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Front left: Jamila Litchmore, Stephanie Lyew, Racquel Simpson, Mikail Samuels, Arianne Hammond, Corey Lindner, Regina Bish & Suzette Hart (asst coordinator). Top left back: Biko Kennedy, Renee Whitelocke, Jovan Legister, Samantha Hay & Chad Bryan. YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | FEBRUARY 14-20, 2012


Dealing with yl: English Language

BERYL CLARKE Contributor

s e m e h

ELCOME TO ‘class’ this week. You with your excellent memories know what we will be dealing with in this lesson. Themes – yes, you are correct!


Let us begin by reminding ourselves about this element of drama. Naturally, we have themes in prose and poetry as well, but for now we will confine ourselves to drama. We are able to identify themes when through the working of plot and character we can make general conclusions about human beings. An obvious aspect of our story is love; Miss Aggy loves her son, he loves Lois who loves him too. Pa Ben seems to love all three. Missa Mac loves his wife, and so on. Here, we need to ask ourselves some questions. Can we conclude that this play is saying that everybody loves everybody else, or should we take it a bit further and say what love demonstrates in Old Story Time? Think about it. Love, we have to agree, is a theme that is explored and shown to be a powerful, forgiving and unifying force.


How can we come to such a conclusion? We must examine the actions of the characters and learn from these actions how their motivation causes them to behave. Pa Ben, for instance, is a loving neighbour. Early in the play we see the warm relationship that he shares with Miss Aggy and, most important, his concern for Len and his attempts to save him from getting a whipping. Later, it becomes clear that he is Len’s confidant, knowing that he has a black girlfriend and keeping his secret from his mother. I am suggesting here that it is his love for both mother and son that causes him to do this for he knows the terrible quarrel which would follow any revelation to Miss Aggy. When Len fails to write his mother, it is Pa Ben who urges him to do so for he does not want her to continue to suffer. Whenever he sees her doing or thinking something that he considers wrong, he tries to steer her in the right direction, a task that is not easy and leads to a break in their friendship. Even then, he does not give up until they resume their former bond. Consider how he works to persuade Pearl not to spread rumour about the poor relationship between Len and his mother; how he tries to convince Miss Aggy not to work obeah against her daughter-in-law, Lois, how he accedes to Len’s appeal for help to protect Lois. What about his active role in getting Miss Aggy to her son’s home (despite his age) and his commitment to saving her from her own mistake? You can understand, clearly, that his love for others is pure (although he does not constantly make references to the Bible) and that this is why he treats others well. We are aware that Miss Aggy loves Marse Len and has a great deal of respect for him. She maps out a path for his success in life and uses methods for his achievement, of which 12


may disapprove. Yes, she flogs him, keeps him tied to his books and is determined to choose not just his friends but his wife. All this, as well as the substantial sacrifices that she makes, is because of her love for him. She does not want him, as so many Jamaican parents say, to suffer as she does. We laugh and, perhaps, feel embarrassment for Len when Miss Aggy visits him at school with her basket of food, but we should realise that she is doing the best she can and she is doing it out of ignorance of the consequences and out of love for her child. It is this love that causes her to grieve when she does not hear from him when he is in England; it is this love that causes her to urge him to marry the brown-skin girl with ‘tall’ hair for, as she says, “it’s advancement”. (There was a time in our history when some Jamaican men went to study abroad, particularly to England. You can talk to your grandparents about the results.) Discuss among yourselves what ‘advancement’ means to Miss Aggy. She buys the house for Len because she loves him, and she objects to his marriage to Lois because she does not believe that a black woman is good enough for him. Finally, her deep concern for her son’s safety drives her to turn to obeah to protect him from a wife who could only, in her estimation, have used underhand means to get him to marry her. Do you see how love gets Lois in trouble? She, in giving financial support to Len for his studies, commits fraud. This opens the door for George to exploit her. Nowhere is love shown in a better light than in her forgiveness of Miss Aggy and her strong resolve to save her. Len, too, has love for others. Despite his mother’s harsh treatment of him in his childhood, her continued interference in his life when he is a grown man and her contempt displayed towards his wife, he cares intensely for her. There is a point when, confused by the situation in which he has to seek protection for his wife from his mother, he does not seem to care but this is only a temporary lapse. Watch him pray as fervently as the others to save her from the result of her own action. In the end, as Pa Ben points out to the audience, all is well because of the caring, forgiving and unifying force of love. Your task now is to identify the other themes – racism, ignorance, etc – and put together the evidence for your choice. Be good to yourselves and others as you grow into becoming the worthwhile citizens our world needs. God bless!

