Carl Russell Gross Manuscript B

Page 1

C HES

SKET

0 N

J\'El:G R OES

and

I

E VErTS

r"

I SLAND

RHODE

1 9 7 0

1 6 9 6

By

C A RL

PROV

B . G~R- 0 S S, M. D.

IDE

N CE,

R. I.

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G B OS

FROVIDZI:CE

1 9

/F

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BY

C P. R L

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S L A"'N'JD J

S , .!.:. D.

, R . I.

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Ir ACKNON'LEDMENTS A

I ~-hould like to acknowledge the many people who have so kindly contributed in _numerous ways to have made this effort a most interesting one by telling me of people, events, giving me materia l s uch as books, medals , persona l note-books etc ., knowing of my interest in the his tory of the Negro in Rhode Island. some of which I should like to personally mention . Newspaper clippings Providence Providence Baltimore l'tl((i

scrap

book.

Journal

Evening Bulletin Afro-American

ir~~"1\,,,

History

from the Gross family

Sunday and Daily

on Madame Sissieretta Chroniirle

Rhode Isl and state

Library

Providence

Association

Rhode Island

Joynor Jones

Low-v~{;<

of the Providence

Medical

Council

Rhode Island

Historical

Rhode Island

College

by William

on Legislature

D. Viilet,

Lib r ary

of Churches Society on Negro Graduates

Rhode Isl and Bar Journal

Vol xv Biography

on '"-'illiam

The early life of the Colored People of Providence Angell and Company, Providence, R. I. 1883 Kegroes

on the Island

Editor

and Law

of Rhode Island

by Charles

A. Heathman Esq . by William

A. Battle,

J.

Brown

1932

Sketch of the Life of Goerge Thomas Downing, by S . A . M. ''.'ashin gton, Newport , R. I. The Milne Printery, 1910 t4i-.:\,,Vj~o

Brown University Direct ory~AGra duates from Brown and Pembroke up to 1950, library of William A . Rea thman, Esq . Hand written notes on Negro Churches in Rhode Island by Mrs. Ulysses T. carter, Sr., assisted by Mrs. Beverly Tinsley,(Tercentenary mate~ i l rial. ) "These Plantationa" by J. Earl Clauson Eve Bul 2-1-3 5 Oldes t Negro Church? Newport Gardner •s Life by J . Earl Clauson, Prov Jour 5-20-36 The personal note-book of Miss Reberta J. Dunbar with dates of lectures in Rhode Island on the Negro. Given to me by Mrs . 'I' . D. Wiley, former matron at the Bannister House, 45 East Transit Street, Prov.

CK


C HR ON OL OG I CA L

N OT E S

0 N

NEGROES

EVENTS

ND

A

I N

ISLAND

R H OD E

1 9 7 0

1 6 !, 6

B

CARL

R.

PROVIDENCE

y

, M. D.

GROSS

,

R. I.

r


FRO" FILES ON N&iRO HISTORY IN RHODE ISLAND ON ART CHURCHES CLUBS AND ORGANIZATIONS DENTISTRY EDUCATION INVENTORS LAW LEGISLATURE MEDICINE MILITARY NURSES PHARMACY PRESS MIS CE

G, ·"'

\(

\

"


INTRODUCTION in history was at the age of ten, in 1898 when I interest MY first the Providence Evening Bullet in to arrive , could hardly wait.for of bat my pa r en ts to finish reading mt so I could cut out pictures to pa ste in my own scrap book . tleships mainly abou t the articles There was a family s cr ap book containing have been tr a nsferr ed to my Negro which I read. Many old clippings in my lat er refiles which have been a great source of interest search. In 1935, when Governor William H. V1;1nderbilt announced the first Committee, there was to the Rhode Isl a nd Tercentenary appointments so at the request and sug gestion of the Provi Negro ere presentation, dence branch of the NAACP, the following were a dded:- Joseph G. Lecount, Esq., Mi ss Reberta J. Dunbar, Dr. Andrew L. Jackson , Sr ., Sr ., Dr. earl R. Gross of Providence , Mrs. Mrs. Ulysses T. carter, Mr. Leroy Williams and Mr. William H. Hilton of Beverly Tinsley, Newport. The group met at Miss Dunbar•s home on December 11, 1935 to orga Many sug gestion were nize and plan the scope of t he ir activities. but the one having the great est appea l was to have difpresented such as ar t, l aw, leferent members wri te on various categories clubs teachers pharmacy, nursing, gisla tors, medicine , dentistry, etc and to compile and publish a pmi,a~l et on the History of the Mr. Lecount was named to serve as chairNegro in Rhode Island. I have all the corre~poddenee ~~eP man and Dr. Gross, as s e cretary. (1970). st ill in my possesion, taining to this effort was not forth coming from the general comassistance Financial mittee altho they thought well of the project due to lack of money, so the ef fDrt slumped . from the great amount of material became intensified My interest I began to research and that was coll e ct ed so in the late fifties to compile the follo wing infammetion. authenticate earl R. Gross , M. D. Providence , R. I. 1970 Notes The Chronological for • statement liability Files

on: -

on the Negro i n Rhode Island denies any of facts or , opinions by contributors

ART CHURCHES CLUBS ORGANIZATIONSDENTISTRY LAW EDUCATION INVENTORS LEGITSIATUREMEDICINE MILITARY CY PRESS NURSES MISCE PHARl!A

'

(

c..


II

ACKNON LEDG NENTS Address by William P.H. sity of the Emancipation Top) Church, Providence,

Freeman, January l, 1937, Annual Anniverat the Beneficean t con gregational (Rounft R. I. Providence branch of the NAACP.

