Noemi Anna Ördög aka Naomi Devil
EMOTICON Institut für Architekturwissenschaften Fachbereich Architekturtheorie Technische Universität Wien English translation by Josina den Burger Edited & distributed by Daibolus
Copyright: Naomi Devil 2009
Naomi Devil aka.
CONTENT 1. Introduction 2. Disturbed balance 3. Functionalism 4. Formalism 5. Immaterial Art 6. Cybernetic 7. The borderline between Sculpture and Architecture 7.1. A Segment of sculpture 7.2. Architectural features 7.3. Reflection past architecture 7.4. Function and Utility 7.5. Changing in the Architectural 7.6. Scale and proportions 7.7. Overlap with neighbouring genera 8. Architectural sculpture 8.1. Interaction with Architecture 8.2. Interaction with the Public 8.3. Interaction with Landscape 8.4 The Dematerialisation 9. The 5 Topologies 9.1. Time: Topology of Rhythms 9.2. Light: Topology of Light 9.3. Sound: Topology of Sound 9.4. Climate: Topology of artificial and natural climate flows 9.5. Space: Topology of Space 10. The Psychology of Emotions 10.1. Behavioural Theories 10.2. Cognitive Psychology Theories 10.3. Attributional Theories 10.4. Evolutionary Emotion Theories 11. Nikolas Schรถffer: Spatiodynamic Theatre and Shopping centre 11.1. Drama 12. The Structure of the Emoticon 12.1. Geometric Structure 12.2. Effector Group 12.3. Control Group 13. Space-critical Turning 14. Diabolus Cybernetic Art Research Team (CARP) 15. The Art Avantgarde
emoticon 1. INTRODUCTION Literature and Visual Arts were seen already in the Antiques as different Media, presenting Reality with different instruments. Still it is proved that till the 16th centennial both were viewed as a healthy hole. The from Plutarch preserved remark of Simonides: Painting should be Silent Poetry and Poetry Speaking Painting, shows, that both Arts were seen as related to each other. Although the from Horaz in his Ars Poetica started saying: Ut pictora Poesis: erit quaeâ€Śis showing a weaker equality of Painting and Poetry. In his changed form it became a sentence in the program of the Ut-pictura-poesis-debates from Renaissance till Clarification. In the 15th centennial, at the turning point from Christian till Humanist Iconography it was prevailed, that imaging was able to give Gnostic views. Advanced Insight is not only reached through complicated Text constructions, but also by Images. In this way there were no sharp borders between Science and Art at one side and Scientific and Artistic Methods at the other side. The visual artists worked with scientific tools: with central perspectives and optical instruments. At the other side Leonardo has used scientific themes with pictorially and artificial instruments, as shown by his Anatomy studies and Technical constructions. In the 16th centennial Science and Art separated. In this centennial Galileo Galilee (1564-1642) has passed the base of modern, scientific methods. The Clarification raised a form of enthusiastic scientific activity and rapidly dementing progress that leaded to a form where Science and Art became totally separated. Then in the beginning of the Computer Aeon a new start was made by a meaningful cooperation of scientists and artists, when both groups were intererested to investigate the Forming logics and Electronic indications. In research centres, groups of artists, musicians, technicians, and scientists started to work together in a more advanced way. In 1967 the Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T) as a non-profit organisation was founded,
emoticon to promote and accommodate the collaboration between Engineers and Artists. The organisation was founded by the engineers Billy Klüver and Fred Waldhauer and the visual artists Robert Rauschenberg and Robert Whitman after they already worked together and tried out this collaboration in several and most of all Theatre festival 9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering, The collaboration of Artists, Engineers and Industry. The MOMA in New York showed in an exhibition in 1968: The Machine as Seen at the End of the Mechanical Age. Curated by Pontus Hulten. In the parallel exhibition: Some more Beginnings, the Brooklyn Museum in New York showed a big amount of technical, electronic and other medial projects. In the same year was organised the exhibition; Cybernetic Serendipity. By the Institute for Contemporary Art in London, and like the title says, showed cybernetic accidentally discoveries. The exhibition: Cybernetic Serendipity, showed also some works of the Hungarian Artist Nicolas Schöffer. Towers were and are still are in Architectural History symbols of industrial power. His for Paris planned but not created Tower could be seen as the symbol of the intellectual power and characterizes the atmosphere of the 60-ties. In his book: “Die kybernetische Stadt”, Schöffer describes his future visions. We are, so he says, witnessing a revolutionary process that started with the French Revolution in 1789 in Paris. And when the book was ready the process has not ended. He projects the started development to 3 phases in this revolution: 1. Revolution of Quantity for Quality In this first phase the big amount of quantity of a group asks for a growing demand/quantity of mostly material goods 2. Revolution of Quantity for Quality In the second Phase the demand for more quantity from the group shows a diminished quality of real cultural goods. Till they are more or less overloaded by material and half cultural planes.
Fig. 1. Ken Knowlton KC Gardner Computergrafik
Fig. 2. Ken Knowlton Akt Computergrafik
emoticon 3. Revolution of Quality for Quantity for Quantity of Quality. In the third phase and because of the growing care of the group for real cultural goods, the demand for quality rises, and when a certain amount of quality is reached there is a demand for a bigger quantity of quality. / Nicolas Schöffer The Revolution appears in every life and will finally lead to a victory of the intellect. Schöffer predicts, that where masses have free entrance to information sources, bigger groups can enjoy the cultural goods of high quality. He thinks that cooperation in all disciplines will strengthen intellectual life. The next quote explains his views: ” It is proven, that Quality far out will victory over Quantity. When people finally understand, or be educated to understand, that the only solution for living on this world is constructive cooperation, then the nation or the group in that nation that is able to create people of a higher quality, using grey brain masses and well organised human energy, naturally get the first role in leading matters over the whole human groups or nations”/Nicolas Schöffer
Fig. 3 . Nicolas Schöffer
In the past 40 years, since the Exhibition: Cybernetic Serendipity, we see a rapid development of computer technology. The Internet opened new ways of cooperation’s. Several social networks were born. Virtual reality is become part of our reality. In Anglo-American saying a cat has 9 lives, in Germany just 7. Someone that is using Internet is in this way like a cat, but more. In different networks he can have different or more then one identity. The technical development has come probably faster then Schöffer even thought, but the question is if we approached his dream any closer. Second Life is one of the more beloved virtual worlds. It seems to be only an entertaining medium but in fact it’s a mirror of reality. The consumer arranges this world just like he is used to in the real world. But there are several interdisciplinary groups that are accomplishing in this
emoticon virtual world the second or third phase of Schöffers revolutions theory and instead creating virtual/material wealth are creating real cultural wealth. In Second life there is a very vivid Art scenario going on. Diabolus Art Space is one of the most successful groups. Musicians, Visual artists and Technicians of all ages work together and created together several large projects. Since 2 years I work within this group. When I have read Schöffers book, the idea of a Spaziodynamic Theatre kept in my mind and interest. I decided to develop this idea and for all it was close to my own ideas and also because in earlier projects we always had the ideas and views of Schöffer in mind. The concept of the new Project came fast and I started to transform the idea into action. The team worked on it for weeks. The concept was discussed in detail, new music was composed, a new Theatre and stage was planned and build, till finally the Project with the title: EMOTICON was ready to show for an audience. My goal was to examine Schöffers work in this project, from a closer view. By the analyses I lean also on the thinking of Markus Stegman in his book: Architektonische Skulptur im 20- ten Jahrhundert. I am looking for answers on questions like: How do the towers of Schöffer interact in the landscape and surrounding architecture? How is the rhythm in space with light and sound? What role climate and time events can play in Art? What interactions are there between work and viewer, or different viewers? What is the meaning of form and function? Etc. I also describe the Emoticon project and seek for differences and similarities. Due to the development of the last 40 years the Diabolus Group has far better technical possibilities and also a wider scala of artistic tools. What are the real steps forward in this development? Where can we use it to benefit? What is changed in our view of
space concept by this technical development? Are we closer to a better future now or are the dreams of Schöffer vanishing into the nothing? Many questions I hope to get an answer on, also when just partly. Where it will not give an answer I will formulate my thoughts.
