TPI Top Ten Highlights of 2009
Page1 Exiled Tibetan Education Policy Page 2 Spiritually Indian and Physically Tibetan Page 3 Tibet Highlights 2009 Page 4 German FM Raises Tibet Page 5
H.H The Dalai Lama to USA Thrice in 2010
The Tibet P st I
l Back of the Gold Medal
Vol. 01, Issue 09, 01 January 2010 T P I S h o r t s Ta k e s
German FM raises human rights and Tibet issues during China visit German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle arrived in Beijing on Friday. In talks with his counterpart Yang Jiechi there, he said he raised human rights, press freedom and freedom of speech in China and as well as the situation in Tibet. Regarding the Himalayan region of Tibet, the two foreign ministers shared their “different views.” Yang reiterated that Beijing regards the continued on page 5
B o d - K y i - Cha- Trin
W e e k l
TPI Top Ten Highlights of 2009 For Tibet Dharamshala: The year 2009 marks the 50th year of the Chinese occupation of Tibet. The Tibetan community both inside Tibet and in exile, continues to protest oppressive policies in Tibet. While His Holiness the Dalai Lama has asked for human rights and autonomy for the Tibetan people under the constitution of the People’s Republic of China, discussions with China in 2008 yielded no change in the Tibetan situation in 2009. This year was characterized by numerous arrests of citizens in Tibet as peaceful protests continued, and sustained efforts by Tibetan authorities and international organizations to raise international awareness. On the international stage, the Tibet issue continues to be pushed, but has taken a backseat to the weight of China’s influence in issues such as global climate change and the economy. 2009 Highlights-WORLD 1. The United States waivers between support for Tibet and improving relations with China The United States is seeking improved relations with China, and in 2009, the country’s foreign policy concerning economic and environmental cooperation with China took center stage, casting a shadow on the Tibetan issue. In October 2009, President Obama took the advice of a Chinese spokeswoman, and did not meet with the Dalai Lama on his most recent visit to the U.S. Obama met with Hu Jintao in November, and although he spoke about the need for human rights and individual freedom, he acknowledged Tibet as a part of China. President Obama also encouraged the renewal of talks between Beijing and His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s envoys. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton publicly stated in February 2009 that China’s human rights abuses should not be brought into efforts for cooperation on climate change and the global economy. continued on page 4
Tibetan Parliament Condemns Ban on Annual Religious Congregation in Tibet
New Tibetan film: “A Precious Human Life” to be released soon
Dharamshala: The Tibetan Parliament-in-exile has strongly condemned Chinese authorities’ decision to impose a ban on an annual religious event at Gyalrong Tsodhun Monastery, in Bharkham County of Amdo, Tibet. The Standing Committee of the exile parliament today issued a press release calling continued on page 3
T i b e t
Tibetan Filmmaker Dhondup Wangchen Sentenced To 6 Years In Prison See detal in page No:6
New Governor for Tibet Autonomous Region, Same Old Story The Chinese Communist Party appointed a new governor of the so-called Tibetan Autonomous Region (TAR) to replace Jampa Phuntsok (also known as Qiangba Puncog), who resigned suddenly last week, just three years short of his retirement pension, for reasons on which neither he nor the government will elaborate. The newly appointed governor is none other than Pema Thinley (also known as Padma Choling, Pelma Chiley or Baima Chilin), the ex-military leader and party secretary who was accused as being a staunch supporter of the inhumane crackdowns against the March 2008 protestors. continued on page 6
Dharamshala: Tibetan filmmaker Tenzin Salshey and his production team held a press conference today about their new film, “A Precious Human Life” (Melue Jhurpoche), which aims to deliver a strong message to those Tibetans who use drugs, encouraging them to avoid such substances. Melue Jhurpoche is scheduled to be released in Tibetan settlements across India, Nepal, and Bhutan during the Tibetan New Year (Losar) with help of Tibetan Women’s Association during the Tibetan New Year (Losar) . One of the main characters, Ven Golok Dhabai, a Tibetan yogi who arrived recently from eastern Tibet, said that he was attracted and encouraged by the movie’s story. “I did not play the role for payment, neither thinking of fame, but because of the story and benefits of the movie.” The Ven. Dhabai also wrote many Tibetan songs when he was in Tibet. Director Tenzin Salshey said that the new film ran a budget of over Rs 5,00000 (five lakh), and around 50 Tibetans performed the different roles. He explained that the theme of his new film was that the inner values of love, care, compassion, affection, tolerance, expressed through calm dialogue can restore youths’ physical and mental health and lead them to a happy life. Jamyang Sakya, the main actor, described to reporters his experience of playing the main character. “I think that to say it is easy, but to put it into practice is difficult. I never use any drugs or alcohol, and I hope that continued on page 2
World Economics and China’s Political Dramatics Dharamshala: -China’s economic growth is notably high. This is solidifying its political power on a global scale, and rousing foreign politicians, governments and societies to adopt a political stance on the Tibetan issue. In 2008, a significant number of columnists, analysts and activists voiced opinions regarding the amalgamation of sports and politics. Chinese leaders continued on page 5
01 January, 2010 Dharamsala
THE EDITE PAGE
War of Words Between Google And China Following Internet Censorship
Jailed and Tortured for Supporting a Tibetan Humanitarian: An Ex-Political Prisoner’s Story Dharamshala: Tsering Dorjee is a firm discipline of Truku Tenzin Delek, a prominent Buddhist leader who founded two Tibetan schools, developed educational programs for impoverished nomads and advocated environmental conser vation. Tsering Dorjee’s backing of Tenzin Delek Rinpoche led to a successful teaching position in one of Tenzin Delek’s schools, as well as arrest, jail time and repeated torture.