A Tercentenary History of 300 Years, Winfred R. Cyr,(c) Eve Bul 10-8-36.

arranged

end illustrated

by

Personal notes on Negro Churches in Rhode Island by Mrs. Ulysses Carter, Sr., assisted by Mrs. Beverly Tinsley. 1936.

T.

A scrap book of press releases all over the United States and Canada, three gold medals out of seventeen she wore( 1in concert, six photographs, a flyer of the Galifornia tour belo~~ng to Madame Sissierette Joynor Jones, "The Black Patti" given to me by William P. H. Fre eman and I in turn presente d all to the Jesse E. Moorland Collection, Howa rd University, Washington, D. c., also a short history on the life of Madame Jones as I knew her. CRG 161st Anniversary program of Bethel AME Church, 1795-1956, the first Negro church in Providence, R. I., with church history inside cover. Negro Churches in Rhode Isl a nd before 1860 by Robert Rhode Island History, January 1966.

Glenn Scherer,

Jl'.,

original minute book of the first Quarterly Conference of the ~ME of the Zion connection formed by Jehiel Bemone, Sept. 2nd 1837. Below on the same page informent Sister Catherine Chesbrew of how the church started.

\,"'-'""""'b.,_/

Anti-Negro Prejudj _ce and Discrim9,tion in Rhode Island, 1860-1900 by Jean Girard, (RICTT Jil'.iS.tlDJ!Y Honort), June 7, 1966. A great amount of infcr mce information was g iven to him by Carl R. Gross, M. D. See ttis paper. History of Negro Masonary the Most Worshipful Eureka the s tate of Rhode Isl a nd, cal Sketch. Printed by the I., 1907. Encl

in Rhode Island from the proceedings of Grand Lodi;e, Free and Accept ed ~las ons of fr om 1902 to 1906, includi ng a HistoriMeiecury Publishing Compa ny, Nevip ort, R.

Letter of appoint ment of a Ne, re , roup to the Rhode Isl and state Tercentenary Committee and the minutes of th a t group by earl R. Gross, M. D., secretary, 1935-1936


III

INTERVIEWS William A. Heathman, Esq. * Many times v1hen he was 94 years old after a prof essional visit I would sit and talk at his home and he would tell me about his d isap pointments as well as his achievements; about the first four members of the Rhode Island General Assembly,( see file on them ),how one was not too vocal, he was a li atener , so the Speaker at the end of the session would give him a nod, he would address the chair saying, Mr. Speaker, ""I move the House do now adjourn"; He tole me of a slave who was shipped North who became the coachman for l!.r . corlis)!' of the Corlis)S steam ensine company and was called, Vlilliam "'Boxpeel 11 Jones; about being thrown off a trolley car by a condu cilor who had recently come here from the South, J!.r. Heathman was talk,i, n, ing wi th the son of the judge who tried the case, who had correct information about the case, ( This and more are in an article of the Rhode Island Bar Journal on Mr. Heathman, June 1967, Vol xv No 9 ); About Mr. Monroe, a walking encyclopedi a on Rhode Is land I.aw, who finished his la w course in tow instead of three years, plus many more facts about the Negr o here . ( Bar Journal enclosed ), He was the Republican member of the Rhode Island state Returning Board, now the State Board of Elections, from 1903 to 1919. Mrs. Florence West 1•1ard *, the oldest living member of Bethel AME. Church, age 95, now residing at the Bannister Hous.e who told me about the s ub -cellar in the church which was a station of the Underground Railway in Providence . Bethel was the first church in Providence, 1795- 1961 when it was sold to Brown University. The members bought another church where they are now, 1970, how there first building was built by the male members, had oo mottgage when finished and owbme not a penny. I was tole her mother allowed her to play only with certain children, d id not allow her to wash dish es or her clothes, bring ing her up as a lady, changing her clothes twice daily , (This was told to me by Mrs . James A Gilbert.) Mrs •• James Gross;, nee Margare t west , another Bethel , telling me about its past . Mr. year ber, had and was

of the

older

members of

Sidney Brown ;,who gave me an an niversary pro gram oft the 161st with a wonderful ht st ory of Bethe l AME Church. He was also a memhow he worked for Mr. Peter Sims, a member , an ash remover who h is men screen ashes from east side homes, pick out the clinkers sell by the bushel basket . During financial stress, Bethel Church heated on a Sunday by many busfuels given by Mr, Sims.

Mrs . James A. Giihbert ;, of Providence, t told me about the Neptune Yacht Club on the west side of the bay; "The Inquirers Club" which met for discussions on current subjects; "Contraband", a term used for slaves · who has fled North, who were housed in barracks at camp Fremont, (Dexter Training Ground) where whites would come to engage their services until they had permenant jobs; about the old Indian Burial Ground at Thayer and Ol ive Streets , how for progress, the bodies were exhumed and re-buried ou t ar&d the North Burial Ground; X

