The common voids. An unconventional strategy for enhancing liveliness in the suburbs of Chicago.
By Diana Maria Galatus
Performative Architecture Chicago suburbia - a hunch.
Martine de Maeseneer Diana Maria Galatus
INT MA AR
GNT/BXL_BE All rights reserved under international Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photo-copying, recording or by any information storage retrievel system, without permission from the publisher or specific copyright owners. Work and publication made during the course of personal Master Dissertation Project.
ÂŠ2018 by Diana Maria Galatus
International Master of Architecture KU Leuven Faculty of Architecture Campus Sint-Lucas, Brussels Belgium June 2018
I would first like to thank my thesis advisor, Martine de Maeseneer, for guiding me through this project, consistently allowing this to be my own work, but steereding me in the right direction whenever she thought I needed it. I must express my very profound gratitude to my parents, Galatus Ioan Traian and Pasca Mihaela Simona, to my stepfather Bonamore Arnaldo and to my grandmother Pasca Elena for providing me with unfailing support and continuous encouragement throughout my years of study. I consider myself the luckiest person in the world by having unconditional support from the man I love, my future husband, Albanito Giuseppe. Without him, this accomplishment would not have been possible. I would also like to special thank my friend Ana Tirlea for being by my side for the past 7 years and beilieving in me. ...all my past experience together with the persons that took part of my journey , helped me become The Person I am Today.
Table of Contents Abstract...........................................................................................................................................8
I. Global issues.............................................................................................................................13 Introduction The grid Sprawl New urbanism
II. Memories from Chicago................................................................................................25 The great migration Slums 1950s public housing The black belt
III. North Lawndale...................................................................................................................35 Tissue Morphology Vacancy Desire paths
Case studies Re-use of materials Vacancy network Mandatory complexity Safety-natural control Merging space Continuity of space
The common voids represents a togetherness of memories, from the individuality of human being to collective spaces, from a given way of living to a sensitive approach of the surrounding space, all these being put in the scenario of a forgotten present.
In order to one make an idea about the overall urban state of United States of America, in this Master Thesis we will first introduce the general issues regarding Suburbia and The Great Grid, how an entire continent is eaten by the Sprawl and which are the consequences of such drastic interventions in the urban morphology. In contrast with the past decisions of great urbanists, what we tried in the past decades and still trying hard to implement nowadays, is the concept of “New Urbanism”. Larry Bennett, in its book “The Third City, Chicago and American Urbanism”, calls contemporary Chicago the third city to distinguish it from it two predecessors: the first city, a sprawling industrial center whose historical arc ran from the Civil War to the Great Depression; and the second city, the Rustbelt exemplar of the period from around 1950 to 1990. The main focus area in this scenario is the city of Chicago, Illinois. For a better understanding of how the city was born and of what kind of inhabitants were living in it in the past, we will talk about the Great Migration, a long-term movement of African Americans that moved from the South to Urban North around 1917s. The African American population became deeply infused with urban sensibility. More than 70% of the African American population was living in slums, pushed there by other layers of society. This drastic way of living pushed entire families to live in tiny apartments, sometimes not enough for what at that time meant 7 people per household. In this whole scenario, the crime was just a consequence of poorness, racism and culture.
Around ‘50s, Chicago Housing Authority tried to ease the pressure in the overcrowded ghettos and proposed public housing sites. This proposal did not worked for the African American communities and the crime rate and black market increased even more. Facing such a fail, American House Authorities decides to demolish all the high-rise public housing projects. By the end of 2005, they accomplish the mission and all the public housing projects are gone, leaving behind more empty urban land with a strong footprint history. We will analyze a suburbia of Chicago where many African Americas live nowadays, called North Lawndale; a neighborhood with many issues such as low education level, high rate of criminality, unemployment and quite zero investments. The morphology of North Lawndale is a particular one because it lacks of 18% of what once was built. Each abandoned building has to be demolished because it represents a risk for the community. What happens with all the construction material resulted from demolishing 18% of a neighborhood? We are dealing with an impressive footprint of vacancy in a place where this is the last thing to be needed, on a grid that was working at its time but now it doesn’t fit anymore with the needs of the inhabitants. What this place would look like with a complex, necessary morphology and with another kind of grid? The complexity is mandatory in order to make places work. With this project, we are implementing new morphological and strategic intelligence, by creating a scenario where the grid as we know it doesn’t exist anymore, where the architectural interventions are incremental, the car is not on top of needed objects, where the continuity of space is a must and natural control can be put in practice with help from the existent built. We will get rid of unnecessary urban elements such as unused access roads, fences around vacant plots and will not delimit the existing built properties; what results is an immense urban space where all the outdoor and indoor common activities of the neighbors can take place. The interventions are an alternative to the traditional approach of designing urban environments, they are multi-functional, informal spaces that allow for all kind of activities. From small to large configuration, the spaces can be merged and separated. The architecture is meant to respond to social changes and adapt to current needs. The context becomes part of the architecture due to the permeability and transparency of it.