The communist regime of China will be forced to decide whether to unshackle its binding web restraints for over 300 million people in a censorship clash that threatens to redraw the boundaries of the Internet and its technology. This “war of words” intensified a day after the world’s top search engine, Google, threatened to shut down its Chinabased operations alleging cyber attacks and unfounded censorship. “It is still hard to say whether Google will quit China or not. Nobody knows,” said an official of the State Council Information Office who asked not to be named. Google’s complaints are overdue. The famously righteous firm (its bumpersticker credo: “Don’t be Evil”) has strained to find a path between its freeand-open Internet and the clampdown version practiced in China. So far, Google has caved to Beijing. Try Googling “Tiananmen massacre” or “Dalai Lama” while in China, and the search results come up glaring – glaringly blank, that is.
already over issues of trade, currency, climate change and arms sales to Taiwan. In response, the US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton demanded an explanation from China. She said the “ability to operate with confidence in cyberspace is critical in a modern society and economy”. As of yet, China has no official response to Clinton’s – or anyone’s – protests over its comparatively Draconian media directives. Google made contact with Chinese officials yesterday though, and discussions are understood to be underway still. In public, Chinese authorities largely ignored this display of defiance from Google. Here, foreign companies have almost invariably accepted intrusive controls by Chinese powers as it then allows them to tap into China’s huge and growing market. But not Google. It had hopes that China would relax freedom of speech restrictions after the 2008 Olympics, as promised. But Internet controls have continued to be tightened with blocks on popular social networking sites such as Twitter, Facebook, YouTube and most recently IMDb, a movie review site.
Google’s demand to be allowed to operate its Google.cn search engine free from censorship came after what it described as a “highly sophisticated and targeted attack on our corporate infrastructure originating from China”. If Google pulls out, experts estimate that the multi-billion dollar company Further investigation revealed that might relinquish about $350 million attempts had been made to access the worth of business, though Google Google mail accounts of Chinese hasn’t divulged the exact size of its human rights activists. It said that at dealings in China. Yet this represents least 20 other companies were also just two percent of its worldwide targeted. revenues. And this isn’t the first time. A major coordinated assault on computers of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, foreign embassies and even foreign ministries was uncovered last year and traced back to Chinese hackers. The operation targeted computers in more than 100 countries and was so widespread that Western intelligence experts believe it was organized by the Chinese government, although there is no definitive proof.
The Tibet Post
In 1996, Chinese authorities arrested Dorjee for supporting Tenzin Delek Rinpoche, an alleged terrorist, according to Chinese officials. Although there was no - and still isn’t - any definable proof, the Chinese had pegged Tenzin Delek with unsolved bombings in Eastern Tibet - a statue of Chairman Mao had been blown up, and the government wanted “justice”. For six months Tsering Dorjee was detained. The beatings, he said, were endless. The Chinese authorities wanted him to “confess” that he knew Tenzin Delek Rinpoche to be a criminal. They Chinese were fishing for an accusation. “We were tortured to such an extreme during those six months that I wanted to kill myself,” Dorjee
said through a translator.
in the Tibetan community believed this. It was all false.”
But Dorjee wasn’t the only one. After six months of torture, Dorjee was released, bruised and nearly broken. About a year later, in 1998, Dorjee fled for India. In 2002, Tenzin Delek and his alleged alibi were sentenced to death. The other man who was assumed to be Tenzin Delek’s partner in crime, Lobsang Dhondup, was executed almost immediately. Thanks to international pressure from human rights groups and the United Nations, Tenzin Delek’s sentence was commuted to a life in prison instead. His crimes have never been proven. He remains imprisoned.
About 150-160 other Tibetan supporters also were jailed and tortured for the same reason. But no matter the number of prisoners, the Tibetan community did not give up Tenzin Delek as a criminal, even when the Chinese put together a propaganda film about the supposed wrongdoings of Tenzin Delek. “The film had been manipulated with computer graphics so it looked like Truku [Tenzin Delek] was admitting his crimes,” Dorjee said. “But no one
On December 5, 2009, about 300 Tibetans from the Lithang Region staged a peaceful protest for the release of Tenzin Delek. Chinese authorities responded with force: approximately 90 protesters were hit or even beaten, and 60 were detained. From his refugee camp in Dharamsala, India, Dorjee has an appeal: “Support the truth,” he said. “I’m calling on the US, the UN and the European parliaments for continuous support for [Tenzin Delek’s] release, as well as aid for the Tibetan cause. Thank you.”
Exiled Tibetan Govt.’s Education Policy Aims to “Create a Tibetan Mind”
Google has little to lose, suggest some, especially since Google isn’t even the most popular search engine in China. The market research firm, comScore, shows that about 70 percent of searches in China are made through the local search engine Baidu, with Google trailing by 15 percent. Dharamshala: The Central Tibetan Administration’s education The news was carried prominently on department is hosting its seventh websites but ignored completely by orientation course from 8-16 Jan, state-run media. Dismayed web users in Sarah, near Dharamshala, in made their way to the company’s order to reaffirm an education These alleged cyber attacks have Beijing offices to leave bouquets. Some program that is oriented toward strained the countries’ trans-Pacific bowed before the building. One Tibetan culture. relations, a rapport that is frayed message read: “Google: a real man”.
opening address to the 42 teachers attending from 10 different Tibetan schools. “The policy aims to develop and incorporate the values and culture that define the Tibetan in an individual’s overall character,” he said.
“The policy broadly and basically aims to create a ‘Tibetan mind’ in the individual’s personality amidst the growing trend toward Westernization, especially among the youth,” said Mr. Kalon Thubten Lungrig, the representative from the education department, in his
The education policy, which was approved unanimously by the 13th Assembly of Tibetan People’s Deputies in 2004, is being revamped to include more subjects that emphasize the traditional Tibetan mentality, including Tibetan calligraphy, language and customs, as well as a class on the concept of nonviolence. The program has been founded on studies that are advocated by His Holiness the Dalai Lama, such as universal human values and inner-science.
The Tibet Post
TPI DALAI LAMA
His Holiness the Dalai Lama Vo Visit US At Least Thrice In 2010 hub for many of America’s Tibetan Buddhist refugees. His Holiness will return to the US for a different kind of educational event in October, the Oakland Tribune reported on Monday. According to the Tribune, Ravenswood City School District officials are already forming a planning committee to prepare for His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s visit to Costaño Elementary School in East Palo Alto in October. Tibet’s globetrotting spiritual leader is scheduled to visit the United States in May and October of this year after visiting Los Angeles next month to raise awareness of the plight of institutionalized children, according to his official website and US media sources. In addition, an empty schedule through 28 February leaves ample time for His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s long anticipated meeting with US President Barack Obama. His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s official website, dalailama.com, shows that he will be visiting the US Midwest and New York from 12-23 May. The tour includes a two-day teaching on the Heart Sutra in Bloomington, Indiana; a public talk on “Facing Challenges with Compassion” in Indianapolis; a lecture on “The Power of Public Education”, organized by the University of Northern Iowa; and three days of teachings and a final public talk in New York City, the
Ravenswood Superintendent Maria De La Vega told the Tribune, “He [the Dalai Lama] wants to meet with children”. She described, “There will be a receiving line and there will be a small group reception.” At a school board meeting last Thursday, board members Larry Moody and Saree Mading were appointed to help organize His Holiness’s reception. De Vegas stated that educators will begin preparing the elementary students for the visit in May. Further details of His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s October trip are not yet posted on his official website. The Tibetan leader visited the Bay Area on his tour last March, giving a public talk at the University of California at Berkeley, among other events. In October, his audience will be much younger, but hopefully no less captivated.
