendum to decide whether Jamaicans wanted to still be a part of this system. Manley lost the elections as 54 per cent of Jamaicans opted for a withdrawal. With such a blow Manley had to withdraw. As you should recall, Manley and Jamaica were one of the influential forces in the federation movement. Jamaica also paid a substantial annual levy; how would this now be supplemented? With Jamaica pulling out, it seemed as if there was no point in continuing the federation. Eric Williams made the famous statement, ‘1 from 10 equal 0’ in relation to Jamaica’s withdrawal. Subsequently, Trinidad withdrew from the federation and in March 1962 it was dissolved. Debbion Hyman teaches at St Hugh’s High School. Send questions and comments to


Councillor Errol Hummingbird (right), of the Ipswich division, cuts the ribbon to mark the opening of the ‘Journey of Champions’ exhibit as (from left) Conrad Romans, chairman of the St Elizabeth Parish Librar y committee; representatives from the local school population; Sheldon Roberts, rural development librarian; Byron Buckley, associate editor/special projects, Gleaner ; and Neysa Ebanks of event sponsor Scotiabank Jamaica, look on.



yl:information technology

Information processing NATALEE A. JOHNSON



ELLO, STUDENTS. This is lesson 32 in our series of The Gleaner’s IT lessons. In this week’s lesson, we will be looking at a new unit: information processing.

In this unit you will learn to appreciate the use of data and information entwined with technology. You will also observe and recognise the different ways in which technology has changed the manner in which we operate and function, whether at home, from a commercial perspective, and in our industries. In our first lesson we looked at the difference between the terms data and information. For the purpose of this unit I will be reminding you of those definitions. Data is a set of raw facts and figures that a computer processes by following a set of instructions called a program, while information is the processed data which is meaningful and useful. The term information processing refers to the collection, storing, interpretation and retrieving of data. Depending on the data inputted, a particular output is provided. Many of the devices we use today involve the processing and interpretation of a particular input (data) such as an electric kettle where once the water is boiled at a desired temperature the sensor will activate a switch to have the kettle turn off. The use of an ATM machine, where based on your input you can either make a deposit, do a withdrawal or top up your phone with credit, etc.

FORMS OF INFORMATION PROCESSING The different forms of information processing are: automation, process control, commercial, industrial and scientific data processing; information retrieval and management.



A control system is a device or set of devices to manage, command, direct or regulate the behaviour of other devices or systems. Process control is extensively used in industries and enables mass production of continuous processes such as oil refining, paper manufacturing, chemicals, power plants and many other industries. Process control enables automation, with which a small staff of operating personnel can operate a complex process from a central control room. Control systems are also utilised in our households, for example in watching machines. Also, when we commute to school and our work places and lights control the flow of traffic. There are also heat sensors used in buildings, and so on.

Expert systems are used extensively in this area. An expert system is a program that reproduces the knowledge and thought processes of human experts in certain well-defined fields namely medicine, geology and chemistry. Scientists are able to retrieve, analyse and use data stored in such systems. Other areas where scientific information processing is utilised include weather forecasting systems, the medical field for the monitoring of patient’s records and for carrying out surgical operations (use of robots) and laboratories for analysing data from samples.

COMMERCIAL When we speak about commercial we are specifically making reference to how information processing affects the way we do business. You can now do online banking or purchase items online, make deposits and withdrawals at an ATM machine without having to go to a bank. In addition, every transaction that we make, whether online or at supermarkets (point-of-sale terminals), ATM machines, etc, is recorded and the respective accounts of customers are updated. Moreover, the manner in which accounting practices are carried out and the payroll systems of organisations have changed, information processing is now used to calculate the salaries and wages of employees. The payslips of employees and annual financial reports can be generated and printed. Electronic funds transfer is also now possible, where money can be transferred from one account to another without using cash or cheques.

INDUSTRIAL Let us examine each of the forms listed above.