emoticon 2. DISTURBED BALANCE A clever, striking solution for a mathematic problem is called: Beautiful, in professional circles, still beauty is not a scientific but an aesthetic quality. Architects and artists use frequently the golden section. They use mathematic instruments to give their work an aesthetic quality. Many examples can be given to show how close the relation is between Science and Art. Even when this relation was denied and scientists and artists walked strictly separated pathways, the renewed cooperation since the beginning of the computer-centennial proves again that Science and Art belong organically together. Inside a living organism the balance inside this organism cannot be disturbed without calling for an illness. The sharp separation of Science and Art also leads to a schizophrenic state. Just when Artists and Scientists adapt the working in this organic relation, the cooperation can become exceptionally fruitful. The separation of the organic unity and the schizophrenia over all characterize the 20th century. The different is-men over valuated most one aspect of the artistic quality into the extreme and neglected all the other aspects. The disturbed balance can lead into morbidly forms of Art. The Art has to be morbidly maybe, when she is the expression of a morbid society. The fatal history of the 20th century had to appear also in the Arts. The schizophrenia of the last century shows up in everything around us as well in the smallest detail. For example, the exaggerated optimism of the 60-ties is not to understand or to misunderstand, just like the pessimism of today. In the 60-ties they managed to walk the first steps in space, but in the same time we were very close to total destruction by atom weapons. Humanity had 2 totally strange identities, the optimist at one side and the destroyer at the other side. And they both seemed to not wanting to know each other. Today the same thing is happening and we are confronted with all the problems predicted by the Club of Rome and have to solve them, those problems however were
emoticon recognised and the Internet has opened new pathways for international cooperation. The confidention of the masses give new hope. Just like in the 60-ties today there is no reason for optimism or pessimism. You never can judge all on one chosen specific Aspect. Also human itself mirrors the disturbed balance. The Greek ideal of the perfect human, developing its body and mind in balance is totally forgotten. Experts specialize on narrow departments. Professional idiotism is everywhere. In a wide spectrum educated people are also in culture circles rare to find. This exaggerated accent on the chosen Aspect appears also in the relation between form and function. Vitruvius said that in a well build piece of architecture the qualities Firmitas, Utilitas and Venustas should be in balance. Form and Function were in this case for him important creatively aspects. During the 20th century the balance sometimes pierced towards the Form or towards the Function.
Fig. 3 . Mondlandung 1969 (Foto:NASA)
emoticon 3. FUNCTIONALISM In architecture and design, functionalism it is understood as a form principal that the only clear aesthetic reflection comes behind the form of the practical use of the building or the instrument. The beginning of this thinking goes back to the aesthetic theorists in the 19th century. (by example Semper, Greenough). The perception that the beauty of the form is already inside the functionalism of the architecture and the design is published and explained by Luis Sullivan in 1896 in his book “The tall office building artistically considered”. „It is the pervading law of all things organic and inorganic, Of all things physical and metaphysical, Of all things human and all things super-human, Of all true manifestations of the head, Of the heart, of the soul, That the life is recognizable in its expression, That form ever follows function. This is the law.” The leading sentence about form, where it says that form comes from function is described twice in the book, But comes originally from Dankmar Adler, the partner of Sullivan. Adler again got the idea from Henri Labroust. Labroust showed in his Library building in Paris, undisguised, almost on purpose created iron- architecture and became by this a Pioneer of functionalism. Architects in his time, like also Gottfried Semper, denied for a long time the use of the new material like Iron, outside the Building structures of Industrial buildings or Train stations. Fire danger has to be observed always when building a Library. This aspect was important in the use of the new material: Iron. But it gave an unusual accent to the aeststetic look of the iron construction. The functionalism as a form principal expended in Germany by the founding of the German Work association and the slogan: Objectivity and effectiveness.
emoticon Later Functionalism became more into sight when the terms, New building, Bauhaus style or new Objectivity spreaded around and marked in this way the architectural language after the war towards the reconstruction. Many times this principal in forms also called for abdication of all ornaments. It was forgotten that also the aesthetics have a function of itself. The formal poverty and unrealistic view in the functionalistic planning grew more and more and became since the beginning of the 70ties a target of public critique. This critique changed into an opposite movement in the 80/ties. The new principals of forms became the term Postmodern. The upcoming of the Post-modern shows that only functional considerations with the planning are not enough.
Fig.. 5. Sale Labrouste
emoticon 4. FORMALISM As an opposite towards Functionalism is the way of the Formalistic Conception of Art, like for example, composition, colour, lines and textures. Looking for a personal value in free comparative analyses of styles. The value of the work is in the Autonomy of the Form and the content aspects like theme and idea, the genesis and history of the work, the context and personality of the artist were neglected when it came to analyses. The beginning of Formalism is already to find in the Antiques. The believe that the Universe was controlled by godlike numeric relations leaded in Arts towards formal considerations, where people tried to express the numeric relations in the artwork. Architectural constructs were derived through strict rules and a basic size, The Interkolumnium. Platon said that the world only could be recognised through the spiritual way. This idea was For him the true being. The perceptible Form is an image of real being. The sensual Perceptive of forms was only conditional and because of that never could be perfect. To understand the real value in the Essence of Things, people should focus on the general and abstract the no real specificities of rare phenomenonâ€™s. The artist should show by abstraction of the form the true essence of things. The pupil of Platon, Aristoteles understood the Art as a process in styling. The experience of a piece of art can be totally sensual or rational. During the clarification the hypothesis was that one aesthetic experience should be totally different then another. Kant said that `In every fine Art is the essence of the form, where the form is the abstract of an idea and becomes the symbol of that idea. For example beauty is seen as a symbol of the good. Aesthetic experience leads towards moral Resonance. Friedrich Schiller saw the Aesthetic as an instrument for social and politic reformations. He Valued the mentally therapeutic character of the aesthetic of the form. In 1851 John Ruskin leaded with The Stones of Venice the descriptive Form-anylisis and
emoticon history of style to their first apogee. Because of capital he got from Vienna Ruskin could deduce abstract basic Forms following the social conditions in that time. The French painter Maurice Denis wrote in his article: ” Definition Neo-Traditions” in 1890, that a painting was in fact nothing more then a surface covered with paint in a certain order. In the 18th century, when Spiritual Science was arguing with Science, the Art Historic needed objective criteria for Art appreciation. Heinrich Wölfflin voted for a Comparitive Form analysis and History of Style. He himself described his approach as Art History without a name. He used at his lectures two slide projectors that gave him the Possibilities to compare two pieces of Art. Mostly he compared pieces of art from the Renaissance with works from Baroque. The artists were not important with these views. In the centre of his analysis stood the development of history of style. He tried to find commonalities in certain epochs or countries and leaned on the findings of Sensory Physiologies and Perceptive Physiology. He developed in his major work 5 conceptual opposites, where he tried to describe the Formal differences between Renaissance and Baroque. Linear Picturesque Surface Depth Closed Open Unity Multiplicity Brightness Ambiguity and Movement Wölfflin distinguishes different levels of style. As an individual style the subjective viewing and painttechique of an artist was known. The Group-Style is the joint Form language of a school, a country or a culture society. The term Time-Style gathers the over ordered, all comprehensive Form language of a century. Another important representative of Formalism was Alois Riegel; His theory is backed up by similar assumptions and targets like Wölfflins. Developing of the Form from itself (Independence of Artistic genius)
Fig. 6. Hyperformalismus DanCoyote Antonelli Fig. 7. Hyperformalismus Juria Yoshikawa
emoticon Linking the Form of development ( History of Style) with Perception of History. The ambition to establish Art History as an academic discipline. Reject of a Metaphysics for example after Hegel. As Riegls theory says Styles do not develop beside each other, but interfere with each other and can come to random moments. This way he could announce opposite to Wรถlfflins works, that the History of Style was not easy to insert and in the time it all began seemed to be anachronistic.
Fig. 8. Hyperformalismus Calimera Lane Fig.. 9. Emoticon 1 Caravaggio Bonetto
The modern Formalism began in the United States. Clement Greenberg became in the 1930-ties one of the most influential Us- American Art critics of the 20th century. He had the ambition to an assessment of Art that only was based on immediately perceptive view. He shares here the Formalistic Assumption. He concentrated on the essence of Materials and Techniques that were used at the genesis of an art piece. He coined the Abstract Expressionism with the terms American-Type Painting and Colorized Painting. Greenbergs perception to judge Pieces of Art strict after the Form, leaded finally to banning the Spirituality, the Intellectual Content in the Arts. And still today the impact of his actions is still to feel.
Fig. 10. Living architecture Velazquez Bonetto, Josina Burgess, Caravaggio Bonetto
Fig. 11. Emoticon 2 Josina Bugess, Velazquez Bonetto Fig. 12. Living architecture Caravaggio Bonetto, Velazquez Bonetto
emoticon 5. IMMATERIAL ARTS The ambition to set Humanities at the same theoretic and methodical level, where Science already was in the 18th century did create an invisible braid, partly reciprocal Art theories. This complexity of different Art theories got even stronger when the objectives of artists strengthened and during the creating process also non-material media were involved. Most of the art theoretic and aesthetic considerations did see until the 20th century a piece of art as a material incarnation of the artistâ€™s ideas. In the centre of the analysis were the real appearances of the matter. The ambition of art historic was to answer questions like how and with what kind of techniques the artist used the features of the material to achieve an artistic idea. Of course the artists had to use during the creating process the impact of light, sound, climate, time and space, but it can be seen as a quantum jump that it was theorized and set on the level of immaterial artistic medium. The outcome is varied. It can be seen as a process of de materializing of Art. Immaterial matter can be used as a tool for art. Itâ€™s for example possible that an artist only uses the medium of Light to visualize his artistic idea. At the other hand The widened freedom of choices in using media let arise new Art genres. Like for example architectural and cybernetic sculptures or sound installations. The history of the middle European Art till our century is from a constant increasing separation of the areas of perception. The effect in more or less one area of perception stood against the Arts of life, where seeing, hearing, feeling always messing with each other. When Light, Sound, Climate, Time and Space are set on the level of Independent Artistic Medium, new ways will open, The effect of a piece of art still can be limited on one area of perception, but the artist can work in contrary to earlier practices with largely immaterial media. New Art genres arise there where the
emoticon separation of areas of perception were repealed. More and more artists try to include all the areas of perception, to stay successfully and get the attention in competition with the always getting scarcer of resources.