;, Native

born Rhode Islander

continued


IV INTERVIEll'S Mrs. Gilbert c ontinued Zebedee Howland, his Indian name was Howling Lands was her gradn-father on her mother•s side, she had his commis.:ton as Sargeant-Major of the 14th Rhode Isl an d Volunteers, Heavy Artillary, an all Negro Regiment in the Civil War, (1 800), signed by Colonel Viall and Adjun t Whit ing, commisioned officers white , non-cornmisioned officers Negro; Zebedee Howland as a chmld went to a school for colored children and meeting his teacher,(white) on the street, he raised his hat to him, for this he was rebuked by him and told if he did that again, he would thrash him, (Prov Sun Jour). Joseph G. Lecount, Esq., of Providence who gave me the names and dates of admission to the Rhode Isl and Bar befo re h is, May 5, 1914. He said in cases of discrimanation, there was a small fine on the books and instead of sin no more, the owners of buisnesses would gl ad ly pay the fine and sin again. Now there is a Commissio n on Human Rights, the successor to the old State Commis s ion on Discrimanation which puts more teeth in the act. He spoke of many cases that woul d be ready to go to trial and the c omplai ntant or witnesses . would back down because of fear of loss of their job or retaliation in some form. Oliver c. Nurton of Newport tellfun g of helping to carry an x-ray machine belonging to Dr. Marcus F. Weath l and also of Newport who had onr of the first x-ray machines in the state. He promised Charles A. Batt l e of Newport who wrote in his pamplet of the x-slaves who fought in the Battle of Rhode Island that he would work to establish a suitable memorial to their memory. Thirty years later this was culmated on July 4, 1967 near the site of that famous battle, sponsered by the Newport NAACP , State, Veterans organizations and Por ts mouth officials. Walter S. Gladding tole.. me of his boss, an orthopedic surgeon here in Providence used to borrow Dr. Wheatland •s tube when his tube was bad. George Reilly, idence, R. I., Lanford fight,

supertendent of the RISPCA, 372 Fountain Street , Provt old me the stories about Sarah Gardne r and the Scottabout the pl aque in homor of Sarah Gardner.

Mrs. Percival G. Moore-Browne saviour, Providence, R. I. Mr. Luke N. Fears, God ancl the saints

on the history

of the Church of the

a member who gave me a history of Christ, Providence , R. I.

of the Church of

Mrs . Geoni:e Farrow~(Annie Perry) who tibil,d me of many happen in gs of the Algonquin Council and her father •s farm on Dugaway Hill ,Cr anston

*

Nat ive born Rhode Isl ande r


1

I:c,ss .

Boston,

and Spring

ner of !.'.ill

it

::hereas

there

forever

; tor

be ordered

the that

preventin{;

of such

no black

longer

than

of age , i f they

ten

years

bee taken

and be -

or the sales

Gene r a l

city

mankind

sembly : "

or slave s

them for

service

practice

amoni: us , let

, to serve

assii;n -

any man or his they

fourteen

brr

twenty

it

by

or white , bein{; forced

or until in under

J;

amon(i En1;;lishmen

pr1c.cticed

rnt.y have

c o:venant , bond or otherwise ees,

by the

they

so that

Baptist

.

i.1:.s enacted

is a common custom

to buy negt.rs

cor -

Foin t , now the

Grave.cly

at

the

one at

bee me overcrouded

they

were better

times

Ir. ]'.&y of 1652,

nnd

second

l'orth

at

another

Streets,

were kept

they

until

dock,

If

s.

Thames Street came slow,

of be -

Ne\' port

in l'ewpo rt,

sl&ve mcrkets

r'.ere several

There

of 3

streets

.

s . C. , third

Charlestor,

the

Briston,

in America,

market

slave

chief

came the

a tax

thnt pave

in 17?-2 .

repealed

bein.;

later

Newport , this

to help

A

.

a htcalthy

me.le , 95 for

so large

SLle

on each

v:ns levied

pounds

became

trade

slave

the

made rum there

port

m1c.de their

c. benlthy

for

pL id 115 gallons

slaver female,

cc.rgo

dny sail -

tLe next

::ore than 25 distilleries

180 sL ips

and over

in r:ewport

B'..I ., and

rar t of the

overni.;ht,

stc.yeJ

ship

the

.

ariece

30 or 40 pounds

,,,as unloLJed, ing for

of re1.:ro

eurgo

first

hen the

in ~1ev port , R . I. , from BarbaJoes,

for

sold

as

1696

Rho:le ISlc.nd

ir.to

ar1 ived

slcives were

accept

Historians

1696 -

of slavery

introduction

of the

year

the

four

, from the

yea r s

time

of


2

comings ten

v,ithin

years,

vants . sell

to set

liberties

to the

m11n that

Colonie

legislalation

slavery

1730 - The earliest

census

their

to America

to gain

captain

caleb

helped

to teach

m:csic lessons

had surpassed where

of the

an education

Rev . Dr . Hop.ins,

3916 whites number

) 1745 - 1826

instead

to bring

he v!as sold

rerson

made it

.

possible

After

to

1:rs . Gardner for

him to take

who came from Boston

maintaining

six

months

and he

a room on High Street

to some of the to be his

in America , en -

Ship ' s captain

him French .

religious

agains t

opportunities

but

own on Pope street

was a very

declaration

shoved

t•arycoo

teacher

lessons

shall

was 71936 , 1648 Nei,roes

age 14 to a white

teacher,

hee or they

( RJD )

( 0ccramer

a woman of colour

home of his Gardner

his

he guve music

He took

.

of the great

tau¡h:b

ser -

or sha 11

1730 - 1860 , )

Gardner , a sympathetic

one of her fr i ends

of English

2a by John C. l'.inkins,

tions

him En~lish,

end of

( CAB- ".'Pl!F )

in Providence,

from a white

the

them go free

time,

of Rho1e Island

Gardner

son,

let

,ositive .

69352 whites

hearing

and at

pounds . "

chart

dis tributa

1735 - The ropu l ation

trusted

not

a bng

Colonies

( see

and 936 Indians, 1745 - Newport

,1ill for

Colonie

in the manner

was the first

and 128 Ne.;roes .