Void (noun) completely empty space an unfilled space in a wall, building, or other structure an emptiness caused by the loss of something
Liveliness (noun) the quality of being outgoing, energetic, and enthusiastic an atmosphere of excitement and activity
I. GLOBAL ISSUES
I hesitate. Behind me the boulevards lead to the heart of the town, to the fiery jewels of the central streets, to the Palais Paramount, the Imperial, the Grand Magasin Jahan. That doesn’t tempt me at all. It’s apéritif time. Jean-Paul Sartre, Nausea
Suburbs are the greatest missalocation of resources in the history of the World. A tremendous problem for USA. These are places that are not worth caring about. The ability to create places that are meaningful and places with quality and character depends entirely on the ability to define space with buildings and to employ the vocabularies, grammars, syntaxes, rhythms and patterns of architecture in order to inform people who they are. The public realm in America has two roles: it is the dwelling place of their civilization and their civic life and is also the physical manifestation of the common good. When one degrades the public realm, he automatically degrades the quality of the civic life and the character of all the links of the public life and community life. The public realm comes more in the form of the street in America because they do not have the thousand years old cathedral plazas and market squares of older cultures. The ability to define space and to create places that are worth caring about comes from a body of culture that is called the culture of civic design. This is a body of knowledge, method, skill and principle that Americans ignored after World War Two . Consequently, they can see the result all around them. The public realm has to inform us not only where we are geographically but has to inform us where we are in our culture, where we come from, what kind of people we are and by doing this, it has to give us a glimpse on where we are going in order to allow us to dwell in a hopeful present.
Throughout the world, the grid has been used continuously as a development pattern since Hippodamus first used it at Piraeus, Greece in the 5th century BC. After a history of 2,000 years after that, in 1682 William Penn used the grid as a physical foundation for Philadelphia. From here, the grid began its life in the new America. Penn’s instructions for laying out his orthogonal plan were simple: Be sure to settle the figure of the town so as that the streets hereafter may be uniform down to the water from the country bounds…This may be ordered when I come, only let the houses built be in a line, or upon a line, as much as may be… Richard Newcourt’s plan for London after the fire in 1666 may have influenced Penn’s use of grid. However, the grid by its very nature has no built-in hierarchy. Philadelphia was the first city to use the indexical system of numbers for north-south streets and tree names for east-west streets. Every plot of land is equal to every other. Following the example of Philadelphia, the grid has been used in every American city. Each of these cities, based on their needs, adopted the grid as their foundation with varying outcomes. In Chicago, the grid was used as a vehicle to maximize both the speed of development and financial speculation. In San Francisco, the grid flatly ignored topography and created a city of dramatic hills and valleys. In Paragonah, Utah, the grid was executed to promote the doctrine of Mormonism. But perhaps most famous of all American grids is that found in Manhattan.
fig.3 Piraeus grid
The individuality of the grid I take SPACE to be the central fact to man born in America, from Folsom cave to now. I spell it large because it cames large here.Large, and without mercy.