Fig. 13. Lichtkunst Kunstlicht Karlsruhe
Fig. 14. Nicolas Schรถffer Lichtmobil
emoticon 6. CYBERNETIC The artists are more and more dealing with the use of Artificial Light and Sound, Artificial Climate and Immaterial Space and modelling Time. With help of Computer technology micro timely units are always programmed differentiated. The programming of these micro timely units allows them to give a substantive content, when Light and sound effects are used. We are witnessing an evolution where the roots go back to the beginning of the Cybernetic Phase. â€žCybernetic was defined by its founder Norbert Wiener as Communication Science, control and scheme of living organism and machines, also known as the Art of Piloting. The Cybernetic explores the basic concepts of piloting and regulation of systems, independent of their background. This way different areas as machines, people or organisations can be compared. This was developed in the 1940ties by Scientists of the most distinctive disciplines and inspired many different application fieldsâ€œ/ Wikipedia/
Fig. 15-18. Cybernetic Architectur (Caravaggio Bonetto)
emoticon 7. THE BORDERLINE BETWEEN SCULPTURE AND ARCHITECTURE In the borderline between Sculpture and Architecture Nicolas Schöffer describes in his book: “Die Kybernetische Stadt” is future visions. Many of his ideas became reality, in many ways also the presence is differently shaped as we thought in the 60ties. Definitely he assumed what important role the Interactive Functioning would play in the coming century. His towers as well as his Spatiodynamic Theatre exhibit marks of interactivity. Schöffers many smaller towers, exhibited inside doors can be viewed as sculptural works of art. The lesser realized bigger dimensional towers standing in urban environment and for the entire not realized Cybernetic tower for Paris show a different generic society. They are to localize in the borderline of Sculpturing and Architecture. The overall accepted and spreader generic understanding is named Architectural Sculpture, Although the word Sculpture is a little confusing. Sculpturing is one of the oldest fine Art forms in the history of culture. The difference of sculpturing and painting is in the three-dimensionality of the art. In sculpturing form and image are experienced spatially through their use of different materials and different techniques. The bandwidth of the used materials goes from classical materials like stone, wood, ivory, metal, clay and plaster, to glass, a diversity of artificial materials and to textiles. The name Sculpture presents a certain sort of sculpture art, that by its solid material and the Manufacturing methods in the subtractive process, meaning by its cutting, redeem or hollowing characterizes this material. Opposite of a Sculpture a Plastic is created in an additive process, this means by adding more material /Wikipedia/. Maybe the name Architectural Plastic would be more fitting in several occasions.
emoticon Indeed in the case of Schöffers towers this is not about subtractive processing. Those towers where build from steel, light sources and many mirrors in an additive process. 7.1 A SEGMENT OF SCULPTURE Sculptural features outweigh with the Towers, this way a Genus belonging yields with the sculpture. Architectural Sculpturing can be looked at as a feature, comparable to the Environment or the Installation. She does not exhibit a certain Style direction. Dominating in the forming are Light, Sound, Space and Time and with those is sought the end materializing of the work. The close linking of Electronic and Cybernetic leads into renewing of the Monumental Arts. The Tower for Paris was planned as a “Airy Structure build from square, 2 meter thick steel Pipes”, as Schöffer describes in his book. The adjective “airy” sounds inappropriate and even funny when its talking about a construction of 2 meter thick steel pipes, but when you think about the dimensions and the artifices in the planning that are used to dissolve the construction and give the image its floating in the air, then you can imagine that Schöffers Tower at least could got close to the adjective, when it was really build. With an average size of 59 meters the planned tower would reach e height of 307 meters. To compare: the 10.000 tons heavy tower of Eiffel in Paris is 300 meter, counting the television antenna as well: 324 meter. Schöffer had planned an asymmetric form with specific rhythm. Al parts of this skeleton would have a layer of stainless steel slides. Inside at different heights close or further away from the planned central axis, 14 hollow mirrors would be attached. Besides that would be placed 200 parallel arms, aiming towards another four rectangular directions, 144 vertical axes were planned on what 363 mirrors would be attached. Every one of the 144 axes would be driven in the plans from electro motors with variable speed. The drive mechanics should be linked to
Fig. 19. Nicolas Schöffer Der Turm für Paris
emoticon a control centre that would represent the essential part of the cybernetic system. As well the concave as the convexes side of the hollow mirrors should reflect the shining. The hollow mirrors and the turn able plane mirrors would reflect as well in stillness as in moving a majority of shining, that would have send out all around the tower in every direction. At the tower 2085 electronic flashes and 2250 partly coloured headlamps would be attached that each would aim at the turn able plane mirrors that were linked to the turn able axis. 15 Light guns would be attached to the top of the tower and beam 2 kilometres up so bee night the height of the tower should be optical higher. The on and out switching of the light guns and electronic flashes also would be controlled bee the control centre. The attached mirrors reflect the surrounding and the shining the light sources and in this way Dissolve the contraction. The real and optic dimensions of the architectural sculpture distinguish essentially, where the light guns rythmize the surrounding space and this space becomes part of the Art. The optical dimension of the steel construction became because of that of a superior magnitude. The construction raises more in height then at the base to create the effect the tower floats. Schöffer did understand the Cybernetic distribution, the steady motor-driven movement and Lightshow as Symbol of the Future. But here he missed the actual direction of development. In today’s perspective the concept of sustainability is in the centre of future architecture. In Urban structures and also in the design and performance is the value preserving, resource management with materials and constructions required. This means a consequent introduction of intelligent technologies, innovative building, environmentally-friendly materials and environmentally energy-harvesting. The energy usage for the planned tower is not agreeable with the concept of sustainability.
Fig. 20. Nicolas Schöffer Chronos
7.2 ARCHITECTURAL SCULPTURE
emoticon Architectural Sculpture characterizes itself through clearly identifiable architectural features. It is not about easy formal imitating architectural individual elements or related systems. More deciding is the meaning, the enrichment of expression, where the vocabulary of the artist its widened with elements of architectural language. For example, the use of the tower form implicates, that all abstract concepts that were aligned to these architectural types for centuries were automatically adapted into the meaning of the work. Individual elements like pillars, poles, roofs, gables, doors, windows or window openings or walls should not be seen as geometric builds, but as words in an internationally known language. From the affiliation with the genus sculpture arises, inspire of the architectural character, a clear independency of all functions under appropriate utility. This way the abstract meaning of the architectural features crystallizes, and the useful function is withdrawn. In very rare occasions a conditional use appears. The architectural Sculpture must exhibit in any case an architectural feature. 7.3 REFLEXION PAST ARCHITECTURE The tower as architectural type has had different forms in appearance and functions during the architectural history, but it always was and is in close alliance with the abstract concepts power and censorship. The gender towers in San Gimignano spread the financial power of the owner-families. The newest skyscrapers that are growing closer unto heights of 1 kilometre. show the economic leading role of their own metropolis. Schรถffers tower can be seen as a symbol of the intellectual power of scientists and artists-avant-garde. He was convinced that The future would bring an intellectual revolution. This because of the widened possibilities to enter knowledge of higher quality. In this way the tower is the symbol of intellectual power of the masses and the intellectual progress. The church tower proclaims the word of God, but also has other functions. Like Light towers it is guidance. The
Fig. 21. Nicolas Schรถffer Chronos 10B 1980
emoticon church tower rises above the surrounding roofs of houses and trees and is visible from far away. It is a feature that helps the traveller to finds its way to then next village or city. The church tower also gives a glance over the surroundings. A lookout has also this function, to give the possibility of a 360-degrees panorama view. The view serves as an entertainment source, where the beauty of the city or the region is to enjoy. The panorama also gives possibilities to censorship. In contrary of lookouts, observatories and airport towers serve controlling of the area. 7.4 FUNCTIONS AND UTILITY Although most of the architectural sculptures are showing architectural features, are these features not only serving the normal serving functions. In case of the tower of Paris, SchĂśffer did provided another seven different visitor platforms, attainable by elevators or stairs. On the platforms where restaurants, signal utilities, spaces for television, an operational monitoring open for public with an automatic magnethophon guide, concert halls. A post office, an organ, a drugstore and stores. From the other platforms in between you could enjoy two kinds of entertainment: the panorama over Paris and the look over the tower in full action. This way the tower served the need for entertainment but also a control over the city. The tower still has other functions. It serves air navigation and is a information, quantification and â€“action system Thermometer, Hygrometer and anemometer are attached to the tower, The central control centre rates the measure dates and in this way the tower functions for a part as a meteorological station. Traffic information is sended out by light and radio signals. 7.5 CHANGING OF ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES
Fig.. 22. The twin towers of San Gimignano
In this case, the mentioned architectural features, in contrast with architectural sculptures, are functional, there are many sculptural features supporting the genus be-
emoticon longing of architectural sculptures. The architectural features of architectural sculptures represent usually more or less distinctive artistic transformation versus the real architectural features. A naturalistic imitation is- till very rare occasions avoids. The art and manner of changing is very diverse. The tower of Paris stands on a sole strut, like it would flow and symbolizes herewith the technical evolution. The tower rises up far high. This way the mass is concentrated on the top and not on the bottom like other towers. The form is dematerialised and dissolved by the mirrors and light effects. A model-impression can 7.6 SCALES AND PROPORTION In architectural sculpture, versus similar real architecture, clear altered scale often is showing. An extended range of all thinkable standards is to be found. A model-impression can Derive, but more often is chosen for a comparatively over dimensional proportion, like in this case with the tower of Schöffer. The tower in Liége was also build in significant dimensions and placed in the exterior. Here however the intentions of kinetic/cybernetic art played a central role. 7.7 OVERLAP WITH NEIGHBORING GENERA Often overlaps appear with neighbouring genera and subgenera, especially in areas of environment, installation, and architecture models. Architectural sculpture can simultaneous Belong to several (sub-) genera. Schöffers tower ken be seen as vantage-, art-, show-, media- or culture tower. It also has affinity with the genera sound- or light installation.