His Holiness Dalai Lama Inaugurates Biggest Monastery in South Asia
Giving a discourse on the importance of promoting Ahimsa (nonviolence), compassion and religious harmony, Tibetan spiritual leader His Holiness the Dalai Lama on Friday also urged Indians to play an active role in the heritage of India’s ancient tradition. “Buddhism comes from India. So, it is also their religion. I usually describe Indian as our Guru (Teacher). We are its Chelas (students)” His Holiness said, “So, I am a student of the India’s Guru. And all my thoughts, my ideas, actually come from India’s tradition. Therefore, I consider, and I also introduce myself, when I visit other countries, as a messenger of India. At the level of messenger, I am quite active promoting Ahimsa, compassion and religious harmony. So, now the time comes that my boss, my Indian Guru now must meet an active role regarding the promotion”. His Holiness the Dalai Lama was speaking at the international seminar on ‘Buddhist Heritage in Gujarat’ being held at the Maharaja Sayajirao
Tucked into the Tibetan settlement of the Gajapati district, the newly built and blessed monastery already hosts 200 monks in the five-story structure that overlooks 10 acres. It may seem like a lot of space, but the acreage was put to good use on Tuesday
His Holiness spoke to those attending about the imminent importance of cherishing and saving Tibetan religious writings, particularly at Tibetan monasteries outside Tibet. His pleas were referenced by talk of religious freedoms, or rather the lack thereof, in Chinese-occupied Tibet, a subject he also touched upon previously during his teachings last week in Bodh
University, in Vadodara. The seminar was also attended by Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi who, in his inaugural speech earlier, had said that he wanted to build in Gujarat the
country’s biggest Buddhist temple with a centre for studies in Buddhism. And Tibetan spiritual leader supported the idea strongly, sating “That’s very very essential. In America and also in Europe there are some Universities where Buddhist studies can be learned. So why not India? It is home of Buddhism”. Further, the 74 year-old Nobel peace laureate emphasized on the necessity of having realistic methods and holistic perspectives to challenge the troubles in today’s’ world. Addressing the scholars and
Buddhist leaders from Bhutan, Japan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand and as well as India, His Holiness said “we must make a distinction between faith and respect. Faith goes to one’s own religion, respect, to all religions. That is very, very essential. We must appreciate the value or the immense sort of benefit to millions of people of other religion like Christianity, Hinduism, Judaism or all religions, like that”. “Buddhist science has nothing to do with Buddhist religion. Mainly Buddhist science is more about emotion, more about mind, more about the relation between the brain, neurons and mind”, in terms of Buddhist science and its potential contribution to world, Tibetan leader said, “More interaction with modern scientists should bring both immense benefits. We Buddhists get a much deeper knowledge about the particles, quads (subatomic sort of particles) really useful to us. And then modern scientists get plenty of information about emotion, about the mind. So, closer interaction brings mutual benefit.” His Holiness concludes his speech by saying, “Spiritually I am Indian and physically I am Tibetan”.
Tibetan Parliament Condemns Ban on Annual Religious Congregation in Tibet upon human rights activists and Tibet support groups to pressure the Chinese authorities on the this issue, which violates the Tibetan people’s fundamental human rights and religious freedom.
when 5,000 people showed up to hear His Holiness speak to the backdrop of a fresh faced, 21-foot Buddha icon.
Spiritually I Am Indian And Physically I Am Tibetan: His Holiness
Following is the full text:
Orissa: Tibetan spiritual leader, His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama is in the midst of a four-day inauguration of what is now the biggest monastery in South Asia: the Padmasambhava Mahavihara Monastery, located in Orissa.
01 january, 2010 Dharamsala
The Chinese authorities in Barkham County banned the third annual winter session of a religious congregation, which was to be held at Gyalrong Tsodhun Kirti Monastery. The annual religious event, which was first held at Tagtsang Lhamo Kirti Monastery in the year 2007, was subsequently decided to be organized by the four major Kirti monasteries: Tagtsang Lhamo Kirti Monastery, Ngaba Kirti Monastery, Tsodhun Kirti Monastery and Hortsang Kirti Gaya. He went on to affirm India’s approach to religious freedom: ‘’But India, being a secular country, has given its citizens the freedom to practice the religion of their choice,’’ he said.
