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VOLUME 1: ISSUE 1

A.D. 1066 A YEAR OF CONQUEST: IN REVIEW!

Featuring: Most Important People & Most Important Events 1066â&#x20AC;&#x201D; A year to remember. By: Jordan Clarke & Olivia Difonso

Date: 4/16/10


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A.D. 1066

Belligerent Men of 1066 The mighty, determined armies of the English, Normans, and Norwegians battled it out three times during the year 1066. The three battles included: the Battle of Fulford, the Battle of Stamford Bridge, and the Battle of Hastings. The Battle of Fulford occurred on September 20, 1066 when King Harald Hardrada III of Norway and his English partner, Tostig Godwinson, attacked Edwin and Morcar, Northern Earls. The Battle of Stamford Bridge took place on September 25, 1066 when Hardrada and Tostig invaded King Harold II, Tostig’s brother, and his English armies. At the end of this battle, Tostig was reported dead along with the majority of the Norwegians including Harald. The third and final battle of 1066 was the Battle of Hastings on October 14, 1066. In this battle, Duke William II of Normandy fought the English armies under the rule of Harold II. Harold II was defeated at the conclusion of this battle; which was the starting point of England under the reign of William. The year 1066 was abundant in ferocious men who were so power-hungry; they would go to extreme heights to achieve multitudes of fortune. Following is the list of the top 4 most renowned men of the year 1066.

Vikings had huge disadvantages. They were doomed from the beginning because their army had split in two. (http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Battle_of_Stamford_Bridge) Evidently, King Harold came out on top. His victory was ephemeral because the next battle that took place was at Hastings, completely turned everything around.

The last important battle was the Battle of Hastings. It was part of the Norman Conquest in England. (http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Hastings) It was fought between the Duke William II of Normandy and Harold II. The battle took place near the present day town of Battle, East Sussex. The English had been involved in the two previous battles and their army this time was made almost entirely up of infantry. The Duke’s army relied heavily on their archers. Then they believed advancement by the infantry and the cavalry would finish the job. This battle was filled with attacks, and counter-attacks. The infantry combat was the most exciting and fierce part of the mêlée. The English was fighting hard, as well as the Normans. Neither side wanted to retreat or become conquered. Duke William, “taking off his helmet, and exposing his naked head, he shouted: " See, I am here; I am still living, and, by God's help, shall yet have the victory." (http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/Orderic.html) Duke William seemed to want to be the victor more; therefore he broke through all English defenses and exterminated the English king. Harold II apparently died as an arrow was plunged through his eye. Without their king, and with their important defense forces dead, the remaining soldiers fled. William the Conqueror was crowned king. This marked the end of Norman Conquest as well as the end of English dominance in Medieval times. For now…


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A.D. 1066

Vikings, and English, and Normans! Oh,my! The year 1066 had various important people, but what really made the year extraordinary were the events that occurred. This was the year of Norman, Viking, and English conquest. What were the main events? Well, there were three major events. These events were battles. These battles were, Battle of Fulford, Battle of Stamford Bridge, and Battle of Hastings. Every one of these battles had Normans, British, or Viking soldiers. These battles changed the year 1066 in very astonishing ways. Harold Hardrada beat the British, the Anglo-Saxon era came to an end, and William the Conqueror took England. Many important changes occurred during this year. How’d it all happen? It took leaders, soldiers, armies and a quantity of tenacity to make the year 1066 stand out in the history books. The first major battle event to take place was the Battle of Fulford. It was part of the Viking Conquest of England. The battle took place in the village of Fulford near York in England. (http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Fulford) King Harald of Hardrada joined forces with Tostig Godwinson to defeat the Northern Earls Edwin and Morcar. It all began with Harald Hardrada setting sail from Norway, with 300 ships under his belt in an attempt to conquer England. Hardrada’s fleet was joined by Tostig’s fleet, as they neared the English coast. The English struck the first blow before the opposing side even had a chance. Hardrada did not have his complete army. However, the late arriving soldiers indeed pounded the English into a pulp, and pulled off a victory. Unfortunately, England’s leaders came out unscathed. The Battle of Fulford was only the beginning of 1066, a year of conquest. The next event battle that truly made a difference in history was the Battle of Stamford Bridge. It took place in the Village of Stamford Bridge in England. This battle, along with Fulford, was part of the Viking Conquest in England. The battle was between King Harold and King Harald Hardrada, with Harold of England reigning as supreme. The

Harald Hardrada III was the king of Norway from the years 1047-1066. Harald played the main role in two of the important battles of 1066. After making the attack on Edwin and Morcar at Fulford, he continued to pursue Harold II and the English at Stamford Bridge where he was finally killed. The story of Hardrada’s life can be found in the Old Norse mythology chronicle titled Heimskringla. Tostig Godwinson was Harald Hardrada’s English ally who helped him in both of his attacks. Tostig is the brother of Harold II who was the King of England at the time of the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Harold II was the King of England at the time of two of the three key battles in 1066: The Battle of Stamford Bridge and the Battle of Hastings. Harold’s brother was Tostig, who went against his own family and attacked his Harold in the Battle of Stamford Bridge. King Harold was a brave man; ” King Harold himself, on foot, stood with his brothers near the standard in order that, so long as all shared equal danger, none could think of retreating” (Medieval Sourcebook). Harold reigned over England until he was defeated by Duke William II of Normandy at the Battle of Hastings. Harold II was the last crowned Anglo-Saxon King of England. Duke William II of Normandy, also known as William the Conqueror, for invading England at the Battle of Hastings. After Harold was killed, William came to power over England. The people of England believed that, “This King William...was a very wise and great man, and more honored and more powerful than any of his predecessors” (Medieval Sourcebook). These four men were very crucial to the key events that took place in the year 1066. In review, 1066 was a year of battle, power, death, and success. With each battle came a new beginning and a sometimes devastating end. The three main battles and the four main men are a very important part of history and the way we study today.

Olivia DiFonso


West Civ Mag