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Why should you embrace a digital classroom? To accompany the booklet created to assist trainee PCET teachers during their placement

References & Appendix 1


References Apple, M.W. (1990) Ideology and Curriculum. 2nd edn. New York: Routledge. Buckingham D, Fraser P and Sefton-Green J (2000) ʻMaking The Grade: Evaluating student production in Media Studiesʼ, in Sefton-Green J & Sinker R, Evaluating Creativity: Making and learning by young people. (2000) London: Routledge pp. 129-154 Bruner, J (1966) Towards a Theory of Instruction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Cohen, L, Mannion, L & Morrison, K (2004) A guide to Teaching Practice. 5th edn. London: Routledge Cornbleth, C. (1990) Curriculum in Context, Basingstoke: Falmer Press. Craft, A (2000) Continuing Professional Development: A Practical Guide for Teachers and Schools. London: Routledge Falmer Curriculum Implementation Unit Staff (2002) A guide to productive pedagogies, classroom reflection manual. Queensland Government: Education Queensland De Bono, E (1995) Teach Yourself To Think. London: Viking Deepwell, M (2014) Analysing learning: from policy to implementation at scale. Available at: www.fenews.co.uk/featured-article-learning-from-policy-to-implementation-at-scale [accessed 6 May 2014] Exley, S. (2011) Lecturersʼ banishment from schools to end. Available at: http://www.tes.co.uk/ article.aspx?storycode=6071843 [accessed 25 April 2014] Hartley, J (1998) Learning and Studying: A research perspective. London: Routledge Harvey, B & Harvey, J (2013) Creative Teaching Approaches in the Lifelong Learning Sector. Huddersfield: Routledge Hopkins, E (2009) ʻThe impact of new media technologiesʼ, in Sharp J, Hankin L & Ward S, Education studies: An issues-based approach. Exeter: Learning Matters pp. 190-200 Jordan A, Carlile O & Stack A (2008) Approaches to Learning: A Guide for Teachers. Berkshire: McGraw-Hill Kolb, D (1984) Experiential Learning experience as a source of learning and development. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Laight J, Asghar A, Aslett-Bentley A. (2010) ʻInvestigating Conceptions and Practice of Formative Assessment in Higher Educationʼ. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal (LICEJ), vol. 1, no. 3, September, pp. 192-199

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Macdonald, I. (2012) ʻWhy throw the Negs out with the Bathwater? A study of studentsʼ attitudes to digital and film photographic mediaʼ. The International Journal of Art & Design Education, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 191-211.

Miller, M.V. (2009) ʻIntegrating online multimedia into college courses and classroom, With application to the social sciences.ʼ Merlot Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, no. 5, pp. 395-423. Also available at: http://jolt.merlot.org/vol5no2/miller_0609 [accessed 25 April 2014] Pearce, N & Learmonth, S. (2013) ʻLearning beyond the classroom: evaluating the use of Pinterest in learning and teaching in an introductory to anthropology class.ʼ Journal of Interactive Media in Education, Autumn. Available at: http://www-jime.open.ac.uk/article/2013-12/html [accessed 25 April 2014] Petty, G (2004) A Practical Guide: Teaching today. 3rd edn. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes Philbin M. (2014) ʻTime for technologyʼ. Report: The Magazine from the Association of Teachers & Lecturers, April, pp. 30 Prensky, M (2001) ʻDigital natives, digital immigrants.ʼ On the Horizon, vol.9, no. 5, October. Also available at: http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital %20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf [accessed 25 April 2014] Rogers, C & Freiberg, H.J (1993) Freedom to Learn. 3rd edn. New York: Merrill Semetsky, I (2008) ʻRe-reading Dewey through the Lens of Complexity Science, or: On the creative logic of educationʼ, in Mason M, Complexity Theory and the Philosophy of Education. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons pp. 79-90

Scales, P. (2008) Teaching in the Lifelong Learning Sector. Berkshire: Open University Press & McGraw-Hill. Wolf, A (2011) Improving the quality of further education and skills training (The Wolf Report). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/review-of-vocational-education-the-wolfreport [accessed 29 April 2014] Wood, J. (2004) ʻOpen minds and a sense of adventure: how teachers of art & Design approach technologyʼ. The International Journal of Art & Design Education, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 179-191.

