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Symptom: mental disorder Operation: labotomy Consequence: the “[fixed] Activity”

WARNING: Treatment achieved its effects by “reducing the complexity of psychic life”. Following the operation, spontaneity, responsiveness, self-awareness and self-control were reduced. Activity was replaced by inertia, and people were left emotionally blunted and restricted in their intellectual range. Some patients died as a result of the operation and others later committed suicide. Some were left severely brain-damaged.

Case 49

ten days after operation. the behavioral peculiarities and mannerisms continued for long time after operation.

digital array

The arrangement of several analog-digital captures into unique photographic sequences poses intriguing possibilities. Unusual spatial relationships, light, movement, moments of time, ironic twists, and other ideas of connectivity or overlap are considered.

Develop the architectonics of the image by emphasizing and articulating the joints and connections of overlapping, interlocking or interpenetrating elements. The diagrams are composited on the source images. In this exercise, design is the dynamic tension between the digital marks you create and the underlying image.

The digital relief is a transitional study between two-dimensional and three-dimensional worlds. Construct a digital relief model using combinations of the orthogonal, tension, and architectonic schemas. Build the relief model by extruding three-dimensional objects from the flat two-dimensional surfaces.

The Super Relief consists of duplicated elements and freely arranged combinations of the digital reliefs. In this exercise, design is the interpretive arrangement and composition of sub-assemblies in three-dimensional space.

The results of early lobotomies were difficult to interpret, because the people receiving lobotomies were already psychotic, seriously disturbed and out of touch with reality. In the late 1940s lobotomies were used on a new group: people suffering severe intractable pain : pain unresponsive to any form of treatment.

To cure these patients, it was necessary to destroy the more or less fixed arrangements of cellular connections that exist in the brain, and particularly those which are related to the frontal lobes thus removing their fixed pathological brain circuits.

Fixation of certain patterns of relationship among various groups of cells and that this resulted in obsessions, delusions and mental morbidity

Psychosurgery, the treatment of mental illness by neurosurgical procedures, has been criticized because it has developed empirically more than on rational grounds, and because of a lack of ‘scientific’ evidence supporting its purported therapeutic efficacy. However, the operations are offered only to those patients with severe intractable illnesses who have unsuccessfully tried all reasonable alternatives. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these procedures accurately, a closely-matched, comparative group of patients would need to be studied, and this would be extremely difficult. Furthermore, it is not ethical to deny patients an operation altogether or to withold information concerning treatment options for the purposes of research, and this also limits the feasibility of conducting a ‘clinical trial’.

Lobotomy patients were said to act stimulus-bound. They reacted to whatever was in front of them and did not respond to imaginary situations, rules, or plans for the future. Many of the patients became fat. If food was set in front of them, they ate, hungry or not.

The purpose of the operation was to reduce the symptoms of mental disorder, and it was recognized that this was accomplished at the expense of a person’s personality and intellect.