Charles Olson, “Call Me Ishmael”
The grid represented a fundamental change in the US and it literally puts a frame around the history of migration and sattlements. The implementation of the geometrical pattern of the grid on quite all North America, played a central role for the development of further technological creations of that moment. In the Colonial times, the centrality was the community, not the individual. The ecclesiastical order of the first settlers was visible in the layout of the land because the Americans reproduced the the European village, with the church as its center, with the roads radiating outwards. In that times, local governements did not thinked that the land is generic. A family had several pieces of land, here and there, depending on the use, if it was pasture, farmland or woodlot. Totally oposite to what once was the idea of land, the new comming grid system erased hierarchy and centrality from the landscape, substituting the values of individuality and equality. Its endless squares declared that the land was unused and waiting for settlers. The adoption of the grid made it easier to believe in Manifest Destiny; fillin in the “empty” and “undeveloped” spaces of the grid became an automatic historical process.
manifest destiny (noun): the 19th-century doctrine or belief that the expansion of the United States throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable.
fig.4 - individuality of the grid
Not a single individual on this planet wanted to have a sprawling, monotonous suburbia. Codes, standards and regulations are responsible for this. The virtual aspects of urban development are dictated by these. The regulations which we deal with now are the results of decades of rules designed to promote particular practices. In the late nineties, early twenties standards became a tool to solve health, safety and morality issues. Having a huge impact on urban development in the US of 20th Century, standards shaped the largest footprint of urban development: the suburbs.
fig.5 view from ex-Sears tower
Accessible public spaces, housing and shopping in close proximity and walkable distances are the main aspects on which New Urbanism is focusing. These aspects were developed to offer an alternative to the actual sprawling, singleuse and low-density morphologies of post Word War II development, which have been demonstrated that is influencing negatively the economy, health and also has an environmental impact on communities. For New Urbanists, place-making and public space are the highest priority. This means streets designed for people and not for cars, accommodating multi-modal transportation. To be able to host the interaction and public life, we need to provide commons based on what a neighborhood needs. Great design is not useful if it canâ€™t be built. It is suggested to work with inclusive production builders, small developers, volunteers, public officials and citizens. They will influence over the built environment and will help to come up with implementable solutions.
II. MEMORIES FROM CHICAGO
The Great Migration
The Great Migration, a long-term movement of African Americans from the South to the urban North, changed Chicago and other northern urban areas between 1916 and 1970. Chicago attracted at that time more than 500,000 of the around 7 million African Americans who left the South during these times. Before this migration, African Americans constituted 2 percent of Chicago’s population; by 1970, they were 33 percent. What had been in the nineteenth century a largely southern and rural African American culture became a culture deeply infused with urban sensibility in the twentieth century. And what had been a marginalized population in Chicago emerged by the mid-twentieth century as a powerful force in the city’s political, economic, and cultural life. The city offered few opportunities to dissatisfied population until Word War I, even if the Migration had contributed to the city’s community since 1800s. Furthermore, African Americans were virtually excluded from factories and East and South European immigrants were given the least skilled jobs in industry. This lead to even less chances for African Americans to find a job and build a decent lifestyle. When World War I halted immigration from Europe while stimulating orders for Chicago’s manufactured goods, employers needed a new source of labor for jobs assumed to be “men’s work.” (...) For black women the doors opened only slightly and temporarily, but even domestic work in Chicago offered higher wages and more personal autonomy than in the South. The Great Migration established the foundation of Chicago’s African American industrial working class. Despite the tensions between newcomers and “old settlers,” related to differences in age, region of origin, and class, the Great Migration established the foundation for black political power, business enterprise, and union activism.
The Great Migration’s impact on cultural life in Chicago is most evident in the southern influence on the Chicago Renaissance of the 1930s and 1940s, as well as blues music, cuisine, churches, and the numerous family and community associations that link Chicago with its southern hinterland—especially Mississippi. To many black Chicagoans the South remains “home,” and by the late 1980s increasing evidence of significant reverse migration, especially among retired people, began to appear.
