Page 1


selected works 2008 - 2012



Academic 4 18 30 34 38 50 66 74

Flux House Le Strates de Paris Dispersed Horizons Esplanade The Breezeway Gulf Coast Film Archives ZeRow House New Kai Tak

Things of interest 92 94 throughout

Light Box Reconstructing ‘Transparency’ Photography

Professional 98

Andlinger Center


Left: Philharmonie, Berlin; Right: Saint-Pierre, Firminy




Flux House A recombinant house in suburbia

Course ARCH 301 Duration One semester Professors Sean Lally Michael Robinson Collaborator JessyYang

The problem of the suburban house lies in the increasing division of family members. The convenience of technology has led family members to become hermetic, leading to a house that is no more than a collection of separate rooms. This trend limits the spectrum of human interaction and experiences. Our solution is to redistribute amenities, such as light, temperature, acoustics, et cetera, to maximize spaces that encourage family interaction and minimize spaces that demand privacy. A set of formal systems is deployed to accommodate the redistribution of these amenities: surface undulation, infill, and skin. Together, these systems create different atmospheres to accommodate various levels of interactivity from different times of the day to seasons of the year. In the second part of the studio, the system used in singlefamily house is then used in an entire housing development to decrease divisions among households.The houses are cluttered around communal courtyards, and the system expands to promote communal activities such as a swimming pool. Changes in season and differences in interests among dwellers are the variables of interactions.




17th - 18th century

contemporary suburban

The yardstick to measure flexibility of interaction in a particular space

complete pinks: THE LIFEPODS

inbetweens: THE SPACES IN FLUX

complete blues: THE OPEN FIELD

Historical and projective trends 8



bathroom, gathering space (above)

limited gathering space

visual control, temperature control

acoustic control, skylight, sitting space






container, sitting space acoustic panels, carpet, tiles, wood, textures draws back, flushes against edge

gathering space, acoustic control

concrete, stairs, cushions, appliances, decorations


curves, changes in materiality and opacity visual control, acoustic control, study space

cushions, lighting

vertical circulation, study space

tables, storage, heating, lighting, electrics

slides, folds

Systems together create spaces with different amenities, which govern their flexibility and degree of privacy 9

Street and aerial views

Section BB

Section DD

Section AA 10

Section CC

Section EE

Section FF

3D print model shows the range of activities accommodated by the three systems: surface undulation, amenities infill, and skin 11

Second floor plan

Approx. 1000 sqft 1-2 people / household

Approx. 1600 sqft 2-4 people / household

Approx. 2400 sqft 4-6 people / household

Housing development

Detail section 12

Ground floor plan SUMMER

Second floor plan

Second floor plan

Ground floor plan

Ground floor plan







Perspective from the second floor


Perspective from interior unit


Section perspective 16


L’Alhambra, Granada, Spain




Le Strates de Paris Strolling the city layers Hotel, Paris 12th Arrondisement

Course ARCH 601 RSA Paris Duration One semester Professors Pierre David John Casbarian

The narrow site in the heart of Paris mediates the urban and the residential context and lies in the intersection of infrastructural and historical layers of Paris. The hotel reveals various experiences of these layers for both hotel guests and the public. A void that separates the service building from the main building opens up the ground to the sky, allowing continuous views for hotel rooms and revealing a remnant of the Roman aqueduct system. Vertical and horizontal axes shape hotel masses to curate unique views from each room. The public spaces on the street and roof levels frame the city in unexpected ways and highlight the Parisian promenade experience.

Aquaduct Cardo Meridian

Historical axes intersect at the site and become a point of departure for exposing further artifacts through architecture



Vertical axes

Luxury of views

Horizontal axes

Site plan


Initial figura

Final figura

The “Figura” was an iterative method to understand the relationship of forces surrounding the site

The “Machine” generated studies of atmospheric strategies perceived from within the building 22

Exposing the layers:

4. Upper promenade: Zig-zagging path creates viewing angles that open to monuments of the city. Concrete mounds provide resting places.