Beryl Clarke is an independent contributor. Send questions and comments to

Organic chemistry yl:Chemistry



m A homologous series represents a family of organic compounds with its members having a general formula and showing similar physical and chemical properties.

m The general formula of the alkanes is Cn H2n+2 while that of the alkenes is Cn H2n. m Alkanes are saturated compounds and so react by substitution. Alkenes are unsaturated (possessing a double bond) and so undergo addition reactions. m Isomers occur when compounds have the same general formula but differ in their structural formula. m Alkenes can be differentiated from alkanes as they decolourise bromine and acidified potassium permanganate solution. This is also used as a positive test for the C=C double bond.

reactions: this occurs when atoms in the molecule are replaced by other atoms. Eg. CH4 + Br2 = CH3Br + HBr Bromomethane Alkenes undergo addition reactions: this occurs when atoms or radicles are added to the molecule. example C2H4 + Br2 = C2H4Br2 dibromoethane

ADDITIONAL REACTIONS OF ALKENES 1. Hydrogenation – addition of hydrogen; using a nickel or platinum catalyst at 2000C – an alkane is obtained. C2H4 + H2 = C2H6 ethene ethane 2. Hydration – addition of water. Conditions: catalyst phosphoric acid on silica 3000C, 60 atm. H H H H C = C + H-OH = H—-C—-C—-OH H H H H ethanol

Let us now examine a few reactions of these organic compounds.

3. Addition of hydrogen halides. (HCl, HBr, HI) example: C2H4 + HCl = C2H5Cl chloroethane



Alkanes and alkenes burn in air to produce carbon dioxide and water. If oxygen is limited, carbon monoxide and carbon can also be formed. Alkenes will produce a more sooty flame due to a higher proportion of carbon than alkanes. Ethane: 2C2H6 + 7O2 = 4CO2 + 6H2O 2C2H6 + 5O2 = 4CO + 6H2O 2C2H6 + 3O2 = 4C + 6H2O Ethene: C2H4 + 3O2 = 2CO2 + 2H2O C2H4 + 2O2 = 2CO + 2H2O C2H4 + O2 = 2C + 2H2O

REACTIONS WITH BROMINE Alkanes undergo substitution


When ethane is heated to 2000C under pressure with a catalyst, it polymerizes to form a white solid, polythene or polyethene. nC2H4 (C2H4)n = small molecules large molecules

SOURCES OF ALKANES & ALKENES The sources are natural gas and crude oil (petroleum) which are mixtures of hydrocarbons. Natural gas contains CH4, C2H6, C3H8 and C4H10,and petroleum contains liquid hydrocarbons with gaseous hydrocarbons dissolved in the liquid. Francine Taylor-Campbell teaches at Jamaica College. Send questions and comments to

Control statements yl:Information Technology

part 2


TUDENTS, THIS is lesson 22 of our series of IT lessons. This week we will continue to look at control statements and flow charts.


THE ‘WHILE’ LOOP The While loop syntax is shown below: While Variable not equal to Control_Variable Do Block Statement(s) Endwhile The While loop is an example of an indefinite loop; it facilitates the repetition of a block of instructions until a certain condition is met. No one knows exactly how many times the block statements (instructions) will be carried out. Using the same example of having a bowl of soup with a spoon, no one can tell how many sips you would take that will fill your stomach. It depends on the size of your stomach and the size of the spoon. The algorithm would look something like this:

EXAMPLE 1 Please note you use the WHILE LOOP when you do not know exactly how many times a block of statements will be carried out. In this case there will be some terminating condition.

EXAMPLE 2 Write a pseudocode algorithm to read a set of integer numbers terminated by 999. The pseudocode should find the sum and average of the numbers. The algorithm should also output the sum and average of the numbers

PSEUDOCODE VERSION Algorithm Sum and Average This program will read a set of integer numbers and calculate the sum and average of the numbers.

THE ‘REPEAT-UNTIL’ LOOP The repeat-until loop syntax is shown below: REPEAT Block Statement(s) UNTIL (condition) or REPEAT Block Statement(s) UNTIL <condition is true>

The repeat-until loop is similar to the While loop except the condition is tested at the end of the loop. Thus, the block of statement(s) will continue to execute as long as the specified condition in the UNTIL statement is false. Using the same example of having a bowl of soup with a spoon, you would continue to sip your soup as long as you have soup in your bowl.

See you next week when we will continue to look at control structures and flow charts. Remember, if you fail to prepare, prepare to fail. Natalee A. Johnson teaches at Ardenne High School. Send questions and comments to



Factory I control office

yl:Office Administration



N BUSINESS departments the duties of the clerk are just as important as his/her superior. The duties will involve many activities such as filing and wordprocessing, but a clerk in the factory office will be involved specifically with the following duties: m preparing documents used in production m chasing progress m ensuring safety procedures m liaising with other departments m preparing job cards, progress charts m maintaining time cards for workers

(part 2)

In addition to these tasks, the clerk may be asked to organise the hours of work for the factory workers. If production takes place on a 24-hour basis then it is likely that workers will be placed on a shift system. For this, the clerk will need to organise workers on a roster, placing each worker on the shift system and allocating adequate time off.