Every slum area has itâ€™s own history of how it happened over the years. This usually involves poverty, destruction, depression, crime and so on. The Black Belt of Chicago was a chain of slums/neighborhoods in the South Side. Here, more than 70%of the African Americans used to live by the â€˜20s. This belt was as long as 30 blocks aligned from South to North and approximately 7 blocks wide. As the area was overcrowded due to a high-rate migration, low income families used to live in devastated buildings. The poorest used to live in the older section of the Black Belt while the well-being population lived in the southern-more part. Economic confines were created by segregation and residents had to find a way to create more economic opportunities in their communities through local businesses. More and more people struggled to fit into converted kitchenette and basementapartments. By that times, in a black family house were living around seven people. Associated with all these problems of poorness, racism and culture, crime was just a consequence of them. By 1946, the Chicago Housing Authority tried to ease the pressure in the overcrowded ghettos and proposed to put public housing sites in less congested areas in the city.
Of course, this was not good news for the white people, so they forced the Chicago House Authority to keep the public housing in the area where the slums were and in the West Side. We will see next that some of these public housing projects became total failures.
1950s Public Housing fig.13
The Federal Government was about to make the situation even worst. Harry Truman, by that time President of United States, signed a housing act of 1949 which was intended to provide vast amounts of federal funding to cities, to eradicate the slums, where five million American families were living at that moment, and build new modern housing. While this theoretically should sound like a good idea, in practice it was a disaster. â€œ...urban renewal, which means moving the Negroes out. It means Negro removal, that is what it means. The federal government is an accomplice to this factâ€?. James Baldwin As modern architecture was in vogue at that time, architects already had plans about how to create new public housing. The solution was high-rise buildings.
While middle class white people moved to single-house suburbs and afforded to buy them because the government sold land at a cheap price for them, black people moved to the new built high-rise public housing, with low incomes and mostly the same social problems as in the slums. Here, the lack of commons is again present. I can say that people living in slums interacted more in the daily life than here, in this kind of settlements. Wide-open spaces are dangerous, there is no natural control and high criminality is still on going. Authorities started the demolition of public housing blocks at the beginning of 1970s and concluded the total demolition in 2008.
Common space in public housing
horisontal distribution Henri Worner Homes
Reinforced social-economic-racial borders
Ikes Dearborn Hilliard Homes
III. NORTH LAWNDALE
North Lawndale schwarzplan
North Lawndale was settled in 1827 in the West Side of Chicago. Its boundaries are Arlington Street, Taylor Street and 5th Avenue on the north, 21st Street, Cermak and the railroad tracks on the south, the railroad tracks on the east, the railroad tracks on the west. With a length of 4.3 km E-W and a media of 2.2 km N-S, the neighborhood contains one big park, named Douglas Park, which is part of the green chain of Chicago. North Lawndale has a very powerful delimitation of tissue because of the surrounding railways and industrial sites. It is crossed by the Roosvelt Road which links the suburb with the Loop, and ending in Lake Michigan. Despite the very diverse character of the footprint, the suburb is nearly close to the city-center, precisely a 4 kilometers distance, an easy going path for public transport and why not, bicycles.
1229 S Kedzie Ave
18th and Trumbull
Roosvelt and St.Louis
12th Place and Homan
2856 Roosvelt Rd
13th and Harding
18th and Pulaski
13th and Kostner
2918 Roosvelt Rd
18th and Pulaski
13th and Kolin
13th and Sawyer
Dissecting the different-use layers from the composition of North Lawndale, we are able to observe that the streets infrastructure occupies a large amount of land, fragmenting the space. The built layer is a complex one, varying from large footprints of exindustries on the margins of the neighborhood, the Douglas Park, the immense asphalt all around - parking lots to the individuality of vacant plots. What more and more gains our attention in this scheme, is the footprint of vacancy present all around North Lawndale, from which we can identify the spots of density, the change of space character in different areas, the poverty rate, the safe zones.
...the contemporary city is not an identifiable object or “entity”. Its characteristic dissipation and dispersion have established a complexity that is difficult to grasp as anything other than a statistical construct. As such, it remains conceptually transparent to participants of a design discourse bound to a fetishistic analysis and development of discrete and identifiable objects and spaces. ...it is not built form that characterizes the contemporary city, but the immense spaces over which built form has little or no control. A critique of the primacy of built form in the contemporary urban environment need not lead to paralysis, absurdity, nihilism, irony, commercial prostitution, or despair on the part of the aspiring form=maker. A rejection of the primacy of form is not a rejection of urban form itself, but a rejection of its privileged status in an environment where clearly has none. Superstudio: “Live with objects, not for objects.” Photo-collage, 1972
The grey color from this illustration represents the empty space around the neighborhood.