3. Hotel blocks: Apertures highlight con-

trasting atmospheres: the vastness of the city to the west and the intimacy of the neighborhood to the east.

2. Lower Promenade: Variation of column densities and widths create changing views of lush trees lining the historic Avenue RenĂŠ-Coty.

1. Underground: Reflection pool dis-

play remnants of the ancient water system, the Roman Aquaduct.

Hotel guests


Axonometric view 23

Section AA

Preserving views from existing buildings behind 24

Section BB

Section FF

Section CC

Section DD

Section EE 25

The Upper Promenade reveals a view of Sacre Coeur


Individual rooms are furnished with luxury of views: the glamour of the city on one side and the simplicity of residential life on the other


The Lower Promenade provides a pleasant transition between the urban and the residential sides



Left: Houston,Texas; Right: Bordeaux, France




Dispersed Horizons Montmatre, Paris

Course Replaying Modernism RSA Paris Duration Three weeks Professor Jim Njoo Collaborator Igraine Perkinson

This project questions the presence of icons in Paris and seeks to redefine their relationship within the city with a new typology: dispersed horizons. Paris is a city saturated with monuments and icons. The higher they are, the more significant they become as markers along the cityscape. Whereas traditional icons emphasize the singular, the permanent, and the solid, dispersed horizons draws from the multiple, the ephemeral, and the layered. The pavilions are permutations of Neue Galerie in Berlin by Mies van der Rohe. Neue Galerie creates a grey zone between building and monument. It is this disappearance act that becomes the point of departure for dispersed horizons. The pavilions are strategically deployed so that throughout the day, they display the city and become invisible. At night, the city looks back at the illuminated pavilions as horizons that delineate Montmatre hill. It is at this moment that the horizons achieve their full effect by becoming a new threshold between building and monument, monument and city fabric. Again drawing from Neue Gallerie, each pavilion in dispersed horizons collapses the platform that displays the city and the plinth that houses the program. Following a number of site specific operations (attach, replace, extend, scrape, amplify, bridge, insert, excavate, extrude), the platform that displays the city becomes programmatic as it responds to the specificity of the site, acquiring varying gradients of openness based on programmatic density. Each operation reveals and improves the site at critical locations by enhancing the social experience for both temporal and permanent inhabitants.


Neue Gallerie

Neue Gallerie

Dispersed Horizons

Dispersed Horizons


Site section

Site plan 34

Dispersed Horizons as a new threshold in the city fabric










10 35

Esplanade Houston, TX

Course ARCH 302 Duration Two weeks Professor William Cannady

This was a hand-drafting design exercise to study the relationship of facade design with its corresponding interior spaces. Understanding of textures, transparency, and choice of materials was stressed with the minimal rendering technique of black colored pencil.

Section 36

Typical floor plan

Elevation 37

The Breezeway Houston, TX

Course ARCH 302 Duration Twelve weeks Professor William Cannady Collaborator Ethan Feuer Tangley Lofts KarlaWallace Landscape

This pragmatic studio program was to design two four-story lofts for empty nesters with four private garages. Each loft unit occupies a floor and is roughly 2,400 sqft. The two apartments are pushed to the edge of the site to maintain proximity to the streets, maximize distance for direct view between the two buildings, and to take advantage of the communal space in between.The two buildings are connected by a covered walkway (the breezeway), which provides a patio that links primary circulation core with the loft units on each level. The patio will be relatively cool throughout the year due to the north-south prevailing wind direction, and becomes an outdoor living room for the dwellers. The interior emphasizes on open spaces that flows into one another.The landscaping elements and program between the two buildings are developed based on shadow placement. Recycled wood is used for the breezeway and louvers to shade from the South sun, while zinc panel is chosen for durability. Four water cisterns hold grey water to maintain the courtyard. The roof material is built-up roof with a layer of white gravel to minimize heat absorption.