Students, I am going to give you a sample of some of these documents. It is important that you learn them and practise filling them out.

A daily report of how productivity levels and output have gone for that day is very important. This information is used for future planning by management and assists in ensuring that jobs are proceeding to plan. A progress chaser is what determines each stage of production so that delays do not arise where one stage of production may be slowing up work elsewhere.


m Job cards Give the details and description of the job and the necessary requirements for the job to be carried out. It accompanies each job or batch as it progresses through the stages of production. m Planning master This contains every detail about the entire production process to enhance the use of equipment and labour, keep the production process running, meet deadlines and reach for better quality. It will show the rate of production that should be attained daily or weekly and will give details of the factors to be employed in order to achieve this. m Job cost cards This is specific information to the organisation about the cost for producing a particular unit of production. The cost may include utility, labour and material, and salaries. m Time cards This shows the time that the worker ‘clocks-in’ and ‘clocks-out’ of work. The time card is usually used with a mechanical clock machine. When the worker arrives at work, it is placed in the machine where the time is printed and is also done at the end of the working day. This card is now used to calculate the number of hours worked per week. m Quality control card It is important that organisations maintain their quality standards, hence persons are employed specially to make checks on finished products.



DJ Bambino and Karen Clarke hanging out at the Pepsi Blue Carpet celebrity party, held at Fiction Lounge, Market Place, Constant Spring Road, on Thursday, February 2. 14

Hyacinth Tugman teaches at Glenmuir High School.Send questions and comments to



DO expect that by now you are comfortable with finding the length, gradient and midpoint of the line joining two given points. These will be further illustrated by giving you the solution to the homework.


HOMEWORK Given the points A(-8, 2) and B(3 , - 2) find the following with respect to the line AB: (i) Gradient, m (ii) midpoint, M (iii) length of the line AB (iv) Gradient of XY which is parallel to AB (v) the gradient of AC which is perpendicular to AB


Coordinate geometry

yl:Mathematics Here is another example.

m The value of c, the intercept of a line, is found by substituting x = 0 into its equation. Do you know why? If not, please investigate.

METHODS OF FINDING THE EQUATION The following are the three methods which are commonly used to find the equation of a straight line. (i) Evaluating the equation given the gradient m and the intercept c.

EXAMPLE Find the equation given that m = 3/4 and c = 1. The equation is y = mx + c. Substituting y = 3x + 1 or 4y = 3x + 4. 4 Answer is 4y = 3x + 4. This method can be extended to a given line on a graph. In this case, both the gradient and the intercept can be found from the graph and the equation determined. (ii) A feature of the second method is: Given the coordinates of two points, (x1 , y1) and (x2 , y2), the equation is: y - y1 y2 - y1 = x - x1 x2 - x1

We will continue coordinate geometry by considering the equation of straight lines


m All straight lines have the equation: y = mx + c where m is the gradient and c is the intercept; m and c are constants. m When the axes cut at the origin (0 , 0), the equation of the x axis is y = 0 and for the y axis it is x = 0. m y = 2x + 3 is the equation of a line if for each point (x , y) on the line the y coordinate is equal to twice the x coordinate of the same point plus 3. The points (2 , 7) and (- 1 , 1) are, therefore, on the line. This fact about an equation is not usually emphasized but must be clearly noted. m The point (x , y) is on the line y = mx + c if it satisfies the equation. You may show that (1 , - 2) is a point on the line y = 3x - 5 by substituting x = 1 and y = - 2 into the equation. (Substitution shows that - 2 = - 2).

(a) The equation of the line above is y = mx + c. (i) State the value of c. (ii) Determine the value of m. (iii) Determine the coordinates of the midpoint of the line segment AB. (b)The point (-2, k) lies on the line. Determine the value of k.



Using the points A(4 , - 1), B(1 ,1) in the above, then y - -1 = 1- -1 = 2 x - 4 1 - 4 -3 y + 1 = -2 x-4 3 3y + 3 = -2x + 8 3y + 2x = 5. Answer is 3y + 2x = 5. (iii) The formula given in (ii) may be expressed as y - y1 = m where m is the gradient of the line. x - x1 I am sure you realize that m = y2 - y1 x2 - x1 This formula is used, given the coordinates of a point on the line and the gradient of the line.

HOMEWORK 1. A straight line HK cuts the y axis at H (0 , -1). The gradient of HK is ?. Show that the equation of the line HK is 2x - 3y = 3. 2. A straight line is drawn through the points A(- 5 , 3) and B(1 , 2). (i) Determine the gradient of AB. (ii) Write the equation of the line AB.