His parents

as

, forty

by any of the

and percentag;e

of the

them free

Pnd that

them av'ay to others

forfeit This

the

wife,

leading

families

had children

.

and a

. man who came under

paster

of the

First

the

influence

Con,ragationa

l


3

continued

Gardner

1745 - }'ev·port

in Newport wto lis t ene d to h i s dre ams and ga ve him en -

Church

the

funds

so he v1ith 23 others

left

helped

Society

to incre ase

chief

and his

tte

"Pr omise"

composed an en them, ed in Boston

copy in ex ist en c e

M,S

n.nor.r... ti

( These Borden,

l 75i?z rs tience ~1

a will

-

. The only known

churches

I 0 1Lnd of Rhode rsLnd)

on the

or white , the state

"One of the most remarkab l e men, black

s h<-:2

of 50 , he

of the v:idN.' · of Dr . Alonza

hLnJs

in the

(CAB "e..;roes

to Afr ic a n

victom

most fsmmus of many , rublish

and sun:; in many t/egro

!.' . Vun --:orne .

ye3 r . He

81st

At the age

l .

arriva

their

4,

Bos ton , ,Taruary

lPft

JJubia fe ll

Salmer

lieuten['nt,

dy i n~ so on after

ti on

in Boston ,

arrivin.:;

6 , 1826 i r: his

Liber ia February

1826 , re ach in·

of the Afri can Coloniza Nev·port,

"Vine"

The brii:;

1825 .

18,

December

which v1on ::)2000 . 00 ,

ticket

a lottery

oth ers bought

nine

He with

fever

and to

to h is homeland , he nev er for g ot h i s nati ve l aunca~e .

r e turn

this

t s v,ere

freedom

his

music

help in .; tiis peop le , rel i .;ion , sacred

of

Uni on Con,re -

G~rdner •s i,.teres

in 1859 .

Churc h in Newport

.;a tional

of the

forerunner

, the

scene

was the

Gardner ' s home on Pope Street

cou r agemen t .

many r·El i ~iou s meetings

Eve Bul 2 - 1- 35 J .E . Clauson)

J-lLntations

woman of colour

a free

1758-1811,

l e ft

.;'q

dated

of' v1hich

)la rch

for

be members

colour

v100 shall

Church

ir: America . "

( RhoJe

the

of ind ieent

relief

of her

the

as a fund,

l '!l, 181 1. ... . ..••.

to be applied

church,

She died

April

I land

'listory,

1,

the F irst

18 11 in her "'inter

interets

persons

of'

l?hptis t 53rd

year .

1869 , p 26

Gk.c _ P.' I


4

1760 - The last

slave

to die

in Rhode Isl and was ,James :Suffum ,

of Jamestown , R . I.,

age

100 years

on ,TGnuary 3 , 1860 .

Eve Bul 2-1 - 35 J . Earl 1763 - The f irs t scLool

for

colored

Rev . Marmaduke

the

rector

corner

Browne,

of Division

were

given

boys

receiveJ

smiths,

the

and r:ary

rudiments

carpenters,

Gilbert

coopers

etc .

Thurston, his

first

the

school

until

the

1785 , closing under sole

purpose

dren .

rt

a board

of directors

. Newpor t Gardner

to be secretary wer;t

on with

over

education

Rev.

Hopk i ns 1,on g o int

which bers slave anJ

varying

members,

was elected

success

until

Benevolent

church

ho l diers Episcopalians

voted

ar;d in this

a set

five

Society

colored

chi :J_ -

of officers

of whom shall

President fifty the

in

and

cents City

Issac

yearly

, be Rice

and

of Newport

took

( CAB )

down to the

him to preach

After

1799 .

in 1842 .

caused of his

14,

i ng a schoo l for

. The schoo l char~ed

.

on by !!rs . 1:ary

call i ng for

of nine

men -

by trade

in painting

of the African

had a Constitution

pamrhlet

Revoibihtt6rn , , re - opened

Apr il

was maintain

Girls

to black -

in his

was carried

of the

the

work while

and a cooper

lessions

death

the ausrices

whose

colored

outbreak

upon her

B&tcle

by the

at

of 1763 .

und domestic

a slave

Stuart,

opened

Church

October

of elucation

Rev . Browne •s death, G. Brett

of' Trinity

Streets,

Clauson)

v,as openel

cluss - room work und were apprenticed

tio ns tha t Neptune gave

children

stron1;;ly to exclude cause

wharves,

saw such

agc:inst all

he ,;as

slavery

member¡s that joined

by the

conditions that

mem-

were Quakers

.

6Rr

I'.

JJ


5

Rev . Hopkins

1770-

was the father

and Christainizing

Africans

as missionaries

.

the

of his

out-grouth

mulatto

or In J i an slave

the war with shall

Great

be entirled

Britain,

that all

in the

is further

listing

shal

service voted

cumbered slave

tain

himself or his

law , the property made for

the

loss

" It was further pa id by this sum according an l twenty tion

for

by sickness

a slave

continuance

of

so enlisted

to any sold!ler

every

from his thouzh

soldier

Col onel

by the

And ':,hereas

of their

services

slaves

master

owners

be unable State

en -

to mcin -

, not his

mas -

have been deemed by ou ¡ht to be

That there

for

every not

the mos t valu&ble value .

been

."

worth , a price

of less

or mistress

and in case

compensation

and r¡ esolved,

to the

so en -

Christopher

he had never

or otherv1ise

owner,

for

Ne.:r o ,

to enter

wa:;es and encour -

that before

as

of their

to his

slave

Con:;ress

be supported

.