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Appendix

Embracing a digital classroom: STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE

Questionnaire One: Student Questionnaire

!

Digital learning tools include: • YouTube • Social networks • iPad apps or web based applications*

• ICT Software • Blogs • Forums ! !

*(This includes digital versions of traditional learning tools such as mindmaps, pinboards, card match, quizzes, comic strip generators, animation creators, comment walls etc)

1) Please select your gender: ! !

Male! !

Female !

Prefer not to say

(Please circle)

2) Which year group are you? (Please circle) !

Year 10!

!

Year 11!

!

Year 12!

!

Year 13

!

3) Which digital tools do you commonly use outside of education? (Circle all that apply) ! ! !

ICT Software!! Blogs! ! ! None! ! !

! ! !

YouTube! ! Social networks Forums! ! iPad apps/web based applications Other (specify)!________________________________________

4) Which digital learning tools are commonly used in lessons? (Circle all that apply) ! ! !

ICT Software!! Blogs! ! ! None! ! !

! ! !

YouTube! ! Social networks Forums! ! iPad apps/web based applications Other (specify)!________________________________________

5) Why do you think certain digital learning tools are not used in lessons?

6) What lesson uses the most digital learning tools?

7) How often are digital learning tools used across your lessons? (Please circle) ! !

All the time! ! On occasion! !

! !

Most of the time! Rarely!! ! 4

! !

Some of the time Never


Embracing a digital classroom: STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE 8) Please state which three digital learning tools you most enjoy using in lesson? 1_____________________ 2_____________________ 3_____________________ OR I don始t enjoy using digital learning tools. Please explain why: ______________________ ________________________________________________________________________

9) Do you find you learn from using digital learning tools? (Please circle) " " All the time" " " Most of the time" " Some of the time " On occasion" " " Rarely"" " " Never

10) How would you rate digital learning tools compared to paper based activities? (Please circle)

"

Engaging"

"

Same as paper based"

"

Distracting" "

"

11) How does the possibility of using iPad apps / web based applications sound? (Please circle)

"

Brilliant

Fun

Interesting

Fine

Pointless

Time consuming"

12) Before today, were you aware there were digital applications of traditional learning tools? (e.g. mindmaps) (Please circle) "

Yes"

"

Hadn始t thought about it"

"

No"

"

Not sure

13) Do you have access to the same technology at home? (Please circle) "

Yes"

"

Sometimes" "

Rarely""

No"

"

Not sure

14) Does technology-use impact your choice of study for further or higher education? (Please circle)

"

Definitely "

"

A little""

"

Not really "

"

Not at all"

"

N/A

15) Any other comments you would like to make regarding digital learning tools?

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Questionnaire Two: Staff Questionnaire

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Below are some bar charts and pie charts that display the results gathered from questionnaire one and two...

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Student questionnaire A total of 43 students were asked various questions regarding their use of digital learning tools in the classroom (see questionnaire one for the further information). The students were attending a college in Birmingham and were across year 10, 11, 12 and 13. Fig 1:

Fig 2: This bar chart shows what digital tools the students access outside of college. YouTube was clearly the most popular with all but two of the students regularly watching videos online, and this was closely followed by the use of social networks and apps. No student claimed to be free from digital access indicating that technology plays a significant role in their lives.

Note: ICT software includes packages like Microsoft Office, Adobe Creative Suite and Apple programmes like GarageBand and iMovie.

Which digital learning tools do you use at home?

Number of students

Those students who selected 驶Other始 mentioned online shopping and playing video games as being something they frequently use digital tools for. This again suggests the prevalence of digital technology in their lives.