Monastery in yearly rotations. According to the infor mation Dharamsala has received from the Emergency Coordination Committee of Kirti Monastery, in addition to imposing ban on this congregation, the local Chinese authorities have warned the Tsodhun monastery of closure and the arrest of monks if they fail to comply with the orders. The Tsodhun Monastery has spent close to five months seeking per mission from the local authorities, as well as from the county office, to organize the annual event, but it has now been turned down, with the authorities terming it as “political and unlawful”. Severe restrictions have been imposed and the entire monastery has been put under strict surveillance. The monastery, which is named after the guru credited with bringing Buddhism to Tibet in the seventh century, is focused especially on salvaging Tibetan script. The first Rigon Thubten Mindroling Monastery was founded in 1966 and the site for the new Padmasambhava
An annual congregation of this magnitude, where monks from over fifty monasteries in Kham and Amdo participate, is an enormous opportunity for monks to demonstrate their knowledge on a particular and important aspect of Buddhist tenets called ‘Tsema’, or valid cognition (Pramanna in Sanskrit), and the banning of such a religious event is a despicable display of the lack of religious freedom in Tibet. The Tibetan Parliament-in-exile strongly condemns this act, which openly violates the fundamental human right of religious freedom, and calls upon the government of China to allow the congregation to take place. We also call upon human rights and Tibet support groups to take the issue up with the Chinese authorities. Mahavihara Monastery was given accord by His Holiness himself in 1998. The foundation stone for the Buddhist temple was laid in 2003 and work was completed in 2008. His Holiness the Dalai Lama is also scheduled to deliver a public talk at Bhubaneswar on January
01 January, 2010 Dharamsala
TPI Top Ten Highlights of 2009 For Tibet In a 2008 report, The U.S. State Department stated that, in Tibet, “official repression of freedom of speech, religion, association, and movement [has] increased significantly,” and individual freedoms have “deteriorated severely during the year” after the widespread protests of March 2008. The U.S. government failed to directly address the grave situation in Tibet in 2009, although Mrs. Clinton did comment this month on the need for both China and Russia to respect the rights of their national minority populations. 2. China-EU relations concern Tibet
the March 2008 protests. At a press conference in Dharamsala on 14 October, Clever spoke about his impressions of Lhasa, stating that the Chinese are placing a great emphasis on development and infrastructure, but neglecting Tibetans’ social welfare and educational reform. He stated, “We’ve seen some schools and I think the Chinese central government is well aware of the necessity to get education...but I think we will have further questions, especially after my impressions here [in Dharamsala].” According to Clever, the delegates also discussed with Chinese officials ways to “make the economic competition more fair” for Tibetans, and were allowed to talk freely with Tibetans on the street in Lhasa.
Despite China’s disapproval of other nations’ relationships with Tibet, many European countries continued to align with His Holiness the Dalai Lama in 2009. In January 2009, the rotating EU presidency fell in the lap of the prime minister of the Czech Republic, Mirek Topolanek. Even though the Czech PM refused to attend the opening ceremony of the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, China is insistent on improving relations with the EU. The Tibet issue could be China’s trading card in order to move forward with the EU.
3. Tibetan Authorities Speak Out Against Chinese Abuse
Widespread support and praise of the Dalai Lama was voiced by many European nations this year. In February, Rome announced that it would make the Dalai Lama an honorary citizen of the city because of “his international efforts to bring about a peaceful solution for Tibet.” During this month, His Holiness also received the German Media Prize, acknowledging his “continuing commitment to the freedom of speech, peace, religious harmony and his great efforts to secure greater autonomy for Tibet through middle-way approaches.” The Tibetan spiritual leader reported a warm reception during his time in Italy and Germany in 2009.
The Dalai Lama called China “dictatorial,” and commented that the Tibetan government in exile has yet to receive a response to the Memorandum for Genuine Autonomy that was proposed in July 2008. Prof: Samdhong Rinpoche, the prime minister of the government-inexile, said that the Chinese have spoken to international media about the proposal, but not directly to Tibetan authorities.
Tibetan authorities maintained good relations with European nations in 2009. The special envoy of the Dalai Lama, Kelsang Gyaltsen, formally addressed the European Parliament in March. He said that he was thankful for the EU’s “consistent and principled support for His Holiness the Dalai Lama and his efforts to find a peaceful solution for Tibet.” Chinese policy in Tibet was scrutinized again when China sought to improve relations with the UK. In April, Prince Charles met with Hu Jintao for the first time. The prince openly supports the Dalai Lama, and has hesitated to develop friendly relations with China in the past. In this meeting, Prince Charles and the Chinese president covered a range of issues on which the two countries hope to cooperate, including the situation in Tibet. In the same month, Dutch authorities invited His Holiness to visit their parliament, despite warnings from China that it would damage the relationship between the two countries. In September, Chinese officials invited Mario Sepi, president of the European Economic and Social Committee, and two other EESC representatives-Peter Clever from Germany, and Sukdev Sharma from the UK-to visit Tibet for a special factfinding mission, the first of its kind since
At the beginning of this year, His Holiness the Dalai Lama expressed his strong hope for a change in Chinese policy in Tibet, while admitting that his confidence in China’s communist regime is fading. On January 18th, he said that “contact with Chinese officials is becoming difficult... our faith towards (Chinese) government now becoming thinner and thinner. However, our faith towards Chinese people is never shaken.”
During a press conference held on March 11, 2009, Prof. Samdhoung Rinpoche, Prime minister of the Tibetan government-in-exile said that the Tibetan community is “prepared for another hundred years of struggle”. He stated, “We will wait and continue our effort, and the day will come when the issue is resolved.” In April 2009, His Holiness the Dalai Lama visited the United States, and spoke about both China and U.S. positions on human rights. The Dalai Lama acknowledged that China has great political and economic power, but stated that it needs “the world’s trust and respect” to reach the level of a superpower. According to His Holiness, China must correct its policy of oppression in Tibet in order to earn this trust and respect. The Tibetan government-in-exile also confronted China in 2009. They issued a public letter to the Chinese government on April 28th, asking to know the whereabouts and health of His Eminence Panchen Rinpoche Gedhun Choekyi Nyima, the 11th Panchen Lama. Since he was captured by the Chinese government under Jiang Zemin in 1995, Chinese authorities have said no more than “all is well with H.E. Panchen Rinpoche.” The letter stated, “we call on you to make it clear to the whole world whether H.E. Panchen Rinpoche is still alive or not and if H.E. Panchen Rinpoche is alive, details of his well being and whereabouts should be made public. We also urge you to reinstate H.E. Panchen Rinpoche Gedhun Choekyi Nyima to his rightful position.”
4. Dhondup Wangchen’s detainment provokes international outrage On 26 March, 2008, Chinese authorities arrested Tibetan filmmaker Dhondup Wangchen for his documentary “Leaving Fear Behind”, which features 25 minutes of interviews with ordinary Tibetans about their views on the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the current situation in Tibet, and their hope for the Dalai Lama’s return. In 2009, Wangchen was nominated for the Reporters Sans Frontier’s (RSF)
The Tibet Post government’s human rights abuses, and pledged to take action regarding the Tibetan issue in several different ways. Before the UN Copenhagen summit on climate change in December, Chinese officials announced a plan to cut the country’s level of greenhouse gas emissions by 40-45% over the next ten years. China is currently the second largest emitter in the world, after the US. At the summit, a Tibetan delegation led
Also in April, four Tibetan monks from Lutsang monastery in Mangra district, were sentenced to 2 years in prison for participating in a peace march and candle light vigil in front of a Chinese official building. In the Walpan township of the Machu District, two-hundred Chinese police also stormed into a traditional festival at the Sarma Monastery. It was reported that “they publicly searched, frisked, and beat participants.” There were also reports of the arrests of fifteen Tibetan protestors in the Kham Tehor district. These prisoners were loaded into military trucks with participants of a separate protest in which farmers in the area refused to cultivate their land. In December, a group of 300 Tibetans, including some elderly and childen held a hunger strike in front of a Chinese government building in Thangkarma, Othok, Lithang county. The Chinese reportedly sent hundreds of troops to quell the protest. The day before the hunger strike took place, 90 Tibetans were arrested in the Nyakchu district of Lithang county. Witnesses claimed that over twenty of these people were beaten and many lost consciousness.