EXAMPLE Find the equation of the line if the gradient m = ? and the point (1 , 2) is on the line. y - y1 = m, that is y - 2 = 2/3 x-1 x - x1 3y - 6 = 2x - 2 3y - 2x = 4 Answer is 3y - 2x = 4 YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | FEBRUARY 14-20, 2012

I must emphasize again that the problems based on this topic are fairly routine. It will do you well to practise them so as not to miss out on the opportunity to score full marks for the question if it is presented in the June exam this year. Have a productive week. Clement Radcliffe is an independent contributor. Send questions and comments to


Interpretation of final accounts

yl:Principles of Accounts


HE QUESTION below is presented with the recommended solution. You are to read it carefully then match your thoughts with the reasoning given before you attempt to work it. After you are finished working the question, match your answer with the one given. This should help tremendously in correcting your mistakes, as well as enabling recollection of principles applied.


Yellow and gold macaws remain faithful to one partner for life; humans could learn a lot from them.

QUESTION: (a) During the year 2011, Kirk Lee held an average stock at cost price of $22, 560. His selling prices were obtained by adding 25% to the cost prices. [>1] his turnover for 2011 was $338, 400. His selling and administrative expenses were 12% of turnover. Therefore, Gross Profit = Sales - Cost of Goods Sold = $338, 400 - $270, 720 = $67, 680

Calculate: i. Leeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s gross profit for 2011 ii. The rate of turnover of stock for 2011 iii. The net profit for 2011 (b) For the year 2011, Lee has reduced his mark-up on cost price to 20%. [>2] He has also spent $4, 000 on advertising. His average stock remains the same in amount and cost as in 2011, and selling and administrative expenses (excluding the additional advertising) will be $37, 792 for the full year.

(ii) Rate of turnover of stock = Cost of Goods Sold Average Stock = 100% /125% x $338, 400 $22, 560 = 12

Calculate the minimum rate of turnover of stock if he is to earn, at least, a net profit of $30, 400. [>3] (iii) Net Profit = Gross Profit - Selling and Administrative Expenses = $67, 680 - (12% x $338, 400) = $27, 070


(b) Net Profit = Gross Profit -(Selling & Administrative Expenses + Advertising) $30, 400 = Gross Profit - ($37, 792 + $4, 000) $30, 400 = Gross Profit - $41, 792 Gross Profit = $30, 400 + $41, 792 = $72, 192 Gross Profit (20%)= $72 ,192 Cost of Goods Sold (100%) = 100%/20% x $72, 192 = $360, 960

SOLUTION (a) (i) Turnover of Sales (125%) Gross Profit (25%)

= $338, 400 = $ 67, 680 ====== 25% x $338, 400 125%

OR Turnover of Sales (125%) Cost of Goods Sold (100%)

= $338, 400 = 100% x $338, 400 = $270, 720 125%

Rate of turnover of stock = Cost of Goods Sold Average Stock = $360, 960 $22, 560 Rate of turnover of stock = 16

EXAMINATION PREPARATION TIP: As you get closer to your examination, to assist with your preparation we encourage you to form a small study group, four is a good number. Ensure the other three members have the same goal to achieve good results in their external examination as you do. Make a team commitment to stay focus whenever and wherever you meet and choose the least distracting place and time to study. Visit with me again next week when I present on the Manufacturing Account. See you then.

Roxanne Wright teaches at Immaculate Academy. Send questions and comments to




yl:Principles of Business


ELLO AGAIN. It is a pleasure for me to continue the lessons on marketing. This week the lesson will surround the factors that influence consumer behaviour.



(part 2)


. The product being sold is homogeneous. This means that there are no differences in what each firm is selling, whether real or imaginary. Thus, if a firm increases its price, its sales will fall to zero as the buyers will buy from the other sellers who have exactly the same product.


If the price of substitutes is lower, then consumers will switch from the relatively dearer goods and services to the relatively cheaper goods and services.

. Perfect knowledge of the market. Both buyers and sellers know exactly what is happening in the market. For example, if prices change they are immediately aware of it.


QUALITY Consumers will gravitate towards the better quality products and may even be willing to pay more for them.


. Perfectly elastic demand curve. This indicates that the firms cannot control price but can sell any amount at the ruling price.

People differ in their preferences for goods and services so the marketer has to identify these preferences.

The Team from GC Foster emerged winners in the 4x800 Mens Relay at the JAAA/Puma/Jamalco Track Meet recently. The team received a prize of $20,000 from sponsors Flow. In the photo accepting the award from Jeanette Lewis, Public Relations Manager at Flow are Otaine Bartley, Ryon Reid, Andre Headley and Elton Whitely.


Some consumers are accustomed to spending a certain amount of money. If prices fall they may not spend any on those goods and services because they have already established a pattern of spending which they are not willing to change.

4 5 6

. Firms are independent. This means that they do not take into consideration what the other firms in the industry do.



Some of the key characteristics of perfect competition are:



The amount of money earned affects one’s ability to purchase goods and services. Therefore, some highly priced goods and services will only be purchased by the higher paid wageearners.


. Numerous buyers and firms in the industry. This means that neither one firm nor one buyer can affect the price in the market. Each is a price taker.