The black fill represents the vacant plots in North Lawndale.
By condensing the vacant plots, we can observe than more than 18% of the neighborhood is vacant. railroad
S Talman Ave S FairďŹ eld Ave S California Ave S Mozard St. S Francisco Ave S Richmond St. S Sacramento Blvd S Whipple St. S Albany Ave S Tray Ave S Kedzie Ave S Sawyer Ave S Spaulding Ave S Christiana Ave S Homan Ave
S St. Louis Ave S Central Park Ave S Milliard Ave S Lawndale Ave S Independent Blvd S Avers Ave S SpringďŹ eld Ave S Harding Ave S Pulaski Rd S Komenski Ave S Karlov Ave S Kedvale Ave S Keeler Ave S Tripp Ave S Kildare Ave S Kollin Ave S Kostner Ave S Kilbourn Ave railroad
North Lawndale crossed land map
After several demolitions, people use crossing vacant land in order to shorten distances between two points. We can observe diagonals created around the neighborhood and how they are spreaded around the studied area.
IV. INTELLIGENCE Loop
Common-UNITY is a public space in Mexico City. By taking a placemaking approach, the architect Rozana Montiel transformed the alienated sectors of the housing complex into a community place. She worked around the physical barriers created by the residents in common areas to make them permeable, democratic and meaningful. Through participatory planning, the design strategy substituted dividing vertical structures for sheltering horizontal ones: the architect implemented roof-modules equipped for a diverse program (blackboards, climbing walls, handrails and nets). The new design spoke for itself: residents agreed to remove 90% of the barriers and the recovered public space became an extension of each apartment. The new space facilitated a different kind of ownership and appropriation: one that habituates inhabitants to work for the common good. This example of getting rid of barriers and creating a common space in bitween housing units is a good example for the North Lawndale inhabitants that are eager to use common facilities but do not have enough resources to do it.
Rozana Montiel and Alin V. Wallach proposed a canopy above a space in order to give a new life to an unused plaza in Veracruz, Mexico. This structure is half covered, half not, with two levels height in some points, containing enclosed spaces for children, recreational areas, activity rooms and least but not last, bathrooms. The structure is created in such a way, that people can sit in the upper part of the court and observe the activites happening below. What inspired me was the simplicity of this light structure that, even if is all precise, clean and organised, creates the needed space for the informal to happen. It can be from impromtu barber shop to an open air theatre for kids or a yoga space. The materials used for this structure are durable and efficient like steel and brick. Chicago is known for its steel structured buildings in the city center but is also known as having great white brick houses in the near suburbs. These two materials put together in the studied context can generate light structures needed in order to let informality and appropriation happen. â€œWe built an indoor court, efficiently optimising a very restricted space in order to generate a varied activity programme.â€? Rozana Montiel
Re-use of construction materials after demolition
The Quinta Monroy social housing project of Elemental, is inspiring for the case of North Lawndale because of the innovative way of using space and building just half of the house, letting space for another further half development by the settlers. This, in our case, could be a great idea of using the existing blind walls remained empty after the demolition of some white-stone houses that were built in a raw, and instead of building new houses from zero, we could create a framework on which the existing settlers can extend and create their own habitat.
Construction and Demolition debris is non-hazardous, noncontaminated solid waste resulting from construction, remodeling, repair or demolition projects on pavement, buildings and other structures. It may include: Bricks, concrete, rock and other masonry materials, wood, including non-hazardous painted, treated, and coated wood, scrap metal, plaster and gypsum drywall, plumbing fixtures and piping, nonasbestos insulation, roofing shingles and other roof coverings, reclaimed asphalt pavement, glass and plastics, landscape waste. These recycled materials are a great source for building new interventions in poor suburban areas, without being necessary need of new investors to come build new buildings.
The grey color represents the vacant plots in North Lawndale. The blue lines suggest the potential walkable connection paths between the vacant plots, together creating a network around the neighborhood.