International Media Award due to his courageous documentary. Wangchen was charged by the Chinese in June 2009, and RSF launched an international petition campaign for his release that same month. More than 13,000 people had signed the petition by the end of July. Wangchen’s wife, Lhamo Tso, actively supported the RSF campaign by releasing her own press statements and videos affirming her husband’s innocence. Meanwhile, reports that Wangchen is suffering from Hepatitis B and has been denied access to his lawyer, Li Dunyong, further infuriated activists worldwide. Tibetan exile groups and supporters called for a Global Day of Action for Dhondup Wangchen on 23 September. The international demonstrations were scheduled to coincide with Chinese President Hu Jintao’s address to the United Nations General Assembly. In Dharamsala, four NGOs conducted a daylong signature campaign and sent 1000 postcards to President Hu demanding Wangchen’s release. “Free Dhondup Wangchen!” became the international motto for resistance to China in 2009. 5. Tibet’s significance highlighted in debates on global climate change “Welcome to our country, city and home, Your Holiness,” said President Luis Durnwalder of South Tyrol. His Holiness the Dalai Lama in November visited Bolzano and Trento, the capital cities of the Regional Autonomous Governments of South Tyrol and Trento, in northern Italy. His Holiness expressed his appreciation for the support of the people and governments of the two autonomous regions. President Durnwalder asked about the situation in Tibet. His Holiness replied that it has worsened. Delegates to the 5th World Parliamentarians’ Convention on Tibet, which took place 18-19 November in Rome, have published a new declaration regarding the Tibetan issue. In this declaration, the Parliamentarians expressed their support for the Tibetan people and His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s “middle way” approach, decried the Chinese
by environmental researcher Tenzin Norbu presented a report on how climate changeinduced glacial melting in Tibet will affect all of Asia, and discussed strategies to prevent further damage to the world’s “third pole”. He emphasized that China must change its policies, specifically its ruthless urbanization and displacement of Tibetan nomads, who have served as the plateau’s environmental stewards for centuries. In an open letter to Copenhagen participants entitled “Tibet’s Role in Climate Change Solutions”, members of the International Parliamentary Network on Tibet affirmed that the Chinese must allow Tibetans to play an important role in maintaining their environment. This letter, a part of the “Rome Declaration on Tibet”, produced in November, was signed by 35 Parliamentary members from 17 countries.2009 Highlights-Tibet 1. Heavy violence and Arrests are reported in Eastern Tibet Reports of arrest and military action against non-violent protests in areas of eastern Tibet trickled down the strained lines of communication between Tibet and media as 2009 unfolded. In February 2009, Lobsang Lhundup, a Buddhist monk in the Lithang district of Tibet, was arrested for protesting the Chinese occupation of Tibet. Twenty-one others who marched with him were arrested the following day. Later that month, China deployed 4,000 more military troops to the Lithang District, after hundreds of protestors filled the streets, yelling “Free Tibet!” There were reports of 22 protestors being arrested, and one source said that the leaders of the protest, Sonam Tenpa and Lobsang Tenzin, may be dead. It was reported that all Tibetans in the area were forced to attend “so-called ‘emergency meetings,’” and that all roads in Lithang and other districts were shut down. In April 2009, thirteen trucks of Chinese military police were brought into Nyakrong County to suppress a non-violent protest that occurred on the 5th. It was reported that the crowds resisted arrest, and that the Chinese authorities began to shoot at the protestors. The incident yielded no casualties, but many Tibetans were injured, and nine of the protestors were arrested.
2. Authorities Strictly Prohibit Media Inside Tibet Although Chinese authorities claimed that Tibet would be open to foreign media in April of 2009, reports of restrictions on media access and arrests continued to accumulate during this year. Ironically, most of the reports of information restrictions became public during this month. In March, a monk named Thuksam, from Nurma monastery, was arrested and accused of “sending reports about human rights violations to organizations abroad.” Information was never released about where he was being held. Another monk named Tsuiltrim, belonging to Ngaba Gomang monastery was arrested in April for publishing his private journal, which Chinese authorities labeled as “antigovernment writings.” It is still unknown where he is detained. Also during this month, Chinese authorities limited access to files containing the cases of Tibetans who have been arrested. The Tibetan government in exile publicized footage of the torture of Tibetans at the hand of the Chinese police in March. The Chinese government responded by calling the video “fraudulent,” and blocking the YOutubet website in China. Restrictions of foreign television, internet, and radio in the Machu district of Ganzu Province were also revealed in April. A Tibetan from this area commented, “Chinese officials in the area give strong warnings to Tibetans living in Machu District, prohibiting access to internet, radio and television such as exile Tibetan websites including Radio Free Asia or Voice of America.” It was also reported that authorities installed “dozens of satellite dishes while confiscating those belonging to private individuals.” Reporters Without Borders (RSF), the international free press organization,reprehended China in 2009 for its restriction on information in Tibet, and in the nation itself. Reporters Without Borders (RSF) announced their concern for the safety of “journalists and website editors who have been arrested in the past few months in Tibet and neighboring Tibetan regions.” continued on page 6
The Tibet Post
German FM raises human rights and Tibet issues during China visit region as a part of the territory of China. The Chinese government indirectly warned Westerwelle not to meet with Tibetan leader the Dalai Lama, the Tibetan spiritual leader. Yang said the Chinese government was “absolutely against” any official visits between the Dalai Lama and international governments. Friday’s meeting between Guido Westerwelle and Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi was followed by a press conference. Westerwelle told jounalists that he had used his talks with Yang to broach the subjects of human rights, press freedom and freedom of speech in China. The two sides exchanged their “different views” on Tibet, Westerwelle said at a joint press conference with Yang, DPA reported. “My foreign minister counterpart knows that a cornerstone of our foreign policy is standing up for human rights, for the protection of minorities, freedom of opinion, freedom of the press and freedom of religion.” Westerwelle was expected to discuss specific cases of imprisoned dissidents in his meetings later on Friday. The wife of Liu Xiaobo, who was sentenced last month to 11 years in prison for “incitement to subvert state power,” has asked Westerwelle to bring up her husband’s case with Yang and Prime Minister Wen Jiabao. “It would be very important,” she told the German press agency, DPA. When asked about US internet giant Google’s threat to withdraw from China following a “highly sophisticated and targeted” cyber attack originating from China, Yang repeated China’s defence of its position. He said the internet in China was “open” but all service providers must follow the law and prevent “harm to society.” China “opposes any cyber attacks,” Yang said. The two sides said Yang would attend an annual international security conference in Germany next month.to intensify cooperation on disarmament issues. Relations between China and Germany were strained when German Chancellor Angela Merkel met with Tibetan spiritual leader His Holiness the Dalai Lama in 2007.