Fig. 23. Kölner Dom
Fig. 24 - 29. Cybernetic Sculpty Tower Art Space Diabolus CARP 2 (2008)
emoticon 8. CONTENT DIMENSION ARCHITECTURAL SCULPTURE
8.1 INTERACTION WITH THE LANDSCAPE A variety of architectural sculptures are created for placement in the exterior Every work of art gets a naturally contact with it. An active relation of a work of art with the surrounding landscape is seen as interaction with the scenery. Interaction has not to be only between work of art and landscape but also with for example, the viewer and the work of art. In fact itâ€™s an interaction between 3 participants. The work of art opens a conflict for the viewer with the landscape that was not possible without the work of art. First of all the reception of the sculpture makes it possible to perceptive modus of the landscape. Often the use of wells from nature like wood, stone or soil creates a connecting line with the landscape. 8.2. INTERACTION WITH PUBLIC PLACES The knowledge of public places reveres in this relation to other viewers that see the often in public places situated architectural sculptures. For example passers-by that pass evidently. Interaction in public happen basically on 2 levels: 1. The relation of the work of art in public. The sculpture is actively aiming on the viewer, also when they just evidently pass and offer to use their facilities. 2. The relation of the viewers with each other, for example from viewer to passers-by. This is also significantly activated by the sculpture. It asks for coming closer, climb it, walk through etc. Organized space effects communication. .
emoticon 8.3. INTERACTION WITH THE LANDSCAPE Schรถffer had planned his tower in a fixed, urban location. After his idea it should be a identifier and be placed in the centre of the city. The movement of the flexi parts, the lights as well as the sending out of acoustic signs react on the changes of the surrounding. The controlling centre controls the interaction. It receives the measure data of the sensors and meters and with the help of algorithmic it decides over the appropriate reactions. Because of the mirrors the tower performs, seen from a distance by day, depending of the intensity of the sunlight, a giant vivid flame. The lightshow unfolds most of all by night, when the phenomenon, through the light guns depending on the cybernetic control system rhythm is continuous changing. The tower accentuate the timely changes in the normal lighting and other climate factors and makes it possible to experience and modified, intensive view of the surrounding. A sunny day becomes a golden aureole, sunset a wild dance of fire. Chrome steel and mirrors reflect the landscape and connect a line between the urban landscapes. Apparently the tower forms itself from the same material as the surrounding and fits naturally in. It dissolves and becomes almost invisible. Schรถffer does not use only materials that mirror nature, but in a certain way he uses nature itself. He uses the five topologies time; light, sound, climate and space and aims on an immaterial work of art. He rythmetize the space with light and sound. Climate changes, odours and wind are involved in the creating. It comes close to his objective and makes a big step towards the immaterialisation of a work of art. The Immaterialisation The next quotes reflect the views: We are really witnessing a process that our environment
Fig. 30 . Nicolas Schรถffet Chronos 10B 1980
emoticon is in constant changing. We simplify the form and diminish the volume and the weight of the material that we for example use in the urban surrounding. In counterwords stadium we are increasing degree with transparants. /Schรถffer/ One day we will get in to the inner structure of space and even get in to the inner structure of the inner components or even more the micro components of space. And we will create invisible partitions that exist of atomic sizes. / Schรถffer/
Fig. 34-36. Entmaterialisierte Cybernetic Sculpture (time-space painting) Art space diabolus CARP 9 Velazquez Bonetto
emoticon 9. THE 5 TOPOLOGIES 9.1. Time: Topology of Rhythm Time is the immaterial essence in what life expires. The element time is also a material that you can structure, model and program its expiring. The way that time expires in an innovative and especially aesthetic manor makes it possible to understand it as a specific immaterial subject. The essence of time you call programming. Program time for an aesthetic purpose and reprove the available time and by that aestheticism information/? / Time is a design element that is used by artists and architects for centuries in many different ways. A work of art interacts with time, when the perception of the work converts with time. The lighting is rhythmic. The cycles of this rhythm have different lengths. Not only the light or climate context is changing, also the work of art is a subject of confirming change, when the process of decay is slowly but surely proceeding. Art and architecture can act timeless or temporarily, depending on the artistic objectives and design concepts. The longer the cycle of the performing in the universe, which is involved in the artistic concept, becomes, the more timeless becomes the work of art. For example, the real beauty and essence of Stonehenge unfolds one time a year simultaneous with the summer solstice. The energy expenditure, needed for the building, has to be balanced with these exceptional rare moments. Considering this you understand that the builders did build for eternity. Condition of timelessness Timeless acting architecture also arises when the cycles of the universe are excluded, as in current a minimalist trend that occurs with, for example, the builds of Peter Zumtors. Condition of timelessness is in any case the use of precious materials, which can resist the decaying process infinitely. Time becomes of greater importance in art since compu-
emoticon ter programming is possible. In the pc the processing of ultra small time moments come to an end. Accordingly are also the cycle’s lengths in micro dimension. Conclusion is that the cybernetic and digital art have a tendency for temporary quality. Schöffers towers react on any change of the environment. I contrary of the timelessness they thematise constant change. Nothing is fixed nor the work of art itself seems to be fixed, because all kinds of artifices were used to dissolve the expiry of the forces. The towers create different zones of temporal density in the city. More near to the tower is a bigger density of possible events. Although stainless steel is one of the finest materials. Some temporary quality could creep in also in the choice of material. The mirrors could confront the atmospheric conditions for several years but would fade slowly. The burned light sources had to be changed constantly. The feeling of a short life is inescapable connected with the work of art. 9.2. Light: Topology of Light Without light life and perception were not possible with the sensory organ eyes, our surrounding would be invisible. Light and shadow accentuate the material character of the objects in our environment and offer a diversity of colours, shadows and textures for the senses. At the other hand we would not be able to recognize the material structures without the electromagnetic phenomenon light. The electromagnetic source is not to see with our eyes. In space we see the stars and the planets, the interstellar material shows as a lightning nebula, but in empty space our eyes see nothing that can send a signal to our brains. We recognize light as a reflection or transparent, it materializes for the sensory organ on objects. Forming is in a certain sense to give body to the light, or in other words produce light out of nothing. Light is an indispensable artistic medium; a design element without any artist can work. Although light is the
Fig. 37. Nicolas Schöffer Der Turm für Paris
emoticon most normal medium in creative work, the artists always used it, as art history tells us, to give the work a quality of unusual and extraordinary nature. The most common medium is in the same time the most effective. Knight is often described as godlike, a symbol for holiness and the spirit: the clarification gives the word a new meaning and since then we speak of the light of intellect. Over more then thousand years architects schematised light. As already said, in the basic essence of Stonehenge, the yearly returning event of the light. The Greek assumed by their designs, that a work of art is viewed from all sides. The play of light and shadow round the pillars rythmisizes the space. Architecture and light are creating unity. New levels of architecture were reached with the building of the Haggis Sofia, where the light is the centre of the design concept. In gothic architecture light is the essence of the construction principle of the whole cathedral. Building and stained glass windows are the material carriers of the aesthetic form of light. Light becomes an aureole, as the unrepresentable God even conceived. In the 10th century was found the technique of putting parts of glass into lead webs. The gothic window replaced the roman window. The sunlight beams shied through the coloured parts of glass during the daily walk through the sky and the translucent light dynamic the space with the image of the glass painting. There are many examples in the last centuries where in architecture the direction of natural light is very important. Le Corbusierâ€™s Notre Dame du Haut in Ronchamps or the Tadao Andos church of light can be seen as subsequent offspring of the same concept.