Consumers will adjust their demand for particular goods and services as the prices of them change. Generally speaking, the lower the price the greater the quantity demanded.

Long-standing traditions and customs may influence demand. For example, some households purchase Grace products because their mothers and grandmothers before them purchased this brand of products and they see no reason to stop.

examples of perfect competition in real life. However, some markets approach near to perfection. These include agricultural markets, stock markets and markets for foreign exchange.



Marketers often try to create loyalty for their products among consumers. The hope is that the customer will stay with their existing products because they have satisfied them for some time. Customers who are loyal to certain brands cannot be easily wooed or enticed away from these products since they are satisfied with them.

Definition This refers to market classification according to number of firms in the industry, type of product, the existence or non-existence of barriers to entry, and level or degree of competition.

m Definition m Characteristics or features m Advantages m Disadvantages m Short-run and long-run profits


Now we will consider another aspect of marketing – market structures. We will start the topic this week and continue it next week.


m Perfect competition m Monopoly

m Monopolistic competition m Oligopoly

Definition Perfect competition refers to a market structure in which there are numerous firms in the industry, each selling a homogeneous product. There are no real


. Very high levels of competition. Competition among firms is due to the fact that there are numerous firms selling exactly the same product, each competing for the same consumer demand. . No advertising. Advertising is not necessary since everybody sells the same thing. In the space of competitive and persuasive advertising, there may be a small amount of informative advertising.


Your task, in preparation for next week’s lesson, is to continue to look at perfect competition in terms of the headings listed above. See you then. Yvonne Harvey teaches at Glenmuir High School. Send questions and comments to



WHAT IS PEASANT FARMING? Peasant farming describes smallscale farming for subsistence as well as for cash sale in the market. Initially, small famers in the British Caribbean produced crops for domestic use as well as for sale in the market. However, after 1860 these farmers began to export their crops.


REASONS FOR DEVELOPING ALTERNATIVE CROPS 1. After 1834, small-scale agriculture grew out of the free-village movement as free blacks were determined to leave the sugar estates. Ex-slaves wanted to become independent of estate labour and to earn a living from the cultivation of small crops.


3. Ex-slaves squatted on Crown land. 4. Land speculators sold land to the ex-slaves. 5. The missionaries in Jamaica assisted ex-slaves in acquiring land.

GROWTH OF THE PEASANTRY Peasant farming was confined to territories where land was available for ex-slaves to acquire it. Large territories such as Jamaica, British Guiana and Trinidad had land available so ex-slaves were able to develop peasant farming. However, in these territories sugar was the main export crop. In the Windward Islands, sugar became unprofitable so new crops were cultivated. Land was available in the hills of the Windward 18

d. Government grants and loans were provided to improve the steamship service between Canada, the United States and the West Indies. For example, the government gave £20, 000 to Elders and Fyffe to carry 40, 000 bunches of bananas to England every fortnight. This assistance was to enable fruits and other foods to be transported quickly to the markets.


3. Peasant farmers were able to cultivate new crops as no large amount of capital or expensive equipment was required. Land was available and small plots could produce favourable yields. Markets were available locally and abroad for the sale of these crops.

2. Planters sold unused estate lands to the ex-slaves.

c. Botanical gardens were established to experiment with new varieties of seeds and to demonstrate new farming methods to small farmers, distribute plants and seeds, and organise courses in agriculture.

e. The price of land was reduced to encourage small farmers to purchase it for the cultivation of new export crops.

2. The decline of the sugar industry during the 19th century led to the cultivation of alternative export crops. Blacks needed to find new ways of earning a living. These new crops developed fastest from the 1890s when sugar prices slumped.

1. Ex-slaves pooled their resources to buy land (in the case of British Guiana).





1. Cocoa

Trinidad, Grenada, St Lucia, Dominica

2. Bananas


3. Rice

British Guiana

4. Limes

Dominica, St Lucia

5. Sea Island Cotton

Montserrat, St Vincent

6. Arrowroot

St Vincent

7. Coconuts

Trinidad, Nevis

8. Rubber

Trinidad, British Guiana

From left: Tifa, Pepsi Brand Manager Ayanna Kirton and Ce’cile hanging out at the Pepsi Blue Carpet celebrity party, held at Fiction Lounge, Market Place, Constant Spring Road on Thursday night, CONTRIBUTION OF THE PEASANTRY TO THE SOCIAL LIFE February 2. AND ECONOMIC LIFE OF THE CARIBBEAN Islands for cultivation of these new crops. In Antigua, St Kitts and Barbados the scarcity of land made it difficult to withdraw from plantation labour. The peasantry was slow in developing in these areas.

3. Small farming was encouraged and there was the suggestion of a landsettlement scheme. In addition, there should be the creation of banks to provide financial assistance to farmers.

The Royal Commission of 1896-7 made a number of recommendations encouraging the development of smallcrop cultivation in the British Caribbean.