01 January, 2010 Dharamsala
World Economics and China’s Political Dramatics in particular stress the rift between the two, and assert that politics and sports should not be intertwined. But when the Olympic torch arrived in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, the head of the Olympic committee strongly criticized Chinese leaders for using the torch as a political platform. The Olympic Games strive to promote peace and freedom of expression. But the Chinese government committed genocide and imposed restrictions on movement on the Tibetan people during this time. This begs the question: what did the Beijing Olympics represent? The Beijing Games were a stain on human history and the worldwide human rights movement. The current world economic crisis is one of the gravest in history, surpassing the magnitude of the 1980s crisis and comparable to that of the 1920s. It will take over twenty years to neutralize this crisis, according to many analysts. In the last forty years, The Chinese communist regime has attempted to silence the international community’s criticism using the deteriorating economic situation to influence world politics with particular regard to various nations’ stances on the issue of Tibetan sovereignty. Nevertheless, international support for the Tibetan cause has remained unchecked. The significant question here is: can we find a solution to the Tibetan issue by mixing China’s political drama with global economics? We cannot. From the beginning of the new millennium, China has amplified its criticism of Tibet’s spiritual leader, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, regarding his visits to various foreign countries and his meetings with their leaders. The Chinese government has augmented its foreign policy to include the enactment of pressure upon activists and alleged “separatists,” despite the fact that His
Chinese Propaganda Magazine in Tibet marks its 20th Anniversary
Holiness seeks only a great autonomy for Tibet within China. “We are not ‘separatists.’ The whole world knows we are not seeking independence,” he assured the EU Parliament last year. China canceled its high-level summit with the European Union following French president, Sarkozy’s meeting with His Holiness the Dalai Lama. The aforementioned President of France held the EU presidency at the time, and endured open criticism from the Chinese government. China subsequently encouraged its individual citizens to boycott French goods; however, the vast majority of Chinese people cannot afford to purchase imports from France. China expressed further disapproval of South Africa, resulting in the country’s denial of a visa to His Holiness the Dalai Lama, who had planned to attend a peace conference there. In addition, China inflicted economic pressure upon Denmark, Holland and Iceland to prevent their respective governments from interfering in China’s policy concerning Tibet – a practicable political strategy in the midst of a global economic crisis. China’s economic growth is extensive, but it is dangerous and, ultimately, limited. Over sixty-five percent of the Chinese population is poverty-stricken. Plus, the level of unemployment is steadily increasing. If the quantity of goods imported by China’s economic partners in Asia, Europe and North America continues to wane, China will face a great economic deflation. If the Chinese government persists in using its economic influence to conduct political manipulation, it will lose the trust and confidence of the international community. I see no long-term benefits of this strategy. As a result of the policies inflicted during the Olympic Games, China invited only criticism, and its international reputation suffered. Recently, during a conference in the
media over the last 60 years has demonstrated the news agency Xinhua’s involvement in the Chinese Communist Party’s system of propaganda and censorship. There is a Tibetan saying for the Chinese media’s propaganda, “welcome China and crazy world.” The Internet is more heavily monitored, censored and manipulated in all parts of Tibet than in other Chinese provinces. Several bloggers and other Internet users were arrested and sentenced in Tibet in 2009, charged for posting articles on the Internet, writing books, looking at online photos of the
United States, Tibetan spiritual leader, His Holiness the Dalai Lama described the Chinese government’s propagandized statements regarding the lives of Tibetans in the homeland as infantile. International support for the Tibetan cause is essential, but Tibetans themselves must act as the key players in the struggle. I recently attended a press conference with great hope of understanding the incredible determination of the Tibetan people in the struggle for sovereignty and human rights. The conference was held by Tibetan heroes who openly protested in front of the international media in Tibet last year. They were heavily restricted by the thousands of armed military forces which China promptly deployed. One of the speakers present, Jamyang Gyaltsen, emphasized the importance of international support all the while stressing that the Tibetans’ pursuit of freedom must remain unshakable. He also shed light on the realities of life in Tibet, mentioning deforestation, nuclear waste, and Tibet’s increasing Chinese population which may one day render Tibetans a minority in their own land. On the subject of China’s deadly crackdown in all parts of Tibet last March he stated, “When we hear a statement made by a government leader which raises awareness of our cause, we feel encouraged and that we are not alone; that there is a place where people speak the truth.” I believe that the Tibetan issue will be fully recognized as a matter of human rights when the global community comprehends the fact that they are merely pawns in China’s political game. People can change a government and China will also change; it is only a matter of will and support. Translated and Edited by Natalia IdŸkowski, The Tibet Post International
Tibetan flag and His Holiness the Dalai Lama, inciting separatism and “communicating outside the country” for sending emails, photos and SMS messages about Tibetrelated issues, including the March 2008 protests in Tibet. Affirming its authority, the TAR government this month celebrated the 20th anniversary of “China’s Tibet’s” publication with fireworks and military parades. But there remains a need to evaluate the past decades of the Chinese media’s bias, in the name of the Tibetan people’s basic right to be truthfully informed.