Fig. 38-39. Lichtkunst Kunstlicht Karlsruhe
There are 2 sources of light available: Natural light and artificial light. In the past only fire, candles, gas lamps could be used as artificial light. In the 19th century electricity revolutionized the designing with light. The from Edison developed bulbs were the first products, that in the 1880ties found a widespread application. In the same time there were the power grids to be build. This achievement marks the beginning of comprehensive electrifi-
emoticon cation of the cultural development. Electric light is always available and can be programmed. The use of electric light gives a great flexibility with designing. Dramatic effects are possible with relative little effort. No wonder that electric light was used very fast for all kinds of manipulation purposes. At the last NSPDparty day in 1938 in Nuremberg at the zeppelin field, over 150 very strong headlamps, that were shining vertical at the sky and created a cathedral of light, made it a spectacular event. Similar scenes offered the opening and ending ceremonies of the Olympics and football (soccer) world championships. At stadium buildings the best light effects are used to stimulate the emotions. The Alliance Stadium of Herzog and de Meuron were even titled an emotions factory. Cinematographic equipment triggered a new artistic revolution. Film can be seen as one of the most important mass media since the 20th century, as well in the form of movies as well of television. At the same time it became one of the most important elements of modern culture. The possibilities of cinema theatre even widened with the triumph of the Internet. Light is the most important design element in SchĂśffers work. For him the light is the carrier of information, that dynamic the space. He describes the method, how he creates light effects, as Luminodynamism. The space is covered in light and rhythmic, in such a way that it is possible to decode semantically. Though light installations he offers information. The light is transformed in a flood of data. The lightning signals sendet out from the tower offer informationâ€™s about the weather, the traffic-situation, stock information and so on. A huge pulsing information density arises, that emphasizes and highlights the urban character. This information density is also to be seen as a symbol for the future. SchĂśffer, the visionary, already said in the 60-ties, that the coming decades will be described in history as the information age.
Fig. 40. Lichtkunst Kunstlicht Karlsruhe
emoticon 9.3 Sound: Topology of sound Schöffers strivings, to achieve ad much as possible without using material to express the artistic concept and to create a nonmaterial piece of art, are, beside the use of light, also close to the use of sound. In the past just the use of music instruments at productions of artificial noise were focussed at. The kingdom of sound in fact is a lot bigger. Schöffer was a pioneer in using a wide spectrum of artificial sounds and acoustics in the creating process and lifted it up into the rank of art. Schöffer did really something important for this development. The art of sound is a form of installation art, where the visual and space aspects are involved, but the acoustics are focussed on. The spectre includes all the sounds of nature, people and techniques and the silence itself. Acoustic and electronic tools were used to become an artificial effect in sound, but also the ordinary sounds of daily life and their lack of it became part of the repertoire. The art of sound lays in the borderline between art and music. The roots of sound art lay in the beginning of the 20th century, when cooperation’s started between artists, technicians and scientists. In this time are to find the first examples of artists and artist groups that acted against traditional art and widened the traditional field of art. The historic sources of sound art come together in the use of music as noise, the use of random accidental processes and space ideas in the musical composition, as well in the integration of sound and noise in the forms of kinetic sculptures and installations. Another step is the introduction of interactivity
Fig. 42-43. Das elektrische Licht
In sound art is abandoned the traditional form and narrative musical mediation in favour of a new sound-space experience. Sound installations don’t have a timescale; they are directed by the proper time of the recipient. Like in an exhibition the recipient can organise his own view on time or space. Sound art has generally a strong place and ephemera nature. Sound art is the ideal medium to
emoticon charge a place atmospheric and let it become a special experience. The visitor becomes action- and interpretation freedom to form his own sensual experience. Sound installations and sound sculptures allow a constant coming and going. To the genus sound art can be counted several installations that in fact were born before the time that sound art was realized. For example the in 1953 in Buenos Aires realized: Musica para la torre of Mauricio Kagel, the: Poeme Eletronique of Edgard Varese for the Philips pavilion on the world exhibition at Brussels in 1958, John Cages variation VII at the already described „9 evenings” at New York or the spatiodynamic constructions of Nicolas Schöffer. The name „Sound installation” appears for the first time in 1971 with the important US-American artist Max Neuhaus. With „Drive in music“ Max Neuhaus was the first to realize in 1967/68 an idea to use music for public space, music that was soundwomen complex, but not force the people pausing by. Along a wide avenue, the Lincoln Parkway in Buffalo, Neuhaus did install over a route of 600 meter 20 radio performers with different orientations and sounds, in such a way that in seven overlapping zones different sound components erase. The sounds were synthesized for every spot in self-made generators and changed under influence of the dependence of the surrounding climate. Because the channels all had the same frequents, the drivers could here, depending of the speed, direction, time and weather, different sound developments. Actually Neuhaus did not work only with his installations in the public space, with synthetic sounds, produced by his generators, but he used them also as a contra point to the noise that was to find at the place in that time and changed it into a aesthetic context offering you clear sounds. (Source: Golo Föllmer, »Töne für die Straße«, in: Akademie der Künste (Hg.), Klangkunst, München 1996, S. 216-218) At Schöffers cybernetic-kinetic sculptures most of all the sounds of the mechanic movements of the parts, mixed
Fig.. 44. Nicolas Schöffer Lichtmobil (Kalocsa)
emoticon with sounds of nature and the noise of the city that creates the sensual experience. In this case also the background noise was a contra point for the sounds coming from the sculpture itself. 9.4 Climate: Topology of the artificial and natural climate streams Climatic phenomena of Schöffer where schematised. In his book: „The cybernetic city“ he speaks about the climatic organisation of units and their environment. The controlled climate of the city of the future would be controlled in his opinion by a cybernetic centre. Bad smells would be suppressed; good smells spreader so the sensual experience of the city would be strengthened in a controlled way also at this level.
Fig. 45. ROLAND hardware und Edirol softwareSampler
The forming with the medium smell is not a new idea, but it is new to control it cyberneticly. The church already used smell for ages to create a holy atmosphere; The forming of an experience in a space with help of smell is a part of gardening art. Other art genres however have neglected this artistic possibility. Just in the 20th century artistic interests focus on smell. Smell does not have to be a concrete part of sensual experience of a piece of art; many times it is only used as a hidden reference. The elephant excrements that Chris Ofili used in his paintings have been prepared so that they don’t spread any smell, just the form and appearance Swears in the memory of the viewer, and calls for a sensual experience. That was different in 1987 with Hellweins: Art spectacle with smell and noise in the Bremer Kunsthalle. With the motto: „The Subhuman“, Hellwein created a multimedia show, a forming theatre, where beside music and video also smell was used. „Cows and Excrements in the holy spaces of the Bremer KunsthalleA „Exhibition Opera“, initiated by the art shocker Gottfried Hellwein“- with this words the event was announced.
emoticon The reactions were from accusations of charlatanism till bright enthusiasm.
The basic idea, to integrate climate events into the piece of art was already written by Schöffer, later unfolded by the successor generations of artists and architects. Like smell, also fog, wind and sunshine became a pronounced part of the artistic expression and conquered a large terrain in the kingdom of art. Here some more examples: Worldwide attention got the pavilion Blur Building from the architects Diller and Scofidio in 2002 on the Schweitzer Landesausstellung im Jahr 2002, the Biennale of Zwitserland. Only a fine-sprayed water mist produced the building envelope of this pavilion. Fujiko Nakaya also used mist as a medium for his building for the Singapore biennale in 2008. Renzo Pianos Culture centre Jean Marie Tjibaou in New Caledonia thematises the wind with characteristic wood constructions. Since 1990 Theo Jansen develops kinetic sculptures, calling them beach animals. The necessary movements come from the wind. The artist develops the skeletal builds in a form of a living creature. The beach animals can orientate harsh to the environment. They can anchor themselves in the sand when a storm is emerging, recognize with the antennas obstacles and change direction when they enter the water. Many examples can be delivered, how climate phenomenon is used as an artistic medium. It is a process of widening and freeing the art, which beginnings were to find at Schöffer.
9.5 Topology of Space Gonzales, Gabo, Pevsner, were the first sculptors, that consciously introduced gaps in their sculptures, so that in comparison of full and empty the immaterial space was shown. For these artists space was not the absolute matter, but highlighting an object from the matter.
Fig. 46. Mauricio Kagel Fig. 47. Max Neuhaus: »Drive-In Music«
emoticon A radical step was made from Schöffer, when he renounced the modelling of solids, to the use of only extraction of fractions of the enclosed space to form them rhythmic. With increasingly omission of the articles was for him the enclosed space and not the solid structure important. He wanted to integrate the immaterial space dynamically as a basic material in a structured work, to create a movement of harmonic lines.
Fig. 48. Nebel Kunst von Nakaya
Several of Schöffers structures can be seen as traps he carried out into the space. He strove to set a trap to space in an easy and possibly with little solid structuresway. To catch a fragment and dynamic it in a specific way to give the space an energetic content and in the same time works inside and around the structure. The design is not treated as an isolated object but as a structured element in a structured space.
