FULLSCREEN MAY 19, 2010
THE LEGEND OF
BETSY ROSS RACING’S TRIPLE CROWN TRADITION JOHN MARSHALL FATHER OF THE SUPREME COURT
AMERICAN PATRIOT JOHN MARSHALL FATHER OF THE SUPREME COURT
4 8 THE LEGEND OF
6 RACING’S TRIPLE CROWN TRADITION
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AMERICA’S FUN FOODS
14 QUOTE OF THE WEEK
15 THIS WEEK IN AMERICAN HISTORY
JOHN MARSHALL FATHER OF THE SUPREME COURT
4 AMERICAN PATRIOT
The U.S. Supreme Court is again the focus of political controversy because those appointed to the Court wield so much power. But it is interesting to remember that this august body began its life with unclear duties and vague powers. It took John Marshall, who was not appointed to the court until a decade after it was created, to define the Supreme Court’s role and change the course of history. As the Founding Fathers struggled to structure a new government, Article III of the U.S. Constitution was written to create a judicial system but it did not spell out the Supreme Court’s role. It merely stated: “[t]he judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.” The very first bill introduced in the U.S. Senate was the Judiciary Act of 1789, which simply divided the country into judicial districts and creating a court consisting of a Chief Justice and five Associate Justices. It was left to Congress and the first set of justices to work out all the other details. The first Supreme Court assembled in New York City, then the nation’s capital, with John Jay as the Chief Justice. Lacking any specific direction, the new system was at first the weakest of the three branches of government. Early federal courts failed to issue strong opinions and avoided hearing controversial cases. The entire tone changed drastically in 1801 when President John Adams appointed John Marshall of Virginia as Chief Justice. Marshall, frustrated with the confusion and timidity, wanted to define the role of the Supreme Court as an active and powerful national institution that would help bind together a great new empire.
Marshall’s opportunity came with the 1803 case of Marbury v. Madison. The facts of the nowlandmark case were fairly trivial; the controversy dealt with a justice of the peace appointed of President Adams, who newly elected President Thomas Jefferson refused to commission. In the course of deciding the case, Chief Justice Marshall ruled that a particular section of the Judiciary Act was unconstitutional because it gave the federal courts authority over judicial commissions, something not actually in the Constitution. Accordingly, Marshall argued, that section of the law was invalid and did not have to be followed. With this single historic decision, the Chief Justice established the Supreme Court’s power to interpret the Constitution, and to review the constitutional validity of laws passed by Congress and state legislatures. That changed everything in its relationship with the legislative and executive branches. Marshall continued to serve as Chief Justice for more than three decades. During this prolonged period he took every opportunity to shape the federal judicial system and enshrine the concept of judicial review of the validity of legislation. He put the Court on a trajectory to become what many consider the most powerful of the three branches of government.
CLICK HERE TO WATCH A VIDEO OF JOHN MARSHALL’S LIFE AMERICAN PATRIOT 5
RACING’S TRIPLE CROWN TRADITION 6 AMERICAN PATRIOT
We are in the midst of another exciting and colorful season of horse racing’s Triple Crown. This series of Thoroughbred races consists of the Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes. The notion of a “Triple Crown” in U.S. racing
weather vane that sat on the roof. After every
goes back as far as 1923, though a racing
Preakness, the weather vane is repainted
reporter and legend Charles Hatton is often
with the winner's colors.
credited with having coined the term in 1930. Since 1931, the order of Triple Crown
Last but not least, Belmont Park, where the
races has been fixed: the Kentucky Derby
Belmont States are held, is on a spot in
first in early May, followed by the Preakness
Long Island NY that was the birthplace of
Stakes in mid-May, and then the Belmont
horse racing in North America in 1665. Con-
Stakes in early June.
structed from 1903-05 million, the current track is named after August Belmont, the
The three tracks which host the races are
late financier father of the tracks founder.