State

the

of servi tudte or slavery

voted

pounds

muster

free,

, he shnll mistress

every

jischarged

any kind

shall,

may enlist

bounties,

and resolved,

be absolutely

such

of Rhode

ab le bodied

during

Continental

upon passing

with

was

."

Greene , be immediately and shall

State,

to receive

a llowe d by the

to Africa

Society

Assembly

every

to serve

enlisted

ter

"That

in this

azements

them back

Colonizing

the General

and resolved,

of two battalions,

of civilizing

( CAB )

of 1778,

voted

" It

Af rican

i dea .

Island,

either

and to send

The first

In February

1778-

of the idea

be allowed

exceedinl'. slave

(continued

and

s l a,ve enlistine;, one hunlred

c:nd in propor on p 6)

a


6

1778 - Provided, list

him,

the

be entitleJ These

clothes

of said

armed

of the

services

soldiers

by the Nation

of the

first

in the

their

taking

a toll 0

of his

battle in~

its

leader, Pr idr,e,

150th

annivers· at

that

in stone Jir.

to

life

Point

ted,

Oliver

These

le ad his

of the

the

the

Taylor at

enlisting

an J follow -

Battle

of

In Au~us t of 1928,

Newport thL.t

he, th8

of Newport , 39 years •s Brid&e

day for

Afte r th i s cc•~l

South

was made that

A . Battle

Barker

next

of Rhode Isl1ond

of' the

and

The Hessian

to a mrn in the 1781.

Battle

more than

Hessians

.

was sent

memory of Colonel

a memorial,

o•nay

men in battle

out

C . Burton , Jr .,

estcblish

the

so

1778 at

and free,

lost.

a sue; ·estion

or bronze,

slaves

R . I.,

State

forma -

fought

29,

man they

J!ay 13,

Charles

A.

into

to the

which

August

to be transferred

wes wiped

ry

}!e ·ro

vrithstE.nding

Greene •s reg;iment

time

4 , 1967 a site

first

with

was in the

in America

every

and asked

N. Y.,

such

the

of equality

of the

men both

for

NtACP promised

Erich

were

and accepted

Plantations

ability,

of five

, Gener1:,l

c ontributation

of Rhode Isl and,

fig;hting

r rrfused

offic fear

Assembly

on terms

Negro ret:iment Battle

R. I .

proved

not

( CAB )

and Providence

Portsmouth,

General

country

ma,jor

of the

who en -

he shall

.

177 8 - The first

tion

officer

or otherwise

to be received

of Rhode Isl,.nd

bravely

slave

to the

sum" .

created

history

other

owner sh1:,ll deliver

to said

regiments

in the the

tbe

the

was celebra

the

State

-

honor

Greene ' s re giment . chapter odd aid

of' the

v;ork to help of Senator

la t e:er on July was dedicated

.

(,(cO')c;,

P,dv


8

172:' - llomes .

Gardner·

Hopkins , the

pastor

Newrort , also Afr· ic2n

twelve

men met at

of the

Union

24,

l:'.eetin,:;

Gardner

their

tion1electin:; Rev . J.'.r. Fctten

v:ere a,. ointed

(white)

to find

and on this

the

fi r st

site

June 23,

Rev . JBcob

Baptis

services

t Ueetini:;

there

r arragansett church

land .

Charles of the

1863 , the a council,

for

"' . Gardner

Sunday

and Divis ion Streets

Church

was built

its

the

under

Fncler

comxunity

and de -

from

1826 - 1845

acquired

the

"Old Salt

Box with

laws

stressed

Benjamin aspect

was re - ir corpora

church . In the

fall

Ch, rch , Newport , R . I .

of

1845 - 1852 and under the

Con 6 rega tional

,

pc,stor,

Rev . Luke '"aldron

from

}.'.arch 29 , 1859 as an orthodox

it

Their

served

, 1852 - 1858,

School .

lost

c l er k .

a church . They purchaseJ

of 1835 . pas tor

-

the

Fayerweather

in 1835 they

wc.s incorporated:

church

deacons,

Ishmael

}:ouse , called

next

Union

, :Ahama Gardner,

Colored

in February vms the

him the

tance

Hawkins,

of Church

quarters,

6 , 1824 , a~ain

Colored

1824 in Newport , R . I.

their

in 1819 ,

in a Ne~ro organiza

C . Per·r-y of rarra:;ansett,

outgrov:ing

Fourth

the

in

formation

in Frovidence,

aJvantages

a site corner

of Rev .

Church

by the

on ,Tanuary

tree.surer

the

and

Eouse

Hamrcond and

a lot , l OOx60 at

dicated,

Inspired

and Shadrack

Turnbridge

influence

Con:rel';ational

' s house

were

Gurdner

Rice,

First

1824 . The;, es tn blished

Church , feelin,

Issac

co,ne unJecr the

j

bec2me a member .

of the

on Fs bruary

he

of Rhode the

Is -

inpor -

Lynch , 1858 -

, recoinizecl

by

Congre:;a tional ted

as

the

Union

,,12 .,_

r

h

("--

J


9

work

on the

stone

laid,

Rhode

the

ish

McKinley

"'i lliam

President

the

L . Miller, debt

~hen

every

aebt

had been

paid

for ; Rev . A.