Schöffers tower creates, forms and divides the space, inand outdoor merge. This architectural space is defined by horizontal and vertical elements. A special place in the Cybernetic city is the Spazodynamic Theatre and business centre, one of the favourite sites of leisure. This type of building is detailed described in the book: „The Cybernetic City“ Many aspects of the concept are realized in the shopping malls of today, where restaurants, cinema, theatre and shops are taking care in various levels for the entertainment of the visitor. Often employees of a television station are present to involve passers-by in live broadcasts. The basic approach of Second life is in a certain way just the same. Here is offered the same entertainment what is mentioned above. Numerous shops are available. The users can choose out of several Art events, shows and parties, to visit through teleportation. Fig. 49. Chris Ofili
The Diabolus Cybernetic Art Research Group (CARP)
emoticon has set the target to realize Schรถffers Spaziodynamic Theatre in Second life. For the theme for the performance was chosen Robert Plutschiks evolution-psychology emotion theory. Based on Plutschiks system of primary emotions an interactive theatre was realized, where the audience could influence the performance. To explain the project it is helpful to look at a few examples of emotionspsychologic theories.
Fig. 50-52. Theo Jansen 3 Strandbeasts
Fig. 53. Hans Arp
Fig. 55. Einkaufzentrum Stuttgart
Fig. 56. Virtual Art Space Diabolus emoticon 4
emoticon 10. Emotionspsychology Emotions are a research object of the emotions psychology, but never the question, what emotions really are is answered satisfactory. Assuming the everyday understanding of emotions, certain psychological states like happiness, surprise, grief etc. are described. We presume that our interlocutor knows what is ment with these words, because he has felt before somehow similar conditions. Our experience support that this hypothesis likely is true. Everybody seems to understand these words. All people show now and then these psychic conditions. Emotions are experiences that are similar to everyone. There is in fact no language that does not have words for such events. As a science the emotions psychology needs a definition, that is understandable for everybody and irrespectively if he has or has not experienced these emotions. There are many definitions to find in the emotionspsychologic literature. Even for a part irreconcilable categories of definitions, that an emotions definition mostly is part of a wider emotionstheory. Behaviouristic, cognitive-psychologic-, attributional-, evolutionalpsychologic. Approach and treat the issue from different point of views, accordingly determine the sense Emotion as different. Here a few definitions, from what the synthesis at least gives an impression of what emotions can be. „A emotion is a intersubjectively observable response pattern, that is released by certain environmental conditions. The basic response patterns are inborn“. „A emotion is a hereditary pattern of response, that includes profound changes of the physical mechanism as a whole, specially when the individual details of the reaction always with some consistency (.) appear, when triggering stimulus is presented“. /John B. WATSON (1878-1958)/
emoticon „A emotion is a experiencing state, and certainly a experiencing physical reactions, that are following on the perception of a excitatory stimulus“ / William JAMES (1842-1910)/ „A emotion is a experiencing state, that emerge from the integration of physical commotions and sensations and certain cognitions“. / Stanley SCHACHTER (1922-1997)/ „A emotion is a experiencing state, that results from specific ratings and follow certain acts“. /Bernard WEINER/ „I see a emotion as a syndrome of different components: Not only the experience of state belongs to it not only the cognitions belong to it, but also physiologic reactions, action impulses and observable behaviour. Beside that there is no doubt, that emotions have a genetic base, they are- under Darwin- the basic shapes of the evolutionary adoption“. /Robert PLUTCHIK/ „Emotions are nothing else then certain neurophysical reactions. They exist as such just in our brain. They run automatically, we cannot influence them, only give them a meaning after“. /Joseph E. LeDOUX/ „Emotions are socially negotiated, they are social constructions. There are no emotions such as an „object of itself“, that you can research „objectively“. What feeling a person has in a certain situation is not depending of the biologic reaction programming, but of what feeling he believes to have. Only this way the strong cultural and historic differences towards emotions are to explain“. /Kenneth J. GERGEN/ To integrate the different theories, a single emotionsdefinition is needed. A so-called Working-definition is accepted to describe phenomenon and harsh delineation of the research fields. Expectations are, that an exact defi-
Fig. 57 . Robert Plutchik Emotions and Life
Fig. 58 . Angst
nition will arise as a result of scientific analysis. The next example of a working-definition is coming from the study-book of Meyer, Schützwohl and Reisenzein: 1 Emotions are events like: happiness, grief, rage, fear, pity, disappointment, relief, proud ness, ashamed, guild, envy as well as many other states that are similar to the described ones above. 2 These phenomenon have the next symbols uncommon: (a) they are actual experiences of state of people; (b) they are different in manner, quality and intensity (.); (c) they are usually object focussed (.); (d) people that are in a experience of state of one of them, normally have a characteristic experience (experiencing emotions), and often also physiologic changes appear. Emotions should be delimited from emotional dispositions. When you call Fear an emotion, the belonging emotional disposition should be Anxiety. Emotion is a current experience of state of a person. At the opposite the emotional disposition is the Quality of this person. The quality as well as the intensity can be distinguishing is used between different emotional episodes. The intensity is to examine, just not give it an absolute measure. Emotions distinguish the experience of state of a certain person by: -A characteristic experience -Certain physiologic changes -Certain behaviour Emotions have a biologic function. They are connected directly with behaviour. Many researchers, for example Plutschik, see emotions even as evolutionary adjustments mechanisms. In any case emotions permit need- and situational chooses for behaviour. They regulate intensity and stamina and carry out the mastering of such behaviour.
Similar difficult, as the giving of a definition, is the classification of emotions. How could they be distinguished in what kind of features? What emotions are almost similar to¬ each other and what ones not at all? Are there emotions more elemental then the others, that function as basic emotion? At this question the mentioned theories give several answers. 10.1 Behaviouristic Theories Behaviourism is a so-called movement in psychology that was spread mostly in the USA in the years between 1920 and 1960. An important representative of this movement was John B. Watson (1878-1958) The central research object of this movement was Behaviour, the subject portion of the physiologies, that was intersubjective observable and to access equally by several observers. The experience, that was only accessible for the affected person itself, cannot be a subject of physiology. They wanted to describe the research object in objective measurements. It was the intention, and surely not possible when experiencing. The behaviour is visual and acoustic observable and to measure. Research subjects of the behaviouristic physiology are only intersubjective observable behaviours of environmental conditions like several stimuli. Behaviourists exclude the introspections research method, because they are unreliable, and produce only subjective data. The Behaviourist Watson hypothesizes that emotions are inborn. So it is clear to observe emotions just with infants, to examine these theses. An amount of experiments was performed to experience what extreme stimuli gave what kind of reactions with infants. Three fundamental different patterns of response could be noted; Fear, Anger and Love. Watson’s hypotheses are that all other reaction pattern arises by classic conditioning. Notes at Watson’s Theory: . Watson can’t determine emotions from other reactions . Little statement about emotions of an adult
emoticon . Watson can not clarify, how the other emotions grow from the fundamental patterns of emotions . Watson’s theory of acquisition of emotions was only proved with Fear 10.2 Cognitive-psychological Theories James - Schachter - Mandler Cognitive-physiologic theories have the perception, that an emotion is a state of experience. Besides that the hypotheses is that the deriving of several emotions are depending of certain processes. These processes can have a physiological and cognitive nature. Emotions, definitively private ones, for others not accusable experiences, are communicated to the outside by physical symptoms. Emotions effect certain physical changes. In contrary, physical changes can cause emotions. Normally we assume that emotions are the decisive, not the physical change. In contrast the Psychologist William James thinks, that physical changes appear first and that emotions are nothing more then the feelings belonging to these changes. James regarded visceral reactions (heart, lung, stomach) as deciding. Carl Lange has similar views, but he thinks that vasomotor responses are responsible for the emerging of emotions. The diversity of physical changes is also after James the foundation of our rich emotional experience. Hereby are not the voluntary motor acts, like mimic and gestures, but the involuntary reactions of the viscera much more important. The emotional reaction is not only showed by just observing an object but by judging the total situation. That is could come to a reaction of fear, has to come out of the judgement. Critics of this theory indicate that the same visceral changes can appear at different emotional or non-emotional experiences and that visceral changes are to slow to be the cause of the emotion. When the theory of James is true, also the artificial induce of changes in visceral (like a adrenalin injection) would lead to emotions, and that is not the case overall.