AUTOMATION This is where several tasks are performed with the use of computers and other automated machinery for the execution of tasks with little or no human input or control. Companies automate for many reasons. Increased productivity is normally the primary reason for many companies desiring a competitive advantage. Automation can also reduce human error and thus improve quality. Other reasons to automate include the presence of a hazardous working environment and the high cost of human labour. 16

Similar points that were mentioned when we looked at process control would be dealt with here. Both the manufacturing and production industries utilise information processing for the generating or production of a particular product. Computers are used to control and monitor tasks done and are generally considered to be more accurate, efficient and faster than the average human. Robots, particularly, are used for the manufacturing of cars and for the assembling electronic items. YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | APRIL 24-30, 2012

INFORMATION RETRIEVAL AND MANAGEMENT This process involves the initial storing of data on a particular storage device or medium that has been keyed in via an input device or data recorded on a particular document. Data can be captured to be managed by different methods directly or indirectly. Devices that would be used to capture data would include optical mark reader, magnetic ink character recognition, barcode reader and so on. Data can also be ascertained from the use of sensors such as heat. On the other hand, data captured indirectly has to be taken from a source document and physically entered into a computer. We have come to the end of this lesson. Remember that if you fail to prepare, you should prepare to fail. Natalee A. Johnson teaches at Ardenne High School. Send questions and comments to

yl:english language NATASHA THOMAS-FRANCIS



ELLO, CLASS! This week I wish to focus on developing your comprehension skills. In this syllabus, this topic appears under the heading ‘Understanding’. You will need to develop your skills at analysing poetry and short prose passages. Our focus this week will be on analysing prose passages. Questions on prose passages can be grouped under the headings: What?, How? and Why?

WHAT This refers to the facts of the passage. What has happened? To whom? By whom was it done? Where did it happen? This is the first level of meaning.

HOW This is concerned with the writer’s technique. These questions encourage us to look at how the writer uses words to cause us to respond in a specific way to what is happening. Questions like “How does the writer contrast (a) and (b)?” fall into this category. This is the second level of meaning.

WHY When the examiners ask, “What effect does the writer wish to convey when ...?” they are trying to get you to express why the author writes as he does. Such questions invite us to examine how effective

Developing your comprehension skills the writer has been at conveying what he wishes. This is the third level of meaning. Let us now look at a practice exercise so that you can put these skills to the test. Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow. Remember to ask yourself the what, how and why questions. One day, when he was about twelve years old, he had taken his share of the sheep and goats out to gaze, as was expected of him. Early in the afternoon he had eaten his packed lunch and drunk his day’s ration of water. Soon after, he had felt sleepy, and had walked into a thicket that had become

punishment for losing an animal. So what was he to do? The kid was gone. By evening, when he was ready to return the animals home, he had decided. He drove the animals close enough to the kraal so that it would not be difficult for the dog to take them home. Then he disappeared. The next time Musa Musa ventured home, he was forty and graying from his temples. (Changes, Ama Ata Aidoo, p 25) a. Why did Musa Musa not return home in the evening? (2 marks) b. Why does the writer use the phrase “sure enough” (line 9)? (3 marks) c. What does the repetition of the words “What was he to do” (line 10 & lines12-13) tell us about Musa Musa’s state of mind? (3 marks)

something of a favourite spot, and dozed. Just for a short while. Sleeping on the job was something his father punished most severely. On that particular afternoon, Musa Musa had been startled awake by the barking of his dog. He had looked around and realised that what appeared to be a small lion was running away with a goat. He too was frightened even to come out of the thicket until a while later, when the baby lion was gone. When he did emerge and counted his animals, sure enough, one kid was missing. He burst into tears. After the tears, he asked himself what he was to do. He knew that at the end of the day the animals would be counted. He knew the loss would be discovered. He also knew his father and his

d. What kind of person is Musa Musa’s father presented as? (3 marks) e. What did Musa Musa decide to do to solve his problem? (2 marks) f. How many years passed before Musa Musa returned home? (2 marks) TOTAL: 15 MARKS Natasha Thomas-Francis teaches at Glenmuir High School. Send questions and comments to