Site Plan

Program organization 39

Detail section of the walkway

Landscape elements

Opposite page: ground floor plan 40





Lighting study (plan)

Lighting study (elevation)

Section AA 42

A 2








11 6






1. Patio 2. Kitchen, dining 3. Living room 4. Master bedroom 5. Her closet


Typical floor plan 6. His closet 7. Guest bedroom 8. Study room 9. Storage 10. Laundry

Section BB 43

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

zinc parapet flashing flashing & counterflashing 8” CMU Block with applied moisture barrier base flashing fiber cant strip reflective paint and white gravel built-up roof 4” Polystyrene insulation VM Zinc Cassette panels standard profile stainless-steel drilling screw fixing bracket 1/2” air gap 1.5” Extruded polystyrene insulation liquid system (Henry Airblock 31) 5/8” Densglass exterior sheating unfaced batt insulation 6” structural metal stud 5/8” gypsum board & interior finish aluminum cladded wood window (awning) aluminum cladded wood window (casement) built-in bookshelf beyond column beyond bamboo flooring

Typical structural and mechanical bay drawn by Seth Goodman for class reference 44

Detail wall section, Dunstan Apartments

North elevation facing interior courtyard

South elevation facing Dunstan St.


Rendering of south-facing interior spaces: guest bedroom, study room, and kitchen

North facade faces the interior courtyard


Aerial view showing relationship between Dunstan and Tangley Lofts

View of the Breezeway, looking at the pavilion

South facade of Dunstan Lofts


Left: Dunstan Lofts, right:Tangley Lofts



Left: Houston,Texas; Right: L’Alhambra, Spain


Softness 51

Gulf Coast Film Archives Houston, TX

Course ARCH 401 Duration One semester Professor Carlos Jimenez

The Film Archive is a main project in developing midtown Houston as a lively, pedestrian friendly urban center. As one of the first major institutions in this under developed area, the building becomes a visual reference for the city to identify midtown. The Film Archives appears as a permanent mass in its modest neighborhood. The building’s mass is “eroded� to bring appropriate qualities of natural sunlight to various programs, as well as visual connection through spaces and levels. The main wall of the courtyard tilts away from the courtyard as it reaches the second level. This allows indirect northern light to flood the exhibition space and amplify the courtyard as a social center accessible from both entrances.

Process sketches



Site plan

Final model, view fromWinbern St.

Study models 54


Lower level plan

Ground level plan

1. Lobby 2. Bookstore 3. Multipurpose 4. Cafe 5. Exhibition spaces 6. Patio


7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Office Archives circulation Archives stacks Mech./Elec. Storage


Second level plan

Third level plan


Section AA


Section BB

Section CC

Section DD




Elevation fromWinbern St.

Elevation fromWest Alabama St.



2 3 4 5

6 7

8 9 10 11 12


14 15

16 17 18 19

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

1/16� Zinc flashing and polyutherane board Modified bitumen roof Concrete slab on metal deck Metal ceiling on frame, suspended from slab by steel tie rods Recessed can lights Steel stud with gypsum board, insulation, waterproofing membrane Concrete shear wall Terrazzo flooring (epoxy resin matrix terrazzo) 7� Concrete slab Beam beyond Glazing Motorized sun shading system Double gypsum board with insulation, steel column beyond Aluminum ac grille painted white Concealed truss girder covered in gypsum board Perforated metal screen beyond Carpet Acoustic wall Waterproofing membrane

Detail wall section 61

Lower level


Second and third levels

Above:View of the lobby fromWest Alabama St. Below: Archives stacks, reading and viewing booths, archives circulation


Interior courtyard


Gallery space on second level; the lightwell brings light and visual connection to the archives in the lower level


Left: La Tourette, France; Right: Barcelona to Paris




ZeRow House 2009 Solar Decathlon Houston, TX

Course Rice Building Workshop Duration Two semesters Professors Danny Samuels Nonya Grenader Collaborators Students from engineering and architecture majors