Lincoln Religion, England merged

University Fh . D.,

under

but¡

Fa . , Yale

Brown University

U. Gunner ; Rev .

United

being

church in

University

dwindled

Congregational

in

1917 ,

made and from

a '.'ra 1ua te

, LL . D Cambridge

The church

in 1908 .

service

; the

scholar,

, oxford,

.

st . Thomas , Dan -

to

,ri th many improvements v:as the

name of the

appo i n t ed by

hen he 1 ft

T . Peters

, and many others the

191~,

remove i,

Consul

diplomatic

financier

ablest

he c"me in

creat

s. the

i ears

three

for

served

were : Rev . Byron

followini;;

Among some ministers Clifford

as U . from

, resigning

Indies

West

elected

School;

Normal

upon bein~

pastorate

his

1873 to

one CJf the

also

in 1885,

lei;;islatuxe

Island

in

in c i vie

from

Committee

State

-

was dedicated

l committees, the

for

he resigned

in 1897,

and

of severs

on examination

committee to

chairman

being

1892,

with

corner

the

was active

Rev . van Horne Newjllort School

work , a member of' the

was demolished

new church

the

1871 anJ

.

following

October

the

15,

June

under

in !.lay,

commenced

which

new e 1iface,

Lin -

from

grew emormously

church

the

. In 1871,

pastor

as

29 years

his

Pa . The church

Oxford,

in

Universitt(

coln

January,

in

to graduate

class

first

of the

1869 . He was a member

1863

acting

as

next

v•as made permane nt

of 1868 anJ

in September

pas tor

came in

Harrison

Rev . Samuel

Rev . J!Ialon A . van Horne

in 1865 .

and resigned

in a newly

a chaplain

become

to

pastor War.

Civil

j_n the

rei:;iment

as

resigned

Rev . Lynch

chuxch?

Pegro

An older

1783 -

of

school Colle.;e, and

in

1964 ,

Church ,.


10 1781 - The Rhode

Island

Re;_;iment

Batt l e of Rhode

Island,

Au,•ust

the

This

Act was later

upon

the mother

and

of 1824

in the

colonia sion the

and early tional

House and

Gammell

of Brown l-niversity

Church

embraced

Church

(white)

tier§

of thEc Union

also

gave

tbe

man was born

1866 ..

died in ~'ewport, life,

Church

. Later

Con.;;regational

church

its

first

and

CAB

First

(l'e.;ro)

pos -

which J'HD

in 1792 in his

to l'evTort the

he was one of' the Church

with

in !(&rragansett

koined

other

as

in the

of Nev.port

He was brouc::ht

relii;ion

possesion

are

in 1964 ,

merged

Church,

.

as well

records

These

Ne;_;roes .

a free

vms in the in Newport

was

sermon

the

l\leeting

T·nion Congregational

1792 - IsaE,c Rice,

in April

v,as held

servdices

Baptist

Con.,;re..;ational

United

Service",

Thanks,:iving

Froclamation

of

to members

Gardner

these

CAB

.

traffic

this

in

engaged

the

imported

person

every

for

with

trading

as

as ~ell

slave

v;illiam

about

l records of the

of

Cont;ree:a tional

Union

a child

, the

provisions

a "Slaves

for

Thanksc:iving

The orit:inal of the

Fourth

by Professor

preached

of rearing

by Newport

out

The l ast

28 , 1791.

April

cost

its

under

ship

each

Society

l'.nion

African

ed -

res iJed .

they

c,:,"

of 100 pounds

was sen];

1791 - A call the

born and

in which the

put

to

was abolished

for

pounds

1,000

towns

C!B

support

their

be free,

in 1787,

. A fine

Indies

children

' s owner .

State

in the

trade

1781.

the t all

by the

amended

passed

1787 - An Act

May 13th,

rrovided to

at

out

v·iped

were

1778,

New York,

1784,

1st , 1784 were

to be provided

uca tior

·vest

in

passed

!,'arch

after

Brid..;e,

of Feint

Battle

1784 - Ai: act

of Ne.:;roes 29th,

the

at

who foui;ht

Con~rega -

Chanter"@lerti and

its

clerk

~

organ .

/2(,05

P •


11

Isaac

1792 -

A i:;,adner of Eev,port

the

in the

Frederick ford,

of

L9ter

in Touro

Park

his

from

long

the

caterini.;

on Cotton

Court

a i:;re· t reunion

and

acquaintance

the

South

ii'

, (still

buisness

of' the

the

fr ·iendship

Reilroad

an:l Thomas Strerts

to

.

His at

in the

with

of New Bel -

Nev•port

home the

femily)

were

and Daughters

the

es cater

of' ~·evport

1795 - The African

100 Y8 rs

In 1795,

other

only

first

and

streets,

Cushing

purchesed

a lot

'.)aniel

.

l'orze

incorporate.]

in various the

193 J.:eetir.g

In September and

south,

Ichabod

as Bethel

est

Pc,rthup

l and

met Eetltodist

join, .d

It v,a s

s . C. controled

in 1ihole ,

Episcopal

and

v·here

fifteen

it

- (!,:other) Md . , Bethel

a tenement

corner

Street,

of' 1838,

African

bodies:

Hethodist homes,

7

ir. !.'· y,

1800,

in Charleston,

African

ed

in 18 9 .

of Bethel

in Bu l timore,

ov,ned , operate the

develor

R . I . , was f'o· nded

Episcopal

and Emanuel

met

at

ar.d in

Fa . , "'ethel

reero,

later

incorporation

Pethodist

org1,nization,

The members

r.hich

of' Providence,

mis.s ion

.f.frica.n

N . Y.,

American

v1as built

' s Society

the

in Fhiladelphia,

in New York,

by the

be!ore

,.c:s a free

it

four

Bethel

the

Freedn;,.n

A , !. , E , Churc'.,

"lethel

exactly

,.iti.

ir

CAB

1859 .