4. There should be the improvement of communication, in particular with the steamers from New York.

RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE 1896 ROYAL COMMISSION 1. Diversification of crops, especially fruits. 2. There should be the establishment of agricultural departments and agricultural education in schools to help with the scientific cultivation.

COLONIAL GOVERNMENT POLICIES THAT ASSISTED THE PEASANTRY a. In the 1860s, the colonial office began to encourage local governments to allow black farmers to acquire land. In Trinidad, Sir Arthur Gordon took the lead in 1868 by beginning the sale of Crown land to freemen at low prices. In British

Guiana, the price of land was reduced so more blacks were able to acquire it. In other colonies, farmers were encouraged to buy wasteland from uncultivated plantations. In Grenada, sugar cultivation was abandoned so the number of small farmers increased by 1910. In Jamaica, the number of small farmers doubled in the period 18601910. In St Vincent, abandoned estates were given to arrowroot farmers. This was the colonial government’s effort to provide land to farmers through a landsettlement scheme. b. The Imperial Department of Agriculture suggested suitable crops to be grown in the different islands. It also aimed at introducing new crops in areas where sugar was not the ideal crop.


1. The peasant farmer class grew in number and importance as sugar plantation agriculture declined, so peasant production became vital to the economies of many territories, particularly in the Lesser Antilles. 2. Peasant farmers were able to improve their standard of living from the income earned from the sale of new crops. 3. The establishment of banks encouraged small farmers to save money earned from the sale of crops. Perhaps, later, this money was used to buy new equipment or more land. Debbion Hyman teaches at St Hugh’s High School. Send questions and comments to

Let’s get argumentative! yl:English Language


HIS WEEK we turn our attention to persuasive/argumentative writing. This lesson is particularly helpful in assisting you with section 4 of Paper 02. This section of the CXC English A paper tests your persuasive/ argumentative skills, so it is important that you master these areas.


Persuasive speech or writing aims at convincing the reader to agree with a particular viewpoint. It is supported by evidence and relies on persuasive devices to make its appeal. The main focus of persuasive language is the audience, reader or listener. So, what then are the elements that you need to consider? In persuasive discourse, the writer makes use of content, rhetorical devices, structure and language. All the choices are guided by consideration of the audience. Are you familiar with the following strategies writers or speakers use to persuade their audience?

m Use of evidence m Use of analogy m Use of contrast m Use of repetition m Use of reliable sources of authority m Appeal to emotion m Use of rhetorical question (a question which does not require a verbal response) m Direct personal appeal m Irony/sarcasm m Hyperbole (overstatement/exaggeration) m Pun (a play on words) m Metaphors and similes

There are many great public speakers whom you can emulate. Can you think of any who inspire you? Many of our politicians are quite skilful in persuading the electorate to vote for them; this was quite evident in our recent general election. What are some of the strategies from the list above that they employed?

have a dream. It is a dream rooted in the American dream.

Well, read the following extract taken from a famous speech by Dr Martin Luther King, Jr and identify the strategies employed in the speech:

I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit at the table of brotherhood.

I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment I still

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal.”

I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. ... I have a dream today. ... This is our hope. This is the faith with which I return to the South. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. Isn’t this a powerful speech? How many persuasive strategies were you able to identify? In next week’s class I will discuss a few strategies found in the extract. Until then, touch someone’s life by extending a helping hand. Natasha Thomas-Francis teaches at Glenmuir High School. Send questions and comments to



yl:Social Studies MAUREEN CAMPBELL

or to decide on the location of a new health clinic or jobcreation resources.

Demography & population studies


HE WORD demography comes from the Greek word meaning description of people. It is further defined as the study of human populations. In its extensive outlook, demographers will examine the size and composition of populations as well as the movement of people from one area to another. A demographer, as part of his job, will look at the effects of population growth and its control.


Demography is, therefore, the study of the characteristics of human populations, looking at various aspects of a human life. It relies a lot on statistical data, collecting, interpreting and presenting the information to determine trends. Most of the data used by demographers come from censuses taken every 10 years in most countries. Some areas looked at by demographers include information about basic life events like birth and death rates, migration, employment, divorce, contraceptive use, economics, access to running water, education, life expectancy, and the list goes on. These statistics are used by various individuals, groups and organisations in a variety of different ways.

There are many concepts and or terms associated with the study of human populations. These include fertility and fecundity, mortality and life expectancy, migration, crude death rate and crude birth rate.

FERTILITY AND FECUNDITY Fertility refers to the number of children that an average woman bears during her reproductive years – from puberty to menopause. Fecundity refers to the number of children an average woman is capable of bearing. Factors such as health, finances and personal decision will affect fecundity. Crude birth rate is the number of live births for every 1,000 people in a population. This is calculated by dividing the number of live births in a year by the total population and then multiplying the result by 1,000.