The ZeRow House, a zero energy row house, was started by students at Rice University in 2006 and involved more than thirty students from Engineering and Architecture majors.The design was inspired by the row-house typology, which is native to southern United States. The house was built on campus and transported to Washington, D.C. for the 2009 Solar Decathlon. After the competition, the ZeRow house was placed in Houston’s Third Ward as a part of Project Row Houses, a public art project in Houston. Constructed for $140,000, the ZeRow House was built for lower income consumers. It uses passive design strategies, local materials, smaller appliances, and is powered by solar panel array. The wet core and the light core are the central organizing elements in the 800 sqft house. The wet core accommodates water and energy systems, whereas the light core brings natural light in. As a part of interiors team, I was involved in design development, construction documentation and assembly of the interior spaces, as well as construction on campus.


Floor plan, drawn by SD and CD teams


1. Interior elevation, bedroom. Split-system AC reduces electricity usage

2. Interior elevation, bathroom 70

3. Interior elevation, kitchen:The kitchen as a thickened wall plugs to the wet core, which houses water and energy systems

4. Interior elevation, living room work station: Shelfs can be reshuffled according to changing needs 71

Interior view:The light core is the main source of natural light as well as an extension of living space

Chassis arrival on campus 72


Interior view: Finishes include bamboo flooring and non voc wall paint

Departure for the National Mall

ZeRow House at 2009 Solar Decathlon 73

Left: BagsvĂŚrd, Denmark; Right: Approaching Singapore




New Kai Tak Masterplan and Urban Design East Kowloon, Hong Kong

Course ARCH 602 Duration One semester Professor Albert Pope Collaborators Overall: 11 studio members Pearl River Delta research and phase I masterplan: Igraine Perkinson, Alex Stitt (p. 76-78) Street grids and parallel blocks: EileenWitte (p.82-89)

1. Research. In this studio, eleven students conducted investigation of Pearl River Delta and its relationship to its context in multiple scales, from world megalopolises to Hong Kong, one of the densest places in the world. The research brought us to design a master plan for 800 acres of reclaimed land in Victoria Harbor, Hong Kong. 2. Masterplan. An ever-changing city of rapid urbanization, Hong Kong is composed of a patchwork of compact highrises (“packed solids”) and undeveloped landscapes (“charged voids”). The masterplan facilitated the productive tension between packed solid and charged void, with an ‘X’ figure that contains both. The strong figure creates an identity for New Kai Tak and shapes the emergent context. 3. Parallel blocks deployment. At the fabric scale, three existing Hong Kong typologies - parallel blocks, urban villages, and housing towers - were transformed to increase the quality of space in the densely packed city. My partner and I took on the design of the street grid, as well as the transformation and deployment on site of the parallel blocks typology. The parallel block is a remarkably flexible building type, despite its infamy for hyper-rationalism and repetition. The size, distance, and configuration of the blocks are variable, which allows the type to range in density from the urban village to the housing tower. Acting as platonic vertical planes that organize the spaces between buildings, the blocks configure the region between the voids of Kai Tak, Kai Tak Central, into a gradient of increasing openness.The Canal Blocks tests the scale limit of an independent parallel blocks development.



1. Research

Research book compiled by the studio in the first five weeks led to the discovery of Kai Tak as a site 78

World megalopolises

PRD Industrial cluster and projected integration

PRD density

Growth of PRD from 1978, projected to 2020 79

2. Masterplan

Process: Variations of schemes in masterplanning 80

Site borders Shenzhen, the fastest growing city in the Pearl River Delta

Kai Tak Airport was abandoned in 1998

The site is longer than Central Park in Manhattan, NewYork 81

Forces acting on the apron:

1. Context: External forces flow in.

2. Voids: Internal forces flow out.

3. Circle: Monorail connects P.O.I.

4. Cross: Shortcuts connect context.

Grid evolution




a. b.