Arrival of Jamaica under-16 netball team from Birmingham, England, at the Norman Manley International Airport on Monday night,April 16. YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | APRIL 24-30, 2012


yl:english literature

‘WEST INDIES, USA’ Cruising at thirty thousand feet above the endless green the islands seem like dice tossed on a casino’s baize, some come up lucky, others not. Puerto Rico takes the pot, the Dallas of the West Indies, silver linings on the clouds as we descend are hall-marked, San Juan glitters like a maverick’s gold ring. All across the Caribbean we’d collected terminals - airports are like calling cards, cultural fingermarks; the hand-written signs at Portau-Prince, Piarco’s sleazy tourist art, the lethargic contempt of the baggage boys at ‘Vere Bird’ in St Johns ... And now for plush San Juan. But the pilot’s bland, you’re safe in my hands drawl crackles as we land, “US regulations demand all passengers not disembarking at San Juan stay on the plane, I repeat, stay on the plane.” Subtle Uncle Sam, afraid too many desperate blacks might re-enslave this Island of the free, might jump the barbed electric fence around ‘America’s back yard’ and claim that vaunted sanctuary... ‘Give me your poor...’ Through toughened, tinted glass the contrasts tantalise; US patrol cars glide across the shimmering tarmac, containered baggage trucks unload with fierce efficiency. So soon we’re climbing, low above the pulsing city streets; galvanised shanties overseen by condominiums polished Cadillacs shimmying past Rastas with pushcarts and as we climb, San Juan’s fool’s glitter calls to mind the shattered innards of a TV set that’s fallen off the back of a lorry, all painted valves and circuits the roads like twisted wires, the bright cars, microchips It’s sharp and jagged and dangerous, and belonged to someone else. -Stewart Brown


‘ West Indies, USA’ BERYL CLARKE



AN YOU believe that we are already this near to CXC exams? I know that you are anxious to start putting pen to paper to earn the good

grades you want. Revision and practice must be high on your agenda now. Don’t forget to eat well and to get enough rest so that you can function at your best. Try not to be too proud or shy to ask for the help you need to be as prepared as possible. Stewart Brown, the writer of this poem, has given it what may be thought of as a strange name, and yet it is a valid one. Puerto Rico is a Caribbean island but in addition it has a special relationship with the USA. The country was ceded to the USA in 1898 after the Spanish-American War. In 1952, it became a commonwealth while maintaining a voluntary association with the USA. It has full powers of local government and some of the privileges of the US. The speaker here is a visitor to the Caribbean. He (we will use he as the pronoun for our narrator) speaks from limited knowledge. References are made to only three airports even though he says, “All across the Caribbean”. How much can one learn about a country from its airport? How fair an assessment can one make from such limited knowledge? These are questions to be considered, for from them we learn about the speaker. He dismisses Haiti, Trinidad and Antigua with negative comments but remarks that San Juan is plush, which should come as no surprise since in the very first stanza he had referred to Puerto Rico as the Dallas of the West Indies. Haiti is made out to be backward; the art pieces at Piarco are described as squalid, seedy or shabby, therefore, not suitable for the tourists they are meant to attract. As for the porters at the airport in Antigua, they are sluggish, unenthusiastic and lacking in respect for those who use this port of entry. In addition, please note how he associates Puerto Rico with being a winner, with silver lining and a gold ring. If we look carefully we will understand that the speaker is saying that the islands are involved in a game in which Puerto is the winner, possibly


because of her link with the USA. He categorises her as a jewel, as the island that shows hope; the silver lining behind the clouds of the other islands. He tells us that she is a wealthy place like Dallas, Texas, the centre of oil money in the USA. The word maverick in the last line of verse one may be referring to the fact that the country is not one of the states of the US but an independent country. No wonder that he says, “And now for plush San Juan.” Clearly, the persona is disenchanted with the other islands and looks forward to Puerto Rico with impatience. Before we continue, we need to think about the form or the layout of this poem. It is obviously different from any that we have studied so far and is used, no doubt, by the poet to make a point. I would like you now to take into account that the persona is looking down at the Caribbean Sea from thirty thousand feet above as the plane in which he is cruises over the waters. You will notice that while stanzas one and two end with full stops, the succeeding three verses do not. The plane lands in San Juan and we can imagine the speaker thinking to himself, “At last.” Then he receives a bit of unwelcome information from the pilot, whose voice he describes as dull or uninteresting. He hears that he cannot leave the plane because of US law. If you have been on a plane that stops at this airport, you already know that unless this country is your destination, you really cannot leave the plane. This regulation is enforced by tight security. Finally, in the third stanza he gets what he wants, or does he? We’ll talk about it some more. Be good and God bless! Beryl Clarke is an independent contribotor. Send questions and comments to


Matrix transformation CLEMENT RADCLIFFE


THE REVIEW of matrix transformation will be continued with the solution of last week’s homework.