Digital Learning Tool

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Which digital learning tools do you use in lessons? Number of students

Fig 3: This chart can be compared to Fig 2 which shows what digital learning tools the students frequently access whilst in college. Although YouTube, technology which proved popular with students at home, was still recognised as being used, this was significantly overshadowed by traditional ICT software. Ironically, 28 out of the 29 staff members who completed an equivalent questionnaire claimed that they use YouTube in lessons (Fig 12, Q.5); this is clearly not recognised by learners perhaps suggesting its use is infrequent. iPad/Web apps were also fairly popular which was encouraging as it indicates that digital technology is gradually being implemented further in education.

Digital Learning Tool

Fig 4: This chart shows the percentage of students who were aware or unaware that digital app versions of traditional learning tools exist. Almost half of the students were aware and the other half hadnʼt really considered it whereas only 2% were unaware. These results suggest that the teachers have begun to use apps in their lessons (confirmed by Fig 15) and, even if they havenʼt used such apps, the students are still very aware that digital learning tools are available.

Were you aware that digital apps of traditional learning tools exist?

Fig 5: This was a key questions to ask students because if all students feel they donʼt learn from them then implementing digital learning tools is pointless. Interesting this pie chart indicates that just over half of the students asked felt they learnt all or most of the time. However the 40% who claim ʻsome of the timeʼ is slightly concerning although this could be an indication of teaching that does not suit the learners level. Since only 9% of the learners asked feel they rarely, or only on occasion learn, it is safe to take a utilitarian approach; implementing digital learning tools benefit the majority and therefore are beneficial.

How often do you think you learn from using digital learning tools?

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Fig 6: This pie chart shows what percentage of the students have access to digital technology at home. This was important information to gain as it may implicate the type of homework set and impact on how feasible flip learning is. This statistic is dependent on the geographic location and socio-economic background of students and so it is advisable that similar information is acquired for your school or college.

Do you have access to the same technology at home?

This chart shows that 98% of students can gain access to digital tools but the results imply that many students must have parental permission to do so.

Fig 7: With Education Policy changing to insist that students aged up to 18 years old remain in education or training, and with the increase in university fees meaning that students perhaps consider their higher education more carefully than before, it seemed appropriate to ask students whether technology use in FE or HE might impact their choice in anyway. Interestingly, 65% of the students asked said that it would impact their choice and since the majority of the students claimed they found technology more engaging (Fig 8), we can assume that this means students want to go to universities and colleges that have up-to-date technological resources, and that which offer teaching that embraces a digital classroom!

Does technology-use impact your choice of study for Further or higher education?

Number of students

How do you find digital learning tools compared to paper based methods?

Male Female

Frequency of learning

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Fig 8: This bar chart clearly shows how the students asked feel about digital learning tools in the classroom. A lot more males were asked than females but there is still significantly more of both genders that state they find such tools more engaging than paper based methods. Since male learners始 attention spans are known as being shorter than females this is not a statistic that should be ignored. Some students however did find them more distracting or prefer paper methods and therefore it is important that you know your learners well to help you decide what to implement.


Do you find you learn from digital learning tools?

Number of students

Male Female

Fig 9: The results clearly show that the majority, across both genders, felt that they do learn from digital learning tools. 20 out of the 25 males, and 8 of the 15 females, selected ʻAllʼ or ʻMost of the timeʼ compared to the four students who said ʻRarelyʼ. Thankfully, no student selected ʻNeverʼ, once again implying that digital learning tools are beneficial within the classroom.

Frequency of learning Do you find you learn from digital learning tools? Year 10 Number of students

Year 11 Year 12 Year 13

Fig 10: These results are similar to above but with more of a focus on year group. This is important when considering the resources of your scheme of work for different classes. These results show that it is the older years who tend to find the digital learning tools more beneficial to their learning with a few students in year 10 recognising that perhaps they donʼt learn as well. This could well be an indication of maturity level and perhaps something that is worth considering when implementing digital learning tools within your classroom.