f. g.

n. m.

i. j.



k. d. KAI TAK PARK e. NODIUM f. KAI TAK CENTRAL Area: 300,000 sqm Pop: 91,530


Organization of the apron 82

g. NETWORKED PODIUM Area: 965,000 sqm Pop: 205,600




Area: 130,000 sqm Pop: 23,220

Area: 2,300,000 sqm Pop: 178,000



Area: 475,000 sqm Pop: 48,000

Area: 108,000 sqm Pop: 50,000


Rendering by phase II masterplan group


Rendering by phase II masterplan group


3. Parallel Blocks Deployment a. Kai Tak Central b. Canal Blocks


Parallel blocks: Reifying the figure



Parallel blocks: Reifying the edge

Parallel Blocks Case Studies: SHEK KIP MEI


DISTRICT POPULATION: 11,430 YEAR: 1964 Yau Ma Tei, Kowloon Private housing estate 8 blocks, 19 levels, 3648 units total 1,220 sqm/floor, 50 sqm/unit

DIS TRICT POPULATION: 13,900 YEAR: 1953 Sham Shui Po, Kowloon Public housing 29 blocks, 7 levels, 7,363 units total 11 - 55 sqm / unit

DISTRICT POPULATION: 15,200 YEAR: 1975 Kwai Shing Circle, Kwai Chung Public housing 15-22 levels, 5300 units 800 sqm/floor, 23 - 55 sqm/units


Perimeter gallery

Single to double loaded corridor







Kai Tak Central




most dense

least dense most dense





Transformation of parallel blocks to enhance quality of public space 86


The dense repetition create traditional street life. The insertion of outdoor spaces at residential levels above “opens the wall� and create visual and physical connection.

least dense




Every other block slides forward to lessen density and increase exterior spaces.This amplifies the inside-out nature of gallery housing and intensifies social interaction.


The blocks are parallel in two directions, creating large open spaces between buildings and a smooth transition to the adjacent housing towers and canal edge. 87

Section showing the range of open spaces within and between the blocks



The repetitive blocks along the hard edge of the park create the ‘phenomenal density’ of traditional urbanism

The loose blocks along the soft edge of the canal the create a ‘packaged density’ while also providing new shared public ground


Canal Blocks

While the housing towers are identified by verticality, the canal blocks exaggerate the horizontality of parallel blocks. A podium with communal facilities connect all blocks.

Residential levels

Location of Canal Blocks within Kai Tak

Programmed public spaces are located within the voids of the blocks

Podium level

Street level 91

Three islands and two voids

The monorail intersects the old and new fabric and emerges as a new monument in Hong Kong 92

The two organizing voids in Kai Tak apron: the park and the canal

“Nodium� - Nodal Podium is a permutation of the housing towers typology

The New KowloonWalled City occupies the old Kai Tak runway 93

Light Box

Course Joy of Materials Duration Two weeks Professor Carlos Jimenez


Students were to express three materials constrained in a cube of 30” x 30”. The “Light Box” plays with the opacity and transparency of wood through Birch plywood, Birch veneer, and light, acquiring different personalities and usage during day and night.


Reconstructing ‘Transparency’

Course The Architecture of Books Duration Four weeks Professor Reto Geiser

Taking the role of both the editor and the designer, students reevaluated and defined appropriate form for the content of the essay “Transparency”, written by Colin Rowe and Robert Slutzky and published in 1963 Perspecta 8. The understanding of the text relies on the reader’s continual access to the referenced works. The approach is to present the work as a study material. To maintain a clear presentation, the body text is surrounded by its references. Images fold out from the cover, while footnotes act as a bookmark. Color-coded numbers in the body text help readers navigate references. The generous margin allows for fast-pace reading as well as space for hand-written notes.