By shifting and spinning pieces of grid in an utopic way, we create diversity in the morphology, new kind of central spaces that then can be linked between them, creating spatial identity and hierarchy.
existent building lateral facade - to be kept
Safety - natural control
After several years of demolitions, many housing blocks remained with one or two blind walls. The blind wall is not a secure space for users such as kids, women and eldery, lacking of control, not only from the authorities but from the inhabitants of the area. In this way, a first step to a better conviviality is to create windows in the blind walls (case 1) where there exists at least three empty plots in front of them. Another strategy is to merge a new framework with the existing construnctions (case 2), where there are less than three vacant plots available in front of the blind wall, in order to give the opportunity for a further development of the existing built.
existent blind wall case 1 - to be modified
existent blind wall case 2 - to be merged with extension
suggestive collage with insertion of windows for a better natural control
The sketch of the ground floor plan, a grid of right angles that do not intersect, difficult to read as a living space, that extends out into space without clear containment, yet still a scheme coherent and compelling. Mies van der Rohe Brick Country House, Description by Gary Garvin
Common space in North Lawndale
existing - road
Continuity of space
Max Bill, ContinuitĂ¨, 1947, Concrete Sculpture
Max Bill, Casabella, 1959, Perspective
There is a status in the society that cannot be beaten by our desire, just for the sake of tasting what we canâ€™t have. This is the case of architecture, too. If I know I can not affort a Louis Vuitton bag, I will not enter a Louis Vuitton store.I donâ€™t need that bag. Why a person that cannot afford posh architecture would ever need one or feel confortable having one? The space has to talk for the user. In this case, the voice of the interventions has to sing along wit the voice of the community.
Nocturne thoughts by the author.
View from Nichols Tower (ex Sears Tower) on Chicago Downtown skyline
The most interesting characteristic of the cube is that it is relatively uninteresting. Compared to any other three-dimensional form, the cube lacks any aggressive force, implies no motion, and is least emotive. Therefore, it is the best form to use as a basic unit for any more elaborate function, the grammatical device from which the work may proceed. Sol LeWitt
North Lawndale plot dimensions
This being observed, we can focus on one of the cvartals represented here, by giving a solution, a response to the contemporary issues, to a piece of land that can then be implemented in other similar areas, areas that are facing the same morphological and lexical issues.
Analyzing the proportion of a cvartal in North Lawndale, we can easily observe that each cvartal is more or less the same dimension, with very little oscilations.
38 12 17
Property plots dimensions
Analysis of the vacancy on the studied area:
Vacant lots with residential character
Vacant lots near Roosvelt Road - commercial area Roosvelt Road
The vacant plots that are in proximity of the Roosvelt Road, have high potential of becoming places to gather commoners and make the interaction happen informally. These spaces can be sustained by creating small architectural interventions, non-invasive structures that can be developed further on by the users. The red line represents the potential walking path between different points of the neighborhood. Now, the connection is not possible due to different physical and mental boundries existing in the morphology of this space.
Axonometric view - existing situation
Axonometric view - phase I - getting rid of physical boundries in order to facilitate walkin paths around the neighborhood.
Axonometric view - phase II - introducing windows in blind walls where possible and prepare the land for further development of the framework.