Demographers will always try to predict what will happen in the future as they need to avoid or plan for the future and potential problems. They may study why things happen and their consequences, including the effects of population trends on the environment. Having this information will help to determine how governments allocate their hard- earned funds and where and how resources will be used. It is very important for people to respond to surveys giving accurate answers at all times. This is because the analyzed results are often used, for example, to advocate for disadvantaged groups of people, to determine policies and decide where a new school will be built



Mortality refers to the number of deaths in a nation’s population; this will also greatly influence population size. The crude death rate or the number of deaths annually per 1,000 people in the population is calculated by dividing the number of deaths in a year by the total population and then multiplying the result by 1,000. Infant mortality rate is the number of deaths among infants under age one for each 1,000 live births in a year. A low infant mortality correlates with a higher life expectancy, which is the average lifespan of a society’s population.


FEBRUARY 14-20, 2012

MIGRATION Migration is the movement of people from one place to another to settle, which will affect population size. While some migration is involuntary, such as the slave trade into the Caribbean, other migration is voluntary, such as when families move from the rural areas to the cities. Migration into an area, such as from America to Jamaica is called immigration and is measured as the immigration rate, which is the number of people entering a region per 1,000 people in the population. Migration out of an area, or emigration, is measured as the emigration rate, which is the number leaving per 1,000 people in the population. Internal migration is the movement from one area to another within a country.

POPULATION GROWTH Fertility, mortality and migration all influence the size of a society’s population. Poorer countries tend to grow mostly from internal causes such as high birth rates. Richer countries, on the other hand, tend to grow from both internal causes and migration. Demographers determine a population’s natural growth rate by subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate.

ACTIVITIES a. Define demography. b. Why do we need to study the population of a country? c. What areas of a country do demographers usually study? d. Suggest to your government three reasons they must inform citizens of the need to be truthful on population surveys. Maureen Campbell teaches at St Hugh’s High School. Send questions and comments to

The digestive process


m Food is formed into a bolus or ball which the tongue pushes to the back of the mouth. m Digestion of the starchy material in the food is not complete because the food does not remain in the mouth for very long.


ELLO AGAIN, students. How are you this week? I hope all your days have been good so far and that everything is going well with you.


Last week we looked at the structure and function of teeth in preparation for our study of digestion. This week we will begin to look at the process of digestion. To do this properly you will need to know the different parts of the alimentary canal. This is the section of the body in which digestion takes place. You need to know the sequencing of the different parts as well as their names and functions. Do not be surprised if you are asked to label these parts in an exam. One advantage of getting this type of question is that this is one of the easiest sections of the syllabus to learn and remember. We will begin by taking a general look at the process and then a more detailed look at what happens in each section of the canal.

OESAPHAGUS The oesaphagus lies beside the larynx. The larynx is the tube leading to the lung. While the bolus is being swallowed the epiglottis closes the trachea to prevent the bolus from going into it. The bolus passes through the oesaphagus by alternate relaxation and contraction of its muscles in the walls. Do you remember what this movement is called? Of course, you do; you just read it! It is called peristalsis.

What happens to the food we eat and where does it happen? The alimentary canal is a long, muscular tube running from the mouth to the anus. The walls of the tube contain muscles which contract and relax to send food through its lumen. This movement is known as peristalsis. Along the tube at specific places there are special muscles which serve to block off the tube completely, causing the section that is blocked off to act independently of the others. These muscles are known as sphincter muscles. The alimentary canal also has special cells which secrete mucus. These cells are called goblet cells. Mucus helps the food to slide easily along the tube. The parts of the canal are: the mouth, the buccal cavity, the oesaphagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the small intestines, the large intestines and the colon followed by the anus. The process by which food is taken in to the buccal cavity through the mouth is known as ingestion. The food contains large molecules; remember that these large molecules cannot enter or leave the cell by diffusion. This means that they must be broken down into smaller molecules so that they can be absorbed. This process is known as digestion. After the food is digested, it has to be sent from the alimentary canal to the blood stream. This process is known as absorption. Food which cannot be digested and hence cannot be absorbed is egested. Two types of digestion take place in the alimentary canal. These are: m Mechanical This is carried out by the teeth and the churning actions of the canal.


m Chemical This involves a chemical change from one molecule to another, for example, large molecules converted to smaller ones using enzymes. Simple sugars, water, minerals and vitamins are small molecules and, hence, do not need to be digested. Starch, proteins and fats are large molecules and must be digested before they can be of use to the body. Starchy foods, for example yam, potato, cassava and bread are broken down/digested by the enzyme amylase/diastase to produce simple sugars. Proteins, for example milk, eggs and meat are broken down/digested by protein enzymes known as proteases to give amino acids. Lipids/fats, for example, butter and oil are broken down/digested to produce fatty acids and glycerol.