Please remember that the alternative to committing them to memory is to determine the matrix by calculation. This is done by identifying two pairs of points representing the objects and images and then using them to determine the matrix as was done previously.


Enjoy the rest of the week. Clement Radcliffe is an independent contributor. Send questions and comments to



yl:office administration




S YOU do your final preparation before your examinations I will share some questions with you and ask that you read and practise as much as possible.

1. Communication is the transmission of information to another person, hence a sender and a recipient of the message. (a) State four reasons for good communication in a business. (b) List three methods of communication.

(i) carry out your duties when dealing with visitors to your company (ii) create a good impression of your company. 4. (a) Name four characteristics of a good filing system. (b) What do the following terms mean (i) Retention, (ii) Microfilming and (iii) Chronological order (c) Place the following in alphabetical order: Kirk L Harvey, Mrs. Yvonne Blagrove, Dr. Neville Green, C. D. Reid & Co Ltd The Bridgeview Country Club, Sir Patrick Bourke 5. What is meant by the following terms - standing order, credit card, money order, bank drafts, direct debits, travellers’ cheques 6. (a) What are some services offered by the travel agencies? (b) Give THREE reasons for preparing a Travel Folder when making travel arrangements. 7. As the secretary of your organisation you are required to do the preparation for the next annual general meeting. Make a checklist of things to be done (a) before the meeting (b) on the day of the meeting (c) after the meeting (d) Write a ‘Notice of a Meeting’ for this meeting. 8.(a) List three duties of a clerk in the Purchasing Department. (b) Give the names of the documents used in the Purchasing Department and give the sequential order in which they are used. Next week I will provide you with possible answers to these questions as well as answers to the lesson on April 10.

2. Assume that you are Rene Brackett of 234 Bellevue Heights, Kingston 10. Write a letter of application in response to the following advertisement that appeared in The Gleaner, Tuesday, April 10, 2012.

Have a productive week. Hyacinth Tugman teaches at Glenmuir High School. Send questions and comments to

3.(a) Name SIX qualities that would make an applicant suitable for the position of receptionist. (b) List the items of information that are entered on a personal record sheet for use in the Human Resource Office and why they should be kept confidential. (c) How would you as a receptionist:



yl:principles of business YVONNE HARVEY



T IS always a pleasure to be with all you readers. This lesson will discuss another aspect of marketing: distribution. Once goods have been produced they need to reach the consumer. This happens through the distribution chain or channel.

THE DISTRIBUTION CHAIN Distribution refers to the movement of goods from the point of production to the point of consumption. Goods are distributed locally and in overseas markets. Distribution operates by means of ‘channels’, which is a set of institutions that perform all the activities necessary to get the goods from the manufacturer to the consumer. The manufacturer is the one at the head of the distribution channel. He is responsible for producing or making the goods and services. When he sells directly to the consumer, this is known as a direct marketing channel. The consumer is the one who utilises the goods and services. If the consumer does not purchase directly from the producer/manufacturer, he will purchase from one or more middlemen. If the chain is broken by one middleman, it is known as a one-level channel. The chain can be broken by a wholesaler or a retailer. One of the major roles of wholesalers and retailers is to break bulk and sell in smaller quantities than they purchase in. They are also involved in passing valuable information to the manufacturer so that they can improve the goods or service and give the consumers exactly what they want. It would be good for you to do some research on the other functions of wholesalers and retailers.

Marketing & distribution

the marketing department is a very important part of production. Unless the goods reach the final consumer, production is not complete. Wholesalers and retailers are a part of tertiary production or quaternary production which involves the provision of indirect services.

METHODS OF RETAILING To retail is to sell in small quantities. This is usually done for the convenience of consumers. There are many types of retailers and retailing:


These are sometimes called a ‘shop of shops’ because they are divided into commodity departments. Each department is operated like a single shop and so is responsible for its own profitability. Merchandise is usually attractively displayed and credit facilities (sometimes interest-free) are given to suitable customers. Some have introduced their own charge cards. A department store must employ more than 25 persons and sell clothing and at least four other goods.


SHOPS These are often referred to as ‘corner shops’, ‘unit shops’ or ‘independent shops’. They are usually owned by sole traders or small partnerships and sited out of town. In some cases they specialise in offering a single commodity or service, for example bakery, meat shops, etc. They are small versions of supermarkets but do not offer self-service.