places of great character and tradition. Churchill Downs, home of the Kentucky
Winning the “Triple Crown” races is very
Derby, reportedly dates back to 1783. Nearly
difficult: only eleven horses have ever won
a century later, Col. M. Lewis Clark began
the Triple Crown and none since 1978. They
developing America's most famous track on
are Sir Barton (1919), Gallant Fox (1930),
80 acres of land just south of downtown
Omaha (1935), War Admiral (1937), Whirl-
Louisville. The track formally opened in
away (1941), Count Fleet (1943), Assault
1875. The twin spires atop the homestretch
(1946), Citation (1948), Secretariat (1973),
grandstands were added in 1895 and re-
Seattle Slew (1977), and Affirmed (1978).
main one of the most recognized structures
To give a further sense of the challenge of
in all of sports.
winning one leg — much less all three — of these classic races: nearly 4,000 horses
Pimlico Race Course, where the Preakness
have entered these races. Only 278 have
Stakes is held, hosted its first race in 1870.
won a single race of the Triple Crown, 50
The Maryland track is the second oldest
horses have won two legs and, of course,
active one in the country (Saratoga in up-
only the magical 11 horses have won all
state New York is the oldest). The original
Victorian clubhouse burned in the 1960s, leaving only the iron horse-and-jockey
SEE THE 2010 KENTUCKY DERBY WON BY SUPER SAVER
AMERICAN PATRIOT 7
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THE LEGEND OF
BETSY ROSS 8 AMERICAN PATRIOT
Betsy Ross made the first American flag. Maybe. The story told is that she sewed the flag after a visit to her shop in June 1776 by George Washington, Robert Morris, and a relative, George Ross. According to lore, she demonstrated how to cut the five pointed stars. Today, it is generally believed that she was one of the early flagmakers — though not necessarily the first — and records show that she made flags for Pennsylvania during the Revolutionary War era. Born Elizabeth Griscom in Philadelphia,
gest that her tale resonated for several
Betsy attended Quaker schools and learned
reasons. Among them: the discovery of a
needlework there and at home. She married
“founding mother” to stand alongside
John Ross in 1773 and eventually joined
“founding fathers” became attractive at a
the Free Quakers or “Fighting Quakers” who
time when the role of women in American
did not adhere strictly to pacifism. John
society had started to change. The story
and Betsy began an upholstery business
also hit at a moment of growing patriotic
together, drawing on her needlework skills
fervor over the flag as a symbol of America.
and, after John was killed, Betsy kept the
Betsy Ross’ story felt true, whether it was
business and began to make flags for Penn-
literally true or not.
sylvania. Records show that she remarried several times and lived on until 1836.
Today, a tour of Betsy Ross' home in Philadelphia is a “must-see” when visiting
It was Betsy’s grandson, in 1873, who first
historical sites. The home, established with
told the story of her flagmaking. The story
the aid of contributions by American school-
quickly became the stuff of legend, was
children, is an interesting and informative
published in the popular Harper’s maga-
look at the lives of women who helped
zine, and by the next decade had become
make the American Revolution a success.
part of school textbooks and curriculums. Since it is uncertain whether the story is true, strictly speaking, why did it catch on so fast and burrow so deep? Experts sug-
WATCH A SLIDE SHOW OF THE BETSY ROSS HOUSE A POPULAR NEW HISTORY BOOK BETSY ROSS AND THE MAKING OF AMERICA, BY MARLA R. MILLER
AMERICAN PATRIOT 9
GROVER CLEVELAND OUR NON-CONSECUTIVE PRESIDENT
10 AMERICAN PATRIOT
Grover Cleveland was elected to two terms as President of the United States, but was the only man not elected twice in a row. Cleveland served from 1884-1888, then was defeated in 1888, and came back to win the White House from 1892-1896. Cleveland spent most of his life in upstate New York. His father, a Presbyterian minister, died young. Cleveland became a lawyer in Buffalo, joined the Democratic Party, and moved quickly up the ranks while continuing to practice law. Appointed Sheriff in 1870, he became known for honesty and efficiency at a time of widespread urban graft and corruption, was elected as a reform Mayor, and then elected New York Governor as his reputation as a clean government-type grew. The national Democratic Party tapped him as presidential nominee in 1884 and he defeated Republican James G. Blaine, even winning over reform-minded Republicans. By all accounts, Cleveland ran an upright administration, and made progress toward reforms of the civil service, the executive departments, and Civil War pensions. Renominated by his party in 1888 without challenge, Cleveland was defeated by a business-friendly and well-organized opponent, Republican Benjamin Harrison of Indiana. The race was close: Cleveland won a plurality of the popular vote but lost the Electoral College.