Clear separation of image, text, and footnotes


Color-coded navigation system

The textblock is attached to the cover using ‘perfect-bind’ technique

The footnotes also act as a bookmark

Material choice reflect the separation of images and text: thick cardstock for the cover and thin yellow-toned paper for the textblock


Above: Hoboken, New Jersey; Below: Itacha, NewYork 98

Drawing a line


Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment Princeton University, New Jersey

Office TodWilliams Billie Tsien Architects Preceptorship duration One year Teams Design architects: TWBTA Associate architects: Ballinger Structural engineer: Severud Associates MEP: ARUP Landscape Architects: Michael vanValkenburgh Associates Inc.

This 127,000-square-foot nanotechnology facility weaves in natural light and social spaces throughout, challenging the typically closed nature of laboratory facilities. The underground laboratory spaces have access to three sunken courtyards, which are connected to public spaces inside and outside the buildings. These linked public spaces transform the engineering quadrangle into a part of the university fabric. Andlinger houses facilities in engineering and applied science, including nanofabrication facilities, clean room space, imaging center, offices, a lecture hall, and research laboratories. The project underwent a Value Engineering phase for six months, during which I was involved with the redesign of the exterior envelope and fenestration schemes. This budget-cutting process was taken as an opportunity to refine and develop the design concept. Construction started in November 2011 and is planned for completion in 2015.

Site plan taken from Princeton University’s website 100

Rendering above was done in collaboration with Evan Ripley 101

Site plan

Structure All structure below the campus level is made of concrete. This is not only structurally reasonable for basement construction but also functionally appropriate to accommodate the low vibration requirements of the clean room spaces. Structures on campus and 200 levels are made of steel for cost efficiency as well as speed of construction.


Garden level plan

West elevation from Olden St. 103

Lower campus level plan


Upper campus level plan

East elevation 105

200 level plan

Energy-efficient strategies The university requires all of its buildings to meet its own sustainability standard equivalent to LEED Silver. Green roofs are used for storm water retention.The building also uses radiant heating and cooling, as well as cascade chilled water. Passive strategies include design that encourages the use of public stairs and the use of landscape elements to shade interior spaces.


Roof level plan

South elevation 107

Office Lab Lab Support Building Support Classroom

200 level

Upper campus level

Lower campus level

Garden level 108

Section AA: North-South section cutting through graduate students offices and lecture hall, showing daylighting strategies

Section BB: East-West section cutting through lecture hall

Section CC: East-West section cutting through north tower and research courtyard 109

Exterior envelope, Value Engineering process

The multiple iteration of the exterior envelope and fenestration schemes during the VE process revolved around: 1. Change from big openings and ribbon windows to punch windows in offices and labs. This allowed for shorter-span, less expensive bond beams to replace steel tubes. The corresponding elimination of expansive spandrel glass also allowed for a more honest expression of building transparency.

2. Reduction of Petersen K-Brick areas. (a)A secondary, lower grade brick was introduced in less public areas (shown in red). (b) Areas of exposed structural concrete were also increased (shown in yellow).

3. Elimination of brick pockets for exterior shading. The alternative metal shield simplified construction and reduced cost.

4. Change from recessed to protruded radiators. This reduced complexity of construction.

Rendering at SD by Tod Williams


Rendering at the end of CD by DBOX


North-West view, 50% Construction Documents phase

1 2a 2b North-West view, alternative I Office block wall section Left: 50% CD; Right: alternative II


Recessed radiator

Protruded radiator


Typical office window, alternative I


Exterior elevation




Interior elevation

West office block window, alternative I


Exterior elevation



Interior elevation


Value Engineering process

South-East view, 50% Construction Documents phase

South-East view, alternative I


Typical lab window, alternative I


Exterior elevation



Interior elevation 115

Value Engineering process

South-West view, 50% Construction Documents phase

South-West view, alternative I


Typical public punch window


Exterior elevation



Interior elevation

Typical garden level window


Exterior elevation



Interior elevation 117

Value Engineering process

Rendering at SD phase by Tod Williams

Rendering post CD phase by DBOX


Lecture hall north facade window, alternative I


Exterior elevation



Interior elevation


Value Engineering process

Lecture hall courtyard, 50% Construction Documents phase

Lecture hall courtyard, alternative I


Further efforts to reduce spandrel glass continued to be more of a desired conceptual move and less as a budget saving move. 121