This can be from advertising in the press, on radio or via television which invites potential customers to buy by post. It can also be by direct selling where customers choose articles from a catalogue at home or part-time agents may sell to friends from catalogues in

return for a commission. Goods are mailed before or after they are paid for.

E-COMMERCE This refers to buying over the Internet. Consumers have the convenience of shopping from their homes, usually with the use an international credit card. This is a relatively new but fast- growing method of retailing. On the eBay site, you can buy anything from mobile phones to model trains, football shirts, cars, computers, etc.

TELEMARKETING This is telephone selling. Customers are targeted and offered goods for sale by telephone. Sometimes the potential customers are selected at random from the telephone directory. The orders for goods and services are made over the telephone. It is often referred to as ‘cold canvassing’ or ‘cold selling’.

VENDING MACHINES These are also known as ‘automats’ or ‘automatic vending machines’. Retailing is done using vending machines operated by coins. The goods or services offered include drink, candy, newspapers and banking (ATM). These retail outlets are open 24 hours per day. Vending machines are sited in busy public places and are sometimes the targets of vandalism. Also, they are sometimes out of order when needed. Other forms of retailing on which you can read up and make notes on are:  multiples or chain stores  supermarkets  door-to-door selling  specialist shops  hypermarkets  discount houses  catalogue shops  market traders We will soon be finishing this very important section, section 5 of the syllabus entitled Marketing. At the end of the section, I will be giving you a test so that you can see how well you are doing in the subject. Bye-bye.

Yvonne Harvey teaches at Glenmuir High School. Send questions and comments to

Sometimes the chain of distribution is broken by two middlemen, normally the wholesaler and the retailer. In this case, the manufacturer sells to the wholesaler, the wholesaler sells to the retailer and the retailer sells to the consumer. This is referred to as a two-level channel. Where there is a three-level channel, there is often a large wholesaler who sells to a small wholesaler, who then sells to a retailer, who then sells to the consumer. Distribution which is carried out by YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | APRIL 24-30, 2012


yl:principes of accounts

Trial balance, errors & suspense account ROXANNE WRIGHT



ELOW IS a question which I am asking you to attempt to answer under examination conditions. You should come up with your answer within no more than 35 minutes. I will present the solution next week; be sure to match the answer with mine.

QUESTION Vincent Leeward drew up a trial balance from the following list of balances on Sept. 30, 2011:

As the trial balance did not agree, a suspense account [>1] was opened for the amount of the difference. After investigation the following errors were discounted: 1. The Purchases Day Book was under-added by $800. [>2] 2. Goods costing $1,400 bought from Simons were credited to the account of Simms. [>3] 3. An item of $480 was debited twice in the Sundry Expense account. [>4] 4. A purchase from Smut was correctly entered in the Purchases Day Book as $860 but wrongly entered in Smut’s account as $680. [>5] 5. The debtors total of $24,800 [>6] was wrongly listed as $24 600. 6. Goods $560 taken for own use by Leeward were debited to his Drawings Account but no credit entry was made in any other account. [>7] 7. A banker’s standing order for $360 for payment to Leeward’s insurance was entered on the wrong side of the bank account. [>8] After the necessary amendments were made, the Suspense Account was brought to a nil balance.

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO: a. Write up the Suspense Account, including your calculation of the opening balance. b. Prepare the trial balance as it will appear after the corrections have been made.

CAN YOU REMEMBER? i. The purpose of preparing a trial balance.

EXAMINATION PREPARATION TIP: As you get closer to your examination, to assist with your preparation, I encourage you to:  Try to develop you own technique for revision.  Try not to see the exam as anything other than a normal school day other than that you are doing an exam.  Think that at least after the exam you can relax and won’t have to do much more revision.

ii. Three different types of errors which a trial balance will not reveal. iii. Three errors of bookkeeping which could cause the trial balance to disagree.


Visit with me again next week when my presentation will be Theory of Double Entry. I will also present the solution to this week’s question. See you then. Roxanne Wright teaches at Immaculate Academy. Send questions and comments to


CSEC Study Guide - April 24, 2012  

YouthLink's CSEC Study Guide for April 24, 2012

CSEC Study Guide - April 24, 2012  

YouthLink's CSEC Study Guide for April 24, 2012