Intending to practice law and enjoy his family as a private citizen, Cleveland found it difficult to retire. Nominated again in 1892, Cleveland led the Democrats to a smashing victory over Harrison, as well as helping to win control of both the House and Senate. The second term was not a happy one, though. Cleveland was almost immediately undone by a financial panic that deepened into an economic depression, one of the most severe and bitter the country has ever seen. His support of the gold standard, when many Democrats from farm states were in favor of a silver monetary system, split the party and left Cleveland deeply unpopular. His use of force to end a Pullman railway strike alienated the labor wing of his party. That was the end. In 1896, Cleveland again sought the nomination, but was soundly rejected. Populist spellbinder William Jennings Bryan represented the Democrats on a platform demanding free and unlimited coinage of both silver and gold. After Bryan was defeated, Cleveland retired to Princeton NJ and lived on until 1908, by which time his reputation had recovered and his death was mourned nationwide.
AMERICAN PATRIOT 11
AMERICA’S FUN FOODS
LOLLIPOPS 12 AMERICAN PATRIOT
As is so often the case with fun foods, American’s may not have invented the lollipop but they made it bigger, sweeter and faster to market. Today, U.S. candy makers produce millions of lollipops a day in all shapes, sizes and flavors. The invention of the lollipop, says the National
stirred by a stick. Within a couple of years, the
Confectionary Association, goes back to the
company began to market these “candy sticks.”
cavemen, who maintained beehives and collected honey by stick. The theory is that they
In 1908 in Racine WI, the first truly auto-
licked the utensil and the first unintentional
mated lollipop production was invented by
lollipop, or, candy on a stick, was born. The
the Racine Confectionary Machine Company.
ancient Arabs, Chinese and Egyptians pro-
The company invented a machine whose sole
duced fruit and nut treats, “candied” in honey
purpose was to find a way to put hard candy
as a preservative, often eaten on sticks.
on the end of a stick. The machine produced 2400 lollipops per hour, then thought to meet
The European Middle Ages added the notion
the needs of the country for an entire year.
of boiling sugar into blocks, to make the ex-
Then, in 1912, Samuel Born, a Russian im-
pensive delicacy last longer. Sometimes the
migrant, developed a machine whose sole
blocks of sugar were formed with sticks and
purpose was to automatically insert sticks into
even ornamental handles. As sugar became
candy. Considered a hero in his hometown of
more plentiful, the treat reached the streets
San Francisco, Born is also credited with in-
and, to make it easier to eat, a stick was
venting sprinkles; these were originally the
inserted. Some linguists believe the word
by-product of lollipop manufacture.
“lollipop” made its appearance among the street vendors in London during this period.
Today, hundreds of modern candy companies produce up to three million pops per day, which
American know-how and expertise in mass-
barely satisfies the national craving. They
production led to the birth of the lollipop as
come in all shapes and sizes, with or without
we know it. As early as 1905, the McAviney
fillings, and even the local candy stores may
Candy Company, now defunct, may have stum-
offer at least three dozen varieties.
bled upon the machine made lollipop by default. The owner created boiled hard candies
LEARN TO MAKE LOLLIPOPS AT HOME
AMERICAN PATRIOT 13
QUOTE OF THE WEEK
“In war there is no second prize for the runner-up.” – GENERAL OMAR N. BRADLEY A LEADING FIELD COMMANDER DURING WWII IN EUROPE, HEAD OF THE VETERANS ADMINISTRATION, ARMY CHIEF OF STAFF, CHAIRMAN OF JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF, FIFTH AND FINAL PERSON EVER TO ACHIEVE RANK OF GENERAL OF THE ARMY.
14 AMERICAN PATRIOT
THIS WEEK IN
1929. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences has a dinner party for 250 people and hands out the first Oscars. A silent film, Wings, wins because the first “talkie,” The Jazz Singer, was disqualified for having an unfair advantage. A special lifetime achievement award was presented to Charlie Chaplin. The idea for the event is credited to Louis B. Mayer, head of MGM.
AMERICAN PATRIOT 15
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