into

.

a fashionable

he and ')ownine

Sons

he planned

.

formin.;

Fnder..;round

lead in{;'. families

Gibbs,

there

escape

b, c· me a life

''illiam

the

Governor

cause,

after

of the

he entered

for

sou,e of

for

unti - slnvery

1

tablishment rs

trees

r,:c.ss . , which

for

v,orking

')ougluss,

wes a station corner

c or.t · nued he v orked

and while

und ,.lunted worker

A , Rice,

by trcJe,

at

in 1820 a c bnrch

persons

, or1;;anized Episcopal

led ard

Church . Thay r 0

they of' logs by in 1839,

Church .


pag e/:fJ\S Negro t h e first 1797 - Hir a m Lodg e, No . 3, F . & A . M., (Pri nc e Hall), lo dg e 2[ Mas on in Rhod e Isl a nd, was gi ven lic e nse on th e 25th ma s t e r of Afric a n Lod g e, No . of J un e, 179 7, by Pr i nc e Hall, 4 59, to assemb le and wor k as a l od g e. Th is wa s t he s e c ond Negrm l odg e cr ea t ed in th e Unite d St a t e s th e offic e rs were ins t a ll ed by Prin ce Hall, Gr a nd Mas t e r ., Sep t emb e r 22 , 17 97 . (Fro m t he proc eed in g s of t h e I.lost Wor ah i p f ul Eur eka Gr a nd Lodge , Fr ee and Acc ep t ed Maso ns of t he Staoe of Rhode Is l a nd, from 19 02 to 1906 , in clu d i ng a Histo r ica l Sle tc h , Prin t ed by t h e Mercury Publish i ng Compan y, Newp ort , R. 190 7. ) I.,

17 97 -

Harv ey Chac e, 17 97,

Cha c e .

"'uff' i ng ton

thon ; Eli z abeth

E&rv ev ; Samue l B · Aseneth

; and

of' the

1·r,d r -round

t:,e

rnder

stutions

Cou l d she

i n R.

r.,

lSB l . )

Beder ·rou nd R. R .,

and p 1 65

home of' Eliz abet h Buf'fu n Cha c e , l i sted

is

•:,hich

of' the

li ved

i n valley

J.:rde r ·rou nd Railr

be t he s i s t e r or siste

,

sta -

c:.s '-' stat

i on of'

-roc nd .

Bot h named Cha c e ; b oth v ere

a sef'ewav

iv e !'en

Pub :; Co . , fro v .,

en p 163 i s shov n a map of' the i s sh own a p ict ure

home being

of' '1epresertrt

of' the

; r2 r y ; ,Tona -

to Vr· l l ey F~ lls

.

RL ilroad

!'t. t . Bioe

in va ll ey Fa ll s , R . I.,

"e rr oveJ

p 268 , "Eis

(Bi oe r arhi ci l Enclycoredia 1 88 1 , Frov i dence,

Jr .

Oli ve r,

R . I. , i n 1843 , p 26 7; t ion

s , Aui:us t 3 1 s t ,

i r Somerse t , )'a ssc1c husett

born

oldes t of se v en c hild r en of Ol i v er andc Susan nah

the

r

Fa lls,

R . I. , b oth

oad .

i r 1ar, of Har v ey ~


13

The Colored

had

J'ary ; Jonathon

; Eli zabeth African

1800 - Bethel

1808 - Rhode

for

children

colored

in

1

but

fin

of the

Fr,r three

schooner

coastal

newphew . She

and her

or four

-, ears

v,as built

c;rades

of timber

across

the

lived

.

in Vi r_;inia

a slave

years

on a _lsntstion

life,

he left

knov·leJ..;e

River

Grif -

tht·s

, the

, Va .

Alexander

Street,

on Kine

to sea

to be the

m,necl by Sally

, Llevelyn

timber

acquired

when the sel

of

there

, ,:oing

Re was promoted

was so e;rea t that

Georgetown

by CAB

he v•as eni::;aged in run11ing and the

Vir .. in i a to Baltimore ferent

fnrm

17 years

in 1831 , for

by the

rted

was re - opened

in 1763,

early

with

be int: sa tisf'ied

not

as o cook master

his

spEndi~c

parents,

0

1808 .

1819 - Georc,;e Henry , 1819 - 1900 , was born

slave

in R . I .

slavery v1,,s st

rich

,

of Frovi:Jence in America .

abolished

Assembly

as teacher

Gsrdner

Church af~iliate

cethel

;

CRG

JI! . )

Epis c opal

fifth

Bro•--ne in l!ev•port,

Rev . f,'.armaduke li'e, ro rt

the

I s l a nd General

1808 - The school

Olive r,

ar,J

l'ethodist

became

R . I . , in 1800

B ; Aseneth

se v en c h il dren : Har vey ; Samuel

( Olive r Chace

Rail r oad .

Fnder -round

of the

, as a stetion

Island

, Rhode

Falls

in Valley

Cha c e , also

Buffum

home of Eli zabeth

of the

pi c ture

p 1 65 , a

anJ

oa d i n New Eneland

Railr

Under •round

a map of the

, 1 88 1. )

, R . I.

,Tar,uiny , 1903 , on p 1 63 sho,--s

1,:a.;az ine,

American

c al

, Nat i ona l

Island

Frovi:Jence

Company,

l Pub l ishinr;

of the Bioeraphi

National

267 - 268

v e Men in Rhode

Cyc loped i a of Representati Bio ·raphica

(pr

."