The Tibet P st I n t e r n a t i o n a l
The Chinese state-controlled media, Xinhua, reported that a seminar was held on 18 December to celebrate the 20th anniversary of “China’s Tibet”, “an important Tibet-related magazine” in the Communist’s Tibeten Autonomous region (TAR). But every page of the magazine is
filled with the twenty years’ propaganda and censorship put in place by the Chinese Communist Party. The so-called “China’s Tibet”, a Chinese political tool first published in 1989, puts forth a paper edition
in Chinese, Tibetan and English, as well as an electronic magazine in Chinese and English. “The magazine was issued in more than 180 countries and regions,” Xinhua claimed. A thorough investigation by world
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01 January, 2010 Dharamsala
New Governor for Tibet Autonomous Region, Same Old Story This now means that both the governor and the Communist Party Committee Secretary - the most powerful position in the TAR - have military backgrounds, which Robbie Barnett, a Tibet scholar at Columbia University in New York City, sees as a real red flag. “Appointing a former military officer as the figurehead leader of Tibet when the Party Secretary, the actual leader, also has a military background suggests that China now sees Tibet as a problem of military control,” Barnett said to Reuters news agency. But most Tibetans think the move is just another diplomatic puppet show staged for the international audience with a short attention span. After all, military action aside, it sure sounds good if both the governor and Party boss are true Tibetans by ancestry, if not by loyalty. But for those paying attention, it’s nothing more than “a carefully manufactured show,” reports Bhuchung D. Sonam for Phayul.com, with the purpose of portraying a happily-ever-after type ending in Tibet. Backed by China, the new governor promises economic growth, but justice and fair representation for a country cruxed on nonviolence? We don’t think so.
Tibetan Filmmaker Dhondup Wangchen Sentenced To 6 Years In Prison Dharamshala: Dhondup Wangchen, the famous Tibetan filmmaker who made the documentary “Leaving Fear Behind”, was sentenced to six years in prison at the end of last month. His family members were depressed by the unfair sentence, a Tibetan blog posted yesterday. The Chinese Intermediate People’s Court in Xining, the provincial capital of so-called Qinghai province, on 28 December 2009 sentenced the 34 yearold filmmaker, to 6 years in prison. Dhondup Wangchen was detained on 26 March 2008, soon after completing filming of the documentary ‘Leaving Fear Behind.’ The film collected the opinions of 108 Tibetans on the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the current situation in Tibet, and their hopes for His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s return to Tibet. Several other people involved with or appearing in the documentary have also been investigated by the Chinese authorities. Wangchen is reportedly suffering from
hepatitis B, and is not receiving proper treatment while in prison. Li Dunyong, a Chinese lawyer hired by the family to defend Wangchen, was forced to drop the case. None of his family members were informed of the sentence. Wangchen’s cousin, Jamyang Tsultrim, who fled Tibet in 2002 and received political asylum in Switzerland, said that he was saddened by the unjust sentence. “This sentence for Tibetan filmmaker by Chinese authorities is a sign which reveals that the Tibetan people in Tibet have no freedom of expression. No official documents relating to Dhondup Wangchen’s arrest and trial were provided to his family. Last year, even his Chinese lawyer was denied access to his case. I was deeply saddened by this unfair sentence,” he said. Wangchen’s wife, Lhamo Tso, is living with Wangchen’s parents and four children in the north Indian city of Dharamshala, the residence of exiled Tibetan leader His Holiness the Dalai Lama and many other Tibetan refugees.
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New Tibetan film: “A Precious Human Life” to be released soon the movie will deliver an effective message to those people who use drugs or alcohol,” he said. Tenzin Salshey said that he has learnt a lot from his first film, “The Mirror” (Melong). While watching the Milue Shurbu Che trailers at the press conference, he expressed his pride at the end product. The film’s straightforward message is: do not waste a precious human life. Tenzin explained that his new movie is based on an innocent and intelligent student named Tenzin. Tenzin became a drug addict due to the influence of
TPI VARIETY TPI Top Ten Highlights of 2009 For Tibet
bad friends and difficult circumstances, exacerbated by selfish teachers and careless, dispirited parents. Fortunately, with the help of a compassionate and learned Tibetan Buddhist master, he was able to overcome his addiction. “The message of the movie is to those who use any drugs, minor or major, and even to smokers and alcoholics. I made this film especially for children and innocent people who don’t know the effects of drugs. It is very important to know how they affect a person, because drugs can kill you. Drugs endanger the body’s main organs, the brain and the heart,” Tenzin concluded.
RSF also announced that foreign press experienced increased difficulty in attempts to visit Tibet in 2009, and that “free speech is suppressed even more ruthlessly there than in the rest of China.” The organization said that a Tibetan culture website was also closed in 2009, and that, in the Sichuan province, SMS services were cut off. The silencing of free speech and all forms of media worsened after the events of March 2008, and Reporters Without Borders has said that Chinese authorities impose the official version of events, denying the existence of Tibetan victims.” They also said that China increased nationalist propaganda leading up to the 50th anniversary of the 1959 Tibetan uprising on March 10th. Foreign press was unable to visit Tibet in 2009, as has been the case for many decades, until April 1st. The trend of guided media tours resumed, and it is dangerous for press officials to venture off alone. Two Hikari journalists were detained in early February in Xiahe, the town in Gansu province, and forced to leave the country. Another reporter from the New York Times, Edward Wong, was held in custody by Chinese police in 2009 for investigating the military presence in the Gansu province. The Associated Press also announced that two of its reporters were arrested in Tibetan regions in 2009. Chinese authorities have made it unsafe for foreigners as well as Tibetans to transmit and document information.2009 Highlights-EXILE 1. Tibetan exile youth raise their voices for human rights in Tibet In 2009, Tibetan youth groups tried to refocus international attention on human rights and freedom in Tibet. The TibetanHimalayan Students Association, based in Varanasi, and the Tibetan Youth Congress both planned public activities in place of the Tibetan Losar, or New Year. They referred to 2009 as a “Black Year,” during which many Tibetans mourned the loss of 219 citizens inside Tibet due to Chinese brutality in 2008. On 17 April, students from the Tibetan Children’s Village in Bylakuppe demonstrated in front of the Chinese Embassy in New Dehli, decrying the recent death sentences of two Tibetan protesters. The performed what was referred to as a “mock die-in,” chaining themselves to a fence, throwing shoes, and chanting for Tibetan freedom. In the San Francisco bay area, Students for a Free Tibet, SF Team Tibet, Bay Area Friends of Tibet, the SF branch of the Tibetan Youth Congress, and other Tibetans and supporters conducted a candlelight vigil on 24 October to mourn four Tibetans who were executed by Chinese authorities for their alleged involvement in the 2008 protests (SF Team Tibet stated that this was the first known execution of Tibetans since 2003). They demanded that China respect international law, and its own constitution, in granting prisoners fair and open trials. Similar vigils and protests were held in India, and throughout the world. Huge protests took place in India on 1 October, the 60th Anniversary of the People’s Republic of China, with the Tibetan Youth Congress, Tibetan Women’s Association, and two other exile NGOs organizing demonstrations in Dharamsala and at the Chinese embassy in New Delhi. Over 400 monks, nuns and laypersons marched through the streets