Frequency of learning How do staff in different subject areas rate learner response to digital learning tools compared to paper based activities? More engaged Number of staff members

Same as paper More distracted Not sure

Subject specialism

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Fig 11: Different subject teachers often have very different approaches to digital learning tools but it is clear from this bar chart that across subjects 16 of teachers asked recognise that learners are more engaged and only 6 think they are more distracted. 2 members of staff were unsure and, interestingly, only 3 felt they were the same as paper based. This graph is a bit unbalanced as some subjects areas had more teachers respond to the (online) questionnaire than others – perhaps an indication in itself of which subject teachers like digital learning tools!


Staff questionnaire Staff members from the same college were given an equivalent questionnaire (questionnaire two) to try and identify the average staff attitude to digital learning tools. 29 members of staff, who taught across a variety of subjects, completed the questionnaire... Fig 12: General statistics generated from results

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Fig 13: This graph shows how many teachers from each subject area took part in the questionnaire.

What subject do you teach?

Number of staff members

Creative Arts includes: Media Studies Music Art & Design Drama DT Science also includes Psychology Other includes: Public Services Languages PE Business IT

Subject

Number of staff members

Why might you not use certain digital learning tools in lessons?

Reasons why not used

Fig 14: Teachers who donʼt utilise digital learning tools must have a reason as to why they donʼt and this chart shows exactly what some of those reasons are. The majority selected ʻinternet blocksʼ which is big problem in this particular college. Interestingly this was closely followed by ʻlack of trainingʼ and ʻunaware they existʼ which is why it is so important to keep up to date with your CPD and what is going on in the technological world. Few claimed that it was because they dislike technology which is extremely encouraging.

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Fig 15:

Student response...

Number of staff members

Staff response...

Number of students

What are your top digital learning tools?

Digital learning tools

Digital learning tools

The comparison between the student and staff responses to this question is fascinating. For staff, YouTube is the favourite which is surprising since only 9 out of 43 students (Fig 3) felt YouTube was even used in lessons. Funnily enough, only 9 students selected YouTube as one of their top learning tools, perhaps the same 9, but an indication that watching videos is perhaps not the most effective methods. Students far preferred tools that required them using higher-order thinking skills and physically create something. Things like iPad apps and general Computer use (internet research) and particular software (iMovie, Adobe, GarageBand, Word) seemed to rate highly. 6 out of the 43 students claimed they didn始t enjoy using technology in lessons at all which does appear in-keeping with Fig 8 where several students said they found technology more distracting or the same as paper-based. The overall impression of these charts is that students are far more open to different digital learning tools than staff members. This suggest that they enjoy using a variety of different tools. Staff were far more enamored with YouTube and apps and ICT software seemed relatively low in their preference list. This does however suggest mutual agreement between staff and students when considering the use of iPad application and this is therefore a digital learning tool that should certainly be embraced within your classroom!

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Fig 16a-c: How does the possibility of using iPad apps / web based application in lessons sound?

Number of staff members

Staff response... Female Male

Number of students

Student response...

What they think

What they think

Staff response... Trainee & NQT

Number of staff members

If we consider the student responses to this question we can see that the majority show a positive response to the use of apps in their lessons. Those who responded ʻInterestingʼ can be considered ambiguous but it does suggest learners would be more engaged and that they are willing to give them a chance. Better was a choice that a student wrote in themselves which was interesting to see.

1-5 years 5-10 years 10-15 years 15-20 years

The first staff response bar graph clearly shows that more female What they think teachers are open to experimenting with digital learning tools, although this could be a reflection of the male:female ratio that completed the survey. It is still evident from these results that the majority of staff members are open to the idea of using apps and therefore this needs to be encouraged. The second staff response chart shows how teachers who have taught a different number of years respond to the idea of iPad apps. Thankfully no-one saw apps as pointless but interesting some teachers within their first 5 years of teaching did refer to them as ʻtime consumingʼ or ʻscaryʼ. Perhaps a reflection of breaking from what is comfortable, something that perhaps more experienced teachers see as refreshing. Thankfully the majority of staff members, of various experience levels, fall more in the ʻbrilliantʼ, ʻfunʼ and ʻinterestingʼ side of the chart. 16


Fig 17: Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10604117 [accessed 29 April 2014]

Fig 18: Kolb始s Learning Cycle

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Digital Classroom