m Digestion begins in the buccal cavity – some textbooks will state that it begins in the mouth but the scientifically correct term is the buccal cavity, the mouth being the opening or entrance to the cavity. m Food is ground to a pulp by the molars and premolars. m Food is mixed with saliva produced by the salivary glands. m Saliva contains the enzyme amylase which begins the digestion of the starch in the food. m The pH of the solution in the mouth is neutral - pH 7. This pH is the one in which amylase works best. YOUTHLINK MAGAZINE | FEBRUARY 14-20, 2012

The sphincter muscles at the entrance to the stomach opens and the food is released into the stomach. The food remains in the stomach for two to three hours. Peristalsis continues and the food is mixed with enzymes and mucus to form a mixture called chyme. Mucus is secreted by the goblet cells.


m Protease enzymes – pepsin and rennin m Hydrochloric acid (HCl): v changes the pH of the stomach making it acid. v Kills any bacteria that might be in the food. m Pepsin – begins the digestion of proteins breaking them down into polypeptides. The pH required for pepsin is pH 1-2. This means that the digestion of starch will stop because amylase cannot work in an acid medium. m Rennin – produced in the stomach of young animals – changes the casein, the soluble protein in milk to caseinogen, causing it to become insoluble and clot. The clotted milk can now be broken down by the enzyme pepsin. The sphincter muscles at the lower end of the stomach now opens and food is released into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. Next week we will continue to trace the journey of food through the alimentary canal.

Monacia Williams teaches at Glenmuir High School. Send questions and comments to



Our focus: MARJORIE HENRY Contributor

HERE ARE three papers by which students are assessed in the geography examinations: Paper 01 - Comprising 60 multiple-choice items Paper 02 - Commonly referred to as the essay paper. Rather than continuous writing as in an English essay, this paper has constructed response questions. Paper 03 - The school-based assessment


Aspects of Paper 03 were discussed at the start of this series of lessons. By now, you should have completed and submitted this field study report which is assessed by your teacher. The marks for them are submitted to the examination office some time before you write Papers 01 and 02. My discussion this week focuses on Paper 02. This paper has four sections: A, B, C and D. Section A - which is Question 1 - is the compulsory map-reading question. For several weeks have I discussed some of the skills that you must have for this section of the paper. I hope you have taken my advice to practise them in order to perfect them and ensure a good mark for this question. The total marks for Paper 02 is 100. Of that, Question 1 is allotted the most marks: all of 28. Section B tests Natural Systems; Section C – Human Systems and Section D – Human-Environment Systems. In contrast to Section A where you are given one compulsory question, you have a choice of questions in Sections B, C and D. Three questions are given in each of these sections from which you

choose only one to do. Twenty-four marks are allotted to each of these questions. The one compulsory question of Section A and one question from each of the other three sections will give you a total of four questions, the required number of questions you must do in the examinations. With the aid of the available geography textbooks, this week I will begin some discussions on selected topics from Section A – Natural Systems. In reference to the syllabus, the broad topics listed in the content under Natural Systems are: 1. Internal forces 2. External forces 3. Rivers 4. Limestone environment 5. Coasts 6. Weather, Climate, Vegetation and Soil

2 r e p a p

My focus for this lesson will be on internal forces. What are they? These are forces acting beneath the Earth’s crust and resulting in the formation of the major relief features of the Earth. I could also mention here the second topic listed in the content: external forces – those that are constantly affecting the surface rocks.

To put things in perspective, I should first explain that changes are always taking place both beneath and on the surface of the Earth. There are many kinds of changes brought about by the action of two forces, namely:

(i) Tectonic forces (ii) Denudative forces Tectonic forces (tectonism) are internal forces and they encompass all the movements of the solid parts of the earth with respect to each other. They give rise to upheaval, subsidence, folding, fracturing and eruption. The features produced by tectonism, namely, folds and faults, are not usually seen until they have been exposed by the process of erosion. Denudative forces, on the other hand, are external forces that give rise to the etching, smoothing and polishing of the land surface; they destroy, carve and mould the major relief features to form such topographic features as hills, valleys, spurs and cliffs. From the broad topic of internal forces I am selecting aspects of crustal plates for our discussion. The earth is made up of three main layers: the core, the mantle and the crust. Our interest now is on the crust. The Dictionary of Geography informs us that the crust of the Earth is the outermost concentric layer of the Earth, varying between five and 40km in thickness. It is mainly composed of crystalline igneous rocks which crack when subjected to intense orogenic forces. (That is, forces responsible for the process of mountain building.) There are different types of crusts. These I will share with you in the next lesson. References: Dictionary of Geography Geology Made Simple - William H. Matthews Morphology and Landscape - Harry Robinson

From left: Professor Kahwa, congratulates the grade-10 champions Andre Maxwell (bronze medal), Cornwall College; Romario White (silver medal), Campion College; and Janielle Walters (gold medal), Glenmuir High School. 22


Marjorie Henry is an independent contributor. Send questions and comments to

CSEC Study Guide - Feb 14, 2012