Wall section diagrams

West facade, section at lecture hall 122

West facade, section at lecture hall

North facade, section at grad student offices

Typical section

North facade, section at office block

Section at public garden portico Section at campus level connection 123

West facade, section at cleanroom

Section at lab 124

Section at cleanroom

East facade, section at chem storage

Handrail studies


Interior finish diagrams, garden level

Excavation volume: 57,385 cu.yard 126

Interior fnish diagrams, upper campus level



Presentation model at 50% CD 129

Understanding Scale

In architectural practice, our preconceptions of transforming society through theories and ideas fade in compromises. Without the freedom to carry out isolated experiments in academics, architects’ ability to work out the main idea faces a different kind of complexity in the built environment. The understanding of scale gives one a capacity to organize information into places, and such skill becomes significant in retaining the main concept while simultaneously working with interdependent participants (consultants, contractor, client, bureaucracies, etc.) Windows at Andlinger How do architects decide the placement of windows in relation to the thickness of the wall, to its interior spaces, to its immediate façade and fifty other facades of the same project, and to its placement in the university campus? What is the ultimate solution that speaks the language of the architectural scheme, logical to the construction process and cost, practical for the users, and durable for the type of activities it protects for years to come? And how does one even begin with so many competing aspects? The initial concept was simple. All windows facing west and south will be recessed to account for the direct sunlight - this will also give space for the exterior louvers - while those facing north and east will be flushed with the face of brick in favor of indirect sunlight; there will be awning windows on some offices. There is also a 2� reveal for ease of construction. These result in variations in flashing and sill details. By the start of CD, it was agreed that the flushed windows gives a more commercial than institutional character to the building. Moreover, the shadow line of recessed windows gives depth and animates the facades. Thus, most windows, despite of its orientation, become recessed. This is significant since the buildings lack openings and look flat; most of the nanotechnology labs require complete isolation from outside. This change has decreased the variations of detail in CD. From studies developed by the curtain wall consultants, it turned out that the in-swing casement window will be more effective for natural ventilation than the out-swing awning. This was followed by studies of the different types of in-swing casement windows, its language of placement in each glazing bay, and its detail relationship to spandrel and clear glass. 130

There are also radiators, which have to be put under every window to keep condensation and heat off the building. Apart from the New Jersey building code, Princeton also has its own regulations. The radiators cannot protrude from the floor for maintenance purposes, and the steel construction does not allow for the radiators to be flushed with the floors on certain levels. As a result, a 1-foot high and six inches deep radiators have to be incorporated into every window. This resulted in the development of four types of radiators with direct relationships to the window frames. Changes are still happening, and with these changes and compromises the concept becomes clearer. Although these are a result of discussions with consultants, it is ultimately the architects who have to understand (and draft) why and how a flashing detail that works with the bricks, waterproofing layer, studs, columns, and interior spaces can express truth to the exterior envelope and overall concept of the building. Working in such a small scale, it seems easy to fall into obsession of drawing details and losing sight of why they have been drawn a certain way along the road. Making constant changes through DD and CD in building details can become a mundane and overwhelming task, given the tedious nature of the work. However, with a good understanding that concepts can and should align in multiple scales, it might not be so difficult to be constantly surprised by how things come together, conceptually and literally.

Model at 50% CD

Perspective at 100% CD, rendering by DBOX 131

Left: Basel, Switzerland; Right: Bordeaux, France


Mirror images


Blurred horizons 134

Left: Copenhagen, Denmark; Right: Leaving China 135

Left: Ronchamp, France Right: Paris, France 136




Profile for Diana Ang



Profile for dianaang