Maron has developed and completed this theory. For him an emotion is a physical component and a psychological component that include certain cognitions. He assumes that the feeling of a physical change is necessary for experience emotions, but not sufficiently. Cognition should appear over the commotion and agitation of a situation, so the emotion can derive. There has to be a linking between agitation and judgement of the situation that he calls: „Causal attribution“. Valins questioned the physiologic components. Because we often don’t realize or notice a physical agitation, it not this component that is needed for arising the emotion, but the cognitive representation of it. 10.3 Attribution Theories Pride, Shame or Guild are good examples of emotions that are depending from complex thought processes, from cause-write-ups, so called causal attributes. With Schachters cognitive-physiological theory situation-judgement and physiologic-agitation are linked. When physical agitation is described as the cause, Weiners theory is about that overall events in the environment can be the cause. He does not see the physical agitation as needed for an emotion to arise. His attribution theory deals with the effects of cause-write-ups and the human experience and behaviour especially in motivation and emotion. The attribution approach seems primary important for complex emotions. Characteristic of such complex emotions is also the fact, as we do believe, infants or animals cannot feel them, because they don’t have the ability of the needed cognitions. After Weiners theory emotions appear in three steps: In the first step the individual judges if the goal that is set is reached in the perceived event. At the second step the individual judges the event towards the previous result, like for example the own striving, the own skill, the difficulty of the task or chance. The third step is judging the causal factor when he asked himself the next questions:
emoticon . Is the cause my doing or others doings? . Is the cause over time stable or variable? . Is the cause controllable for me or not? As a note it can be said, that Weiners theory is not based on any empirical bases and cannot be satisfactory empirical tested. 10.4 Evolutionary Emotions theory The psychologist Robert Plutchik developed in the 1960 till 1980ties his evolution-psychological emotions theory. His priorities were the research of Emotions, Suicides, Violence and Psychotherapy Plutschik tried to put his theory together in a systematic form of ten postulates. The most important points of this theory are: . Emotions have a genetic source . Emotions are the basic shapes of adoption of responses with stabilizing feedback loops that create a certain way of self-regulation of behaviour. . Emotions can be identified on every level of the phylogenetic stairs . Emotions are complex chains of reactions . There are eight basic or primary emotions . The similarity between the primary emotions can be exhibit in a three-dimensional structural model . All other emotions are a mix or a combination of the primary emotions Plutschik represents the meaning, that emotions arise in the phylogenies from natural selection and therefore have a somehow genetic base. Emotions are a complex sequence of reactions after stimuli. This stimulus is judged by cognitive evaluation. From there, under influence of the central nerves system arise feelings that led toward certain actions. These actions are a feedback to the situation. Plutschik assumes that this pattern gives us an evolutionary benefit
Emotions in CG (facial animation)
The eight primary emotions are based on physiological
emoticon mechanism that during evolution addressed fundamental problems of adoption. The eight primary emotions are: Fear, Trouble, Happiness, Sadness, Trust, Disgust, Anticipation and Surprise. These eight primary functions are to arrange analogical in a radial two-dimensional colour circle diagram. To this two-dimensional colour circle Plutschik added the intensity of emotions as a third dimension. Emotions with a decreasing intensity were to define. Plutschik has shown the same meaning sometimes spatially, sometimes also two-dimensional. Secondary emotions arise from a mix or combination of primary emotions. From this mix arise second or third primary emotions, so called Dyads or Triads. Primary Dyads arise from the mixing of two related emotions. Emotions that are facing each other cause a conflict that can lead to inhibition of action. Many researchers consider, that there are a few basic emotions from what all the other arise. Unfortunately there is disagreement about the criteria for a basic emotion. As a result there are several, chosen by different researchers, primary emotions. For Plutschik is the criteria: the large evolutionary adaptive value. Because there are no empirical findings for basic emotions of any kind, the concept of the basic emotions must be seen as failed. Plutchiks theory leaves little space for the cognitive element of emotions. In spite of these criticisms the outcome of this theory is still assessed as significant. The Plutschik theory serves as a starting point by the Diabolus Art Research group realized project in Secondlife. The project can be seen as an experiment, what is aiming to carry out Schรถffers spaziodynamic theatre in the metaversum. The result is a figure of Schรถffers events in a virtual world. With that the group left a little space for artistic freedom. Most of the aspects were kept in mind and realized after the original ideas. To allow comparison the next Related section of Schรถffers book is quoted: Emotions in CG (facial animation)
emoticon 11. Nicolas Schรถffer: Spaziodynamic theatre and business centre. One of the favourite places of recreation will be the spaziodynamic theatre. A solid place of certain architecture, but inside will unroll a continuous dynamic and total drama. This theatre consists of an eggshell with acoustic profile of 100 till 250-meter diameter. The audience is in the middle and inside the shell, on a hyperbolic structure that turns around a cylindrical spindle. This spindle contains a business centre what was discussed before. The audience can move easily between business centre and spectator boxes, even when the hyperbolic structure where the boxes are, are slowly moving, with different speed in both directions. 11.1. The Drama Opposed to the audience is a pathway around the wall of the shell. On this ring stage a part of the drama is played, namely electronic ballet running by cybernetic sculptures as well as ballet with dancers. On certain spots on the ring stage choirs recite poems, solists will sing and declaim, theatre plays will be performed that are specially written for this construction. Presentations and all kinds of information are performed and given. Along the whole inside of the shell is a cyclorama background that is build from several screens. One of them is animated in itself with movements of polychrome elements from what its build and contains lumodynamic projections with changeable scores or exists from overlaid relief gratings. Other will serve as cinema screenings. The sound is stereophonic and sends out in opposite direction of the rotation movement of the audience. The audience can overlook all parts of the projections in all directions. The total event is controlled by an electronic control tower that is located on the top of the central cylindrical building. The program of the events is constantly changed to avoid every idea of repetition. To over hole
emoticon the super saturation also the different rotation of the audience will play a role. At the end of the event without beginning and no finale are different visions, are moving sounds, constantly changing rhythms and produced aromas and climates active. When the spectator enters his box, he will sense a whole complex of rhythmic sensations that is not totally performing without his assistance. In front of every spectator is a switchboard, with what he can send out to the control tower his experiences or orders, that will be continuously quantified and influence the program. In the free space in front of the boxes flying sculptures can appear and mobile between screens can be lowered to show projections. On the cinema screens weekshows, abstract movies, short films and art films can be showed. These halls are suitable for audiovisual concerts and exhibitions of mobile artworks) plasticsâ€™ of the avant-garde, also for scientific and artistic lectures, as well as for debates, artistic competitions and so on. This spaziodynamic theatre, for one part for functional recreation (shopping) and for the other part is mend for aesthetic recreation, gives in a concentrated example for balance, that is so needed for the harmonic form of life. / Nicolas SchĂśffer/
Fig. 59-60 . emoticon 4 (time-space painting)
emoticon 12. The structure of the emoticon
Plutchiks demonstration led the idea, to visualize his emotions theory and transform this theory out of its bookworm into an audiovisual show. During the performance the different qualities and intensity of emotions with help of music, dance and visual effects were acted out. On several moments the audience was questioned if the quality and intensity of the emotions were appropriate and convincingly or not. Depending on the outcome of the voting the next performance of an emotion was chosen 12.1. Geometric structure The basic form of the Emoticon theatre was build after the basic idea of Nicolas Schรถffers Spaziodynamic theatre. The building was, due to the new collaborative metaverse infrastructure significantly expanded possibilities, heavily modified. In the metaverse environment it is possible to arrange the geometric divides, without considering the static laws. Beside that this environment gives the possibility to change, reform, colour, texture, translate and rotate the geometric parts in the space. To realize these functions there is an object oriented script language (LSL) available. The Emoticon Theatre has 24 parts: 12.2. Group effectors The element effectors take care of the visual effects of the Emoticon system 1. / Spherical texture-project surfaces These components show the immerse background on two levels.
emoticon . Three projection screens with textures-, colour- and rotation script, two of them are district balls and one a half ball, with a diameter of D = 256 meter (1a) . Six projection screens with textures-, colour- and rotation script, two of them district balls and four eighths segments of balls, with a diameter of D = 128 meter (1b) . One auditorium level of dimensions 128 x 128 meter (1c) here are also the seats for the audience. . Two sets of 24 x 4 textures (1 d). The textures are answering the different intensities and qualities of emotions, for example the four pairs of opposite emotions. There are also emotions qualities of each three intensities. (8 x 3 = 24) . Every set was formed by Caravaggio Bonetto and Millamilla Noel. Millamilla Noels set replaces with eight textures also the dyads.
2/. Particle emitter, Flexi prim and shape torture prim These components generate the visual effects. . Three particle emitters, targetters with translation- and rotation script. These emitters are sending out the particles to the target points. (2a) . One particle emitter with translation- and rotation script. The particles are sending out towards this target point (2c) . One particle emitter target with translation- and rotation script. The multi emitters will always send out a particle that replaces the emotion. The particles are the textures to seen in the sets shown above. (2c) . Three shape tortures primes with texture-, colour-, translation- and rotation scripts (2d). They are large dimensioned primitives, that can change appropriate their
Fig. 61 . Das Grundstruktur der Emoticon Theater
emoticon forms and textures. . Two headlamps with translation- and rotation scripts (2e). The colour of the headlamps change according the emotions. . One flexi group with translation- and rotation script (2f). They are tube like forms that meander through the space.