of Mcleod Ganj for over two hours, carrying Tibetan flags and shouting slogans against China. Afterwards, Ven. Ngawang Woeber, President of the Gu Chu Sum ex-political prisoner’s movement, TWA President Kirti Dolkar Lhamo, exile Parliament Speaker Pemba Tsering, and Tibetan Youth Congress President Tsewang Rigzin spoke out against the Chinese occupation’s violence and propaganda. In the lead up to President Obama’s visit to China, Students for a Free Tibet led a campaign to send thousands of letters to the White House calling for concrete action on Tibet. The organization’s executive director, Tenzin Dorjee, stated, “In March 2008, Tibetans rose up in a clear rejection of Chinese rule... It is well past time for leaders of the world’s democracies to stand up for the Tibetan people’s right to freedom.” 2. His Holiness continues to teach and lecture across India and the world During a visit to the US in March and April, His Holiness gave teachings at top American universities such as Harvard, MIT and UC Berkeley. He returned to North America in late September to receive three prestigious awards: the International Freedom Award, from the National Civil Rights Museum in Memphis, Tennessee; the Vancouver-based Fetzer Institute’s $100, 000 Prize for Love and Forgiveness (along with Desmond Tutu); and the US Congress’s first Tom Lantos Human Rights Prize, an award commemorating the late Congressman, Holocaust survivor and longtime human rights activist. He also met with US President Obama’s new Tibet Coordinator, Maria Otero, in place of a cancelled meeting with the President himself. Typhoon Morakot hit Taiwan in early August 2009, causing massive landslides and flooding that left 461 people dead and almost 200 missing, in the country’s worst natural disaster in 50 years. Exiled Tibetans held numerous prayer ceremonies for the victims, and His Holiness made a historic humanitarian visit to the island on 31 August-4 September to console the typhoon’s survivors. He was invited by the opposition Democratic Progressive Party, who released a statement that, “His Holiness the Dalai Lama is not just the Tibetan spiritual leader, not just a religious leader, but also a universal symbol of love and peace...We believe that his prayers and lectures will help stabilize the minds of those recovering from the typhoon, and help Taiwan rise up again.” Needless to say, China strongly opposed this humanitarian visit, and the event severely strained Taiwan’s relations with the mainland. In the face of more Chinese outrage, His Holiness traveled to the contested Indian border state of Arunachal Pradesh in early November to teach before an audience of 30,000 at the 400 year-old Tawang Monastery. Despite His Holiness’s assurances that the teachings and public talks at Tawang, Bomdilla, and Dirang were socio-religious, and non-political, the visit was controversial enough that Indian officials banned foreign reporters from covering the events, and requested that Indian journalists not ask the Tibetan leader any questions throughout his visit. In 2009, the busy Tibetan spiritual leader also paid visits to Japan, Australia and New Zealand, Europe (receiving honorary citizenship in Paris, France, and Warsaw,
Poland), and the Ladakh region of northern India, and gave several teachings in Dharamsala at the request of his Korean, Taiwanese, Southeast Asian, Russian and other Buddhist followers. 3. Exile community continues to preserve Tibetan religion and culture, while promoting modern education Tibetan students at TCV schools across India excelled in this year’s Class XII Board Examination, a national test conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Education in March 2009. While the pass rate in India is 81%, the Tibetan schools attained 92.77%, a 3.25% improvement over last year’s scores. Students at the TCV school in Gopalpur achieved a perfect 100% pass rate. On 27 July, Tibetan students from ten colleges located throughout India gathered at the College for Higher Tibetan Studies (CHTS) at Sarah (near Dharamsala) to participate in the third annual debate on the Tibetan exile system of secular education. Tibetan Prime Minister Prof Samdong Rinpoche and Speaker Penpa Tsering inaugurated the event, during which participants discussed topics such as exiled Tibetans’ basic approach to education, specialization in different fields of study, and methods to improve the standard of education for Tibetans in exile. His Holiness the Dalai Lama opened the 5th Tibetan Conference on Education, organized by the Tibetan exile government, on 27 December. 241 teachers and principals based in India, Nepal and Bhutan came together for three days to discuss the basic system of education in exile. In his opening speech, the Tibetan leader declared, “ In the last 50 years in exile, Tibetan education has greatly developed, and that is our greatest achievement.” He also stressed the role of Buddhist philosophy as undergirding a “culture of peace” which can help the whole world, and the importance of teaching this philosophy to future Tibetan generations alongside secular subjects. Several conferences in India this year were focused solely on Tibet’s religious and cultural traditions. On 3 September, the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives (LTWA) in Dharamsala hosted the first International Seminar on Tibetan and Himalayan studies, which was attended by 50 scholars from various countries both in Asia and the West. The participants discussed topics such as religion, history, philological research, social studies, traditional customs, material arts, secularism, linguistics, and surrounding civilizations. His Holiness delivered the valedictory address at another three-day conference, entitled “Exploring Tibet’s History and Culture”, which was held at Delhi University from 19-21 November. 40 scholars from the UK, US, Europe and Asia attended this event. A “Thank You India” ceremony in Bangalore, which took place from 22-24 November, showcased Tibetans’ cultural heritage. On the last day of the festival, renowned translator Geshe Lhakdor gave a speech emphasizing the continued relevance of Buddha’s teachings in today’s world. The 10 December celebration marking the 20th anniversary of His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s Nobel Peace Prize also featured traditional Tibetan dancing and singing, as well as the release of several new books by Tibetan authors. Artitle by Amy and Caroline, The Tibet Post International
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