Rc.ilrailroad

Urder:round

station

home bein{l; a %feway

"Pis

i n 1 843 and

land

c ontinued

Chace

17 97 - Eorvey

ction

from

of d i f ec½ueduct of all

r.,J.-


14

Geor ~e JTenry continued

between

rlying

a boat tbe

sea .

bere

for

v:ith

a long

drawr

on jury

+·irst

iiegro

to

the

intermarriai:e

ter

and

of Mr . Henry

efforts

by the

ions

the

In 1895,

he presented

N.

c.,

ury, cases,

the

entire tot;ether

of Touissant

to

history works with L' overture

of

oil

of

ele c t -

somev•hat

A

race .

.Metro politan

Life equal

near

. in

of valuable

comprisin~ the

ra c e durin(i;

of Charles an

·ive

the

mat -

this

three

neKt of his

others

on the to

the

In

repeal in

stand

Livingst6ne'::C©litege

library,

entire

his on the

people

colored

to

books

them

forcini:

Company,

Insurrance benefits

and

an assault

he led

later

few years

in

he was defeated

main -

1871.

the

opposed of his

and because

laws,

remarks,

his

and

.John F . Toby,

.Jury .

Island

Committee

.Judiciary

To-

he bec·•me

Court,

Superior

the

on a Rho.le

serve

House

Chr . of the

in

duty

in

successfully

resulted

which

1°1: nd,

1872,

time .

l3Clilodili ii.g -

equal

an,1 h2ve

to dese€iregate

fight

that

institu:);ed

they

,Tefferson,

and

Downing

·ether tained

the the

in

youths

them at

denied

he

In 1859,

Brown Society,

colored

edu cate

vras to

Church

3piscopal

and

on

leavinE'.

finally

a member ,

Henry

the

of learning,

br.:.nches

1847,

of St . Sterbens

he became

known as

of which

purpose

in Rhoje

ar J Nev. "ark

where

a society,

hi~her

Providence

on to

a r,osi tion

found

in

last

his

roing

in Be ltimore,

ship

Providence

He becc.me sexton 25 years,

founded sole

to

tben

Fhiladelpbia,

en

to him .

entirely

tbe

be left

skirper,

as

trip

were left

be used

to

piles

th6

Sumner,

paintin.;

the

first

se c eral

of himself

; .John Brov:n ; Charles

,

Salisbury and

rare

h: lf

cen t-

ex c ellant , portra

i ts

St1lllner and

GIIO;>S P, 1.../$


15 Geor ·e .. cnr·y cortinued

vcll,me

i!,l! ense

ar

"'

J

:- his

::ind peace

to men on earth

by ""illiam

(1-otes

in T"e•port , R",ode Island,

tend<od public

schools

volved eel

;;enr-y",

of c

ho h-d

sriritir,:

RLilroad,

t;rn.io~round

ch

s1£.ve

b8t.n

r1t

L, ~3il

of a committee

to fi,-·;1t

the

l'oc.~Lt

to abolish

,roperty

q®lHicution

h~d to he.Ve ,,250 . 00 ·;,-.lr-th of real

u·.

r1:.rtici

Lrtl1ony

p,

1957 1c,ntitl

1 ·tion

rns . (Jee

i' thE

5

5 itLtion

FroviJer.ce

l"R'CC: "'RC'=r.E I!

'3tiI

to vote .

ovEr

t.1e fu ·itive

1'-~' .~our re 1,

c0ry

. a r,e

Lclw also

color-eJ

cnat

uct

he

•..••...

there

EStLte

JCSW.:T",

from the

-:.y "Lit -

E.

Slave

Fu itive

1a ,rnber-

i;,1e

peo, le

f.s e. :1 outh,

fuOCker-y.

D

Cru~mell .

rpf'ra inin(;

colored

to

since

,,,5

r becnme

·e of 14 and 16 to be ir. -

a resolution,

adoi:;tiw·

of InJ.,enJe:,nce

&

30 ,

DecPmber

21 , 1903 . ire at -

and Doctor

or Reason

:'."onrth of .:uly,

the

,.us on u ·ent

0

"It the

"n

'

ri ·hts

in civil

bra tire;

)ecla r ution

tle

Frofes

Henry Garnett,

July,

,--1th men •··l o lat,

in Few vork

'."er v._;_t~.othrrs

11

.Tan. 24 ,1 900 . CRG'

in l,ev.- York city,

1819 and died

fum ous,

to God on high

· und th<' Republicen

fla

F . E . "R.,

l, . ;-'eathman , Ssq .,

1819 - GZ0RGE T . nc:rr;-n·Gwas born

mhese

year .

·lory

me ·ive

,

historian

, L..st cr'J f'.)rever .

first

rrinciplez,

etn: its

etc .

by me in

ir post

of that

countr·y,

. Ii';

Isl·rd,

of ~hode

·,.ritten

4th

, u ·ust

ov.n ···ords , "Let

In cl::lsir.g

Ptrty

1A94, he rre -

Esq . ) who wus the

Pos t,

to the

ov,.r

turned

Li vi q;s tone

Ir

s;:etcl,es

These

A . Heathman,

1A98 , r"illiam

that

per-sonc 1 v:ar sitetches

to contain

·neJ

desi

.,.l' ' . 'Jr .

boo,. cost

this

t -ift r a ce .

Yo . 13, G . A . R ., D rnrtment

-ost,

Ives

to

ser.te

from a member of the

recei~ed

ever

has

!;lot ·the·bes

ii'

Tlilis is"amoni:,

.

others

'"e

C'ctoter

t+,chcd

ir

Vcs

sl~ve

,

1.'A,

.)

C:i,r!>

P, I.I