FEATURES Is concerned with PROVIDING DESCRIPTIONS of the phenomena that occur NATURALLY without the intervention of an experiment or an artificially contrived treatment. Hypotheses – generating research. This hypothesis is derived from the collected data. Discover phenomena such as PATTERNS OF LANGUAGE BEHAVIOUR and UNDERSTAND those phenomena from the perspective of PARTICIPANTS in the activity. Is used to gain insight into people's attitudes, behaviors, value systems, concerns, motivations, aspirations, culture or lifestyles. Qualitative research also involves the analysis of any unstructured material, including customer feedback forms, reports or media clips. There is an emphasis on the influence of context. Example: A researcher observes how teachers deliver instruction related to different reading curricula in two different schools. The researcher also interviews the teachers to understand their approaches to the different curricula and how their approaches might be influenced by school characteristics.
It stars with a research question Is carried out without preconceived notions about what to look for synthetic or Holistic
PROCEDURES Progress from the general to specific and there is a repetition of the cycles of observation and analysis. Each successive stage of analysis may lead the researcher to focus on a different aspect of the phenomenon for observation according to the progress of the study. 1. Define the phenomenon of Second Language to be described 2. Use qualitative methods to gather data 3. Look for patterns in the data 4. Validate initial conclusions by returning to the data or collecting more data 5. I f necessary, return to step 1 and repeat the cycle, redefining the area of focus on the basis of the first cycle. Participant observation is appropriate for collecting data on naturally occurring behaviors in Their usual contexts. In-depth interviews are optimal for collecting data on individuals’ personal histories, perspectives, And experiences, particularly when sensitive topics are being explored. Focus groups are effective in eliciting data on the cultural norms of
APPROACHES The most qualitative approaches are: - a focus on natural settings; -an interest in meanings, perspectives and understandings; -an emphasis on process; -a concern with inductive analysis and grounded theory. Qualitative research tends to be SYNTHETIC/HOLISTIC rather than analytic in order to gather as much information as possible and to avoid manipulation. It attempts to capture "the big picture" and see how a multitude of variables work together in the real world.
PARAMETERS The aim is a complete, detailed description. Is used to gain insight into people's attitudes, behaviors, value systems, concerns, motivations, aspirations, culture or lifestyles. It’s used to inform business decisions, policy formation, communication and research. It’s Heuristic with LITTLE or NO MANIPULATION of the Research environment.
Its Purpose is understanding Oriented toward discovery Uses Subjective data Interprets result in context Focus in Holistic Studies human behavior within THE NATURAL CONTEXT and in which the role of the researcher WOULD NOT AFFECT the normal behavior of the subjects. Avoids establishing research questions or hypotheses or identifying priory knowledge. It does not produce numerical data It involves extensive narrative data It starts with a research question It does not have control over the variable Allows us to study INDIVIDUAL performance closely. It may or may not represent the behavior of other learners and is therefore of QUESTIONABLE VALUE FOR GENERALIZATION The kind of data presented can be QUALITATIVE or QUANTITATIVE
a group and in generating broad overviews of issues of concern to the cultural groups or subgroups represented
Is a system of inquiry which seeks to build a holistic, largely narrative, description to inform the researcher’s understanding of a social or cultural phenomenon. Qualitative research takes place in natural settings employing a combination of observations, interviews, and document reviews.
These methods attempt to present the data from the PERSPECTIVE OF THE SUBJECTS OR OBSERVED GROUPS. This is used in this way for avoiding distortions in the collection, interpretation and presentation of data. Uses data collection with LOW EXPLICITNESS Researchers may be PARTICIPANTS OBSERVERS (Participating in the very act that they are describing, diaries are kept by the re4searchers, recording their experiences and observations while learning another language) or NONPARTICIPANTS OBSERVERS (The researcher takes notes or record the observed activity)
It stars with a Descriptive research, also known as researches statistical research, describes data and question or characteristics about the population or hypothesis
phenomenon being studied. Descriptive In some cases research answers the questions who, what, there are theories where, when and how... or hypothesis or Similar to the qualitative design; it is concerned with PROVIDING DESCRIPTIONS of the phenomena that occur NATURALLY without the intervention of an experiment or an artificially contrived treatment. A type of research that has the goal of describing what, how or why something is happening. Descriptive research is the exploration of the existing certain phenomena. The details of the facts won’t be known. The existing phenomena facts are not known to the persons. Descriptive research is also called Statistical Research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Refers to the nature of the research question
preconceived for starting the project Heuristic or deductive in its research objectives
The descriptive procedures of research design helps researchers plan and carry out descriptive studies, designed to provide rich descriptive details about people, places and other phenomena. The procedure for carrying out a descriptive is 1. Decide on the question 2. Select the population 3. Determine methods for data collection 4. Collect data 5. Organize and analyze data The descriptive method often involves extensive observation and note-taking, as well as indepth narrative. Survey method test questionnaires, self reports interviews observation There are two ways for investigate second language acquisition: -CASE STUDIES -GROUP STUDIES DATA COLLECTION CAN BE
It might describe an aspect of Second Language Acquisition from a more SYNTHETIC perspective or might focus on the description of a SPECIFIC CONSTITUENT of the process (ANALYTIC) Researchers begin with GENERAL QUESTIONS in mind or with more SPECIFIC QUESTIONS.
Descriptive research may also operate on the basis of hypotheses (often generated through previous, qualitative research). That moves it toward the deductive side of the deductive/heuristic continuum. Can be HEURISTIC or DEDUCTIVE. Refers to investigation which utilizes ALREADY EXISTING DATA or NON-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH WITH A PRECONCEIVED HYPOTHESIS.
recognizing and identifying a topic to be studied collecting valid and reliable data Descriptive research aims to gather data without any manipulation of the research context. In other words, descriptive research is also low on the "control or manipulation of research context" scale. It is non-intrusive and deals with naturally occurring phenomena. Descriptive research may focus on individual subjects and go into great depth and detail in describing them. Individual variation is not only allowed for but studied. This approach is called a case-study. The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation. Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are. It does not have control out the variable In this case, The kind of data presented can be QUALITATIVE or QUANTITATIVE; similar to the qualitative Research Design
DONE BY USING : -TESTS -SURVEYS AND QUESTIONNAIRES -OBSERVATIONS