Axonometric view - phase III - implementing the framework
Demographics - studied area By studying the demographics of the focus area, we can create a scenario of what would be a first necessity of framework development. In this case, the number of children and single mothers is very high, so there is need of a kids center such as kindergarden and playgrounds. Avarage: single mothers 53 children housing
commercial public functions
48 people 18 house units 2 people/house unit
125 people 33 house units 4 people/house unit 89
Proposal plan - ground floor
intervention 1 structural framework with insertion of walls and desks for sellers - commercial needs GSPublisherVersion 0.0.100.100
intervention 2 structural framework with insertion of walls commercial use / playground use
intervention 3 extension of an existing structure spaces can be used as movie projections, classrooms on daytime, neighborhood meetings
intervention 4 structure with insertion of walls and two staircases for a vertical development ground floor as open public space
intervention 5 merge with existing housing block insertion of windows for a better natural control staircases and walls for furthure vertical development ground floor with public character
intervention 6 developed structure appropriated by inhabitants for children needs children center
intervention 7 narrow plot merge with existing house block used for enlargment of existing apartments stairs insertion for vertical development ground floor with common use
intervention 8 narrow plot merge with existing house blocks on left and right used for enlargment of existing apartments sturcture before insertion of staircase ground floor with common use
10m 5m 10m
intervention 9 merge with existing house block used for enlargment of existing apartments ground floor with common use
Trials during the design process:
intervention 10 indipendent structure common spaces framework development on vertical
Neighborhood scenarios appropriation of frameworks
structure nr. 6 - kindergarden structure nr. 6 - kindergarden
structure nr. 1 - commercial use [market]
structure nr. 3 - education/movies projection
structure nr. 5 - mergin the new structure with existing appartment block
Annex Sources: Books
 Chicagoisms: The City as Catalyst for Architectural Speculation edited by Alexander Eisenschmidt and Jonathan Mekinda  Cities of Change Addis Ababa: Transformation Strategies for Urban Territories in the 21st Century by Marc AngĂŠlil, Dirk Hebel  Insurgent Public Space: Guerrilla Urbanism and the Remaking of Contemporary Cities 1st Edition edited by Jeffrey Hou  Key concepts in urban studies Book by Mark Gottdiener  Ladders, Second Revised Edition by Albert Pope, preface by Pier Vittorio Aureli  Look at this demolished The end of Chicagoâ€™s public housing by David Eads and Helga Salinas photos by Patricia Evans  Principles of Urban Structure Book by Bruce West, L. Andrew Coward, and Nikos Salingaros  Site Matters: Design Concepts, Histories, and Strategies 1st Edition by Carol J. Burns (Editor), Andrea Kahn (Editor)  Space in America: Theory, History, Culture edited by Klaus Benesch, Kerstin Schmidt  Sprawl: A Compact History Book by Robert Bruegmann  Tactical Urbanism Short-term Action for Long-term Change Mike Lydon and Anthony Garcia; Foreword by Andres Duany
 The Code of the City: Standards and the Hidden Language of Place Making Book by Eran Ben-Joseph  The Historic Chicago Greystone: A Userâ€™s Guide to Renovating & Maintainting Your Home Published in 2007 by Historic Chicago Greystone Initiative (now the Chicago Greystone & Vintage Home Program) at Neighborhood Housing Services of Chicago and the City Design Center in the College of Architecture & the Arts at the University of Illinois at Chicago  Writing Urbanism: A Design Reader edited by Dean and Professor of Architecture and Urban Planning Douglas Kelbaugh, Douglas Kelbaugh, Kit McCullough
fig.1 collage by the author fig.2 collage by the author fig.3 https://www.pinterest.com/pin/170855379583792865/ fig.4 collage by the author
Web http://commonsnetwork.eu/constructing-urban-commons/ https://www.citylab.com/equity/2017/09/suburbs-should-merge/540258/ https://www.moma.org/explore/inside_out/2012/08/08/foreclosed-reexamining-possibilities/
fig.5 photo by the author fig.6 collage by the author fig.7 https://mymodernmet.com/southside-chicago-great-migration/ fig.8 http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/1177.html fig.9 https://mymodernmet.com/southside-chicago-great-migration/
fig.12 https://chicagoganghistory.com/hoods/the-slums-of-chicago/ fig.13 https://chicagoganghistory.com/housing-project/robert-taylor-homes/ fig.14 https://southsideweekly.com/chicago-unfulfilled-promise-rebuild-publichousing/
https://gbsurbanrenewal.weebly.com/ https://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/streets/supp_info/construction_ anddemolitionsites.html https://www.ted.com/talks/james_howard_kunstler_dissects_suburbia#t-145830 http://numerocinqmagazine.com/
INT MA AR
International Master of Architecture KU Leuven Faculty of Architecture Campus Sint-Lucas, Brussels Belgium June 2018
The common voids represents a togetherness of memories, from the individuality of human being to collective spaces, from a given way of livi...
Published on Jan 14, 2020
The common voids represents a togetherness of memories, from the individuality of human being to collective spaces, from a given way of livi...