3. / Stage with audience seats . Camera effectors: Takes over the control of the spectator seats. Usually the spectator self controls the spectator-camera. In this case a script was build in the seats that takes over the control and is sending out the camera data of the camera-controller during the performance. (3a)
Fig. 62-63. Emoticon Komponente
. Auditorium speaker: This element receives the instant message texts and delivers them to the audience. This information transmission-system makes it possible to ask questions to the audience during the performance. (3b). . Voting system: With the help of this system the audience can answered the questions with yes or no. They can decide if they find the audiovisual effects, the music and the dance are expressive enough to show the emotions in authentic. All seats contain the voting-menu. Depending the amount of votes from each seat a corresponding signal is send out to the evaluation centre (3c) 4/. Dancing group. . Controlled outfit attachment. Five avatar figures create an animation group. To the body of each figure are special geometric attached, that also are controlled by the effectors code-sender. These geometric become the same commando signals as the projection surfaces and the particle emitters and change accordingly form, texture and colour. These controlled attachments follow the dance movements of the avatar figures. (4a)
emoticon . Animation control: The dance movements of the avatar figures are controlled with the help of a so called HUDles animator script (4b) note; HUD is the short name for Head-Up-Display 12.3. Control group The control group components-task is to control the effectors elements time depending. 5/. Master controller The master controller is responsible for the total show. The master controller contains more scripts that control all audiovisual elements after a time depending schedule. The master controller becomes, interprets and communicates the data, that are set for every beginning- or ending-moment of the system-conditions. These dates have the following construction: Time-set in seconds, number of communication channel, command. The master controller consists of different parts that carry out different tasks. . Event Recorder: The event recorder asks on command every effectors element for the data that describe the appropriate states of the effectors, and let the received information appear in the messenger window. (5a) . Event Player: The event player synchronise the collaboration of the different master controller parts with the soundtrack. (5b) . Effect Code-sender: Is a menu panel with buttons. Every button equals the 3x8=24 emotion quality and the intensity combinations, furthermore the 8 dyads and the 4 unlike pairs. When activating these buttons all the commands for the actual emotions quality and intensity combinations are send out to the effectors. There are also 2 more buttons. One group for intensity control, the other makes it possible to eliminate function groups. All buttons can be activated by the event player or manually. (5c)
Fig. 64-65. Emoticon Komponente
emoticon . Venue Voting Evaluator and Event Program Modificator: stores and analyses the answers that are distributed by the voting system of the audience-seats. Every three minutes the spectator is questioned if the announced feeling and emotion is matching the emotion-intensity. The outcome is depending of the analysed results of the voting. The show takes 24 minutes. Original all 24 emotionqualities and intensity-combinations were played in a certain order, namely every combination for three minutes. The given votes influence this order. Is the number of the no-answers less then 5, the program continues. Is the number bigger then 5 but smaller as 10, randomly one of the nearby dyads is chosen and played. Is the number of no-answers bigger then 10, then the unlike pairs are played. (5d) . Scene Event Controller: Controls the translation- and rotation movements of the effectors elements. (5e) . Venue Camera Controller: Send time-depending the camera-data for the seats. (5f) . Venue Message Sender: Send on the right moment the questions to the spectators. (5g) 6. Soundtrack Server . Parcel Media Switch: Switches the program equally the needed soundtracks. (6a) . Soundtrack Storage Server: is an external server, from where the individual soundtracks are obtainable with URL for inland use. (6b)
Fig. 66-67. Emoticon Kontroll Bereich
emoticon 13. Space Critical Turnaround With the Internet new cultural spaces are created, that is no longer can be captured in the category of a physical space. The space seems no longer a demarcated physical place, but a result of social relations. Space compactions are leaded to medial levels. Some while now it seems obvious that a totally new understanding of space, a space knowledge is needed. This question is moving up since the 80ties in the run of cultural- and scientific debates. Many scientists look at the new considerations as paradigm-shifts, because not only time is in the centre of culture-science anymore, where it always was in modernity, but now also space in placed in the interest. Space is looked at as Cultural Dimension. The understanding of the past was that space was understood as territory, existing autonomous from people. And the historic processes were serving as a background and were determined this way. At the other hand area sociologists describe space as a product of human action and perception. Hans Dietrich Schultz publishes this new approach with a pithy phrase: â€žSpace is not, Space is made!â€œ This paradigm shift is looked at as a spatial turnaround or Space critical turnaround. Today area sociologists are thinking about how humans create spatial orders and what meaning that will have for the social process. The places in our world are seen as medialized places. Space becomes a new analyse category, where the scientist approaches the object from the beginning as a spatial category and thinks spatial also. The Internet let geographic distance disappear and makes it possible to collaborate and work together on a never seen before level. The artists and scientists that work together on the Diabolus Cybernetic Art Research Project, not only live thousands of kilometres away from each other, but even also on different continents. They meet each other weekly repeatedly in a virtual world.
Fig. 68. Kooperation und Zusammenarbeit auf einer bisher nicht gesehenen Ebene: CARP Metropolis Theater Gruppe in SL von links nach rechts: nnoiz Papp (D) Millamilla Noel (I) Sca Shilova (NL) Debbie Trilling (UK) windyy Lane (USA) Josina Burgess (NL) Velazquez Bonetto (D) Efrantirise Morane (I)
emoticon 14. Diabolus Cybernetic Art Research Team (CARP) Performers: Erfantirise Morane (I), Medora Chevalier (UK), Josina Burgess (NL) Millamilla Noel (I) Concept and art direction: Caravaggio Bonetto (A) Soundtrack creator: Junivers Stockholm (S) Visual set design: Velazquez Bonetto (D) Costume Design: Josina Burgess (NL) Textures: Caravaggio Bonetto (A), Millamilla Noel (I), Josina Burgess (NL)
Fig. 40. Performers: Millamilla Noel, Medora Chevalier, Josina Burgess in Aktion Fotos: Millamilla Noel
emoticon 15. Artistic Avant Garde Like the name of the group is showing, the members of Diabolus Cybernetic Art Group take the 50- and 60ties as a example. In the beginning of the cybernetic age, the new technology has triggered a revolution in art. The speed of development has increased enormously. The adventurous spirit of the artist generation now is presented from time to time new terain by technical progressing. The projects of the Diabolus Group do have a experimental character. Time will tell how they will fit in. The avantgardistic art mostly appears as deliberately provocative, emphasizes innovative as well as highly self reflexive orientated Art. The avantgardistic art strive to create something original, unheared. Baudelaires poetry collection: The Flowers of Evil, has made the shadowside of citylife into lyricks and provoked this way the citizens. Shock seems to be since this time one of the most important objectives for artists. It even seems to be a serious need in the competition for attention, that has a scarce resource. The problem with this is, than no sensation stays long. What today is a big scandal is tomorrow boring. It is very difficult to outdo the triggered riots again and again. The dada-ists could irritate with their nonsens-poems, nowadays nobody is agitated when a work of art seems to have no sense at all. We saw empty screens, who is still wondering when Karin Sander frames 770 hairs each on a papersheet of 28x21 cm and exibits them? Futile is the trying of Orlan to shock with his surgery. Te Vienna actionists have filled many buckets with blood. The artistcouple Christo and Jeanne-Claude can only with enormous capitalinvestions get the attention. In Central Park in New York a few years ago 7.503 towers were exibited. After the succes of this project now they plan a voltage of the Arkansas river in Colorado. The project can be realised with the needed preperation time earliest in the 2012. Question is will it be more then just a tourist attraction? The more extreme, the more extravagant pieces of art are exibited, the more their extra-aestetic, theoretical
emoticon commentary will be. They tend to become less and less understandable from itsself. Becuase of this the contact with the audience will be more and more lost. It is possible that Schรถffer towers were not appealing to every citizen. The were strange and new. But they were certainly not shocking in the way like for example Hagens Body Worlds. His ideas were eccentric and original in a positive sense, without making special effort to be original. The Diabolus Team also does not want to shock, apart from the intention to tell something, seems to be shocking today. The driving force are scientific- and adventurous spirit, the need to communicate and human contacts. Whether this causes Art, and the answere is positiv, how she will fit in arthistory, has to be decided by the future generations.
Fig. 41. Kunst als Skandal
serenity joy ecstasy
acceptance trust admiration
apprehension fear terror
distraction surptise amazement
pensiveness sadness grief
boredom disgust loathing
annoyance anger rage
interest anticipation vigilance
emoticon Bibliography  Nikolas Schöffer Die Kybernetische Stadt, Heinz Moos Verlag München, 1970  Markus Stegmann, Architektonische Skulptur im 20. Jahrhundert, Ernst Wasmuth Verlag Tübingen, Berlin, 1995  Wikipedia  Golo Föllmer, »Töne für die Straße«, Akademie der Künste (Hg.), Klangkunst, München 1996, S. 216-218  Hartmut Böhme, Das Licht als Medium der Kunst, Über Erfahrungsarmut und ästhetisches Gegenlicht in der technischen Zivilisation Antrittsvorlesung, 2. November 1994 Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Philosophische Fakultät III, Institut für Kulturwissenschaft  Lehrveranstaltung im SS 2002 von A. Univ.-Prof. Dr. Michael Trimmel ID 1105 Proseminar Allgemeine Psychologie: Motivation und Emotion II Kurztitel: Emotionstheorie von Robert Plutchik  http://www.psychologie.uni-heidelberg.de/ae/allg/lehre/ wct/e/index.htm  Austellungskatalog: Cybernetik Serendipity 1968, London